Protestant Scholasticism新教士林

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A method of thinking developed in early Protestantism, which grew stronger in the seventeenth century and became a widely accepted way to create systematic Protestant theologies.一種方法的思維發展的早期基督教,其中增長強勁在十七世紀,成為廣為接受的方式建立系統的新教theologies 。 Even though the major Protestant Reformers attacked the theology of the medieval schoolmen and demanded total reliance on Scripture, it was impossible either to purge all scholastic methods and attitudes derived from classical authors or to avoid conflicts that required intricate theological reasoning as well as biblical interpretation.即使主要的新教改革者襲擊了神學的中世紀schoolmen ,並要求完全依靠聖經,這是不可能的或者清除所有學年的方法和態度,來自古典作家或避免衝突,需要複雜的神學推理以及聖經的解釋。

Several factors account for the growth of Protestant scholasticism: formal education, confidence in reason, and religious controversy. Reliance on logical methods derived from Greek and Roman authors was purged from sixteenth century educational insititutions.有幾個因素帳戶增長的新教院:正規教育,信心的原因和宗教的爭論。依靠合乎邏輯的方法源自希臘和羅馬的作者是整肅從16世紀教育insititutions 。 Aristotle, for example, upon whom the medieval scholastics had relied, continued to be taught by Protestants: Melanchthon at Wittenberg, Peter Martyr Vermigli at Oxford, Jerome Zanchi at Strassburg, Conrad Gesner at Zurich, Theodore Beza at Geneva.亞里士多德,例如,對其中的中世紀scholastics依賴,繼續講授的新教徒:梅蘭希通在維滕貝格,彼得烈士Vermigli在牛津,杰羅姆贊基在斯特拉斯堡,康拉德格斯納在蘇黎世,西奧多Beza在日內瓦舉行。 Though these teachers did not accept Thomas Aquinas's medieval scholastic theology, which also relied heavily on Aristotle's logic and philosophy, they did teach Aristotle's deductive logic and gave reason an important place in theology.雖然這些教師沒有接受托馬斯阿奎那的中世紀的神學學者,也依賴於亞里士多德的邏輯和哲學,他們沒有教亞里士多德的邏輯和演繹了一個重要的原因在神學。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Though Luther (following William of Ockham) and Calvin (following French humanists) decried scholastic reliance on reason and wanted instead to limit their theology to humanist linguistic analysis of Scripture, the Protestant scholastics, without breaking from the major Reformers, were more amenable to human reason.雖然路德(以下奧卡姆的威廉)和卡爾文(以下法國人文主義)譴責學術依賴的原因,並希望而不是限制其神學,以人為本的語言分析聖經,新教scholastics ,沒有突破的主要改革者,更適合人類原因。 Reason became a means to develop coherent theology out of the great variety of biblical texts.原因成為一種手段,制定協調一致的神學出各種各樣的聖經文本。 Further, Renaissance learning, though it stressed textual analysis, also placed confidence in human rationality.此外,文藝復興時期的學習,但它強調文本分析,也信任人類理性。 The Protestant use of scholastic techniques and attitudes consequently kept them in the mainstream of early modern philosophy, which, though it moved away from deductive logic, maintained confidence in reason.新教學年使用技巧和態度,因此讓他們在主流的早期現代哲學,雖然它擺脫演繹邏輯,保持信心的原因。 Protestant theologians, especially the Calvinists, could use scholastic methods to inquire beyond biblical texts into the intricacies and implications of Protestant theology, especially when election and the will of God were considered.新教神學家,特別是加爾文教派,可以利用學校的方法,詢問超出聖經文本的複雜性和影響的新教神學,尤其是在選舉和上帝的意志進行了審議。

Theological controversy also encouraged Protestant scholasticism. When Luther and Zwingli disagreed over the Lord's Supper and when Calvinists entered great controversies over predestination, protagonists often resorted to scholastic logic.神學的爭論還鼓勵新教院。當路德和茨溫利分歧的上帝的晚餐時,偉大的加爾文教派進入預定的爭論,主角往往訴諸學術邏輯。 The controversies themselves called for thorough, intricate argumentation; for biblical texts on the issues were interpreted in a variety of ways. Also, those who won the controversies embodied victory in tightly reasoned doctrinal statements.爭論本身的要求徹底,錯綜複雜的論證;為聖經文本的問題,解釋了各種不同的方式。另外,這些誰贏得勝利的爭論體現在嚴格合理的理論陳述。 Thus, there is strong evidence of Protestant scholasticism in the Canons of Dort, the Westminister Confession, and the Helvetic Confession of 1675.因此,有強有力的證據新教徒中院規的多特,在威斯敏斯特信條,並海爾維第懺悔的1675年。

The influence of Protestant scholasticism was both immediate and long - range.的影響,新教院既是眼前利益和長遠-範圍。 Among Lutherans, the essential doctrine of justification by faith was transformed into a rather complicated theory of conversion by the most famous Lutheran scholastic, Johann Gerhard (1582 - 1637).其中路德會的基本理論,理由是信仰變成一個相當複雜的理論轉化的最有名的信義學校,德國總理( 1582年至1637年) 。 Gerhard used Aristotelian and scriptural proof in his Loci Theologicae (9 vols.).總理用亞里士多德和聖經證明在他的座Theologicae ( 9第一卷和第二卷。 ) 。 While this work was important for shaping Lutheran orthodoxy, in the seventeenth century German pietists replaced scholasticism with a greater emphasis on experiential Christianity.雖然這項工作是非常重要的塑造正統路德派,在17世紀德國的虔誠主義取代院更加注重經驗的基督教。 Among the Reformed, two scholastic traditions were developed.在改革,兩個學術傳統的發展。 Peter Ramus modeled his logic on Plato and Cicero in an attempt to avoid too great an emphasis on metaphysics.彼得支模仿他的邏輯柏拉圖,西塞羅,以避免過大的重點放在形而上學。 Though his work was banned in various continental Protestant centers (Wittenberg, Leiden Helmstedt, Geneva), Ramus had a great influence on Puritan thought in England and America.雖然他的作品被禁止在各大陸的新教中心(維滕貝格,萊頓Helmstedt ,日內瓦) ,支了很大的影響清教思想在英格蘭和美國。

The dominant Reformed scholastics, however, were Beza, Vermigli, Adrianus Heerebout, and, most importantly, Francis Turretin (1623 - 87).佔主導地位的改革scholastics然而, Beza , Vermigli , Adrianus Heerebout ,最重要的是,弗朗西斯Turretin ( 1623年至1687年) 。 Turretin's Institutio became the standard work for modern Protestant scholastics, as it was used as a textbook to shape the modern Princeton Theology. Turretin的Institutio成為標準工作的現代新教scholastics ,因為它被用來作為一本教科書,以塑造現代普林斯頓大學神學。 Reformed scholasticism in this tradition led to what is generally labeled Calvinist orthodoxy.改革院這一傳統導致人們普遍標示加爾文主義的正統。

The theology of this branch of Protestant scholasticism was, as in the case of Gerhard, dependent on scriptural evidences and Aristotelian logic.神學本部門的新教院是,如總理,依賴於聖經的證據和亞里士多德的邏輯。 The Reformed scholastics concentrated for the most part on questions evolving from predestination, and thus produced a rather rigid Calvinism.改革scholastics集中的大部分問題上不斷從命,從而產生了相當僵硬的加爾文主義。 At the same time, the movement was amenable to the use of reason, thus allowing the Reformed to adapt to modern rationalist and Enlightenment philosophy quite easily.與此同時,該運動是服從使用的原因,從而使改革,以適應現代理性和啟蒙哲學很容易。 Noteworthy in this regard is the rather easy accommodation of philosophy and thelogy in the Scottish Enlightenment.值得注意的在這方面是比較容易的住宿哲學thelogy在蘇格蘭啟蒙運動。 The impact of Protestant scholasticism's methods and outlook was threefold: it created a systematic, well - defined, and aggressive Protestant theology; it led to a reaction by those who emphasized the emotional character of Christian piety; and it encouraged accommodation to early modern philosophy.影響的新教院的方法和前景三個方面:它建立了一個系統,以及-界定,並積極新教神學,它導致了反應,強調這些誰的情緒性質的基督教虔誠;並鼓勵住宿早期現代哲學。

RJ Vandermolen雷諾范德莫倫
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
B Armstrong, Calvinism and the Amyraut Heresy; JW Beardslee, III, ed.乙阿姆斯特朗,加爾文主義和Amyraut異端;京華比爾茲利,三,編輯。 and tr., Reformed Dogmatics; JP Donnelly, "Italian Influences on the Development of Calvinist Scholasticism," SCJ 7:81 - 101; JH Leith, An Introduction to the Reformed Tradition; NCE, III; O Grundler, "The Influence of Thomas Aquinas upon the Theology of G Zanchi," in Studies in Medieval Culture; B Hall, "Calvin Against the Calvinists," in John Calvin, ed.和文。 ,歸正教義學;太平紳士納利, “意大利影響發展的加爾文主義士林” , SCJ 7:81 -1 01;華雷斯,介紹改革傳統;競爭性考試,三; ö G rundler說: “托馬斯的影響阿奎那的神學的G贊基, “在研究中世紀文化;乙大廳, ”卡爾文反對加爾文教派“ ,在約翰凱爾文版。 GE Duffield; PO Kristeller, Renaissance Thought: The Classic, Scholastic, and Humanist Strains; R Scharlemann, Aquinas and Gerhard: Theological Controversy and Construction in Medieval and Protestant Scholasticism.葛杜菲爾德;婆克里斯特勒,文藝復興時期的思想:經典,學術和人文株; R Scharlemann ,阿奎那和總理:神之爭和建設中的中世紀和新教士林。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在