Reformed Churches歸正會

General Information 一般信息

The Reformed churches, which originally used this designation to distinguish themselves from the "unreformed" Roman Catholic church, are those denominations of Protestants which are Calvinistic in theology and usually Presbyterian in church organization. They trace their origin to the reforming work in Zurich of Ulrich Zwingli and in Geneva of John Calvin .改革教會,原先使用這種指定來區分自己的“未經”羅馬天主教教堂, 是面額的新教徒這是加爾文神學,通常長老教會組織。他們追查其來源的改革工作在蘇黎世的烏爾里希茨溫利和在日內瓦的約翰卡爾文

The Reformed perspective spread rapidly to Germany, France, Holland, Hungary, Bohemia, and elsewhere on the Continent.改革的角度迅速蔓延到德國,法國,荷蘭,匈牙利,捷克,和其他的大陸。 In the British Isles, its principles shaped the Church of Scotland and influenced the Church of England, especially through Puritanism.在不列顛群島,其原則塑造了教會的蘇格蘭和影響了英格蘭教會,特別是通過清教。 The Presbyterians constitute the largest Reformed bodies in America.長老組成的最大的改革機構在美國。 Active Reformed churches are found worldwide where European settlers have migrated (as in South Africa).主動歸正會發現在世界範圍內歐洲定居者遷移(如南非) 。 Since 1877 a World Alliance of Reformed Churches has provided a forum for discussion and consultation.自1877年世界歸正會聯誼會提供了一個論壇,討論和協商。

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Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾


Reformed Church in America歸正會在美國

General Information 一般信息

The Reformed Church in America is a Protestant denomination with roots in Dutch Calvinism . 改革教會在美國是一個新教教派與植根於荷蘭的加爾文主義 In 1989 it numbered nearly 337,408 members in more than 963 churches, with its greatest strength in the Middle Atlantic states, Michigan, and Iowa. By 1628, Dutch settlers had established a church in New Amsterdam (now New York City).在1989年編號為337408的成員幾乎超過963教堂,其最大的優勢在中東大西洋州,密歇根州和愛荷華州。通過1628年,荷蘭定居者建立了一個教堂的新阿姆斯特丹(現在的紐約市) 。 This and other American churches were directed from Amsterdam until the 18th century when, under the influence of revivalist Theodore Jacob Frelinghuysen (1691 - 1747), an American body was formed (1748).這和其他美國的教堂是針對從阿姆斯特丹到18世紀時的影響下,復興西奧多雅各布弗里林海森( 1691年至1747年) ,美國的機構成立( 1748年) 。 Difficulties between this group and others loyal to the Dutch body were eventually resolved (1771) through the efforts of John Henry Livingston (1746 - 1825), an influential leader at Queens College (now Rutgers University), New Brunswick, NJ , which had been founded by the Dutch Reformed.困難群體之間和其他忠於荷蘭機構的最終解決( 1771年)的努力約翰亨利利文斯頓( 1746年至1825年) ,一個有影響力的領導人在皇后學院(現拉特格斯大學) ,新不倫瑞克,新澤西州,這是成立由荷蘭歸正。 The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church adopted a new constitution in 1792; in 1867 it changed its name to the Reformed Church in America.改革荷蘭新教教會通過了一部新憲法於1792年,在1867年它改名為歸正教會在美國。

The denomination's doctrinal standards are the Belgic Confession (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the canons of the Synod of Dort (1619). 該教派的理論標準是比利時信條( 1561 ) ,海德堡問答( 1563年)和大砲的世界主教會議的多特( 1619 ) 。 Its organization is essentially Presbyterian. It is somewhat closer to mainline Protestant bodies than a sister denomination of Dutch Calvinists, the Christian Reformed Church. 其組織基本上是長老會。有點接近主新教機構比妹妹面額荷蘭加爾文教派,基督教歸正會。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾

Bibliography 目錄
GF De Jong, The Dutch Reformed Church in The American Colonies (1978); FJ Hood, Reformed America (1980); JW Van Hoeven, ed., Piety and Patriotism: Bicentennial Studies of the Reformed Church in America, 1776 - 1976 (1976).石墨德容,荷蘭改革教會在美國的殖民地( 1978年) ;福建遮光罩,歸正美國( 1980年) ;京華範胡芬,編輯。 ,孝與愛國主義:二百週年紀念研究歸正教會在美國, 1776年至76年( 1976年) 。


The Reformed Tradition改革傳統

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term "Reformed" is used to distinguish the Calvinistic from the Lutheran and Anabaptist traditions . 所謂“改革”是用來區分加爾文從路德和再洗禮派的傳統。 The Reformed tradition finds its roots in the theology of Ulrich Zwingli , the first reformer in Zurich, and John Calvin of Geneva, who in his biblical commentaries, his pamphlets, but especially in the Institutes of the Christian Religion, developed a Protestant theology. Calvin's teachings have been followed by many different individuals and groups who came out of the Reformation down to the present day, but they have not always followed exactly the same line of thinking or development .改革傳統認為其根源神學烏爾里希茨溫利 ,第一次在蘇黎世的改革者約翰加爾文的日內瓦,誰在他的聖經評注,他的小冊子,尤其是在研究所的基督教,新教制定了神學。 卡爾文的教義已其次是許多不同的個人和團體誰出來改革下降到目前的一天,但他們並不總是遵循完全相同的思路或發展。 Thus in the Reformed tradition Calvinists, while basically agreeing and resembling each other in many ways, have certain differences produced by historical and even geographical circumstances.因此,在改革傳統的加爾文教派,而基本上同意,並彼此相似在許多方面,有一定的差異產生的歷史和地理情況。 These differences have resulted in a number of what might be called lines or strains in the tradition.這些差異導致了一些可稱之為線或品系的傳統。

The Reformation and the Reformed Tradition改革和改造傳統

The first line of development in the Reformed tradition was that which has been common to northwest Europe, Switzerland, France, Holland, Germany, and has also had an influence to the east in Hungary and to the south in the Waldensian church in Italy.第一行的發展,改革傳統的是,已共同向西北歐洲,瑞士,法國,荷蘭,德國,也產生了影響,在匈牙利東部和南部的Waldensian教堂在意大利。 The Reformed churches in the first - named areas were very active in producing the early confessions of faith and catechisms still held as doctrinal standards in many of the churches.改革教會的第一-命名領域十分活躍在生產早招供的信念和c atechisms仍然舉行理論標準,在許多教堂。 Calvin drew up the first Reformed catechism in 1537 and rewrote it in 1541.卡爾文制定了第一次改革在1537年理和改寫它在1541年。 This work was translated into a number of different languages and was widely influential.這項工作被翻譯成多種不同的語言和廣泛影響力。 Even more important was the Heidelberg Confession of 1563, which is still a standard confessional document in most European Reformed churches.更重要的是,海德堡的自白1563年,這仍然是一個標準的懺悔文件在大多數歐洲歸正教會。 The Helvetic Confessions (1536, 1566), the Gallic Confession (1559), and the Belgic Confession (1561) also set forth a Calvinistic doctrinal position.該海爾維第自白( 1536 , 1566 ) ,沒食子供認了( 1559 ) ,以及比利時信條( 1561 )也提出了加爾文教義的立場。

Across the channel in the British Isles, Calvinism was a dominant influence in the Reformation.在整個渠道中的不列顛群島,加爾文主義是一個主要影響的改革。 While the Church of England was obliged by Queen Elizabeth to retain a quasi - Romanist liturgy and form of government, Calvinism was the underlying theology as expressed in the Thirty - nine Articles (1563), which were a rewritten version of Archbishop Cranmer's earlier Forty - two Articles (1553).雖然英格蘭教會不得不由英國女王伊麗莎白保留一個準-R omanist禮儀和形式的政府,是加爾文主義的基本神學中所表達的3 0- 9條( 1 5 63年) ,這是一個改寫版本的大主教克蘭麥早先的4 0 -兩篇文章( 1553年) 。 Calvin's Institutes also provided English theological students with their basic theological instruction into the seventeenth century.卡爾文的院校還提供英文神學學生,他們的基本神學教育到17世紀。 The Puritans, consisting of Independents and Presbyterians and more consistently Calvinistic, sought to have all traces of Roman Catholicism eliminated from the Established Church. At the same time a considerable number of Protestants influenced by Anabaptism, while accepting adult baptism as the only proper method of administering the sacrament, also accepted most Reformed doctrines.清教徒組成的獨立和長老和更一致加爾文,力求使所有的痕跡羅馬天主教取消了成立會。 與此同時,有相當數量的新教徒Anabaptism的影響,而接受成人洗禮的唯一正確方法管理聖禮,也接受了最歸正理論。 Because of their belief in the doctrine of predestination they were known as "Particular" Baptists, as distinguished from the "Freewill" Baptists who rejected the doctrine. 由於他們的信仰學說的命,他們被稱為“特殊”浸信會,因為有別於“自由意志”浸禮會拒絕誰的理論。

These nonconformist groups were responsible for the drawing up of the Westminister Confession of Faith, catechisms, Form of Church Government, and Directory of Worship, which have become the standards of all English - speaking Presbyterian churches.這些異己組,負責起草威斯敏斯特信條, catechisms ,形式教會政府和目錄的崇拜,這已成為標準的所有英語-講長老教會。 The Presbyterian church in Scotland, the Church of Scotland, which had originally used the Scots Confession (1560) and the Genevan Catechism, adopted the Westminister standards in 1647, after the English Parliament, dominated by the Independents, had refused to agree to their becoming the standards of the Church of England.長老教會在蘇格蘭,蘇格蘭教會,原先使用的蘇格蘭信條( 1560年)和Genevan問答,通過威斯敏斯特1647標準後,英格蘭議會,主要由獨立,拒絕同意他們成為標準的英格蘭教會。

The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries第十七和十八世紀

In the European and British colonies throughout the world Reformed and Presbyterian churches from the late seventeenth century on were founded by the colonists who emigrated to Massachusetts, New York, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and other places.在歐洲和英國殖民地世界各地的改革和長老教會從17世紀後期就成立了由殖民者誰移民到麻薩諸塞州,紐約州,南非,澳大利亞,新西蘭,和其他地方。 Although they often received little support from the home churches, at least at first, they nevertheless developed churches of their own, usually following the doctrinal, liturgical, and governmental traditions of the ecclesiastical background from which they had come.雖然他們往往很少得到支持,家庭教會,至少在第一,但它們開發教堂自己的,通常是以下的理論,禮儀,政府傳統的宗教背景,他們已經成熟。 Most Presbyterian churches accept the Westminister documents as their subordinate standards, while those in the European Reformed tradition hold to the confessions and catechisms of the bodies from which they came.大多數長老教會接受西敏寺文件作為其下屬的標準,而那些在歐洲舉行改革傳統的口供,並catechisms的機構從他們來了。

The history of the Reformed tradition has been by no means peaceful or noncontroversial.的歷史傳統,改革已絕非和平或noncontroversial 。 Problems have arisen at times that have required those holding to the Reformed position to reexamine and defend their basic beliefs.出現了一些問題,有時是需要那些持有的改革立場重新審視和捍衛自己的基本信仰。 One of the best examples and most influential developments was that which began with Dutch theologian James Arminius, who rejected Calvin's doctrines of grace.一個最好的例子和最有影響力的事態發展是,開始與荷蘭神學家詹姆斯亞米紐斯,誰反對加爾文的學說的寬限期。 In 1610 his followers set forth a Remonstrance against those opposing them, bringing the matter to a head.在1610年他的追隨者提出了抗辯對那些反對他們,使此事負責。

The outcome was a synod held at Dordrecht in the Netherlands in 1618, made up of theologians from a number of countries, who condemned the Arminian teachings, asserting (1) the total depravity of man; (2) unconditional divine election; (3) that Christ's atonement was limited to the elect; (4) that divine grace is irresistible; and (5) the perseverance of the elect until the end. The Arminians were forced out of the Reformed church, but established their own bodies, and have had a wide influence, forming the basis for Wesleyan Methodism and other non - and anti - Reformed Christian groups. The Canons of the Synod of Dort are one of the Three Forms of Unity, the doctrinal standards of most Dutch Reformed churches, the other two being the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism.其結果是一個主教舉行了多德雷赫特在荷蘭舉行的1618年,由神學從一些國家,誰譴責Arminian教義,主張( 1 )的總墮落的人; ( 2 )無條件神聖的選舉; ( 3 )基督的贖罪是有限的選舉; ( 4 )神的恩典是不可抗拒的; ( 5 )鍥而不捨的選舉結束為止。的阿敏念派被迫離開教堂的改革,而是建立自己的機構,並已廣泛的影響力,形成了基礎循道衛理公會和其他非-反-歸正基督教團體。該規例的主教的多特是一個三種形式的統一的理論標準的最荷蘭改革教會,其他兩個正在在比利時信條和海德堡問答。

In England and Scotland a somewhat different conflict took place.在英格蘭和蘇格蘭略有不同發生衝突。 In the Puritans' attempts to bring about a complete reform of the Church of England, they found themselves opposed by Elizabeth and her two successors, James I and Charles I. Influential in Parliament, they were able to oppose the monarchy, but eventually this led to war.在清教徒的企圖,以實現全面改革英格蘭教會,他們發現自己反對的伊麗莎白和她的兩個繼任者,詹姆斯一世和查爾斯一,在議會中的影響,他們能夠反對君主制,但最終這導致戰爭。 The actual cause or starting point of the war was in Scotland, where Charles I sought to force episcopacy upon the Presbyterians.實際的原因或出發點的戰爭是在蘇格蘭,查爾斯一世在尋求力量的主教長老。 They resisted, and when Charles sought to raise an army in England the Puritans in Parliament made such demands upon him that he attempted to overawe them by force.他們抵制,當查爾斯設法提高軍隊在英格蘭的清教徒在議會作出這樣的要求他說,他試圖嚇住他們的力量。 He was defeated, captured, and executed by the Parliament in 1649.他被打敗,捕獲和執行的議會在1649年。

For the next nine years Cromwell ruled the country, but shortly after his death Charles II, Charles I's son, ascended the throne and sought to follow his father's policies in both England and Scotland. Although the Puritans in England were forced to submit, the Scots by taking up arms against Charles carried on a type of guerrilla warfare.在接下來的9年克倫威爾統治的國家,但之後不久去世查爾斯二世,查爾斯一世的兒子,登基,並試圖按照他父親的政策,在英格蘭和蘇格蘭。雖然在英國清教徒被迫提出,蘇格蘭人拿起武器反對查爾斯進行的一種游擊戰。 The Covenanters, so called because they had covenanted together to defend the "Crown Rights of Jesus Christ," continued their opposition when Charles's brother James, a Roman Catholic, became king, and did not lay down their arms until James was forced off the British throne and was succeeded by William, Prince of Orange, in 1688.該盟約,所謂的,因為他們covenanted一起捍衛“官方權利耶穌基督” ,他們反對繼續當查爾斯的弟弟詹姆斯,一位羅馬天主教,成為國王,並沒有放下武器,直到詹姆斯被迫離開英國王位,並成功地由威廉王子奧蘭治,在1688年。

While the Reformed tradition has had its conflicts, it also has had a very positive influence in the world.雖然改革了傳統的衝突,但它也有非常積極的影響在世界上。 In the eighteenth century it was one of the principal centers of the evangelical revival.早在十八世紀是一個主要中心福音的復興。 In Scotland the movement had begun by 1700 through the influence of Thomas Boston and the Marrow Men, so called because they had been greatly influenced by the Puritan work The Marrow of Modern Divinity.在蘇格蘭的行動已經開始了1700年通過的影響,波士頓和托馬斯的骨髓男人,所謂的,因為他們已經極大地影響了清教徒的工作骨髓現代神。 The revival associated with the work of this group eventually merged with the Evangelical revival in England through the influence of George Whitefield.恢復與該工作組的工作最終合併福音復興在英格蘭通過的影響,喬治Whitefield的。 At the same time in the American colonies Jonathan Edwards was involved in the Great Awakening, which was again linked to the English movement through Whitefield.在同一時間在美國的殖民地喬納森愛德華茲參加了大覺醒,這是一次關係到英語通過Whitefield的運動。 In all these cases Calvinistic theology was the underlying influence.在所有這些情況加爾文神學是根本的影響。

The Reformed Tradition in Recent Times改革傳統的近代

The revival of evangelical preaching and power did not stop there, for through Scottish influence it was carried to Europe in 1818, when Robert Haldane visited Switzerland on an evangelistic tour.復興福音傳教和權力並未止步於此,對蘇格蘭的影響力通過它運到歐洲的1818年,當羅伯特霍爾丹訪問了瑞士旅遊的一個福音。 He greatly influenced such men as Cesar Malan and Merle d'Aubigne, and through them the Evangelical revival spread to other parts of Europe.他影響很大,例如男子塞薩爾馬蘭和默爾德Aubigne ,並通過他們的福音復興蔓延到歐洲其他地區。 In Holland it had a particularly strong impact, resulting in the labors of Groen van Prinsterer, Herman Bavinck, and Abraham Kuyper.在荷蘭它有一個特別強烈的影響,導致勞動力的Groen麵包車Prinsterer ,赫爾曼Bavinck ,和亞伯拉罕Kuyper 。 Kuyper was the founder of the Free University of Amsterdam, the leader of the movement that separated from the state church to form the Gereformeerde Kerk, and in 1901, as leader of the Anti - Revolutionary Party, became prime minister. Kuyper是創始人阿姆斯特丹自由大學的領導者的運動,脫離國家教會,形成Gereformeerde鎮,並於1901年,作為領導人的反-革命黨,出任總理。 As a result of Kuyper's work a revival of Calvinism took place not only in ecclesiastical circles but in many other aspects of Dutch life, which have had an influence far beyond Holland.由於Kuyper的工作恢復了加爾文主義不僅在教會界,但在很多其他方面的荷蘭人的生活,這已影響遠遠超出了荷蘭。

In the British Isles the same Reformed tradition was bearing similar fruit.在不列顛群島同改造傳統軸承類似的成果。 One of the most important ecclesiastical events was the exodus of a large part of the Church of Scotland to form the Free Church of Scotland.其中最重要的宗教活動是外流的很大一部分教會的蘇格蘭形式的自由教會的蘇格蘭。 Although the immediate cause was the opposition to the right of patrons to impose ministers on congregations, fundamentally the cause was the fact that the Church of Scotland had largely given up its Reformed position, and those who wished to maintain it insisted that they must be free to choose their own ministers.雖然直接原因是反對的權利,顧客強加部長聚會,根本的原因是,該教會的蘇格蘭已基本放棄了改革的立場,和那些誰希望保持它堅持認為,他們必須是自由選擇自己的部長。 When this was denied, they withdrew and formed their own denomination.當這個被剝奪,他們退席,並形成自己的面額。 But it was not just in the ecclesiastical sphere that those of Reformed persuasion took action.但它不僅是在教會,這些領域的改革勸說採取行動。

The Industrial Revolution in Britain had caused great changes, with widespread exploitation of the workers.在英國工業革命造成了巨大的變化,廣泛剝削的工人。 To counteract this men such as Anthony Ashley Cooper, the Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury in England, the Rev. Thomas Chalmers in Scotland, and others worked to have laws passed to protect factory hands, miners, and those with physical disabilities.為了遏制這一男性,如安東尼阿什利庫珀,第七屆沙夫茨伯里伯爵在英國牧師托馬斯查默斯在蘇格蘭,和其他工作已經通過的法律來保護工廠的手,礦工,和那些身體殘疾。 Many of these leaders were strong Calvinists, and later in the century many with the same Christian views sat in the British Parliament and were responsible for other laws to ameliorate the condition of the working classes.許多這些領導人強烈加爾文教派,後來又在新的世紀中許多相同的看法坐在基督教在英國議會,並負責對其他法律,以改善條件的工人階級。

This Reformed practice of social and political involvement was carried to America, where those in the Reformed tradition have taken a considerable part in such matters.這種改革的做法,社會和政治參與進行,以美國,那些在改革傳統已經採取了相當一部分此類問題。 Many in the Presbyterian and Reformed churches were participants in the movement to abolish slavery, and more recently have been prominent in civil rights and similar movements.許多長老和歸正教會參加運動,廢除奴隸制,以及最近已十分突出,公民權利和類似的運動。 Unfortunately in South Africa the Reformed tradition has been involved in support of racial apartheid policies and their application, but this is changing as some of the Reformed elements within the country and Reformed churches outside, through agencies such as the Reformed Ecumenical Synod, are putting pressure on South African churches to change their attitudes toward the government's policies.不幸的是在南非傳統的改革一直參與,支持種族歧視和種族隔離政策的適用,但這一情況正在改變,因為一些改革內容在該國境內和境外歸正會,通過機構,如歸正基督教主教會議,是施加壓力南非教會改變自己的態度,政府的政策。

The Reformed tradition has always been strongly in favor of the education of church members.改革傳統一直大力支持教育的教會成員。 Calvin's insistence upon catechetical training of the young, and his establishment of what is now the University of Geneva, was imitated in Scotland by John Knox in the educational provisions in the First Book of Discipline, in the Netherlands by the establishment of such institutions as the University of Leiden, and in France by the founding of various seminaries.卡爾文堅持培訓後問答的年輕人,他成立了現在日內瓦大學,是模仿在蘇格蘭的約翰諾克斯在教育規定的第一本書的紀律,在荷蘭的設立等機構萊頓大學,並在法國成立的各種修院。 Similarly in America this educational tradition was responsible for the founding of universities such as Harvard and Yale.同樣在美國教育傳統,負責成立的大學,如哈佛大學和耶魯大學。 In more recent years Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, Redeemer College in Hamilton, Ontario, and similar institutions indicate that Reformed tradition in education is still functioning and is fulfilling an important part in developing an educated, Christian citizenry.近年來卡爾文學院密西根州的大急流城,救世主哈密爾頓學院安大略省及類似機構表明,改革傳統的教育仍然是運作和正在履行的重要組成部分,發展教育,基督教的公民。

During the latter part of the nineteenth and throughout the twentieth centuries, there has been a growing stress upon the importance of Christian scholarship.在後者的一部分,第十九和整個二十世紀,出現了越來越大的壓力的重要性基督教獎學金。 Although there had always been Reformed scholars, Abraham Kuyper stimulated a strong interest in this field, which was followed in other countries.雖然一直是改革的學者,亞伯拉罕Kuyper刺激了濃厚的興趣在這一領域,隨後在其他國家。 Outstanding modern scholars include Herman Dooyeweerd, DH Th Vollenhoven, JH Bavinck, and others in the Netherlands, particularly in the Free University of Amsterdam; James Orr in Scotland; J Gresham Machen and Cornelius Van Til in the United States; Pierre Marcel in France; and many others who have devoted themselves to developing a Reformed approach in many learned fields.現代傑出的學者包括赫爾曼Dooyeweerd ,衛生署釷Vollenhoven ,紅Bavinck ,以及其他在荷蘭,尤其是在阿姆斯特丹自由大學;詹姆斯奧爾在蘇格蘭; J格雷欣麥和科尼利厄斯範直到在美國馬塞爾皮埃爾在法國;和許多其他誰也投身改革發展的辦法在許多領域的經驗教訓。

From 1850 another noticeable development has been the endeavors of the various Reformed and Presbyterian churches to cooperate in many ways.從1850年另一個值得注意的發展一直是努力的各種改革和長老教會合作,在許多方面。 In 1875 the World Alliance of Reformed Churches holding the Presbyterian system was organized, and still continues.在1875年的世界歸正會聯誼會舉行長老會制度是有組織的,而且仍在繼續。 As some of the churches in the alliance, however, have drifted away from a truly Reformed theological position, as evidenced by new confessions and practices which do not seem to be Reformed, a number of Reformed denominations, particularly recently formed bodies, have refused to join the WAR C.由於一些教堂的同盟,然而,漂流距離一個真正的歸正神學的立場,證明了新的供詞和做法似乎不進行改革,一些改革教派,特別是最近成立的機構,已拒絕加入戰爭角

As a result in the 1960s a new body, the Reformed Ecumenical Synod, was established to ensure that a fully Reformed witness would be maintained.由於在上世紀60年代一個新的機構,改革基督教主教會議,成立,以確保全面改革的證人將保持不變。 Just prior to this some nonecclesiastical organizations had come into being.只要在此之前的一些nonecclesiastical組織應運而生。 In 1953 at Montpellier, France, under the leadership of Pierre Marcel, the International Association for Reformed Faith and Action was founded, and in the United States more recently the National Association of Presbyterian and Reformed Churches was organized. 1953年在法國蒙彼利埃的領導下,皮埃爾馬塞爾國際協會的改革信念和行動成立,並在美國最近的全國協會的長老和歸正會是有組織的。 In this way Reformed Christians are increasingly working together to set forth the gospel to the world. The outcome is that the Reformed tradition is exercising an influence not only in the Western world, but even at times more powerfully in such places as South Korea, Indonesia, India, and Africa.通過這種方式改制基督徒越來越多共同努力,提出了福音的世界。結果是,改革傳統的行使影響力不僅在西方世界,但有時甚至更有力地在這些地方的韓國,印度尼西亞,印度和非洲。

The Reformed tradition has formed an important part of Western culture, influencing many different aspects of thought and life. Gradually, however, much of its contribution has been secularized, the religious roots being discarded and rejected.改革傳統的一個重要組成部分西方文化,影響許多不同方面的思想和生活。漸漸地,然而,它的許多貢獻已經世俗化,宗教根源被丟棄和拒絕。 One cannot help wondering, therefore, if the condition of the Western world today is not the result of this rejection, with selfcenteredness taking the place of doing all things "to the glory of God."人們不禁要問,因此,如果條件西方世界今天是不是由於這種排斥反應,與selfcenteredness取代盡一切事情“的榮耀上帝。 ”

WS Reid里德是
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
J Bratt, ed., The Heritage of John Calvin; WS Reid, ed., John Calvin: His influence in the Western World; WF Graham, The Constructive Revolutionary; JT McNeil, The History and Character of Calvinism. J布拉特,編輯。 ,傳統的約翰卡爾文;是里德,編輯。 ,約翰加爾文:他的影響力,西方世界;海傍格雷厄姆,建設性的革命;里克奇麥克尼爾,歷史和特性的加爾文主義。


Reformed Churches歸正會

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The name given to Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin.指定的名稱新教機構通過的信條茨溫利,以及後來的理論原則卡爾文。 This distinctive title originated in 1561 at the colloquy of Poissy.這個獨特的名稱起源於1561年在座談會的普瓦西。 Initiated in Switzerland, the movement from which the Churches sprang gained ground at an early date in France, some German states, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Hungary, and Poland.在瑞士開始,該運動從興起教會上漲早日在法國,德國的一些州,荷蘭,英格蘭,蘇格蘭,匈牙利和波蘭。 Later, emigration and colonization secured a still wider diffusion of the Calvinistic system.後來,移民和殖民統治獲得了更廣泛的傳播仍然在加爾文系統。 Some of the denominations which adopted it go today under a special name, eg Presbyterianism: they receive separate treatment in this work.一些教派通過它今天去下一個特別的名字,如長老:他們獲得單獨處理這方面的工作。 Others became national churches and are mentioned under the name of the country in which they exist.成為其他國家的教堂和提到的名義在哪個國家存在的問題。 (See ZWINGLIANISM; CALVINISM; REFORMATION; ARMINIANISM; HOLLAND; NETHERLANDS; HUGUENOTS; SCOTLAND; etc.). (見ZWINGLIANISM ;加爾文主義;改造;亞米紐斯主義;荷蘭,荷蘭;胡格諾派;蘇格蘭;等) 。 The following bodies are here considered:下列機構在這裡考慮:

I. THE REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH IN AMERICA一,改革(荷蘭)在美國教會

(1) Name, Doctrinal Standards, and Organization ( 1 )名稱,教義標準,並組織

The denomination known as "The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in North America" until 1867, when the present name was adopted, asserts with Protestants generally the sole sufficiency of the Scriptures as a rule of faith.該教派被稱為“荷蘭改革教會新教在北美, ”直到1867年,當目前的名稱被通過,聲稱與新教徒一般的唯一足夠的聖經作為一個法治的信心。 Its recognized theological standards are the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds, the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort.其公認的神學標準是使徒,尼西亞,並Athanasian信仰,在比利時信條,海德堡問答,並規的世界主教會議的多特。 It believes in the spiritual reception of Jesus Christ by the believer in the Lord's Supper, and also accepts the distinctively Calvinistic doctrine of a limited election to salvation.它認為在精神接待耶穌基督的信徒在上帝的晚餐,而且還接受了鮮明加爾文學說有限當選為救國。 The liturgy is characterized by great simplicity; its forms are optional, except in the administration of the sacraments.該禮儀的特點是非常簡單,其形式是可選的,但在管理聖禮。 In policy, the Church is Presbyterian; the constitution recognizes four kinds of officers: ministers of the word, professors of theology, elders, and deacons.在政策,是長老教會的憲法確認四種人員:部長的一句話,教授神學,長老,和執事。 The elders exerecise spiritual functions and the deacons are in charge of temporal interests.長老exerecise精神職能和執事負責顳利益。 At the head of individual congregations is the Consistory, which is composed of minister, elders, and deacons.在頭部的個人教區是一致性,這是組成的部長,長老,和執事。 The authority over a district is vested in the Classis which is itself under the jurisdiction of the Particular Synod.在權力的地區是由賽本身就是管轄下的特別會議。 The General Synod exercises supreme control in the Church.總議會行使最高控制的教會。 The elders and deacons are elected to office for two years, after which they may be re-elected.長老和執事當選為任期兩年,之後他們可連選連任。 Former elders and deacons may be called together for consultation in what is known as the "Great Consistory".前長老和執事可稱為共同協商,所謂的“偉大的一致性” 。 The other Reformed Churches especially treated in this article are similarly constituted and organized.其他歸正會特別對待這篇文章中的類似的構成和組織。

(2) History ( 2 )歷史

The Dutch Reformed Church was organized among settlers from Holland in New York City in 1628 by Rev. Jonas Michaelius.荷蘭改革教會間舉辦了來自荷蘭定居在紐約市1628年的修訂版Michaelius文。 Fifty communicants were present at the first celebration of the Lord's Supper. 50聖餐出席了第一次慶祝上帝的晚餐。 When, in 1664, the colony passed from Dutch into English hands, 11 Reformed churches, with an approximate membership of 10,000 souls, existed in the country; they were all situated in New York and neighbouring states.當在1664年,通過殖民地從荷蘭到英國手中, 11歸正教會,有近似的成員10000靈魂,存在於該國;他們都坐落在紐約和鄰近國家。 By the terms of surrender the Dutch were granted "the liberty of their consciences in divine worship and in church discipline".的條款,荷蘭投降獲得“自由他們的良知在神聖的崇拜和教會的紀律” 。 During the first decade of English occupation this provision was faithfully observed. Later, however, the governors sought to impose English ecclesiastical customs upon their Dutch subjects, in consequence of which much bitterness was engendered, and a prolonged struggle ensued.在第一個十年的英文佔領這一規定是忠實地遵守。然而,後來省長試圖強加英語教會海關在其荷蘭的科目,因此,其中大部分是產生怨恨,並長期糾纏。 In spite of this unfavourable circumstance and the cessation of Dutch immigration, the number of churches, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, had increased to thirty-four.儘管這種不利的情況下,停止荷蘭移民,一些教堂,開始的時候,十八世紀,已增加到34 。 They were under the jurisdiction of the Classis of Amsterdam.他們管轄下的阿姆斯特丹賽。 In 1738 a petition for the authorization of a cœtus, or ecclesiastical assembly, was sent to that body.在1738年申請授權的cœtus ,或宗教集會,被送到該機構。 But it was only after nine years that a favourable reply was received.但是,只是九年之後,一個有利的答复。 This was the first step towards independence, which was completely realized in 1755 by the authorized formation of a classis.這是第一步的獨立性,這是完全實現了1755年的授權成立一個賽。 This action of some members of the cœtus led to protracted strife, which was to be healed by the plan of union submitted by the Rev. JH Livingston in 1771 and accepted by the Amsterdam Dutch churches and the Classis of Amsterdam.這一行動的一些成員cœtus導致曠日持久的紛爭,這是癒合的計劃,工會提出的牧師家利文斯頓在1771年並接受了荷蘭阿姆斯特丹教會和阿姆斯特丹賽。 After the troublous times of the Revolution, the internal organization was further perfected in 1792 by the adoption of a constitution, which provided for a General Synod.在安靜的時間,革命,內部組織結構得到進一步完善,於1792年通過了憲法,規定了宗教大會。 In 1794, this synod met for the first time; it held triennial sessions until 1812, and then became an annual and representative body.在1794年,這個主教舉行了第一次;舉行了三年一次的會議,直到1812年,然後成為一個年度報告和代表性的機構。 A period of increased prosperity opened for the denomination in 1846, when numerous Hollanders settled in the Middle West and connected themselves with the church.一段時間的日益繁榮開放的面額於1846年,當許多Hollanders定居在中東地區並連接自己的教堂。 In 1910 the Dutch Reformed Church numbered 728 ministers, 684 churches, and 116,815 communicants (statistics of Dr. Carroll in the "Christian Advocate", New York, 26 Jan., 1911; this statistical authority is cited throughout for the United States).在1910年的荷蘭改革教會編號為728的部長, 684教堂和116815聖餐(統計博士卡羅爾在“基督教主張” ,紐約, 1911年1月26日,這是權威的統計指出整個美國) 。 Through the emigration just referred to, the Christian Reformed Church was also transplanted to America.通過移民剛才提到,基督教歸正教會也移植到美國。 This denomination was organized in Holland (1835) as a protest against the rationalistic tendencies of the State Church.這是有組織的面額在荷蘭( 1835年) ,作為抗議理性主義傾向的國家教會。 To it were joined in the United States in 1890 the diminishing members of the True Reformed Church, a body organized in 1822 by several clergymen.它加入美國在1890年的減少成員的真實歸正會,該機構於1822年舉辦的幾個神職人員。 It numbers today 138 ministers, 189 churches, 29,006 communicants.今天這138多部長, 189個教堂, 29006聖餐。

(3) Educational Institutions and Missionary Activity ( 3 )教育機構和傳教活動

Some of the educational institutions controlled by the Church were established at a very early date.一些教育機構所控制的教會,建立在一個非常早日實現。 Rutgers College was founded in 1770 under the name of Queen's College at New Brunswick, New Jersey, where a theological seminary was also established in 1784.羅格斯大學成立於1770的名義下皇仁書院在新不倫瑞克,新澤西州,在神學院還設立了1784 。 At Holland, Michigan, Hope College was founded in 1866, and the Western Theological Seminary in 1867.在荷蘭,密歇根州,希望學院成立於1866年,與西方神學院於1867年。 A board of education organized by private persons in 1828 was taken over by the General Synod in 1831; it extends financial assistance to needy students for the ministry.董事會的教育組織由私人在1828年接管了總議會在1831年,它提供財政援助,以貧困學生為內政部。 A "Disabled Ministers' Fund" grants similar aid to clergymen, and a "Widows' Fund" to their wives.一個“殘疾人部長會議基金”類似的援助贈款,以神職人員,和一個“寡婦基金” ,他們的妻子。 A Board of Publication has been in operation since 1855.董事會出版以來一直在運作1855年。 The proselytizing activity of the Church is not confined to America; a Board of Foreign Missions established in 1832 was supplemented in 1875 by a Woman's Auxiliary Board.在傳教活動,教會並不局限於美國;一個董事會的外國使團成立於1832年進行了補充於1875年由一個女人的輔助局。 The Church maintains stations at Amoy, China, in the districts of Arcot and Madura, India, in Japan, and Arabia.教會保持在廈門站,中國在地區和馬都拉Arcot ,印度,在日本和沙特阿拉伯。

II.二。 THE REFORMED (GERMAN) CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES改革(德國)教會在美國

This church was founded by immigrants from the Palatinate and other German districts of the Reformed faith.這教堂是由移民普法和德國其他地區的改革信念。 Its history begins with the German immigration of the last quarter of the seventeenth century.其歷史始於德國移民的最後一個季度的17世紀。 Among its early ministers were Philip Boehm and George M. Weiss, whose fame is eclipsed, however, by that of the real organizer of the Church, Michael Schlatter.在其早期部長菲利普貝姆和喬治先生魏斯,其名聲是黯然失色,然而,是真正的組織者,教會,邁克爾施拉特。 The latter visited most of the German Reformed settlements, instituted pastors, established schools, and, in 1747, formed the first coetus.後者最訪問的德國新教定居點,提起牧師,設立學校,並在1747年,形成了第一次coetus 。 On a subsequent journey through Europe he obtained financial aid for the destitute churches by pledging the submission of the coetus to the Classis of Amsterdam.在隨後的歐洲之旅,他獲得財政援助的貧困教堂保證提交的coetus賽阿姆斯特丹。 Six young ministers accompanied him to America in 1752; the supply of clergymen, however, was insufficient for many years and resulted in some defections.六名年輕的部長陪同他到美國在1752年;供應神職人員,然而,沒有足夠多年,取得了一些缺陷。 In 1793 the synod replaced the coetus and assumed supreme authority in the church, which now comprised approximately 180 congregations and 15,000 communicants.在1793年的主教取代coetus並承擔最高權力機構中的教堂,現在包括約180名教會和15000聖餐。 The process of organization was completed in 1819 by the division of the synod into districts or classes.這個過程的組織完成了1819年的分裂主教區或班級。 About 1835 the "Mercersburg controversy", concerning certain theological questions, agitated the Church; in 1863 the tercentenary of the adoption of the Heidelberg Catechism was celebrated.關於1835年的“ Mercersburg爭議” ,關於某些神學問題,情緒激動的教會;於1863年的三百年通過了海德堡問答慶祝。 From this time dates the foundation of orphans' homes in the denomination.從這個時間日期的基礎孤兒的家中面額。 Foreign mission work was inaugurated in 1879 by the sending of missionaries to Japan.外國使團的工作是成立於1879年通過派遣傳教士到日本。 The first theological seminary was organized in 1825 at Carlisle, Pennsylvania; it was removed in 1836 to Mercersburg and in 1871 to Lancaster, Pennsylvania.第一個神學院舉辦了1825年的卡萊爾,賓夕法尼亞州,這是1836年取消了對Mercersburg ,並於1871年,以蘭開斯特,賓夕法尼亞州。 The Church also controls Heidelberg University and Western Theological Seminary (both at Tiffin, Ohio), Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pa.), Catawba College (North Carolina), and several other educational institutions of advanced grade.教會還控制海德堡大學和西方神學院(在Tiffin ,俄亥俄州) ,烏爾西努學院( Collegeville ,賓夕法尼亞州) ,卡托巴學院(北卡羅萊納州) ,和其他一些教育機構的先進等級。 Its present membership is 297,116 communicants with 1226 ministers and 1730 churches.其目前的成員是297116與1226聖餐部長和1730教堂。 The Hungarian Reformed Church, which numbers at present 5253 communicants, was organized in 1904 in New York City for the convenience of Hungarian-speaking immigrants.匈牙利歸正教會,這數字在目前5253聖餐,是在1904年在紐約市為方便匈牙利講移民。

III.三。 THE REFORMED CHURCHES IN THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA改革教會在南非聯盟

Dutch settlers transplanted the Reformed faith to South Africa as early as 1652. Churches 0f some importance at present exist in the country and are organized as the Reformed Churches of Cape Colony, of the Orange Free State, of the Transvaal, and of Natal.荷蘭定居者移植的改革誠意南非早在1652年。基督教協進會取消一些重要的,目前存在的國家和組織為歸正會的開普殖民地,在奧蘭治自由邦,德蘭士瓦和納塔爾。 The progress in political union favourably influenced church affairs: in 1906 these separate bodies placed themselves under a federal council, and in 1909 under a general synod.所取得的進展的政治聯盟積極影響教會事務:在1906年這些不同的機構置於自己的下一個聯邦議會,並於1909年根據一般主教。 Their collective membership amounts to about 220,000 communicants.他們的集體成員金額約22.00萬聖餐。 The movement towards union had been preceded by secessions caused by liberal and conservative theological tendencies.走向工會之前, secessions所造成的自由派與保守派的神學傾向。 As a representative of conservatism the "Reformed Church in South Africa" was organized in 1859 by the Rev. D. Postma.作為一個代表保守主義的“歸正會在南非”舉辦的1859年修訂版D.波斯特馬。 It has today an aggregate membership of about 16,000 communicants distributed through Cape Colony, the Orange Free State, and Transvaal.今天它已累計會員約16000聖餐通過開普殖民地,在奧蘭治自由邦和德蘭士瓦。 An offshoot of the liberal spirit is the separatist "Reformed Church of the Transvaal", which was organized by the Rev. Van der Hoff and has at present about 10,000 communicants.一個分支的自由精神是分裂分子“歸正教會德蘭士瓦” ,這是由牧師范德爾霍夫和目前有大約10000聖餐。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息撰稿:那韋伯。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.隨著感謝聖母教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

SCHAFF, Creeds of Christendom, I (New York, 1877), 354- 816; III, 191-597; CORION,History of the Reformed Church (Dutch) in Amer.沙夫,信仰的基督教,我(紐約, 1877年) , 354 -8 16;三, 1 91-597; C ORION,歷史歸正教會(荷蘭)在阿米爾。 Church Hist., Ser., viii; DUBBS, History of the Reformed Church, German, ibid.教會組織胺。 ,絲氨酸。 ,八; DUBBS ,歷史的歸正教會,德國,同上。 (both studies are preceded by extensive bibliographies); CORWIN, Manual of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in America (4th ed., New York, 1902); GOOD, History of the Reformed Church in the US, 1725-92 (Reading, Pa., 1899); ZWIERLEIN, Religion in New Netherland, 1629-1634 (Rochester, 1910). (這兩項研究很之前廣泛書目) ;文,手冊歸正荷蘭新教教會在美國(第4版。 ,紐約, 1902年) ;好,歷史歸正教會在美國, 1725年至1792年(閱讀,壩。 , 1899年) ; ZWIERLEIN ,宗教在新荷蘭, 1629年至1634年(羅切斯特, 1910年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Canons of Dort 規例的多特
Belgic Confession 比利時信條
Heidelberg Confession 海德堡自白

Helvetic Confession 海爾維第自白
Westminster Confession 韋斯敏斯德


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