Sect, Sectarianism第二節,宗派主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Lat. secta, "party, school, faction," perhaps deriving from the past participle either of secare, "to cut, to separate," or of sequi, "to follow"). ( Lat. secta , “黨,學校,派別, ”或許源於過去分詞兩種secare , “削減,以單獨的, ”或sequi “ ,按照” ) 。 A group whose identity partially consists of belonging to a larger social body, typically a religious body. A組的身份部分組成,屬於一個較大的社會團體,通常是一個宗教機構。 The sect's identity is further derived from its principal leader or from a distinctive teaching or practice.該教派的身份還來自其主要領導人或從獨特的教學或實踐。 The term has regularly been applied to groups that break away from existing religious bodies, such as the early Christians who separated from Judaism or the Protestants who separated from Roman Catholicism.這個詞經常被應用於群體擺脫現有的宗教機構,如早期基督徒誰脫離猶太教或基督教誰脫離羅馬天主教。 The term has also been applied to such groups as maintain their identity without separating from the larger religious body, for example, the Pharisees among the Jews or the Puritans in the Church of England.這個詞也適用於這些群體保持自己的身份不脫離較大的宗教機構,例如,法利賽人之間的猶太人或清教徒的英格蘭教會。 In the broadest sense even an unorganized popular religious movement can be called a sect.在廣泛的意義甚至是無組織的民眾宗教運動可以被稱為一個節。 Occasionally some condemnation or criticism of the group so named may be implied.有時,一些譴責或批評,使該集團名為可暗示。

"Sectarianism" in a narrow sense denotes zeal for, or attachment to, a sect. “宗派主義”狹義指的熱情,或附件,一個節。 Likewise, it connotes an excessively zealous and doctrinaire narrow - mindedness that would quickly judge and condemn those who disagree.同樣,它意味著一個過分熱心的和教條縮小-意識將迅速判斷和譴責那些誰不同意。 In a broader sense, however, "sectarianism" denotes the historical process by which all the divisions in major world religions have come about.在更廣泛的意義,但是, “宗派主義”指的歷史過程,所有的分裂世界主要宗教的出現。 In the history of Christianity, for example, sectarianism is a prevalent theme from the Judaizers and Nicolaitans of the NT to the many new denominations emerging in recent times.歷史上的基督教,為例,宗派主義是一個普遍的主題從Judaizers和Nicolaitans新台幣的許多新的教派出現在最近倍。

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Sociologists of religion have appropriated the term "sect" as a label for a specific type of religious movement.社會學家對宗教有批的“節”作為一個標籤為特定類型的宗教運動。 In the typology of religious movements that has developed from the pioneering work of Ernst Troeltsch, the sect is a formally organized religious body that arises in protest against and competition with the pervasive religion of a society.在類型的宗教運動,已經發展的開創性工作的會計師事務所Troeltsch ,該教派是一個正式組織的宗教機構,出現在抗議和競爭的普遍宗教的社會。

The pervasive religion, whether Jewish, Islamic, or Christian, is classified as a "church" or "denomination."普遍的宗教,不論是猶太教,伊斯蘭教或基督教,被歸類為“教堂”或“面值” 。 The pervasive religion is highly organized and deeply integrated into the society's social and economic structure, but it makes few demands on members for active participation or personal commitment.普遍的宗教是高度的組織性和深深融入社會的社會和經濟結構,但它使少數成員的要求積極參與或個人的承諾。 The sect, however, demands a high degree of participation and a suitable display of individual loyalty and spiritual commitment.該節,但要求高度的參與和一個合適的展示個人的忠誠和精神的承諾。 While the church has compromised and accommodated its doctrines and practices to the secular society, the sect rejects all such accommodations or compromises and sets itself against both church and secular society to defend a purer doctrine and practice.雖然教會已經失密和照顧它的理論和做法,以世俗的社會,反對一切邪教等住宿或妥協和集本身都對教會和世俗社會捍衛純理論和實踐。 Comparative study of the many Christian sects has led scholars to suggest several different categories of sect types such as the conversionist, the adventist, and the gnostic.比較研究的許多基督教宗派,導致學者提出了不同類別的節類型,如conversionist ,台安,以及諾斯底。 The organization and government of most sects are more democratic than that of a church or denomination; likewise, the leadership is frequently less experienced and nonprofessional.該組織和政府的大多數教派更民主比教會或教派;同樣,領導往往是缺乏經驗和外行。

The life span of a sect is usually short.壽命一節通常是短。 Many, but not all, sects gradually lose their sectarian character and acquire the status of a church after a generation or two.很多,但並非所有教派逐漸失去其宗派性質和地位獲取的一個教堂後的一代或兩個。 Thus, modern Protestant denominations began as sects.因此,現代新教教派教派開始。 Yet, not all sects mature into churches.然而,並非所有教派的迅速成熟,變成教堂。 The so - called established sect manages to avoid accommodation and compromise and keeps its spirit of religious protest and opposition to secular society viable indefinitely.所謂-呼籲建立節管理,以避免和妥協,並保持其精神的宗教的抗議和反對世俗社會的可行下去。

HK Gallatin香港加拉廷
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
RK Mac Master, NCE , XIII; TF O'Dea, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, XIV; HR Niebuhr, Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, XIII, and The Social Sources of Denominationalism; WJ Warner, A Dictionary of the Social Sciences; WJ Whalen, NCE , XIII; WT Whitley, HERE , XI; E Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches; BR Wilson, Sects and Society: A Sociological Study of the Elim Tabernacle, Christian Science, and Christadelphians; J Wilson, Religion in American Society: The Effective Presence; JM Yinger, Religion in the Struggle for Power.公園的Mac碩士,競爭性考試,十三;因子O'Dea ,國際百科全書社會科學,十四;人力資源尼布爾,百科全書社會科學,十三,社會來源Denominationalism ; WJ通訊公司華納,詞典社會科學; WJ通訊公司惠倫,競爭性考試,十三;野生惠特利,在這裡,十一;電子郵件Troeltsch ,社會教基督教;溴威爾遜,教派和社會:社會學研究琳幕,基督教科學和Christadelphians ; J威爾遜,宗教美國社會:有效存在; JM英格爾,宗教的權力鬥爭。


Sect and Sects節和教派

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. ETYMOLOGY AND MEANING一,詞源和意義

The word "sect" is not derived, as is sometimes asserted, from secare, to cut, to dissect, but from sequi, to follow (Skeat, "Etymological Dict.", 3rd ed., Oxford, 1898, sv).單詞“節”不是產生,因為有時是斷言,從secare ,削減,解剖,而是來自sequi ,遵循( Skeat , “詞源辭典。 ”第3版。 ,牛津, 1898年,希沃特) 。 In the classical Latin tongue secta signified the mode of thought, the manner of life and, in a more specific sense, designated the political party to which one had sworn allegiance, or the philosophical school whose tenents he had embraced.在拉丁美洲傳統的舌頭secta標誌著模式的思想,生活的方式,並在一個更具體的意義上說,指定政黨其中已宣誓效忠,或學校的哲學tenents他擁抱。 Etymologically no offensive connotation is attached to the term. Etymologically沒有進攻的內涵是重視的任期。 In the Acts of the Apostles it is applied both in the Latin of the Vulgate and in the English of the Douay version to the religious tendency with which one has identified himself (xxiv, 5; xxvi, 5; xxviii, 22; see xxiv, 14).在使徒行傳它是適用於在拉丁美洲的武加大譯本和英文的版本Douay的宗教趨勢,其中已確定自己( 24 , 5 ; 26 , 5 ;二十八, 22 ;見二十四, 14 ) 。 The Epistles of the New Testament disparagingly apply it to the divisions within the Christian communities.在書信的新約全書輕蔑地適用於內部的分裂基督教社區。 The Epistle to the Galatians (v, 20) numbers among the works of the flesh, "quarrels, dissensions, sects"; and St. Peter in his second Epistle (ii, 1) speaks of the "lying teachers, who shall bring in sects of perdition".在書信的加拉太(五, 20 )之間的數字作品的血肉, “爭吵,糾紛,教派” ;和聖彼得在他的第二次書信(二, 1 )講的“撒謊的教師,誰應帶來教派的滅亡“ 。 In subsequent Catholic ecclesiastical usage this meaning was retained (see August. contra Faust. Manich. XX, 3); but in Christian antiquity and the Middle Ages the term was of much less frequent use than "heresy" or "schism".在隨後的天主教教會使用這個意義被保留(見8月。禁忌浮士德。 Manich 。二十, 3 ) ;但在基督教古代和中世紀的任期是更頻繁地使用比“異端”或“分裂” 。 These words were more specific and consequently clearer. Moreover, as heresy directly designated substantial doctrinal error and sect applied to external fellowship, the Church, which has always attached paramount importance to soundness in doctrine, would naturally prefer the doctrinal designation.這些話有更具體的,因而更加明確。此外,作為異端直接指定大量的錯誤理論和節適用於外部獎學金,教會,一貫高度重視健全的理論,自然會傾向於理論稱號。

With the rise of Protestantism and the consequent disruption of the Christian religion into numerous denominations, the use of the word sect has become frequent among Christians.隨著新教和由此中斷基督教分成許多教派,使用這個詞節已成為基督教徒之間頻繁。 It usually implies at present disapproval in the mind of the speaker or writer.它通常意味著目前不贊成在頭腦中的揚聲器或作家。 Such, however, is not necessarily the case as is evidenced by the widely used expression "sectarian" (for denominational) institutions and by the statement of the well-known authority HW Lyon that he uses the word "in no invidious sense" ("A Study of the Sects", Boston, 1891, p. 4).這種但是,不一定是案件證明是廣泛使用的表達“教派” (宗教)機構和聲明眾所周知的權威老里昂,他使用“不反感意義” ( “研究教派“ ,波士頓, 1891年,第4頁) 。 This extension of the term to all Christian denominations results no doubt, from the tendency of the modern non-Catholic world to consider all the various forms of Christianity as the embodiment of revealed truths and as equally entitled to recognition.這延長任期的所有基督教教派的結果毫無疑問,從趨勢的現代非天主教的世界,將考慮所有的各種形式的基督教體現了揭示的真理,同樣有權獲得承認。 Some churches, however, still take exception to the application of the term to themselves because of its implication, in their eyes, of inferiority or depreciation.一些教堂,但是,仍然採取例外的應用自己的任期內,因為它暗示,在他們眼中,自卑或折舊。 The Protestant denominations which assume such an attitude are at a loss to determine the essential elements of a sect.在新教徒其中承擔這種態度正處於一個損失,以確定基本要素的一個教派。 In countries like England and Germany, where State Churches exist, it is usual to apply the name "sect" to all dissenters.在國家,如英國和德國,在那裡存在的國家教會,這是通常採用的名稱“教派”的所有持不同政見者。 Obedience to the civil authority in religious matters thus becomes the necessary prerequisite for a fair religious name.服從權威的民間宗教事務從而成為必要的先決條件,公平宗教的名稱。 In lands where no particular religion is officially recognized the distinction between Church and sect is considered impossible by some Protestants (Loofs, "Symbolik", Leipzig, 1902, 74).在土地沒有特定的宗教信仰是官方認可的教會之間的區別和節被認為是不可能的一些新教徒( Loofs , “ Symbolik ” ,萊比錫, 1902年, 74歲) 。 Others claim that the preaching of the pure and unalloyed Word of Go, the legitimate administration of the sacraments and the historical identification with the national life of a people entitle a denomination to be designated as a Church; in the absence of these qualifications it is merely a sect (Kalb, 592-94).其他聲稱,宣揚的純粹和純粹的Word圍棋,合法管理聖禮和歷史認同,國家生活的人有權面額將被指定作為一個教會在沒有這些條件它只是一個教派(卡爾布, 592-94 ) 。 This, however, does not solve the question; for what authority among Protestants will ultimately and to their general satisfaction judge of the character of the preaching or the manner in which the sacraments are administered?然而,這並不能解決問題;為新教徒之間的權力最終將和他們一般都感到滿意的法官性質的說教或以何種方式聖禮的管理? Furthermore, an historical religion may contain many elements of falsehood.此外,歷史宗教可能包含許多內容謬誤。 Roman paganism was more closely identified with the life of the nation than any Christian religion ever was, and still it was an utterly defective religious system.羅馬異教更密切確定國家生活的比任何基督教以往任何時候都過去是,現在仍然是一個毫無缺陷的宗教制度。 It was a non-Christian system, but the example nevertheless illustrates the point at issue; for a religion true or false will remain so independently of subsequent historical association or national service.這是一個非基督教系統,但儘管如此,例如顯示一點問題;的一種宗教真或假將保持獨立,以便以後的歷史聯繫或國家服務。

To the Catholic the distinction of Church and sect presents no difficulty.天主教的區別的教會和節禮物沒有任何困難。 For him, any Christian denomination which has set itself up independently of his own Church is a sect.對於他來說,任何基督教派了一套自己獨立的教會他自己是一個節。 According to Catholic teaching any Christians who, banded together refuse to accept the entire doctrine or to acknowledge the supreme authority of the Catholic Church, constitute merely a religious party under human unauthorized leadership.據天主教教學任何基督徒誰,聯合起來拒絕接受整個理論或承認的最高權威的天主教教會,構成僅僅是一個宗教政黨根據人權未經許可的領導。 The Catholic Church alone is that universal society instituted by Jesus Christ which has a rightful claim to the allegiance of all men, although in fact, this allegiance is withheld by many because of ignorance and the abuse of free-will.天主教會本身就是社會的普遍提起耶穌基督的擁有合法要求的效忠所有男人,但事實上,這是不效忠許多,因為無知和濫用自由意志。 She is the sole custodian of the complete teaching of Jesus Christ which must be accepted in its entirety by all mankind. Her members do not constitute a sect nor will they consent to be known as such, because they do not belong to a party called into existence by a human leader, or to a school of thought sworn to the dictates of a mortal master.她是唯一的保管人完整的教學耶穌基督必須接受全部由全人類。她的成員並不構成節他們也不會同意被稱為等,因為它們不屬於當事人要求納入存在的人權領袖,或一所學校的思想宣誓就職的要求的一個致命的主人。 They form part of a Church which embraces all space and in a certain sense both time and eternity, since it is militant, suffering, and triumphant.他們組成了教會其中包括所有的空間,並在一定意義上的時間和永恆,因為它是激進,痛苦和勝利。 This claim that the Catholic religion is the only genuine form of Christianity may startle some by its exclusiveness.這種說法,天主教的宗教是唯一真正的基督教形式可能驚嚇一些由排斥。 But the truth is necessarily exclusive; it must exclude error just as necessarily as light is incompatible with darkness.但事實是一定排他性,它必須排除錯誤一樣輕不一定是不符合黑暗。 As all non-Catholic denominations reject some truth or truths taught by Christ, or repudiate the authority instituted by him in his Church, they have in some essential point sacrificed his doctrine to human learning or his authority to self-constituted leadership.由於所有非天主教教派拒絕一些真理或真理教的基督,或否定的權力提起他在教會,他們在一些重要的一點,犧牲了人權理論學習或其授權自我構成的領導。 That the Church should refuse to acknowledge such religious societies as organizations, like herself, of Divine origin and authority is the only logical course open to her.教會應該拒絕承認這種宗教的社會組織,如自己的神聖的起源和權威是唯一合乎邏輯的課程開放給了她。 No fair-minded person will be offended at this if it be remembered that faithfulness to its Divine mission enforces this uncompromising attitude on the ecclesiastical authority.任何公正的人將在這個得罪如果它必須記住,忠實於它的神聖使命執行這一不妥協的態度對教會的權威。 It is but a practical assertion of the principle that Divinely revealed truth cannot and must not be sacrificed to human objection and speculation.它只不過是一個切實可行的主張的原則是,神揭示真理不能也不應犧牲人的反對和猜測。 But while the Church condemns the errors of non-Catholics, she teaches the practice of justice and charity towards their persons, repudiates the use of violence and compulsion to effect their conversion and is ever ready to welcome back into the fold persons who have strayed from the path of truth.但是,教會譴責錯誤的非天主教徒,她教的做法,正義和對他們的慈善者,譴責使用暴力和強迫效果的轉換,是以往任何時候都準備歡迎回到倍的人誰也偏離真理的道路。

II.二。 HISTORICAL SURVEY; CAUSES; REMEDY OF SECTARIANISM歷史調查;原因;糾正宗派主義

The recognition by the Church of the sects which sprang up in the course of her history would necessarily have been fatal to herself and to any consistent religious organization.承認教會的教派而興起的過程中她的歷史必然是致命的,她和任何一致的宗教組織。 From the time when Jewish and pagan elements threatened the purity of her doctrine to the days of modernistic errors, her history would have been but one long accommodation to new and sometimes contradictory opinions.從當時猶太人和異教徒的元素威脅的純潔性她學說的日子現代派的錯誤,她的歷史本來只有一個長期住宿,新的和有時是相互矛盾的意見。 Gnosticism, Manichæism, Arianism in the earlier days and Albigensianism, Hussitism, and Protestantism of later date, to mention only a few heresies, would have called for equal recognition.諾斯替教,摩尼教, Arianism在早期天Albigensianism , Hussitism ,和基督教的稍後日期,更不用說只有少數異端,將要求平等的承認。 The different parties into which the sects usually split soon after their separation from the Mother Church would have been entitled in their turn to similar consideration.不同的政黨進入該教派通常分裂後不久,其離職的母親教會本來有資格在其轉向類似的考慮。 Not only Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Zwinglianism, but all the countless sects springing from them would have had to be looked upon as equally capable of leading men to Christ and salvation.不僅路德教,加爾文主義,並Zwinglianism ,但所有的無數教派雨後春筍般從他們將不得不被看作同樣能夠導致男性基督和拯救。 The present existence of 168 Christian denominations in the United States alone sufficiently illustrates this contention.目前存在的168個基督教派僅在美國就充分說明了這一論點。 A Church adopting such a policy of universal approval is not liberal but indifferent; it does not lead but follows and cannot be said to have a teaching mission among men.教會採取這種政策的普遍認可不自由的,但無所謂;它並不領先,但如下,並不能說有一個教學任務之間的男子。 Numerous general causes may be assigned for the disruption of Christianity. Among the principal ones were doctrinal controversies, disobedience to disciplinary prescriptions, and dissatisfaction with real or fancied ecclesiastical abuses.許多一般的原因可能是分配給中斷基督教。其中主要的是理論上的爭論,不服從紀律的處方,並不滿意,真實或想像教會的行為。 Political issues and national sentiment also had a share in complicating the religious difficulty.政治問題和民族情感也有分享複雜的宗教困難。 Moreover reasons of a personal nature and human passions not infrequently hindered that calm exercise of judgment so necessary in religious matters.此外出於個人的自然和人類的熱情並不罕見阻礙平靜作出判斷,以便在必要的宗教事務。 These general causes resulted in the rejection of the vivifying principle of supernatural authority which is the foundation of all unity.這些一般性的原因導致拒絕vivifying原則超自然的權力是基礎,所有的團結。

It is this principle of a living authority divinely commissioned to preserve and authoritatively interpret Divine Revelation which is the bond of union among the different members of the Catholic Church.正是這一原則的生活神聖權力委託,維護和權威性解釋神的啟示是債券工會之間的不同成員的天主教教會。 To its repudiation is not only due the initial separation of non-Catholics, but also their subsequent failure in preserving union among themselves.其休妻不僅是由於初次分離的非天主教徒,但也隨後將其失敗工會在維護彼此。 Protestantism in particular, by its proclamation of the right of private interpretation of the Sacred Scriptures swept away with one stroke all living authority and constituted the individual supreme judge in doctrinal matters.新教特別是其宣布的權利,私人的解釋聖經的神聖沖走的一桿生活的所有權力,並構成對個人最高法官的理論問題。 Its divisions are therefore but natural, and its heresy trials in disagreement with one of its fundamental principles.其子公司,因此,但自然,它的異端審判中的分歧之一,其基本原則。 The disastrous results of the many divisions among Christians are keenly felt today and the longing for union is manifest.災難性的結果,許多部門之間的基督信徒們敏銳地感覺到今天和渴望工會是明顯。 The manner, however, in which the desired result may be attained is not clear to non-Catholics.的方式,然而,在這所期望的結果可能會達到目前尚不清楚非天主教徒。 Many see the solution in undogmatic Christianity or undenominationalism.許多人認為的解決辦法教條基督教或undenominationalism 。 The points of disagreement, they believe, ought to be overlooked and a common basis for union thus obtained. Hence they advocate the relegation of doctrinal differences to the background and attempt to rear a united Christianity chiefly on a moral basis.該點的分歧,他們認為,應該忽視和一個共同的基礎,由此獲得工會。因此,他們主張降級理論分歧的背景和企圖後方一個統一的基督教主要在一個道德基礎。 This plan, however, rests on a false assumption; for its minimizes, in an unwarranted degree, the importance of the right teaching and sound belief and thus tends to transform Christianity into a mere ethical code.這一計劃,然而,在一個錯誤的假設;為最大限度地減少,在一個無理的程度,權利的重要性教學和健全的信仰,因此往往把基督教變成僅僅是道德守則。 From the inferior position assigned to doctrinal principles there is but one step to their partial or complete rejection, and undenominationalism, instead of being a return to the unity desired by Christ, cannot but result in the destruction of Christianity. It is not in the further rejection of truth that the divisions of Christianity can be healed, but in the sincere acceptance of what has been discarded; the remedy lies in the return of all dissenters to the Catholic Church.從劣勢分配到理論原則只有一個步驟,其部分或全部拒絕,並undenominationalism ,而不是回到所期望的統一基督,不能不造成的破壞基督教。這不是在進一步拒絕真理的分裂基督教可以治愈的,但在真誠接受什麼已被捨棄;的補救辦法在於歸還所有持不同政見的天主教教會。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息撰稿:那韋伯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

Catholic authorities: BENSON, Non-Catholic Denominations (New York, 1910); MÖHLER, Symbolism, tr.天主教當局:本森,非天主教教派(紐約, 1910 ) ; MÖHLER ,象徵性,文。 ROBERTSON, 3rd ed.羅伯遜第3版。 (New York, sd); PETRE, The Fallacy of Undenominationalism in Catholic World, LXXXIV (1906-07), 640-46; DÖLLINGER, Kirche u. (紐約,海峽) ;羅曼,謬誤的Undenominationalism天主教世界, LXXXIV ( 1906至07年) , 640-46 ;多林格,美國教堂 Kirchen (Munich, 1861); VON RUVILLE, Back to Holy Church, tr. SCHOETENSACK (New York, 1911); a Catholic monthly magazine specifically devoted to Church unity is The Lamp (Garrison, New York) non-Catholic authorities: CARROLL, The Religious Forces of the United States, in American Church Hist. Series I (New York, 1893); KALB, Kirchen u..興(慕尼黑, 1861年) ;馮RUVILLE ,回到羅馬教會,文。 SCHOETENSACK (紐約, 1911年) ;一個天主教月刊,專門針對教會團結是燈(駐軍,紐約)非天主教當局:卡羅爾宗教勢力的美國,在美國教會組織胺。系列一(紐約, 1893年) ;卡爾布,興美。 Sekten der Gegenwart (Stuttgart, 1907); KAWERAU, in Realencyklop.德國當代Sekten (斯圖加特, 1907年) ; KAWERAU ,在Realencyklop 。 f.荷蘭盾 prot.蛋白質。 Theol., 3rd ed., sv; SEKTENWESEN in Deutschland; BLUNT, Dict. Theol 。 ,第3版。 ,希沃特; SEKTENWESEN在德國;鈍,快譯通。 of Sects (London, 1874); MASON, A Study of Sectarianism in New Church Review, I (Boston, 1894), 366-82; MCBEE, An Eirenic Itinerary (New York, 1911).教派(倫敦, 1874年) ;梅森,研究在新的宗派主義教會審查,我(波士頓, 1894年) , 366-82 ;麥克比,一個怗行程(紐約, 1911年) 。


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