Scottish Realism蘇格蘭現實主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Scottish Realism was a popular movement in eighteenth and nineteenth century Britain, which attempted to overcome the epistemological, metaphysical, and moral skepticism of the Enlightenment philosophy of David Hume (1711 - 76) with a philosophy of common sense and natural realism. The founder of Scottish Realism was a moderate (as opposed to evangelical) Presbyterian clergyman, Thomas Reid (1710 - 96), born in Strachan, Kincardineshire, and educated at Marischal College. He became professor at King's College, Aberdeen, in 1751.蘇格蘭現實主義是一種流行的運動在第十八和十九世紀的英國,試圖克服認識論,形而上學,道德持懷疑態度的啟蒙哲學的大衛休謨( 1711年至1776年)與哲學常識和自然寫實。創始人蘇格蘭現實主義是一個溫和的(而不是福音)長老會牧師,托馬斯里德( 1710至1796年) ,出生在斯特拉坎, Kincardineshire ,並在馬歇爾教育學院。教授,他成為國王學院,香港仔,在1751年。 Reid was disturbed by studying Hume's Treatise of Human Nature (1739), which he thought denied the objective reality of external objects, the principle of causation, and the unity of the mind.里德感到不安的研究休謨的人性論( 1739年) ,他認為否認的客觀現實的外部對象,原則,因果關係,以及統一的想法。 In answer, Reid wrote An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense in 1764, and the same year was appointed professor in Glasgow.在回答,里德寫道探究人類心靈的原則常識1764年,和同年被任命為教授在格拉斯哥。 In 1785, he wrote Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, and in 1788, Essays on the Active Powers of Man.在1785年,他寫散文的知識產權人的權力,並在1788年,散文主動權力的人。

Reid traced Hume's skepticim to what he considered a common fallacy in the great philosophers Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley: representational idealism, which postulates that "the mind knows not things immediately, but only by the intervention of the ideas it has of them" (Essay on Intellectual Powers, IV,4,3).里德追溯到休謨的skepticim什麼,他認為一個共同的謬誤的偉大的哲學家笛卡爾,洛克,以及伯克利分校:代表性的唯心論,這假設說, “考慮到不知道的事情立即,但只能由干預,它的想法,其中” (論知識分子的權力,四, 4,3 ) 。 That is, ideas are an intermediary between the mind and things, which prevents direct knowledge of the actual things, so that we do not immediately know the external reality in itself, but only the idea (or representation or impression) that it causes in us.這就是說,思想之間的中間人,並考慮到的東西,防止直接了解實際的事情,所以,我們不會立即知道外部的現實本身,而只是想法(或代表或展示) ,它在我們的原因。

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On the contrary, the human mind, argued Reid, perceives external objects directly through intuitive knowledge.與此相反,人的心靈,認為里德,認為外部物體直接通過直觀的知識。 We know reality, not by a "conjunction" of separated sense experiences, but by immediate "judgements of nature," which we make because our mind is constituted by God to know reality directly.我們知道現實,而不是由一個“結合”的分離意識的經驗,但眼前的“判決的性質, ”我們提出,因為我們的心靈是由上帝知道現實的直接聯繫。 These "original and natural judgements" (by which we know real objects) "make up what is called the common sense of mankind; and what is manifestly contrary to any of those first principles is what we call absurd" (Inquiry, VII, 4).這些“原始和自然的判決” (由我們知道真正的對象) “彌補所謂的共同認識人類; ,什麼是明顯違背上述任何第一個原則就是我們所稱的荒謬” (調查,七, 4 ) 。 These first principles, of course, cannot and need not be proved: they are "self - evident" to the common experience of mankind.這些第一的原則,當然不能和無須證明:他們是“自我-明顯的”共同經驗的人類。 Among these principles are the existence of external objects, cause and effect, and the obligations of morality.在這些原則的存在,外部對象,原因和後果,以及所承擔的義務道德。 Any philosophy that denies these commonly accepted principles on which all men must base their lives is of necessity defective.任何哲學,即否認了這些普遍接受的原則上所有的人必須依據自己的生活是有缺陷的必要性。

Dugald Stewart (1753 - 1828), professor at Edinburgh and a distinguished successor of Reid, laid more stress on observation and inductive reasoning, and subscribed to an empiricist approach to psychology. Dugald斯圖爾特( 1753年至1828年) ,在愛丁堡教授和傑出的繼承者里德,奠定更加注重觀察和歸納推理,並訂閱了經驗主義的方法心理學。 Stewart's successor, Thomas Brown, moved even further in an empiricist direction, and is considered a bridge between Scottish Realism and the empiricism of JS Mill.斯圖爾特的繼任者,托馬斯布朗,移動甚至進一步在經驗主義的方向,被認為是蘇格蘭之間的橋樑現實主義和經驗主義的江蘇軋機。 Sir William Hamilton (1791 - 1856), Edinburgh professor, attempted the impossible task of uniting the epistemologies of Reid and Kant (who tried to meet the skepticism of Hume in an entirely different way, by asserting that unity and structure are imposed upon the phenomena of sensation by forms in the mind).威廉漢密爾頓( 1791年至1856年) ,愛丁堡教授,試圖不可能完成的任務是團結的認識論的里德和康德(誰試圖滿足懷疑休謨在一個完全不同的方式,聲稱團結和結構強加於現象感覺的形式在頭腦) 。 JS Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy administered an empiricist death blow to Scottish Realism.江蘇軋機考試威廉爵士漢密爾頓的管理哲學的經驗主義致命打擊蘇格蘭的現實主義。 Empiricism in Britain and idealism in Germany drove realism from the field.在英國經驗主義和理想主義在德國開車的現實主義從外地。

The Scottish philosophy, however, had wide and profound effects. Royer - Collard, Cousin, and Jouffroy gave it wide circulation in early nineteenth century France.蘇格蘭哲學,然而,有廣泛和深遠的影響。羅耶-科拉爾,表哥,並J ouffroy賦予它廣泛流傳在十九世紀初法國。 Sydney Ahlstrom has shown that it exercised supreme influence over American theological thought in the nineteenth century.悉尼Ahlstrom表明,它行使最高影響力的美國神學思想在十九世紀。 While it has long been recognized that the conservative Calvinist theologians of Princeton adopted Scottish Realist epistemology wholesale.雖然早就認識到,保守的神學家加爾文主義普林斯頓通過現實主義的認識論蘇格蘭批發。 Ahlstrom demonstrates a less noted fact: moderate Calvinists of Andover, liberals of Yale, and Unitarians of Harvard were also deeply indebted to the same commonsense realism. Ahlstrom表明,沒有注意到的事實:溫和的加爾文教派的安多弗,自由派的耶魯大學,和哈佛Unitarians也深深感激相同的常識現實。 Thus it provided the epistemological structure utilized by both "liberals" and "conservatives" in nineteenth century America.因此,它提供了認識論的結構都採用“自由派”和“保守派”在十九世紀的美國。

DF Kelly東風凱利
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Bibliography 目錄
T Reid, Works, Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, and Philosophical Orations; SE Ahlstrom, "The Scottish Philosophy and American Theology," CH 24; S Grave, The Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense; R Metz, A Hundred Years of British Philosophy; J McCosh, The Scottish Philosophy; A Seth, Scottish Philosophy; JS Mill, Collected Works, IX. Ť里德,工程,論文集知識產權人的權力,與哲學演說辭;東南Ahlstrom , “蘇格蘭哲學與美國神學”的CH 24 ;語墓,蘇格蘭哲學常識; R梅斯,百年英國哲學; J McCosh ,蘇格蘭哲學;阿賽,蘇格蘭哲學;江蘇軋機,文集,九。


Scotism and Scotists Scotism和Scotists

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. SCOTISM一SCOTISM

This is the name given to the philosophical and theological system or school named after John Duns Scotus.這是名稱的哲學和神學系統或學校命名後,約翰鄧司各脫。 It developed out of the Old Franciscan School, to which Haymo of Faversham (d. 1244), Alexander of Hales (d. 1245), John of Rupella (d. 1245), William of Melitora (d. 1260), St. Bonaventure (d. 1274), Cardinal Matthew of Aquasparta (d. 1289), John Pecham (d. 1292), Archbishop of Canterbury, Richard of Middletown (d. about 1300), etc. belonged.它制定了老方濟各學校,其中Haymo的Faversham (草1244年) ,亞歷山大黑爾斯(草1245 ) ,約翰Rupella (草1245 ) ,威廉Melitora (草1260 ) ,聖文德(草1274 ) ,樞機馬修的Aquasparta (草1289 ) ,約翰Pecham (草1292 ) ,坎特伯雷大主教理查德的米德爾敦(草約1300 )等屬於。 This school had at first but few peculiarities; it followed Augustinism (Platonism), which then ruled theology, and which was adopted not only by the Parisian professors belonging to the secular clergy (William of Auvergne, Henry of Ghent, etc.), but also by prominent teachers of the Dominican Order (Roland of Cremona, Robert Fitzacker, Robert of Kilwardby, etc.).這所學校最初幾年的特點,但它遵循Augustinism (柏拉圖) ,然後排除神學,並獲得通過,不僅是巴黎的教授屬於世俗的神職人員(威廉奧弗涅,亨利的根特,等等) ,但還有突出的教師多米尼加令(羅蘭的克雷莫納,羅伯特Fitzacker ,羅伯特的Kilwardby ,等等) 。 These theologians knew and utilized freely all the writings of Aristotle, but employed the new Peripatetic ideas only in part or in an uncritical fashion, and intermingled with Platonic elements.這些神學知道,並利用所有的自由亞里士多德的著作,但採用了新的流動的想法只是部分或批評的方式,並相互交織與柏拉圖的內容。 Albertus Magnus and especially St. Thomas (d. 1274) introduced Aristoteleanism more widely into Scholasticism.阿爾貝馬格努斯,尤其是聖托馬斯(草1274 )介紹了Aristoteleanism更廣泛地進入士林。 The procedure of St. Thomas was regarded as an innovation, and called forth criticism, not only from the Franciscans, but also from the secular doctors and even many Dominicans.該程序的聖托馬斯被看作是一種創新,並要求提出的批評,不僅來自濟,但也從世俗的醫生,甚至許多多米尼加。 At this time appeared Scotus, the Doctor Subtilis, and found the ground already cleared for the conflict with the followers of Aquinas.在這個時候出現司各脫,醫生枯草,發現地面已清理的衝突與阿奎那的追隨者。 He made indeed very free use of Aristoteleanism, much freer than his predecessors, but in its employment exercised sharp criticism, and in important points adhered to the teaching of the Older Franciscan School -- especially with regard to the plurality of forms or of souls, the spiritual matter of the angels and of souls, etc., wherein and in other points he combatted energetically St. Thomas.他確實非常免費使用Aristoteleanism ,更自由比他的前任,但其就業行使尖銳批評,並在重要的點堅持教學的老年人濟學校-尤其是關於多元化的形式或靈魂,精神問題的天使和靈魂,等等,其中和其他點,他combatted大力聖托馬斯。 The Scotism beginning with him, or what is known as the Later Franciscan School, is thus only a continuation or further development of the older school, with a much wider, although not exclusive acceptance of Peripatetic ideas, or with the express and strict challenge of the same (eg the view that matter is the principium individuationis). Scotism開始的與他,或所謂的後來方濟各學校,因此,只有持續或進一步發展老年學校,有更廣泛的,但不是排他性的接受流動的思想,或表達和嚴格的挑戰同樣的(例如,認為此事是原理個體) 。 Concerning the relation of these schools to each other, or the relation of Scotus to Alexander of Hales and St. Bonaventure, consult the work of the Flemish Recollect, M. Hauzeur.關於與這些學校對方,或的關係司各脫亞歷山大的黑爾斯和聖文德,協商工作的佛蘭芒語記得,先生Hauzeur 。

Concerning the character and teaching of Scotus we have already spoken in the special article, where it was stated that he has been unjustly charged with Indeterminism, excessive Realism, Pantheism, Nestorianism, etc. What has been there said holds good of Scotism in general, the most important doctrines of which were substantially developed by Scotus himself.關於性質和教學的司各脫我們已經談過的特別規定,如果有人說,他一直受到不公正的指控非決定,過多的現實主義,泛神論,景教等什麼一直在那裡說,擁有良好的Scotism一般而言,最重要的理論,這大大開發的司各脫自己。 Little new has been added by the Scotists to the teaching of their master; for the most part, they have merely, in accordance with the different tendencies of the day, restated its fundamental position and defended it.小新已新增的Scotists教學的主人;在大多數情況下,他們只是按照不同傾向的一天,重申其基本立場和捍衛它。 It will be sufficient here to mention two works in which the most important peculiarities of the Scotist theology are briefly set forth and defended -- Johannes de Rada, "Controversiae theol. inter S. Thom. et Scotum" (1598- ); Kilian Kazen berger, "Assertiones centum ad mentem . . . Scoti" (new ed., Quaracehi, 1906).這將足以在這裡提到兩件作品,其中最重要的特殊性的Scotist神學作了簡要闡述和捍衛-約翰內斯德拉達, “ C ontroversiaet heol。間由湯姆。等S cotum” ( 1 598- );克利安卡伯傑, “ Assertiones centum廣告mentem 。 。 。 Scoti ” (新版。 , Quaracehi , 1906年) 。 Reference may, however, be made to the influence which Scotism exercised on the teaching of the Church (ie on theology).可參考,但作的影響而Scotism行使教學的教會(即神學) 。 It is especially noteworthy that none of the propositions peculiar to Scotus or Scotism has been censured by ecclesiastical authority, while the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was soon accepted by all schools, orders, and theologians outside the Dominican Order, and was raised to a dogma by Pius IX.這是特別值得注意的是,沒有一個命題特有的司各脫或Scotism一直譴責教會的權力,而理論的完美構想很快被大家所接受的學校,命令,和神學家以外的多米尼加秩序,並提高到一個教條由庇護九。 The definition of the Council of Vienne of 1311 that all were to be regarded as heretics who declared "quod anima rationalis . . . non sit forma corporis humani per se et essentialiter" (the rational soul is not per se and essentially the form of the human body), was directed, not against the Scotist doctrine of the forma corporeitatis, but only against the erroneous view of Olivius; it is even more probable that the Scotists of the day suggested the passing of the Decree and formulated it (see B. Jansen, loc. cit., 289 sqq., 471 sqq.).該定義理事會的維埃納的1311年,所有被視為異端誰宣布的“獄卒靈魂理性。 。 。非坐在形式上癬人體本身等essentialiter ” (合理的靈魂本身並不是和本質的形式人體) ,是針對,不反對Scotist理論形式上corporeitatis ,但只對錯誤的Olivius ;更可能是Scotists一天的建議通過的法令,並制定(見灣揚森,同上。前。 , 289 sqq 。 , 471 sqq 。 ) 。

Nominalism is older than Scotus, but its revival in Occamism may be traced to the one-sided exaggeration of some propositions of Scotus.唯名是年齡比司各脫,但它的復甦Occamism可追溯到片面誇大一些主張司各脫。 The Scotist Formalism is the direct opposite of Nominalism, and the Scotists were at one with the Thomists in combatting the latter; Occam himself (d. about 1347) was a bitter opponent of Scotus.形式主義的Scotist是直接相反的唯名論,並Scotists是在一個與Thomists打擊後者;奧卡姆本人(草約1347年)是一個痛苦的對手司各脫。 The Council of Trent defined as dogma a series of doctrines especially emphasized by the Scotists (eg freedom of the will, free co-operation with grace, meritoriousness of good works, the causality of the sacraments ex opere operato, the effect of absolution).安理會的遄界定為教條了一系列的理論特別強調的Scotists (如自由意志,自由合作,優雅,體面的好工作,因果關係的聖禮前opere operato的影響,赦免) 。 In other points the canons were intentionally so framed that they do not affect Scotism (eg that the first man was constitutus in holiness and justice).在其他各點的大砲是故意做框架,他們不會影響Scotism (例如,第一次男子constitutus在聖德和正義) 。 This was also done at the Vatican Council.這也是做在梵蒂岡理事會。 In the Thomistic-Molinistic controversy concerning the foreknowledge of God, predestination, the relation of grace to free will, the Scotists took little part.在Thomistic - Molinistic爭議的預先上帝,預定的關係的寬限期,以自由意志, Scotists了小部分。 They either supported one of the parties, or took up a middle position, rejecting both the predetermination of the Thomists and the scientia media of the Molinists.他們或者支持當事方之一,或採取了中間立場,拒絕了預先的Thomists和科學媒體Molinists 。 God recognizes the free future acts in His essence, and provides a free decree of His will, which does not predetermine our free will, but only accompanies it.上帝認識到自由的未來行為,他的本質,並提供免費的法令,他將不預先確定我們的自由意志,但只有伴隨著它。

Jesuit philosophers and theologians adopted a series of the Scotist propositions.耶穌的哲學家和神學家採取了一系列的Scotist主張。 Later authorities reject in part many of these propositions and partly accept them, or at least do not directly oppose them.後來當局拒絕部分其中的許多主張和部分接受他們,或者至少沒有直接反對。 This refers mostly to doctrines touching the deepest philosophical and theologieal questions, on which a completely certain judgment is difficult to obtain.這是指主要理論感人最深的哲學和theologieal問題,其中一個完全一定的判斷是很難獲得。 The following are generally rejected: formalism with the distinctio formalis, the spiritual matter of angels and of the soul, the view that the metaphysical essence of God consists in radical infinity, that the relationes trinitariae are not a perfection simpliciter simplex; that the Holy Ghost would be a distinct Person from the Son, even though He proceeded from the Father alone; that the angels can naturaliter know the secreta cordium (secret thoughts); that the soul of Christ is formally holy and impeccable, not by the very fact of the hypostatic union, but through another gratia creata (the visio beatifica); that the merits of Christ are not simpliciter et intrinsece, but only extrinsece and secundum quid, infinite; that there are indifferent acts in individuo; that the gratia sanctificans and the charitas habitualis are the same habitus; that circumcision is a sacrament in the strict sense; that transubstantiation makes the Body of Christ present per modum adductionis, etc. Another series of propositions was misunderstood even by Catholie theologians, and then in this false sense rightly rejected -- eg the doctrine of the univocatio entis, of the acceptation of the merits of Christ and man, etc. Of the propositions which have been accepted or at least favourably treated by a large number of scholars, we may mention: the Scotist view of the relation between essentia and existentia; that between ens and nihil the distance is not infinite but only as great as the reality that the particular ens possesses; that the accidens as such also possesses a separate existence (eg the accidentia of bread and wine in the Eucharist); that not only God, but also man can produce an esse simpliciter (eg man by generation); haecceitas as the principium individuationis.以下是一般拒絕:形式主義與distinctio formalis ,精神問題和天使的靈魂,認為形而上學的上帝的本質組成根治至無限遠,該relationes trinitariae不是一個單純的完善simpliciter ;的聖靈將是一個獨特的人的兒子,儘管他從父親單獨的天使可以naturaliter知道分泌物cordium (秘密的想法) ;的靈魂,基督是神聖的,並正式無可挑剔的,而不是由事實本身的本質的工會,而是通過另一種特惠creata ( beatifica的Visio ) ;的優點基督不是simpliciter等intrinsece ,但只有extrinsece和孔型塊,無限的; ,有漠不關心的行為individuo ;的特惠sanctificans和charitas habitualis是相同的習性;認為割禮是一個聖禮嚴格意義上的,這transubstantiation使基督的奧體目前每modum adductionis等一系列的另一個命題被誤解甚至Catholie神學,然後在這個虛假的安全感正確地拒絕-例如,理論univocatio entis ,在驗收的是非曲直基督和人為等主張已被接受或至少是有利的治療了大量的學者,我們可能會提:鑑於該Scotist的關係之間的本質和existentia ;之間的匹配和nihil的距離不是無限的,但只能作為偉大的現實,尤其是擁有匹配;的accidens這樣還擁有一個單獨的存在(例如accidentia麵包和酒的聖體) ; ,不僅上帝,但也可以生產人的存在simpliciter (如男子的一代) ; haecceitas作為個體的原理。 Also many propositions from psychology: eg that the powers of the soul are not merely accidents even natural and necessary of the soul, that they are not really distinct from the substance of the soul or from one another; that sense perception is not purely passive; that the intellect can recognize the singular directly, not merely indirectly; that the soul separated from the body forms its knowledge from things themselves, not merely from the ideas which it has acquired through life or which God infuses into it; that the soul is not united with the body for the purpose of acquiring knowledge through the senses but for the purpose of forming with it a new species, ie human nature; that the moral virtues are not necessarily inter se connexae, etc. Also many propositions concerning the doctrine of the angels: eg that the angels can be numerically distinct from one another, and therefore several angels can belong to the same species; that it is not merely through their activity or the application of their powers that angels can be in a given place; that they cannot go from place to place without having to traverse the intermediate space; that they do not acquire all natural knowledge from infused ideas only, but also through contemplation of things themselves; that their will must not necessarily will good or evil, according as it has once decided.也有許多從心理學的主張:例如,權力的靈魂不只是意外甚至自然和必要的靈魂,他們並沒有真正有別於的實質或靈魂從彼此;這個意義上的看法是不是純粹的被動;該智慧可以識別奇異直接,而不是僅僅間接的靈魂脫離身體的知識形式從自己的事情,而不是僅僅從想法,它已經收購了生命或通過上帝注入到它的靈魂是不聯合國與機構的目的是通過獲取知識的意識,但目的是形成了一個新的物種,即人性的道德並不一定是相互connexae等也有許多主張有關理論天使:例如,天使數值可以從一個不同的另一種,因此,幾個天使可以屬於同一物種; ,它不僅是通過他們的活動或運用其權力,天使可以在一個特定的地方; ,他們不能去地點,而無需導線的中間空間; ,他們不會獲得所有自然知識,只有注入的想法,而且還通過靜觀事情本身; ,他們將必須不一定會好或邪惡的,因為它顯示了一旦決定。 Furthermore, that Adam in the state of innocence could sin venially; that mortal sin, as an offence against God, is not intrinsically and simpliciter, but only extrinsically infinite; that Christ would have become man, even if Adam had not sinned; that the human nature of Christ had its proper created existence; that in Christ there were two filiationes, or sonships, a human and a Divine; that the sacraments have only moral causality; that, formally and in the last analysis, heavenly bappiness consists not in the visio Dei, but in the fruitio; that in hell venial sin is not punished with everlasting punishment; etc.此外,該亞當在該州的無罪推定可以罪孽venially ;的彌天大罪,作為一個犯罪行為的上帝,沒有本質和simpliciter ,但只有extrinsically無限;基督將成為男子,即使亞當沒有犯過罪;的人性基督了其應有的建立存在; ,在基督有兩個filiationes ,或sonships ,人力和神聖;的聖禮只有道義上的因果關係;說,正式的和在過去的分析,天上不會bappiness組成的的Visio上帝,但在fruitio ; ,在地獄venial罪孽不是懲罰永恆的處罰等;

Scotism thus exercised also positively a wholesome influence on the development of philosophy and theology; its importance is not, as is often asserted, purely negative -- that is, it does not consist only in the fact that it exercised a wholesome criticism on St. Thomas and his school, and thus preserved science from stagnation.因此,行使Scotism還積極健康的影響,發展的哲學和神學,其重要性不一樣,往往宣稱,純粹是消極的-也就是說,它並不只在事實,即它發揮了有益的批評街托馬斯和他的學校,從而維護科學停滯。 A comparison of the Scotist teaching with that of St. Thomas has been often attempted -- for example, in the abovementioned work of Hauzeur at the end of the first volume; by Sarnano, "Conciliatio omnium controversiarum etc."的比較Scotist教學與聖托馬斯一直往往試圖-例如,在上述工作的H auzeur結束時的第一冊;的S arnano, “ C onciliatioO mnium公司等c ontroversiarum” (1589- ). ( 1589 -) 。 It may be admitted that in many cases the difference is rather in the terminology, or that a reconciliation is possible, if one emphasize certain parts of Scotus or St. Thomas, and pass over or tone down others. However, in not a few points the contradiction still remains.可以承認,在許多情況下,差別是在相當的術語,或者說,和解是可能的,如果之一強調某些部分司各脫或聖托馬斯,並越過或淡化等。然而,沒有幾個百分點的矛盾仍然存在。 Generally speaking, Scotism found its supporters within the Franciscan Order; certainly, opposition to the Dominicans, ie to St. Thomas, made many members of the order disciples of Scotus.一般而言, Scotism發現其支持者在濟秩序;當然,反對多米尼加,即聖托馬斯,提出了許多成員的命令弟子司各脫。 However, this does not mean that the foundation and development of Scotism is to be referred to the rivalry existing between the two orders.然而,這並不意味著基礎和發展Scotism是交由現有爭奪兩國之間的訂單。 Even Aquinas found at first not a few opponents in his order, nor did all his fellow-Dominicans follow him in every particular (eg Durandus of St. Pourçain, d. 1332).即使阿奎那第一次發現沒有幾個對手,他的命令,也沒有他的所有同胞多米尼加跟隨他在每一個特定(如Durandus聖Pourçain , d. 1332 ) 。 The Scotist doctrines were also supported by many Minorites, of whose purity of purpose there can be no doubt, and of whom many have been included in the catalogue of saints and beati (eg Sts. Bernardine, John Capistran, Jacob of the March, Angelus of Chiavasso, etc.).該Scotist理論也支持許多少數民族,其純度的目的毫無疑問,而且其中許多已被列入該目錄的聖人和beati (如街。 Bernardine , Capistran約翰雅各布的3月,鐘的Chiavasso ,等等) 。 Furthermore, Scotism found not a few supporters among secular professors and in other religious orders (eg the Augustinians, Servites, etc.), especially in England, Ireland, and Spain.此外, Scotism發現也有不少支持者之間的世俗教授和其他宗教的命令(如奧古斯丁, Servites等) ,尤其是在英格蘭,愛爾蘭和西班牙。 On the other hand, not all the Minorites were Scotists.另一方面,並非所有的少數人被Scotists 。 Many attached themselves to St. Bonaventure, or favoured an eclecticism from Scotus, St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, etc. The Conventuals seem to have adhered most faithfully to Scotus, particularly at the University of Padua, where many highly esteemed teachers lectured.許多重視自己聖文德,或贊成折衷主義從司各脫,聖托馬斯,聖文德等Conventuals似乎已經堅持最忠實司各脫,特別是在帕多瓦大學,在許多高度尊敬的老師講課。 Scotism found least support among the Capuchins, who preferred St. Bonaventure. Scotism發現至少支持Capuchins之間,誰喜歡聖文德。 Besides Scotus, the order had other highly-prized teachers, such as Alexander of Hales, Richard of Middleton, and especially St. Bonaventure (proclaimed Doctor ecclesia by Sixtus V in 1587), the ascetico-mystical trend of whose theology was more suited to wide circles in the order than the critical, dispassionate, and often abstruse teaching of the Subtle Doctor.除了司各脫,該命令有其他高度珍貴的教師,如亞歷山大黑爾斯,理查德米德爾頓,尤其是聖文德(醫生宣布教會的西斯V在1587年)中, ascetico ,神秘的趨勢,其神學是更適合各界廣泛的順序不是至關重要的,冷靜的,而且往往是深奧教學的隱蔽醫生。 In Spain the martyred tertiary, Blessed Raymund Lullus (d. 1315), also had many friends.在西班牙高等教育的犧牲,有福Raymund Lullus (草1315年) ,也有很多朋友。 It may be said that the whole order as such never had a uniform and special school of Scotists; the teachers, preachers, etc. were never compelled to espouse Scotism.可以說,整個秩序,這種從未有過一個統一的和特殊學校的Scotists ;教師,傳教士等,從來沒有強迫擁護Scotism 。 His disciples did indeed call Scotus "Doctor noster", "Doctor (vel Magister) Ordinis", but even among these many partly followed their own course (eg Petrus Aureolus), while Walter Burleigh (Burlaeus, d. about 1340) and still more so Occam were opponents of Scotus. It is only at the end of the fifteenth or the beginning of the sixteenth century that a special Scotist School can be spoken of.他的弟子確實呼籲司各脫“醫生noster ” , “博士(威賽碩士) Ordinis ” ,但即使在這些眾多的部分遵循自己的課程(如翠Aureolus ) ,而沃爾特伯利( Burlaeus , d.約1340年)和更所以奧卡姆被對手司各脫。只有在年底或15年初的16世紀,特別Scotist學校可講的。 The works of the master were then collected, brought out in many editions, commentated, etc. Since 1501 we also find numerous regulations of general chapters recommending or directly prescribing Scotism as the teaching of the order, although St. Bonaventure's writings were also to a great extent admitted (ef. Marian Fernández Garcia, "Lexicon scholasticum etc.", Quaracchi, 1910; "B. Joan. Duns Scoti: De rerum principio etc.", Quaracchi, 1910, preface article 3, nn. 46 sqq., where many regulations of 1501-1907 are given).該工程總,然後收集,提出了許多版本, commentated等自1501年我們還發現了許多規章的一般章節推薦或直接開處方Scotism的教學秩序,雖然聖文德的著作也為在很大程度上承認( ef.瑪麗安加西亞費爾南德斯, “等詞彙scholasticum ” , Quaracchi , 1910年; “灣瓊。鄧Scoti :德等事物誠信原則” , Quaracchi , 1910年,序言第3條,神經網絡。 46 sqq 。 ,在許多法規給予1501至1907年) 。 Scotism appears to have attained its greatest popularity at the beginning of the seventeenth century; during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries we even find special Scotist chairs, eg at Paris, Rome, Coimbra, Salamanca, Alcalá, Padua, and Pavia. Scotism似乎已達到其最大的流行開始時的17世紀;在第十六和十七世紀,我們甚至找到特別Scotist椅子,例如在巴黎,羅馬,科英布拉,薩拉曼卡,阿卡拉,帕多瓦,和帕維亞。 In the eighteenth century it had still an important following, but in the nineteenth it suffered a great decline.早在十八世紀它仍然是一種重要的下面,但在第十九它蒙受了巨大下降。 One of the reasons for this was the repeated suppressions of the order in almost every country, while the recommendation of the teaching of St. Thomas by several popes could not be favourable to Scotism. It has even been asserted that it is now merely tolerated; but this statement is a priori improbable in regard to a school of which not a single proposition has been censured, and to which so many highly venerated men (bishops, cardinals, popes, and saints) have belonged; and it is still less probable in view of the approval of the various general statutes (repeated so often down to the present day), in which Scotism is at least recommended.的原因之一,這是重複suppressions的秩序,幾乎每一個國家,而建議的教學聖托馬斯幾個教皇不能有利於Scotism 。甚至有人斷言,它現在僅僅是不能容忍的;但這一聲明是一個先驗方面不大可能在一所學校,其中沒有一個命題一直譴責,並如此眾多的高度尊敬的男性(主教,樞機主教,教皇,和聖人)屬於,它仍然是不太可能的鑑於批准的各種一般章程(重複往往下降到目前的一天) ,其中Scotism至少是建議。 In their Decrees Leo XIII and Pius X have recommended not alone St. Thomas, but also Scholasticism in general, and this includes also the Scotist School.在他們的法令利奧十三世和庇護X中並不孤單建議聖托馬斯,但也士林一般,這也包括Scotist學校。 In 1897 Leo XIII approved the "Constitutiones Generales Fratrum Minorum", of which article 245 prescribes for the members of the order: "In doctrinis philosophicis et theologicis antiqae scholae Franciscanae inhaerere studeant, quin tamen ceteros scholasticos negligant" (In philosophical and theological doctrine they shall take care to follow the ancient Franciscan School, without, however, neglecting the other Schoolmen.) On 11 April, 1904, in a letter to the Minister General, Father Dionysius Schuler, Pius X expressed his pleasure at the revival of studies in the order in connexion with the Franciscan schools of the Middle Ages, and on 19 June, 1908, in a letter to the abovementioned Father Marian, praised his book, "Mentis in Deum quotidiana elevatio duce B. Joanne Duns Scoto etc." 1897年利奧十三世批准了“ Constitutiones普通Fratrum Minorum ” ,其中第245條規定的成員為: “在doctrinis philosophicis等theologicis antiqae scholae Franciscanae inhaerere studeant ,五塔門ceteros scholasticos negligant ” (在哲學和神學理論,他們應採取的謹慎措施,按照古老的方濟各學校,但不忽視其他Schoolmen 。 ) 4月11日, 1904年,在信中總務部長,父親修斯舒勒,皮烏斯X表示很高興恢復的研究為了在連接的方濟各學校的中世紀,和6月19日, 1908年,在信中上述父瑪麗安,稱讚他的書, “ Mentis在Deum quotidiana elevatio減量化喬安妮鄧灣等Scoto ” (Quaracehi, 1907. See Marian, op. cit., n. 66.) ( Quaracehi , 1907年。見瑪麗安,同前。前。 ,注66 。 )

II.二。 Scotists

Most Scotists are both philosophers and theologians.大多數Scotists都是哲學家和神學家。

Fourteenth Century十四世紀

Pupils of Scotus: Francis Mayron (d. 1327), a very fruitful writer, who introduced the actus sorbonicus into the University of Paris, ie the uninterrupted disputation lasting the whole day.小學生的司各脫:弗朗西斯Mayron (草1327年) ,一個非常富有成果的作家,誰介紹了現實sorbonicus到巴黎大學,即不間斷的爭論持久一整天。 Petrus Aureolus (d. about 1322), Archbishop of Aix.彼Aureolus (草約1322年) ,艾克斯大主教。 William de Rubione (about 1333).威廉德Rubione (約1333 ) 。 Jerome de Atharia, Order of the Blessed Trinity (about 1323).杰羅姆的Atharia ,令有福三一(約1323 ) 。 Antonius Andreae (d. about 1320) from Aragon, a true disciple of Scotus, who is said to have written several treatises attributed to the master.安東尼Andreae (草約1320年)由阿拉貢,一個真正的弟子司各脫,誰據說已寫了幾論文歸因於主人。 John de Bassolis (d. about 1347).約翰德薩蘭Bassolis (草約1347年) 。 Alvarus Pelagius (d. about 1350). Alvarus貝拉基(草約1350年) 。 Bishop Petrus de Aquila (d. 1371), called Scotellus from his faithful adherence to Scotus, of whose teaching he issued a compendium (new ed., Levanti, 1907-).德主教翠雕(草1371 ) ,所謂Scotellus從他的忠實遵守司各脫,其教學,他發表了一份簡編(新版。 , Levanti , 1907 -) 。 Landulf Caraccioli (d. 1351), Archbishop of Amalfi. Landulf Caraccioli (草1351 ) ,大主教阿馬爾菲。 Nicolaus Bonet (Bovet), who went to Peking and died as Bishop of Malta in 1360; John Bacon, Carmelite (d. 1346).尼古拉Bonet (博韋) ,誰去北京和死亡主教馬耳他1360 ;約翰培根,加爾默羅(草1346 ) 。

Fifteenth Century 15世紀

William Butler (d. 1410).威廉巴特(草1410年) 。 Petrus de Candia (d. 1410 as Pope Alexander V). Nicolaus de Orbellis (d. about 1465), who wrote a commentary on the Sentences (many editions) William Vorilong (Vorlion etc., d. 1464), a celebrated theologian, who wrote a frequently quoted "Comm. super Sentent.", but who also followed St. Bonaventure.翠德假絲(草14時10分教皇亞歷山大五) 。 Nicolaus的德Orbellis (草約1465 ) ,誰寫了評注句(許多版本)威廉Vorilong ( Vorlion等, d. 1464年) ,著名的神學家,誰寫了經常引述“通信。超級Sentent 。 ” ,但誰也跟著聖文德。 Angelus Serpetri, General of the Order (d. 1454). William Gorris (about 1480), not a Franciscan, who composed the "Scotus pauperum".鐘Serpetri ,總令(草1454 ) 。威廉Gorris (約1480 ) ,而不是濟,誰組成的“司各脫pauperum ” 。 Blessed Angelus of Chivasso (d. 1495), whose "Summa" (called Angelica) is extant in about thirty editions and contains a great deal of Scotist doctrine; it was publicly burned by Luther with the "Corpus juris canonici" in 1520.祝福鐘的Chivasso (草1495 ) ,其“大全” (所謂的當歸)是現存的大約三十個版本,並包含了大量的Scotist學說,這是公開焚燒了路德的“ canonici大全”在1520 。 Antonius Sirretus (Sirectus, d. about 1490), famous for his "Formalitates", to whieb several later Scotists wrote commentaries.安東尼Sirretus ( Sirectus , d.約1490 ) ,著名的“ Formalitates ” ,以whieb幾個後來Scotists寫評注。 Tartaretus (about 1495), rector of the University of Paris, and not a Franciscan; Elector Frederick III of Saxony had his philosophical commentaries introduced into the University of Wittenberg at his expense. Tartaretus (約1495 ) ,大學校長的巴黎,而不是濟;選弗雷德里克三薩克森州,他的哲學評引入大學維滕貝格在他犧牲。 Thomas Pencket, Augustinian (d. 1487), knew Scotus almost by heart, and edited his works.托馬斯Pencket ,奧古斯丁(草1487年) ,幾乎知道司各脫的心,和編輯他的作品。 Francis Sampson, General of the Order (d. 1491), was called by Pope Sixtus IV, before whom he held a disputation, the most learned of all.弗朗西斯桑普森,總令(草1491年) ,被稱為西斯四之前,他舉行了爭論,最學到的一切。 Francis de Rovere (d. 1484 as Sixtus IV), who defended in a disputation before Pius II and also in his writings the doctrine that the blood shed by Christ on the Cross was released from the hypostatic union.弗朗西斯德Rovere (草1484年作為西斯四) ,誰維護了爭議之前,庇護二世並在他的著作的理論認為流血的基督在十字架上被釋放的本質工會。 Stephen Brulefer (d. about 1499), renowned professor in Paris and later a Franciscan, who wrote "Comm. in Bonavent. et Scotum" (often edited).斯蒂芬Brulefer (草約1499年) ,著名教授在巴黎後,方濟,誰寫道: “委員會。中Bonavent 。等Scotum ” (通常編輯) 。

Sixteenth Century十六世紀

This period is very rich in names.這一時期是非常豐富的名字。 The following may be mentioned: Paul Scriptoris (d. 1505), professor at the University of Tübingen, who had as students all the other professors and many other members of religious orders. Nicholas de Nüsse (d. 1509).以下不妨提到:保羅Scriptoris (草1505年) ,大學教授的蒂賓根大學,誰的學生了所有其他的教授和許多其他成員的宗教命令。尼古拉德Nüsse (草1509 ) 。 Mauritius a Portu (d. 1513 as Archbishop of Tuam, Ireland), who wrote a commentary on many works of Scotus.毛里求斯Portu (草1513年作為大主教Tuam ,愛爾蘭) ,誰寫了許多評論的作品司各脫。 Francis Lichetus, General of the Order (d. 1520).弗朗西斯Lichetus ,總令(草1520 ) 。 Anthony Trombetta, Archbishop of Athens (d. 1518), who wrote and edited able Scotist works.安東尼Trombetta ,大主教雅典(草1518 ) ,誰寫和編輯能夠Scotist工程。 Philip Varagius (about 1510). Johannes de Monte (about 1510).菲利普Varagius (約15時10分) 。約翰內斯的蒙特卡羅(約1510 ) 。 Gometius of Lisbon (d. 1513), re-edited the often issued fourteenth-century "Summa Astesana". Gometius里斯本(草1513年) ,重新編輯常常發出十四世紀“ Astesana大全” 。 Frizzoli (d. 1520). Frizzoli (草1520 ) 。 James Almainus (about 1520), Parisian magister and not a Franciscan, favoured Gallicanism.詹姆斯Almainus (約1520 ) ,巴黎的教師,而不是濟,贊成Gallicanism 。 Antonius de Fantes, physician, composed in 1530 a Scotus lexicon. Jerome Cadius (d. 1529).安東尼德Fantes ,醫師組成,在1530年1司各脫詞典。杰羅姆Cadius (草1529年) 。 Le Bret (about 1527), wrote "Parvus Scotus".勒布雷(約1527 ) ,寫道: “哲水蚤司各脫” 。 Paduanus Barletta (about 1545). Paduanus巴勒達(約1545 ) 。 James Bargius (about 1560).詹姆斯Bargius (約1560 ) 。 Johannes Dovetus, who wrote in 1579 "Monotesseron formalitatum Scoti, Sieretti, Trombettae et Bruliferi". Joseph Angles, bishop and celebrated moralist (d. 1587), wrote the often edited "Flores theol.".約翰內斯Dovetus ,誰在1579年寫“ Monotesseron formalitatum Scoti , Sieretti , Trombettae等Bruliferi ” 。約瑟夫角度,主教和慶祝衛道士(草1587 ) ,寫的往往是編輯“弗洛雷斯theol 。 ” 。 Damian Giner issued the "Opus Oxoniense Scoti" in a more convenient form (1598).達米安Giner發表了“主業Oxoniense Scoti ”在一個更方便的形式( 1598年) 。 Cardinal Sarnanus (d. 1595), a highly distinguished scholar, wrote a commentary on some philosophical works of Scotus, and edited the works of many Scotists.紅衣主教Sarnanus (草1595年) ,一個非常傑出的學者,寫了一注的一些哲學著作的司各脫,和編輯的作品很多Scotists 。 Salvator Bartolucci (about 1586), also a zealous editor.薩爾瓦托恩Bartolucci (約1586 ) ,也有熱心的編輯器。 Felix Perettus (d. 1590 as Sixtus V).費利克斯Perettus (草第1590作為西斯五) 。

Seventeenth Century十七世紀

Of very many names we may mention: Gothutius (about 1605).很多的名字,我們可能會提: Gothutius (約1605年) 。 Guido Bartholucci (about 1610).圭多Bartholucci ( 1610年左右) 。 Petrus Bonaventura (about 1607).彼波納文圖拉(約1607年) 。 Ruitz (about 1613) Smissing (d. 1626). Ruitz (約1613 ) Smissing (草1626 ) 。 Philip Faber (d. 1630).菲利普費伯(草1630 ) 。 Albergonius, bishop (d. 1636). Albergonius ,主教(草1636年) 。 Centini, bishop (d. 1640). Centini ,主教(草1640 ) 。 Matthaus de Sousa (about 1629).馬特烏斯德索薩(約1629 ) 。 Merinero, bishop (about 1663). Francis Felix (about 1642). Merinero ,主教(約1663 ) 。弗朗西斯費(約1642 ) 。 Vulpes (d. 1647) wrote "Summa" and "Commen. theologiae Scoti" in twelve folio volumes.赤(草1647 )寫道: “大全”和“常見。神學Scoti ”的12開本卷。 Blondus, bishop (d. 1644) - Gavatius, archbishop (d. 1658). Blondus ,主教(草1644 ) -G avatius,大主教(草1 658) 。 Wadding (d. 1657), a well-known annalist, edited with other Irishmen in the College of S. Isidore at Rome the complete works of Scotus (12 vols., Lyons, 1639), with the commentaries of Pitigianus of Arezzo (d. 1616), Poncius (d. 1660), Mauritius a Portu (Mac Caughwell), Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland (d. 1626), and Anthony Illckey (d. 1641); reprinted Paris, 1891-95.填料(草1657年) ,眾所周知annalist ,編輯與其他愛爾蘭學院的S.伊西多爾在羅馬的完整作品司各脫( 12卷。 ,里昂, 1639年) ,與評注Pitigianus的阿雷佐(四。 1616年) , Poncius (草1660 ) ,毛里求斯Portu (蘋果Caughwell ) ,阿馬大主教和靈長類動物的愛爾蘭(草1626年) ,和安東尼Illckey (草1641 ) ;重印巴黎, 1891年至1895年。 Bricemo, named on account of his keenness of intellect the Second Scotus, Bishop of Venezuela (d. 1667). Bricemo ,命名上考慮到他的智力渴望第二司各脫,委內瑞拉主教(草1667 ) 。 Belluti (d. 1676), edited with Mastrius a highly prized "Philosophia ad mentem Scoti" (many editions). Belluti (草1676年) ,編輯與Mastrius一個非常珍貴的“哲學的廣告mentem Scoti ” (許多版本) 。 Mastrius himself (d. 1673) wrote a celebrated "Disputationes theol." Mastrius本人(草1673 )寫了慶祝“ Disputationes theol 。 ” (many editions) and "Theologia ad mentem Scoti" (1671, etc.). (許多版本)和“神學的廣告mentem Scoti ” ( 1671 ,等等) 。 Ferchius (d. 1666) wrote "Vita et apologia Scoti, etc." Ferchius (草1666年)寫道: “簡歷等辯解Scoti等” Bruodinus (d. 1664). Bruodinus (草1664 ) 。 Herinckx (d. 1678), Bishop of Ypres. Stümel (d. 1681 at Fulda). Herinckx (草1678年) ,主教Ypres 。 Stümel (草1681年在富爾達) 。 Boivin, highly esteemed philosopher and theologian (several editions of works, 1678, etc.) Sannig (about 1690).博伊文,高度尊敬的哲學家和神學家(幾個版本的作品, 1678年,等等) Sannig (約1690年) 。 Lambrecht (about 1696), named the Viennese Scotus.蘭布雷希特(約1696 ) ,命名為維也納司各脫。 Bishop Gennari (d. 1684).主教Gennari (草1684 ) 。 Cardinal Brar `catius (d. 1693), held in high favour by several popes.紅衣主教Brar ` catius (草1693年) ,舉行了有利於高一些教皇。 Hernandez (d. 1695).-Macedo (d. 1681), a Portuguese, professor at Padua is said to have composed over one hundred writings and was renowned for his public disputations.埃爾南德斯(草1695 ) .-馬塞(草1681年) ,葡萄牙,帕多瓦教授據說,組成了100的著作和著名的是他的公共disputations 。

Eighteenth Century十八世紀

Frassen (d. 1711) was for thirty years a celebrated professor at the Sorbonne and wrote "Scotus academicus seu universa theo Scoti" (many editions, 1672, etc.; last ed., Rome 1900- ), a very profound and lucid work. Frassen (草1711 )是30年一個著名的教授,索邦大學和寫道: “司各脫academicus請輸入您的通用理論Scoti ” (許多版本, 1672等;最後版。 ,羅馬1900 -) ,一個非常深刻和清晰的工作。 Du randus (d. 1720) wrote the great "Clypeus scotisticus (many editions). Dupasquier, "Summa phil." an "Summa theol." (about 1720; many editions). Hieronymus a Montefortino "Duns Scoti Summ.杜randus (草1720 )寫了偉大的“唇基scotisticus (許多版本) 。杜奎斯帕爾, ”大全菲爾。 “了”大全theol 。 “ (約1720年;許多版本) 。海歐納莫斯1 Montefortino ”鄧Scoti薩姆。 theol. theol 。 ex universis opp.前universis OPP袋。 eius . eius 。 . . juxta ordiner Summæ Angelici Doctoris" (6 vols., 1728-34; new ed., Rome, 1900-03), a very able work. Panger (d 1732 at Augsburg), Scotist moralist. Kikh (d. 1769 at Munich), Scotist dogmatic theologian. Pérez López (d. 1724). Krisper (d. 1749). Hermann, Abbot of St. Trudbert, "Theologia sec. ordiner Summæ旁Angelici Doctoris “ ( 6卷。 , 1728年至1734年;新版。 ,羅馬, 1900年至03年) ,一個非常能幹的工作。 Panger (四1732年在奧格斯堡) , Scotist道德。 Kikh (草1769年在慕尼黑) , Scotist教條神學。佩雷斯洛佩斯(草1724 ) 。 Krisper (草1749 ) 。赫爾曼,住持聖Trudbert , “神學秒。 Scoti principia" (1720). Melgaco (1747). Bishop Sarmentero (d. 1775). Scoti原理“ ( 1720 ) 。梅爾加蘇( 1747 ) 。主教Sarmentero (草1775 ) 。

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries十九世紀和二十世紀

In the nineteenth century, although Scotism was retained in the schools of the Franciscan Order in accordance with the statutes, we meet but few tractates secundum mentem Scoti, in any case no celebrated ones.在十九世紀,儘管Scotism被保留在學校的方濟秩序依照章程,我們開會但很少tractates孔型mentem Scoti ,在任何情況下,沒有慶祝的。 The twentieth century appears to promise better.二十世紀的承諾似乎更好。 Father Fernández, a Spaniards, is a zealous Scotist. Beside the abovementioned writings, he has written a large "Scotus Lexicon", and is at present (1911) issuing new edition of Scotus's "Comment. in Sentent.' Another zealous worker is Father Deodat-Marie de Basley; his fortnightly journal, "La bonne parole" (now entitled "Revue Duns Scot."), contains much Scotistica. He is also engaged on the "Capitali opera B. Joan.費爾南德斯的父親,一個西班牙人,是一個熱心的Scotist 。除了上述著作,他寫了一大“司各脫詞典” ,是目前( 1911年)發行新版本的司各脫的“評論。中Sentent 。另一個熱心的工人父親Deodat馬里德Basley ;他雙周刊雜誌, “香格里拉博訥假釋” (現在的題為“雜誌鄧蘇格蘭人。 ” ) ,載有很多Scotistica 。他還參與了“ Capitali歌劇灣瓊。 Duns Scoti" (Le Havre, 1908) of which the "Praeparatio philosophica" and "Synthesis theologica credendorum" have already appeared. Father Parthenius Minges has explained and defended much of the Scotist doctrine in his "Compend.鄧Scoti “ (勒阿弗爾, 1908年) ,其中的” Praeparatio哲學“和”合成credendorum神學“已經出現。神父Parthenius Minges解釋和辯護許多Scotist學說在他的”概略。 theolog. theolog 。 dogmat. specialis et generalis" (Munich, 1901-02), and in a number of other works. dogmat 。特別與一般“ (慕尼黑, 01年至1902年) ,並在其他一些工程。

Publication information Written by Parthenius Minges.出版信息撰稿Parthenius Minges 。 Transcribed by Kevin Cawley. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.轉錄由凱文考利。天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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