Socinianism, Socinus Socinianism , Socinus

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Socinianism is the name given to the specific form of anti - trinitarianism or Unitarianism stated by the Italian theologian Socinus (Fausto Paolo Sozzini, 1539 - 1604) and developed during the early 17th century, particularly in Poland. Socinus grew up in Italy under the influence of his uncle Laelius Socinus. Socinianism的名稱是考慮到具體形式的反-三位一體或U nitarianism所指出的意大利神學S ocinus(福斯托保羅•索奇尼, 1 539至1 604年)和發達國家在1 7世紀初,特別是在波蘭。 S ocinus長大,在意大利的影響下他的叔叔Laelius Socinus 。 When he raised doubts about the divinity of Christ, he came into conflict with the teachings of both Roman Catholicism and the Reformation.當他提出質疑神的基督,他進入衝突的教誨,既羅馬天主教和改造。 After a short period in Transylvania, Socinus took refuge in Poland, where he spent the rest of his life in leadership of the antitrinitarian movement there.經過短期內的特蘭西瓦尼亞,避難Socinus在波蘭,在那裡他度過了餘下的生命裡的領導,有antitrinitarian運動。 In 1598 he was forced to flee from Krakow, and he spent the rest of his life in the village of Luclawice.在1598年,他被迫逃離克拉科夫,他度過了餘下的生命裡村的Luclawice 。

Socinus prepared drafts for the Racovian Catechism , the first formal statement of Socinian beliefs, which was published at Rakow, in southern Poland, in 1605. Socinus編寫初稿的Racovian問答 ,第一個正式的聲明Socinian信念,這是出版Rakow ,在波蘭南部,在1605年。 It set forth a moderate form of unitarianism that stated that Christ was a man who received divine power as a result of his blameless life and miraculous resurrection.它提出了一個溫和的形式unitarianism說指出,基督是一位誰收到的神聖權力,由於他的無辜的生命和神奇的復活。 The movement was suppressed in Poland after 1658, but Socinian groups survived in Transylvania, England, and elsewhere.該運動被抑制後,在波蘭1658年,但Socinian組存活特蘭西瓦尼亞,英格蘭,和其他地方。 John Biddle, the founder of English unitarianism, was influenced by Socinianism.約翰比德爾的創始人,英語unitarianism ,是影響Socinianism 。

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Bibliography 目錄
S Kot, Socinianism in Poland (1957); EM Wilbur, A History of Unitarianism: Socinianism and Its Antecedents (1945); GH Williams, The Radical Reformation (1962).語果, Socinianism在波蘭( 1957年) ;電磁威爾伯史Unitarianism : Socinianism及其前因( 1945年) ;生長激素威廉姆斯,激進改革( 1962年) 。


Socinianism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Reformation gave birth.該機構舉行的學說之一,許多Antitrinitarian教派的改革生下了。 The Socinians derive their name from two natives of Siena, Lelio Sozzini (1525-62) and his nephew Fausto Sozzini (1539-1604).該蘇西尼獲得他們的名字從兩個土生土長的錫耶納, Lelio •索奇尼( 1525年至1562年)和他的侄子福斯托•索奇尼( 1539至1604年) 。 The surname is variously given, but its Latin form, Socinus, is that currently used. It is to Fausto, or Faustus Socinus, that the sect owes its individuality, but it arose before he came into contact with it.姓是不同的考慮,但其拉丁形式, Socinus的是,目前使用的。這是福斯托,或Socinus浮士德,該節歸功於其個性,但它出現之前,他接觸到它。 In 1546 a secret society held meetings at Vicenza in the Diocese of Venice to discuss, among other points, the doctrine of the Trinity.在1546年秘密舉行社會在維琴察在威尼斯教區討論,除其他點,理論三位一體。 Among the members of this society were Blandrata, a well-known physician, Alciatus, Gentilis, and Lelio, or Laelius Socinus.各成員之間的這一社會Blandrata ,一位著名的醫生, Alciatus , Gentilis ,並Lelio ,或Laelius Socinus 。 The last-named, a priest of Siena, was the intimate friend of Bullinger, Calvin, and Melanchthon.最後命名,一名神父的錫耶納,是親密的朋友,布林格,卡爾文和梅蘭希通。 The object of the society was the advocacy not precisely of what were afterwards known as Socinian principles, but of Antitrinitarianism.的對象是社會的宣傳沒有明確什麼是事後被稱為Socinian原則,但Antitrinitarianism 。 The Nominalists, represented by Abelard, were the real progenitors of the Antitrinitarians of the Reformation period, but while many of the Nominalists ultimately became Tritheists, the term Antitrinitarian means expressly one who denies the distinction of persons in the Godhead.該Nominalists為代表的亞伯拉德,是真正的祖的Antitrinitarians改革的時期,但同時許多Nominalists最終成為Tritheists ,任期明確Antitrinitarian手段之一誰剝奪了人的區別在神體。 The Antitrinitarians are thus the later representatives of the Sabellians, Macedonians, and Arians of an earlier period.該Antitrinitarians因此,後來代表Sabellians ,馬其頓,並Arians的同期。 The secret society which met at Vicenza was broken up, and most of its members fled to Poland.這個秘密的社會,滿足維琴察被打破了,其大多數成員逃往波蘭。 Laelius, indeed, seems to have lived most at Zurich, but he was the mainspring of the society, which continued to hold meetings at Cracow for the discussion of religious questions. Laelius ,事實上,似乎大多數生活在蘇黎世,但他的主要社會,繼續舉行會議,在克拉科夫,討論宗教問題。 He died in 1562 and a stormy period began for the members of the party.他死於1562年和暴風雨期間開始的成員黨。

The inevitable effect of the principles of the Reformation was soon felt, and schism made its appearance in the ranks of the Antitrinitarians--for so we must call them all indiscriminately at this time.不可避免的影響的原則,改革很快就覺得,和分裂了其在隊伍中Antitrinitarians -的,所以我們必須呼籲所有這些不分青紅皂白地在這個時候。 In 1570 the Socinians separated, and, through the influence of the Antitrinitarian John Sigismund, established themselves at Racow.在1570的蘇西尼分離,並通過影響Antitrinitarian約翰西吉斯蒙德,確立了自己在Racow 。 Meanwhile, Faustus Socinus had obtained possession of his uncle's papers and in 1579 came to Poland.與此同時,浮士德Socinus獲得了擁有他的叔叔的文件和在1579年來波蘭。 He found the various bodies of the sect divided, and he was at first refused admission because he refused to submit to a second baptism.他發現各機構的教派分裂,他在第一次拒絕接納,因為他拒絕向第二次洗禮。 In 1574 the Socinians had issued a "Catechism of the Unitarians", in which, while much was said about the nature and perfection of the Godhead, silence was observed regarding those Divine attributes which are mysterious.在1574年的蘇西尼發表了一份“問答的Unitarians ” ,其中,雖然有人說的性質和完善神體,默哀關於這些神聖的屬性是神秘的。 Christ was the Promised Man; He was the Mediator of Creation, ie, of Regeneration.基督是許滿;他調解的創作,即再生。 It was shortly after the appearance of this catechism that Faustus arrived on the scene and, in spite of initial opposition, he succeeded in attaching all parties to himself and thus securing for them a degree of unity which they had not hitherto enjoyed.這是後不久出現了這個理說浮士德趕到現場,儘管最初的反對,他成功地重視各方自己,從而確保他們有一定程度的團結,他們迄今還沒有得到。 Once in possession of power, his action was high-handed.一旦擁有權力,他的行動是霸道。 He had been invited to Siebenburg in order to counteract the influence of the Antitrinitarian bishop Francis David (1510-79).他已被邀請為Siebenburg抵消影響的Antitrinitarian主教弗朗西斯大衛( 1510年至1579年) 。 David, having refused to accept the peculiarly Socinian tenet that Christ, though not God, was to be adored, was thrown into prison, where he died.大衛後,拒絕接受當政Socinian宗旨是基督,但不是上帝,要崇拜,被扔進監獄,他在那裡去世。 Budnaeus, who adhered to David's views, was degraded and excommunicated in 1584. Budnaeus ,誰堅持大衛的意見,是退化,在1584逐出教會。 The old catechism was not suppressed and a new one published under the title of the "Catechism of Racow".舊的教義沒有壓抑和一個新出版的標題下的“問答的Racow ” 。 Though drawn up by Socinus, it was not published until 1605, a year after his death; it first appeared in Polish, then in Latin in 1609.雖然起草了Socinus ,但沒有公佈,直到1605年,一年後去世,它最早出現在波蘭,然後在拉丁美洲在1609年。

Meanwhile the Socinians had flourished; they had established colleges, they held synods, and they had a printing press whence they issued an immense amount of religious literature in support of their views; this was collected, under the title "Bibliotheca Antitrinitarianorum", by Sandius.與此同時,蘇西尼了蓬勃發展,他們建立了大學,他們舉行了synods ,他們印刷機何處,他們發出了大量的宗教文獻,以支持他們的意見,這是收集,題目是“ Antitrinitarianorum書目” ,由Sandius 。 In 1638 the Catholics in Poland insisted on the banishment of the Socinians, who were in consequence dispersed.在1638年天主教在波蘭堅持放逐的蘇西尼,誰是在分散的後果。 It is evident from the pages of Bayle that the sect was dreaded in Europe; many of the princes were said to favour it secretly, and it was predicted that Socinianism would overrun Europe.由此可見網頁培爾該節是害怕在歐洲許多王子,據說它有利於秘密,這是Socinianism預測,歐洲將超支。 Bayle, however, endeavours to dispel these fears by dwelling upon the vigorous measures taken to prevent its spread in Holland.培爾然而,努力消除這些擔心的住宅應積極採取措施,防止其蔓延在荷蘭。 Thus, in 1639, at the suggestion of the British Ambassador, all the states of Holland were advised of the probable arrival of the Socinians after their expulsion from Poland; while in 1653 very stringent decrees were passed against them.因此,在1639年,在建議,英國駐華大使,所有國家的荷蘭被告知可能到達蘇西尼後,將他們驅逐出波蘭;而在1653年非常嚴格的法令,通過對他們的。 The sect never had a great vogue in England; it was distasteful to Protestants who, less logical, perhaps, but more conservative in their views, were not prepared to go to the lengths of the Continental Reformers.該節從未有過偉大的流行在英格蘭,這是令人反感的,以新教徒誰,那麼合乎邏輯的,也許,但更保守,他們的意見,不準備去長度大陸改革者。 In 1612 we find the names of Leggatt and Wightman mentioned as condemned to death for denying the Divinity of Christ. 1612年我們找到的名字Leggatt和懷特曼提到的譴責死刑,剝奪了神的基督。 Under the Commonwealth, John Biddle was prominent as an upholder of Socinian principles; Cromwell banished him to the Scilly Isles, but he returned under a writ of habeas corpus and became minister of an Independent church in London.根據英聯邦,約翰比德爾是著名的維護者的Socinian原則;克倫威爾流放他到錫利群島,但他下返回人身保護令狀部長,並成為獨立的教會在倫敦。 After the Restoration, however, Biddle was cast again into prison, where he died in 1662.修復後,但比德爾是演員再次進監獄,在那裡他死於1662年。 The Unitarians are frequently identified with the Socinians, but there are fundamental differences between their doctrines.該Unitarians往往是確定的蘇西尼,但也有根本分歧的理論。

Fundamental Doctrines基本理論

These may be gathered from the "Catechism of Racow", mentioned above and from the writings of Socinus himself, which are collected in the "Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum".這些可能是蒐集到的“問答的Racow ” ,上面提到,從著作Socinus自己,這是收集在“書目Fratrum Polonorum ” 。 The basis was, of course, private judgment; the Socinians rejected authority and insisted on the free use of reason, but they did not reject revelation.的基礎,當然是私人的判斷;的蘇西尼否決的權威和堅持免費使用的原因,但他們沒有拒絕的啟示。 Socinus, in his work "De Auctoritate Scripturae Sacrae", went so far as to reject all purely natural religion. Socinus ,在他的作品“德Auctoritate Scripturae Sacrae ” ,竟然拒絕所有純粹的自然宗教。 Thus for him the Bible was everything, but it had to be interpreted by the light of reason.因此,對於他的聖經是一切,但它必須得到解釋,根據的理由。 Hence he and his followers thrust aside all mysteries; as the Socinian John Crell (d. 1633) says in his "De Deo et ejus Attributis", "Mysteries are indeed exalted above reason, but they do not overturn it; they by no means extinguish its light, but only perfect it". This would be quite true for a Catholic, but in the mouth of Socinian it meant that only those mysteries which reason can grasp are to be accepted.因此,他和他的追隨者主旨撤銷所有奧秘;作為Socinian約翰克雷爾(草1633 )說,在他的“上帝德等ejus Attributis ” , “奧秘確實是崇高的上述理由,但他們不推翻它,他們絕不取消其輕,但只有完善。 “這將是非常真實的一個天主教,但在河口Socinian這意味著,只有那些神秘的原因可以有把握接受。 Thus both in the Racovian Catechism and in Socinus's "Institutiones Religionis Christianae", only the unity, eternity, omnipotence, justice, and wisdom of God are insisted on, since we could be convinced of these; His immensity, infinity, and omnipresence are regarded as beyond human comprehension, and therefore unnecessary for salvation.因此,無論在Racovian問答和Socinus的“ Institutiones Religionis Christianae ” ,只有團結,永恆,無所不能,正義和智慧的上帝是堅持,因為我們可以相信這些,他的巨大,至無限遠,和無處不被視為作為人類所能理解的,因此,不必要的救贖。 Original justice meant for Socinus merely that Adam was free from sin as a fact, not that he was endowed with peculiar gifts; hence Socinus denied the doctrine of original sin entirely.原件正義意味著Socinus只是亞當是免費的罪孽作為一個事實,而不是說,他賦予了特殊的禮物,因此Socinus否認理論的原罪完全。 Since, too, faith was for him but trust in God, he was obliged to deny the doctrine of justification in the Catholic sense; it was nothing but a judicial act on the part of God.由於太多,信仰是他,但相信上帝,他不得不拒絕的理由學說的天主教意義,它只是一個司法行為的一部分,上帝。 There were only two sacraments, and, as these were held to be mere incentives to faith, they had no intrinsic efficacy.只有兩個聖禮,並在其中舉行的僅僅是獎勵的信仰,他們沒有內在的療效。 Infant baptism was of course rejected. There was no hell; the wicked were annihilated.嬰兒的洗禮當然是拒絕。沒有地獄;惡人被消滅。

Christology基督

This point was particularly interesting, as on it the whole of Socinianism turns.這一點特別有趣,因為它的整個Socinianism滿。 God, the Socinians maintained, and rightly, is absolutely simple; but distinction of persons is destructive of such simplicity; therefore, they concluded the doctrine of the Trinity is unsound.上帝,蘇西尼保持正確的,是絕對簡單,而是區別的人是破壞性的,例如簡單,因此,他們得出結論的理論,三位一體是站不住腳的。 Further, there can be no proportion between the finite and the infinite, hence there can be no incarnation, of the Deity, since that would demand some such proportion.此外,就不可能有比例之間的有限和無限的,因此不能化身,在神,因為這將需要一些這樣的比例。 But if, by an impossibility, there were distinction of persons in the Deity, no Divine person could be united to a human person, since there can by no unity between two individualities.但是,如果由一個不可能的,有區別的人的神,沒有神的人可以團結的人,因為根本無法統一,兩個個性。 These arguments are of course puerile and nothing but ignorance of Catholic teaching can explain the hold which such views obtained in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.這些論點當然是幼稚和無知只不過天主教教學可以解釋持有這種觀點中獲得16和17世紀。 As against the first argument, see St. Thomas, (Summa I:12:1, ad 4); for the solution of the others see Petavius.對第一個參數,見聖托馬斯(大全一: 12:1 ,廣告4 ) ;為解決其他見Petavius 。 But the Socinians did not become Arians, as did Campanus and Gentilis.但是,蘇西尼沒有成為Arians一樣, Campanus和Gentilis 。 The latter was one of the original society which held its meetings at Vicenza; he was beheaded at Berne in 1566.後者是一個原始的社會,舉行了會議,維琴察;被斬首,他在伯爾尼在1566年。 They did not become Tritheists, as Gentilis himself was supposed by some to be.他們沒有成為Tritheists ,作為Gentilis自己被一些的。 Nor did they become Unitarians, as might have been expected.他們也沒有成為Unitarians ,因為可能已經預期。 Socinus had indeed many affinities with Paul of Samosata and Sabellius; with them he regarded the Holy Spirit as merely an operation of God, a power for sanctification. Socinus確實許多的相似性與保羅的薩莫薩塔和撒伯流;與他們他認為聖靈只是一個運作的上帝,權力的神聖。 But his teaching concerning the person of Christ differed in some respects from theirs.但他的教學有關的人不同的基督在某些方面他們。 For Socinus, Christ was the Logos, but he denied His pre-existence; He was the Word of God as being His interpreter (interpres divinae voluntatis).對於Socinus ,基督的標誌,但他否認他預先存在;他是天主的聖言作為他的翻譯( interpres divinae voluntatis ) 。 The passages from St. John which present the Word as the medium of creation were explained by Socinus of regeneration only. At the same time Christ was miraculously begotten: He was a perfect man, He was the appointed mediator, but He was not God, only deified man.該通道由聖約翰的這本Word作為媒介,創造了解釋Socinus再生只。與此同時基督奇蹟般地生:他是一個完美的人,他是任命的調解人,但他不是上帝,只有神化的人。 In this sense He was to be adored; and it is here precisely that we have the dividing line between Socinianism and Unitarianism, for the latter system denied the miraculous birth of Christ and refused Him adoration.在這個意義上他是被崇拜,它恰恰是在這裡,我們之間的分界線Socinianism和Unitarianism ,後者系統的神奇否認耶穌誕生,並拒絕他的崇拜。 It must be confessed that, on their principles, the Unitarians were much more logical.必須承認,他們的原則, Unitarians更為合乎邏輯的。

Redemption and Sacraments贖回和聖禮

Socinus's views regarding the person of Christ necessarily affected his teaching on the office of Christ as Redeemer, and consequently on the efficacy of the sacraments. Socinus的意見基督的人不一定影響他的教學辦公室的基督為救主,因此療效的聖禮。 Being purely man, Christ did not work out our redemption in the sense of satisfying for our sins; and consequently we cannot regard the sacraments as instruments whereby the fruits of that redemption are applied to man.作為純粹的人,沒有基督我們的工作贖回意義上的滿足為我們的罪孽; ,因此我們不能把聖禮的手段,使水果的贖回適用於男子。 Hence Socinus taught that the Passion of Christ was merely an example to us and a pledge of our forgiveness.因此Socinus告訴我們,基督的受難史僅僅是一個例子,我們的承諾我們的寬恕。 All this teaching is syncretized in the Socinian doctrine regarding the Last Supper; it was not even commemorative of Christ's Passion, it was rather an act of thanksgiving for it.所有這一切都融合教學中的理論Socinian關於最後的晚餐,它甚至沒有紀念基督的受難,這是一種行為,而感恩的。

The Church and Socianism教會和Socianism

Needless to say, the tenets of the Socinians have been repeatedly condemned by the Church.不用說,信條,蘇西尼已多次譴責教會。 As antitrinitarianists, they are opposed to the express teaching of the first six councils; their view of the person of Christ is in contradiction to the same councils, especially that of Chalcedon and the famous "Tome" (Ep. xxviii) of St. Leo the Great (cf. Denzinger, no. 143).作為antitrinitarianists ,他們反對對教學上半年委員會;他們認為基督的人是矛盾的同一政局,特別是卡爾西和著名的“聖多美” ( Ep.二十八)聖利奧大(見Denzinger ,沒有。 143 ) 。 For its peculiar views regarding the adoration of Christ, cf.其獨特的看法朝拜基督,比照。 can.可以。 ix of the fifth Ecumenical Synod (Denz., 221). ㈨第五屆基督教主教( Denz. , 221 ) 。 It is opposed, too, to the various creeds, more especially to that of St. Athanasius.這是反對,也以各種信仰,尤其是到聖亞他那修。 It has also many affinities with the Adoptionist heresy condemned in the Plenary Council of Frankfort, in 794, and in the second letter of Pope Hadrian I to the bishops of Spain (cf. Denz., 309-314).它也有許多的相似性與異端譴責Adoptionist在全體會議上理事會法蘭克福,在794名,並在第二封信教皇哈德良一主教西班牙(參見Denz 。 , 309-314 ) 。 Its denial of the Atonement is in opposition to the decrees against Gotteschalk promulgated in 849 (cf. Denz., 319), and also to the definition of the Fourth Lateran Council against the Albigensians (Denz., 428; cf. also Conc. Trid., Sess. xxii., cap. i. de Sacrificio Missae, in Denz., 938).其拒絕贖罪是反對對Gotteschalk法令頒布的849 (參見Denz 。 , 319 ) ,還定義的第四次拉特蘭安理會對Albigensians ( Denz. , 428 ;比照。還濃。 Trid 。 , Sess 。二十二。 ,帽。島Sacrificio彌撒,在Denz 。 , 938名) 。 The condemned propositions of Abelard (1140) might equally well stand for those of the Socinians (cf. Denz., 368 sqq.).該譴責主張亞伯拉德( 1140 )可能同樣立場的人的蘇西尼(參見Denz 。 , 368 sqq 。 ) 。 The same must be said of the Waldensian heresy: the Profession of Faith drawn up against them by Innocent III might be taken as a summary of Socinian errors.同樣必須指出的Waldensian異端:職業信仰制定了對他們的無辜第三可能採取的摘要Socinian錯誤。 The formal condemnation of Socinianism appeared first in the Constitution of Paul IV, "Cum quorundam:, 1555 (Denz., 993); this was confirmed in 1603 by Clement VIII, or "Dominici gregis", but it is to be noted that both of these condemnations appeared before the publication of the "Catechism of Racow" in 1605, hence they do not adequately reflect the formal doctrines of Socinianism. At the same time it is to be remarked, that according to many, this catechism itself does not reflect the doctrines really held by the leaders of the party; it was intended for the laity alone. From the decree it would appear that in 1555 and again in 1603 the Socinians held:正式譴責Socinianism第一次出現在憲法中的保羅四, “射精quorundam : , 1555 ( Denz. , 993 ) ;確認這是在1603年的克萊門特八,或” Dominici gregis “ ,但必須指出的是,這兩個這些譴責出庭出版“的Racow問答”在1605年,因此他們沒有充分反映的正式理論Socinianism 。與此同時,要說,根據許多人來說,這個理本身並不反映真正的理論舉行了領導人的黨,它的目的是為俗人就有。從法令,似乎在1555年和1603年再次舉行的蘇西尼:

that there was no Trinity,沒有三一,

that Christ was not consubstantial with the Father and Holy Spirit,基督並非同質同父親和聖靈

that He was not conceived of the Holy Spirit, but begotten by St. Joseph, that His Death and Passion were not undergone to bring about our redemption,他沒有設想聖靈,但生的聖約瑟夫,他的死亡和受難沒有經歷,使我們的贖回,

that finally the Blessed Virgin was not the Mother of God, neither did she retain her virginity.最終聖母不是天主之母,她也沒有留住她的童貞。

It would seem from the Catechism that the Socinians of 1605 held that Christ was at least miraculously conceived, though in what sense they held this is not clear.這似乎從問答的蘇西尼舉行的1605年基督至少奇蹟般地構想,但在何種意義上,他們舉行,這是不明確。

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息撰稿休噸教皇。 Transcribed by Janet Grayson. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.轉錄由珍妮格雷森。天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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