Society of Friends - Quakers協會之友-誼

General Information 一般信息

The Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, is a body of Christians that originated in 17th century England under George Fox.該協會的朋友們,通常稱為誼,是一個團體的基督信徒認為起源於17世紀的英格蘭喬治福克斯。 In 1988 the society had 200,260 members, with heavy concentrations in the United States (109,000), East Africa (45,000) and Great Britain (18,000). Quakers unite in affirming the immediacy of Christ's teaching; they hold that believers receive divine guidance from an inward light, without the aid of intermediaries or external rites. 1988年,社會二十零萬〇二百六十〇成員,沉重的濃度在美國(一十點九零零萬) ,東非( 45000 )和大不列顛( 18000 ) 。 誼團結起來,肯定直接基督的教學;他們認為神聖的信仰得到了指導抵港輕,但援助的中介機構或外部儀式。

Meetings for worship can be silent, without ritual or professional clergy, or programmed, in which a minister officiates. 會議禮拜可以保持沉默,沒有儀式或專業神職人員,或編程,其中一名部長主持。

Although their antecedents lie in English Puritanism and in the Anabaptist movement, the Society of Friends was formed during the English Civil War.儘管他們的經歷是在英語清教和再洗禮派運動之友協會成立期間,英國內戰。 Around 1652, George Fox began preaching that since there was "that of God in every man," a formal church structure and educated ministry were unnecessary. His first converts spread their faith throughout England, denouncing what they saw as social and spiritual compromises and calling individuals to an inward experience of God.大約1652年,喬治福克斯開始說教,既然上帝認為在每一個男人, ”一個正式的教堂結構和教育部門是不必要的。他的第一個轉換傳播他們的信仰在整個英格蘭,譴責他們所看到的東西作為社會和精神妥協,並呼籲個人內心經驗的上帝。 In spite of schism and persecution, the new movement expanded during the Puritan Commonwealth (1649 - 60) and after the restoration of the monarchy (1660).儘管分裂和迫害,新的運動擴大清教徒在英聯邦( 1649至60年)和之後的恢復君主立憲制( 1660 ) 。 By openly defying restrictive legislation, Friends helped achieve passage of the Toleration Act of 1689.公開違抗限制性立法,朋友幫助實現通過寬容法案1689 。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
In colonial America, enclaves of Quakers existed in Rhode Island, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and western New Jersey.在殖民地美國,飛地誼中存在的羅得島,北卡羅萊納州,賓夕法尼亞州和新澤西州西部。 In Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn as a refuge for Quakers and as a "holy experiment" in religious toleration, Friends maintained an absolute majority in the assembly until 1755 and remained a potent force until the American Revolution.在賓夕法尼亞州,成立威廉佩恩作為避難誼,並作為“神聖試驗” ,在宗教寬容,朋友保持著絕對多數的議會,直到1755年,並仍然是一個強大的力量,直到美國革命。 Between 1754 and 1776, Friends throughout America strengthened their commitment to pacifism and began to denounce slavery.至1754年和1776年,整個北美之友加強其承諾,和平,並開始譴責奴隸制。 After the Revolution, Friends concentrated on a wide variety of reform activities: Indian rights, prison reform, temperance, abolition, freedmen's rights, education, and the women's movement.在革命,友集中在各種各樣的改革活動:印度的權利,監獄改革,戒酒,撤銷, freedmen的權利,教育和婦女運動。

In a conflict over theology that was complicated by social tensions, the Society underwent a series of schisms beginning in 1827 and ending with the formation of three major subgroups: Hicksites (liberal), Orthodox (evangelical), and Conservative (quietist). During the 20th century, however, Friends have attempted to heal their differences.在神學衝突是複雜的社會緊張,社會經歷了一系列的分裂在1827年開始和結束時形成的三個主要分組: Hicksites (自由) ,東正教(福音) ,和保守黨(寂靜主義) 。期間20世紀,然而,朋友曾試圖彌合他們之間的分歧。 Many yearly meetings have merged, and most Friends cooperate in organizations such as the Friends World Committee for Consultation and the Friends World Conferences.許多年度會議合併,大多數朋友合作組織,如誼會世界協商委員會和世界會議之友。 The rapid growth of pastoral Quakerism in Africa and of silent meetings in Europe makes the Society of Friends an international organization.迅速增長的牧區Quakerism在非洲和沉默會議在歐洲使之友協會的國際組織。

The American Friends Service Committee is an independent service organization founded in 1917 to aid conscientious objectors.美國朋友服務委員會是一個獨立的服務組織,成立於1917年援助良心拒服兵役者。 Today it also provides help to the needy in the United States and a number of Third World countries.今天,它也提供幫助有需要的在美國和一些第三世界國家。

J William Frost威廉J霜凍

Bibliography 目錄
H Barbour, and JW Frost, The Quakers (1988); TD Hamm, The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends, 1800 - 1907 (1988); E Russell, The History of Quakerism (1942). H巴伯,並京華弗羅斯特,公誼會( 1988年) ;的TD哈姆,轉化美洲Quakerism :東正教會友, 1800年至1907年( 1988年) ;電子郵件羅素,史Quakerism ( 1942 ) 。


Religious Society of Friends宗教社會的朋友

General Information 一般信息

The Society of Friends (in full, Religious Society of Friends), is the designation of a body of Christians more commonly known as Quakers.該協會的之友(全額,宗教之友協會) ,是指定的一個機構的基督徒通常稱為誼。 Their fundamental belief is that divine revelation is immediate and individual; all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul, and Friends endeavor to heed it.他們的基本信念是神聖的啟示是立即和個人;所有的人可能會認為上帝的話,在他們的靈魂,和朋友們努力傾聽它。 Terming such revelation the "inward light," the "Christ within," or the "inner light," the first Friends identified this spirit with the Christ of history. They rejected a formal creed, worshiped on the basis of silence, and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God, instead of relying upon a special, paid clergy set apart from the rest. Terming這種啟示的“向內輕”和“基督內”或“輕內” ,首先確定之友本著這一精神,與基督的歷史。 他們拒絕一個正式的信仰,敬拜的基礎上保持沉默,並認為每一個與會者視為一個潛在的船隻為上帝的話,而不是依靠建立一種特殊的,支付神職人員設置除了休息。

Beliefs信念

Quakerism emphasizes human goodness because of a belief that something of God exists in everyone. Quakerism強調人類善良,因為相信上帝的東西存在於每個人。 At the same time, however, it recognizes the presence of human evil and works to eradicate as much of it as possible.與此同時,然而,它認識到存在的人類罪惡和工程,消除了它當作可能的。 Quakerism is a way of life; Friends place great emphasis upon living in accord with Christian principles. Quakerism是一種生活方式;友高度重視對生活在符合基督教的原則。 Truth and sincerity are Quaker bywords; thus, Quaker merchants refuse to bargain, for bargaining implies that truth is flexible.真相與誠意,是貴bywords ,因此,貴商家拒絕討價還價,討價還價意味著,真理是靈活的。 Emulating Christ, the Friends attempt to avoid luxury and emphasize simplicity in dress, manners, and speech.仿效基督之友試圖避免奢侈,並強調簡單,服裝,禮儀,並講話。 Until late in the 19th century, they retained certain forms of speech known as plain speech, which employed "thee" as opposed to the more formal "you"; this usage indicated the leveling of social classes and the spirit of fellowship integral to Quaker teaching.直到19世紀,他們保留某些形式的講話被稱為平原講話,受聘“你”而不是更為正式的“你” ,這表明使用水準的社會階層和精神不可分割的金格教學。

In the administration and privileges of the society, no distinction between the sexes is made.在管理和特權的社會,沒有區分男女了。 Membership qualifications are based on moral and religious grounds and on the readiness of the candidate to realize and accept the obligations of membership.會員資格是基於道德和宗教的理由和準備的候選人,以實現和接受的義務的成員。 Meetings for worship are held regularly, usually once or twice a week, and are intended to help members to feel God's presence as a guiding spirit in their lives.會議禮拜都定期舉行,通常是一次或兩次週,旨在幫助成員感到上帝的存在,作為指導精神,他們的生活。 In these meetings the members measure their insights and beliefs against those of the meeting as a whole.在這些會議中的成員衡量他們的見解和信仰對那些本次會議作為一個整體。 Because the religion of the Quakers was founded as a completely spiritual belief requiring no physical manifestation, the meetings have traditionally had no prearranged program, sermon, liturgy, or outward rites.由於宗教的創立誼作為一個完全的精神信仰不需要物質表現,會議歷來沒有預先計劃,講道,禮儀,或離港儀式。 Today, however, more than half of the Friends in the US use paid ministers and conduct meetings for worship in a programmed or semiprogrammed manner.然而,今天,超過一半的朋友在美國使用支付部長和進行禮拜會議在編程或semiprogrammed的方式進行。

In both the unprogrammed and programmed meetings members accept a great deal of responsibility.在雙方未和方案的會議成員接受了大量的責任。 A group called Worship and Ministry, or Ministry and Oversight, accepts considerable responsibility for the spiritual life of the meeting. A組和所謂的宗教部,或部和監督,接受相當大的責任的精神生活了會議。 Overseers undertake to provide pastoral care for the member or share in that care when a regular pastor is employed.監督員承諾提供牧靈工作的成員或分享照顧時,常牧師就業。 The religious discipline and administration of the society are regulated by periodic meetings known as Meetings for Business.宗教紀律和管理的社會規範的定期會議被稱為商務會議。 One or more congregations constitute a Monthly Meeting, one or more Monthly Meetings form a Quarterly Meeting, and the Quarterly Meetings within a stated geographical area form a Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.一個或多個教區構成了每月會議上,一個或多個每月的會議形式的例會,並在季度會議闡明的地理區域形成一個每年舉行的宗教之友協會。 The decisions of the Yearly Meeting are the highest authority for all doctrinal or administrative questions raised in any subsidiary meeting within its jurisdiction.該決定的年度會議是最高權力機構的所有理論或行政提出的問題在任何附屬會議在其管轄範圍內。 Usually no voting takes place in Quaker meetings; members seek to discover the will of God by deliberation concerning any matter at hand.通常沒有投票發生在貴會議;成員尋求發現上帝的意志所討論的任何問題手。 As an integral part of Quaker doctrine, at meetings members are regularly and formally queried on their adherence to Quaker principles.作為一個組成部分貴學說,在會議成員定期和正式詢問他們的加入貴的原則。 These queries relate to such matters as the proper education of their children, the use of intoxicants, care of the needy, and, on a broader scale, racial and religious toleration and the treatment of all offenders in a spirit of love rather than with the object of punishment.這些查詢涉及到此類問題的適當的教育,他們的孩子,使用intoxicants ,照顧貧困,並在更廣泛的範圍,種族和宗教寬容和對待所有罪犯的精神,而不是愛的對象的懲罰。 Most American groups of Friends are represented by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), founded in 1917.大多數美國之友小組是由美國朋友服務委員會( AFSC ) ,成立於1917年。 Originally established to handle many of their philanthropic activities, the organization today is primarily concerned with creating a society in which violence need not exist.最初設立來處理他們的許多慈善活動,該組織目前主要涉及建立一個社會中的暴力行為沒有必要存在。

Origins起源

The Society of Friends may be traced to the many Protestant bodies that appeared in Europe during the Reformation.該協會的之友可追溯到許多新教機構,似乎在歐洲宗教改革。 These groups, stressing an individual approach to religion, strict discipline, and the rejection of an authoritarian church, formed one expression of the religious temper of 17th-century England.這些群體,強調個人的辦法,以宗教,紀律嚴明,並拒絕專制教堂,形成一個表達的宗教脾氣的17世紀的英格蘭。 Many doctrines of the Society of Friends were taken from those of earlier religious groups, particularly those of the Anabaptists and Independents, who believed in lay leadership, independent congregations, and complete separation of church and state.許多理論之友協會採取了不同於以前的宗教團體,特別是Anabaptists和無黨派人士,誰相信奠定基礎的領導下,獨立的教會,並完成規定的政教分離的狀態。 The society, however, unlike many of its predecessors, did not begin as a formal religious organization.社會,然而,不同於許多它的前身,沒有開始正式作為一個宗教組織。 Originally, the Friends were the followers of George Fox, an English lay preacher who, about 1647, began to preach the doctrine of "Christ within"; this concept later developed as the idea of the "inner light." Although Fox did not intend to establish a separate religious body, his followers soon began to group together into the semblance of an organization, calling themselves by such names as Children of Light, Friends of Truth, and, eventually, Society of Friends. In reference to their agitated movements before moments of divine revelation, they were popularly called Quakers. The first complete exposition of the doctrine of "inner light" was written by the Scottish Quaker Robert Barclay in An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, as the Same Is Held Forth and Preached by the People Called in Scorn Quakers (1678), considered the greatest Quaker theological work.起初,朋友們的追隨者喬治福克斯,英語奠定佈道者誰,約1647年,開始宣揚的理論, “基督內” ;這一概念後來發展為理念的“內光。 ”雖然福克斯並不打算建立一個獨立的宗教組織,他的追隨者盡快開始組一起進入的假象一個組織,稱自己的名字,如兒童的光,真理之友,並最終之友協會。 在談到他們的面前激動的運動神聖的時刻啟示,他們普遍呼籲誼。第一個完整闡述的理論, “內光”的作者是蘇格蘭的格羅伯特巴克利在道歉的真正的基督教神學,因為同樣的舉行第四和宣揚的人民要求在鄙視誼( 1678年) ,審議了最大的格神學的工作。

The Friends were persecuted from the time of their inception as a group. They interpreted the words of Christ in the Scriptures literally, particularly, "Do not swear at all" (Matthew 5:34), and "Do not resist one who is evil" (Matthew 5:39). They refused, therefore, to take oaths; they preached against war, even to resist attack; and they often found it necessary to oppose the authority of church or state.友遭到迫害之時起開始作為一個群體。他們解釋的話基督教聖經字面上看,尤其是, “不要發誓在所有” (馬太 5點34分) ,以及“不要抵制一個誰是邪惡的“ (馬太 5時39分) 。他們拒絕,因此,採取宣誓;他們鼓吹反對戰爭,甚至抵制攻擊; ,他們往往認為有必要反對權威的教堂或狀態。 Because they rejected any organized church, they would not pay tithes to the Church of England. Moreover, they met publicly for worship, a contravention of the Conventicle Act of 1664, which forbade meetings for worship other than that of the Church of England.因為他們拒絕接受任何有組織的教會,他們不會支付什一稅的英格蘭教會。此外,他們還會見了公開崇拜,違背了Conventicle法1664 ,它禁止會議的崇拜以外的英格蘭教會。 Nevertheless, thousands of people, some on the continent of Europe and in America as well as in the British Isles, were attracted by teachings of the Friends.然而,成千上萬的人,一些歐洲大陸和美國以及不列顛群島,被吸引的教誨之友。

Friends began to immigrate to the American colonies in the 1660s. They settled particularly in New Jersey, where they purchased land in 1674, and in the Pennsylvania colony, which was granted to William Penn in 1681.朋友開始移民到美國的殖民地在1660s 。他們解決特別是在新澤西州,在那裡購買土地, 1674年,在賓夕法尼亞州的殖民地,這是給予威廉佩恩在1681年。 By 1684, approximately 7000 Friends had settled in Pennsylvania.到1684年,大約有7000友定居在賓夕法尼亞州。 By the early 18th century, Quaker meetings were being held in every colony except Connecticut and South Carolina.到18世紀初,貴會議被關押在每一個殖民地除了康涅狄格州和南卡羅來納州。 The Quakers were at first continuously persecuted, especially in Massachusetts, but not in Rhode Island, which had been founded in a spirit of religious toleration.該誼起初不斷迫害,尤其是在馬薩諸塞州,而不是在羅得島,已成立的精神,宗教寬容。 Later, they became prominent in colonial life, particularly in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. During the 18th century the American Friends were pioneers in social reform; they were friends of the Native Americans, and as early as 1688 some protested officially against slavery in the colonies.後來,他們成為突出的殖民地生活,特別是在賓夕法尼亞州和羅德島州。在18世紀的美國朋友是先鋒在社會改革;他們的朋友,土著美國人,並早在1688年正式抗議,一些反對奴役的殖民地。 By 1787 no member of the society was a slave owner. Many of the Quakers who had immigrated to southern colonies joined the westward migrations into the Northwest Territory because they would not live in a slave-owning society. 到1787年沒有成員的社會是一個奴隸所有者。許多誼誰移民到南部的殖民地加入了向西遷徙到西北地區,因為他們不是生活在一個奴隸制社會。

During the 19th century differences of opinion arose among the Friends over doctrine.在19世紀的意見分歧產生之友的原則。 About 1827, the American Quaker minister Elias Hicks became involved in a schism by questioning the authenticity and divine authority of the Bible and the historical Christ; many Friends seceded with Hicks and were known as Hicksites. This schism alarmed the rest of the society, who became known as Orthodox Friends, and a countermovement was begun to relax the formality and discipline of the society, with a view to making Quakerism more evangelical.關於1827年,美國公誼部長埃利亞斯希克斯成為參與了分裂的質疑的真實性和神聖權威的聖經和基督教的歷史,許多朋友分離與希克斯和被稱為Hicksites 。這種分裂震驚其餘的社會,誰被稱為東正教會友,並countermovement開始放寬手續和紀律的社會,以期使Quakerism更多的福音。 The evangelical movement, led by the British Quaker philanthropist Joseph John Gurney, aroused considerable opposition, particularly in the US, and another schism resulted among the Orthodox Friends.福音派新教會的運動,由英國格慈善家約瑟夫約翰格尼,引起了相當大的反對,尤其是在美國,另一間造成分裂的東正教朋友。 A new sect, the Orthodox Conservative Friends, called Wilburites after their leader John Wilbur, was founded to emphasize the strict Quakerism of the 17th century. It is very small today.一個新的教派,東正教保守的朋友,所謂Wilburites後,他們的領袖約翰威爾伯,成立強調嚴格Quakerism的17世紀。這是非常小的今天。 The general result of these modifications, both those dealing with doctrine and those pertaining to the relations of Quakers to the world in general, was a new spirit among all the Friends.一般由於這些修改,既涉及理論和那些有關的關係誼世界一般,是一種新的精神在所有的朋友。 Most abandoned their strange dress and speech and their hostility to such worldly pursuits as the arts and literature.大多數放棄了奇怪的服裝和講話,他們對這種敵視世俗追求的藝術和文學。

Numerically, the Friends have always been a relatively small group. In the early 1980s world membership totaled about 200,000, distributed in about 30 countries.數控之友一直是一個相對較小組。上世紀80年代初世界會員總計約200000 ,分佈在大約30個國家。 The greatest number of Friends is in the US, where, according to the latest available statistics, the society had about 1100 congregations with about 117,000 members. The Yearly Meetings in Africa, with about 39,000 members, and in the United Kingdom and Ireland, with about 21,000 members, are the next largest groups.最多的朋友是在美國,在那裡,根據最新統計數字,社會大約有1100教區約11.70萬成員。年度會議的非洲,大約有3.9萬成員,並在英國和愛爾蘭,與約2.1萬成員,是未來最大的群體。 Other groups are located in Central America, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.其他團體都位於中美洲,澳大利亞,加拿大和新西蘭。 The Friends World Committee for Consultation is the international organization of the society.之友會世界協商委員會是國際組織的社會。

Edwin B. Bronner埃德溫灣布朗納


Quakers - Society of Friends誼-社會之友

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Known also as Quakers, the Society of Friends can best be understood through the lives of the early leaders.也稱為公,協會之友的最好辦法是通過理解生命的早期領導人。 The founder was George Fox, whose youth saw the rule of Charles I and his marriage to a French princess who was a Roman Catholic, the Petition of Right, Archbishop Laud's harsh rules for Nonconformists, the Puritan emigration to America, and the meetings of the Long Parliament.創始人是喬治福克斯的青年看到了法治的查爾斯一世和他結婚的法國公主誰是羅馬天主教,請願權,大主教勞德的嚴厲規則Nonconformists ,清教徒移民到美國,和會議龍議會。 His public career coincided with the defeat and execution of Charles I, the Puritan Commonwealth under Cromwell, the Stuart Restoration and the rule of James II, the Bill of Rights, and the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. Some of his contemporaries were Locke, Hobbes, Milton, Dryden, Bunyan, Cromwell, Newton, Harvey, Baxter, and Ussher.他的公職生涯正好與失敗,並執行查爾斯一世,清教徒克倫威爾英聯邦下的斯圖爾特恢復和法治的詹姆斯二世,人權法案和“光榮革命”的1688年。一些他的同時代人駱家輝霍布斯,米爾頓,德萊頓,本仁,克倫威爾,牛頓,哈維,巴克斯特,並Ussher 。

In 1647 Fox experienced a profound change in his religious life.福克斯在1647年經歷了深刻的變化,他的宗教生活。 In 1652 he said that he had a vision at a place called Pendle Hill; from that point on, he based his faith on the idea that God could speak directly to any person.在1652年他說,他設想在一個叫彭德爾山; 從這一點上,他根據自己的信仰的想法是上帝可以直接向任何人。

Some of the first converts of Fox were called "Friends" or "Friends in Truth."一些第一批轉換的福克斯被稱為“朋友”或“朋友的真相。 ” The term "Quaker" was described by Fox as follows.術語“貴”所描述的是福克斯如下。 "The priest scoffed at us and called us Quakers. But the Lord's power was so over them, and the word of life was declared in such authority and dread to them, that the priest began trembling himself; and one of the people said, 'Look how the priest trembles and shakes, he is turned a Quaker also.'" According to Fox, the first person to use the term was Justice Bennet of Derby. “牧師嘲笑我們,叫我們誼。但是上帝的力量是如此的他們,這個詞的生命宣布這種權力和恐懼給他們,說,神父開始顫抖自己和一個人說, '看看如何神父顫抖和動搖,他翻開了貴也。 “根據福克斯的第一人使用的術語是司法班納特的德比。 Among the early converts were English Puritans, Baptists, Seekers, and other Nonconformists.在早期轉換為英文清教徒,浸信會,尋求和其他Nonconformists 。 The work spread to Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.這項工作擴展到愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭和威爾士。

Quakerism took on certain characteristics such as simplicity in the manner of living, encouraging women to be ministers, spiritual democracy in meeting, absolute adherence to truth, universal peace and brotherhood regardless of sex, class, nation, or race. Quakers refused to remove their hats to those in authority and used the singular "thee" and "thou" in their speech, while the common people were supposed to address their betters as "you." Quakerism了某些特點,如簡單的方式生活,鼓勵婦女成為部長,精神文明民主的一次會議上,絕對堅持真理,普遍和平與友愛不分性別,階層,民族,或種族。誼拒絕取消其帽子的人使用權力和奇異“你”和“你”的講話,而普通老百姓是要解決他們的更佳的“你” 。 In turn, they influenced the thought and social ethics of the English - speaking world far out of proportion to their numbers.反過來,他們的思想影響和社會道德的英語-世界上迄今為止發言不成比例,他們的人數。 Fox was imprisoned eight times during his life, but he pioneered care for the poor, aged, and insane, advocated prison reform, opposed capital punishment, war, and slavery, and stood for the just treatment of American Indians.福克斯被監禁期間的8倍他的生命,但他開創照顧窮人,老人,精神錯亂,監獄改革的主張,反對死刑,戰爭和奴役,並主張公正對待的美洲印第安人。

George Fox died in 1691, and the movement went into a quiet period. The center shifted to America.喬治福克斯死於1691年,和運動進入一個安靜的時期。中心轉移到美國。 The first Friends to visit American were Mary Fisher and Anne Austin, who arrived in Massachusetts in 1656.第一之友訪問美國的瑪麗費舍爾和安妮奧斯汀,誰抵達馬薩諸塞州在1656年。 They were sent away by the magistrates, but others arrived after them.他們被送往以外的法官,但其他人抵達後,他們。 In 1659 William Robinson and Marmaduke Stephenson were hanged on Boston Common, as was Mary Dyer the following year.在1659年威廉羅賓遜和Marmaduke斯蒂芬森被絞死在波士頓,如瑪麗戴爾第二年。

Probably the best known historical figure in the Society of Friends was William Penn.也許最有名的歷史人物在社會中之友威廉佩恩。 Born in 1644, he became a Quaker in 1667 and was an embarrassment to his father, Admiral Penn.出生於1644年,他成為貴在1667年和是一個尷尬,他的父親,海軍上將佩恩。 King Charles II gave young William a grant of land in American to repay a debt to his father, and thus was launched Pennsylvania, a "holy experiment." By 1700 there were Friends meeting in all of the colonies.查爾斯二世國王給年輕的威廉給予在美國的土地,以償還債務,以他的父親,因而發起賓夕法尼亞州,一個“神聖的實驗。 ”到1700年有朋友上了所有的殖民地。

Penn's tolerant policies attracted immigrants from many places. Difficulties arose from the fact that the Quakers wanted only to be at peace, while the British expected them to support the colonial wars against the French and Indians.佩恩的寬容的移民政策,吸引了來自許多地方。困難產生於一個事實,即誼只想在和平,而英國預計他們支持殖民戰爭對法國和印度人。 A similar situation arose when the colonists revolted against the British in 1776.類似的情況出現時,反抗殖民者對英國在1776年。

A division occurred in the Society of Friends about 1827, with one group supporting the views of Elias Hicks, who believed that one should follow the inner light.某師發生之友協會對1827年組支持的意見,埃利亞斯希克斯,誰相信,一應遵循的內在根據。 The other group was influenced by the evangelical movement and put great emphasis on belief in the divinity of Christ, the authority of the Scriptures, and the atonement. 另一組是受福音運動,並十分重視信仰基督的神的權威,聖經,以及贖罪。

Friends were also active in the antislavery movement.朋友們也積極參與antislavery運動。 John Woolman, Anthony Benezet, Lucretia Mott, and John Greenleaf Whittier were involved in such activities as the underground railroad and the Colonization Society.約翰Woolman ,安東尼貝,霞莫特,約翰里夫惠參與活動,如地下鐵路和殖民協會。 Benjamin Lundy's ideas were presented in The Genius of Universal Emancipation.本傑明倫迪的想法是在天才的世界解放。

The tradition of caring for others carried on through the American Civil War, and the American Friends Service Committee was formed in 1917.傳統的照顧他人進行通過美國南北戰爭,美國朋友服務委員會成立於1917年。 The purpose of the organization was to provide young conscientious objectors with alternative service opportunities during wartime.該組織的宗旨是提供年輕良心拒服兵役者與替代性服務的機會在戰時。 A red and black star was chosen to symbolize the group.紅色和黑色星被選為象徵組。

The Society of Friends are optimistic about the purposes of God and the destiny of mankind. Their ultimate and final authority for religious life and faith resides within each individual. 該協會的之友感到樂觀施行上帝和人類的命運。它們的最終和最後批准權的宗教生活和信仰駐留在企業內部每一個人。 Many, but not all, seek for this truth through the guidance of the inner light.很多,但不是全部,爭取通過這一真理的指導下輕內。 They believe that they are bound to refuse obedience to a government when its requirements are contrary to what they believe to be the law of God, but they are willing to accept the penalties for civil disobedience. They practice religious democracy in their monthly meetings.他們認為,他們必然要拒絕服從政府的要求時,違反了他們認為是上帝的法律,但他們願意接受處罰公民抗命。 他們的做法宗教民主在其月度會議。 After discussion of an issue, for example, the clerk states what appears to be the mind of the group; but if a single Friend feels that he cannot unite with the group, no decision is made. Their stand for religious toleration is symbolized by the inscription on the statue of Mary Dyer across from Boston Common: "Witness for Religious Freedom. Hanged on Boston Common, 1660." 經討論後一個問題,例如,辦事員國家似乎是考慮到該集團,但如果有一個朋友認為,他不能團結組,沒有作出決定。他們的立場是宗教寬容的象徵碑文上的雕像瑪麗戴爾在從波士頓共同: “證人的宗教信仰自由。懸掛在波士頓, 1660 。 ”

The Society of Friends has no written creed. Their philosophical differences can be seen in the fact that Richard Nixon was born into the group, while Staughton Lynd joined because of their teachings. 該協會的之友已沒有任何書面信條。及其哲學的差異中可以看出一個事實,即尼克松出生到組,而斯托頓林德加入,因為他們的教義。 They do have an interest in education, with the founding of Haverford, Earlham, Swarthmore, and other colleges.他們這樣做有興趣的教育,成立哈弗福特, Earlham ,斯沃思莫爾,以及其他院校。 The teaching by example has caused some to ask why Quakers do not preach what they practice.教學的典範造成了一些問,為什麼不誼宣揚他們的做法。 Their ideal is to pursue truth at all costs, and it is hard to imagine a higher calling here on earth.他們的理想是追求真理不惜一切代價,這是很難想像更高的要求在地球上。

JE Johnson流行性乙型腦炎約翰遜
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
H Barbour, The Quakers in Puritan England; WC Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism and The Second Period of Quakerism; RM Jones, The Later Periods of Quakerism; E Russell, The History of Quakerism; DE Trueblood, The People Called Quakers; MH Bacon, The Quiet Rebels; AN Brayshaw, The Quakers: Their Story and Message; HH Brinton, Friends for Three Hundred Years; WR Williams, The Rich Heritage of Quakerism. H巴伯,公誼會在英格蘭清教徒;廁所布雷斯韋特,的起源Quakerism和第二期的Quakerism ;產品瓊斯,在後期Quakerism ;電子郵件羅素,史Quakerism ;德國特魯布拉德,人們稱為誼;充電器培根,安靜的叛亂分子,一個布雷肖,公誼:他們的故事和消息;時時林頓,友三百年;水利威廉姆斯的豐富遺產, Quakerism 。


Society of Friends (Quakers)協會之友(誼)

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The official designation of an Anglo-American religious sect originally styling themselves "Children of Truth" and "Children of Light", but "in scorn by the world called Quakers".官方指定一個英美教派原來自己的風格“兒童真理”和“兒童輕” ,而是“蔑視世界所謂誼” 。

The founder of the sect, George Fox, son of a well-to-do weaver, was born at Fenny Drayton in Leicestershire, England, July, 1624.的創始人節,喬治福克斯,兒子小康織,誕生於沼澤德雷頓在萊斯特郡,英格蘭, 7月, 1624號決議。 His parents, upright people and strict adherents of the established religion, destined him for the Church; but since the boy, at an early period, felt a strong aversion to a "hireling ministry", he was, after receiving the bare rudiments of education, apprenticed to a shoemaker.他的父母,直立人,嚴格信奉宗教的成立,注定他的教會;但自從男孩,在早期期間,感到反感的“僱工部” ,他是在收到光禿禿的雛形教育,學徒的鞋匠。 He grew to manhood a pure and honest youth, free from the vices of his age, and "endued", says Sewel, "with a gravity and stayedness of mind seldom seen in children".他上升到一個純粹的男子漢氣概和誠實的青年,擺脫惡習,他的年齡,和“賦予” , Sewel說, “與嚴重性和stayedness的心態罕見兒童” 。 In his nineteenth year, while at a fair with two friends, who were "professors" of religion, he was so shocked by a proposal they made him to join them in drinking healths, that he abandoned their company.在他19歲,而在一個公平與兩個朋友,誰是“教授”的宗教,他是如此震驚,他們的建議使他加入他們的飲用水衛生部說,他放棄了公司。 Returning home, he spent a sleepless night, in the course of which he thought he heard a voice from heaven crying out to him: "Thou seest how young men go together into vanity, and old people into the earth; thou must forsake all, young and old, keep out of all, and be a stranger unto all."返回家園,他度過了不眠之夜,在這一過程中,他認為他聽到一個聲音從天上喊他: “你如何seest年輕男子一起去到虛榮心,和老人到地球;你必須放棄所有,青年人和老年人,保持了所有人,是你們所有的陌生人。 “ Interpreting the injunction literally, Fox left his father's house, penniless and with Bible in hand to wander about the country in search of light.解讀禁令字面上看,福克斯離開了他父親的家,身無分文,與聖經在手跑江湖的國家尋找光明。 His mental anguish at times bordered on despair.他的精神痛苦,有時相鄰的絕望。 He sought counsel from renowned "professors"; but their advice that he should take a wife, or sing psalms, or smoke tobacco, was not calculated to solve the problems which perplexed his soul.他要求律師從著名的“教授” ,但他們的意見,他應該採取的妻子,或唱詩歌,或吸煙,不計算來解決的問題困惑他的靈魂。 Finding no food or consolation in the teachings of the Church of England or of the innumerable dissenting sects which flooded the land, he was thrown back upon himself and forced to accept his own imaginings as "revelations".沒有找到食物或安慰的教誨,英國聖公會或無數反對邪教的洪水淹沒的土地,他被扔回來時自己和被迫接受自己的想像為“揭露” 。 "I fasted much", he tells us in his Journal, "walked abroad in solitary places many days, and often took my Bible and sat in hollow trees and lonesome places until night came on; and frequently in the night walked mournfully about by myself. For I was a man of sorrows in the first working of the Lord in me." “我禁食得多” ,他告訴我們他的雜誌, “走在國外單獨的地方多天,而且往往拿走了我的聖經和坐在空心樹和寂寞的地方,直到晚上來的;並經常在夜間走過悲傷由自己。對於我是一個人的悲傷在第一份工作的主我。 “ This anguish of spirit continued, with intermissions, for some years; and it is not surprising that the lonely youth read into his Bible all his own idiosyncrasies and limitations. Founding his opinions on isolated texts, he gradually evolved a system at variance with every existing form of Christianity.這痛苦的精神繼續進行, intermissions ,一些年來,它是不奇怪的孤獨的青年讀入他的聖經所有自己的特點和局限性。創立他的意見孤立的文本,他逐漸形成一種制度差異與每個現有基督教形式。 His central dogma was that of the "inner light", communicated directly to the individual soul by Christ "who enlightenth every man that cometh into the world".他的中心法則是,在“內輕” ,直接對個人靈魂的基督“誰enlightenth每個人的來了融入世界” 。 To walk in this light and obey the voice of Christ speaking within the soul was to Fox the supreme and sole duty of man.行走在這種情況下,服從了基督的聲音講的靈魂是福克斯的最高和唯一的責任人。 Creeds and churches, councils, rites, and sacraments were discarded as outward things.信仰和教堂,議會,儀式,和聖禮被丟棄的外向的東西。 Even the Scriptures were to be interpreted by the inner light.即使是聖經來解釋的內在根據。 This was surely carrying the Protestant doctrine of private judgment to its ultimate logical conclusion.這是肯定攜帶新教教義的私人判斷,其最終合乎邏輯的結論。 Inconvenient passages of Holy Writ, such as those establishing Baptism and the Eucharist, were expounded by Fox in an allegorical sense; whilst other passages were insisted upon with a literalness before unknown.不方便通道的聖經,如建立洗禮和聖體,闡述了福克斯的寓言意義;而其他段落是堅持以literalness前下落不明。 Thus, from the text "Swear not at all", he drew the illicitness of oaths, even when demanded by the magistrate.因此,從文字“發誓不” ,他提請illicitness的誓言,即使所要求的裁判官。 Titles of honour, salutations, and all similar things conducive to vanity, such as doffing the hat or "scraping with the leg", were to be avoided even in the presence of the king. War, even if defensive, was declared unlawful.榮譽稱號,打招呼,以及所有類似的東西有利於虛榮心,如落紗帽子或“刮的腿” ,是要避免即使是在存在的國王。戰爭,即使防禦性的,被宣布為非法的。 Art, music, drama, field-sports, and dancing were rejected as unbecoming the gravity of a Christian.藝術,音樂,戲劇,外地體育,跳舞被拒絕作為不得體的嚴重性一個基督徒。 As for attire, he pleaded for that simplicity of dress and absence of ornament which later became the most striking peculiarity of his followers.至於著裝,他懇求說簡單的衣著和裝飾沒有後來成為最突出的特點,他的追隨者。 There was no room in his system for the ordained and salaried clergy of other religions, Fox proclaiming that every man, woman or child, when moved by the Spirit, had an equal right to prophesy and give testimony for the edification of the brethren. Two conclusions, with disagreeable consequence to the early Friends, were drawn from this rejection of a "priesthood"; the first was, that they refused to pay tithes or church rates; the second, that they celebrated marriage among themselves, without calling in the services of the legally appointed minister. Impelled by frequent "revelations", Fox began the public preaching of his novel tenets in 1647.沒有在他的房間系統的祝聖神職人員和工薪其他宗教,福克斯宣布,每一個男人,婦女或兒童時,感動的精神,有平等的權利預言並提供證詞的熏陶的兄弟。兩名結論,與令人不快的後果早日朋友,取自這個拒絕“神父” ;的第一個問題是,他們拒絕交納什一稅或教堂率;第二,他們慶祝自己的婚姻中,沒有要求在服務法律的任命部長。迫於頻繁“曝光” ,福克斯開始公眾宣揚他的小說在1647信條。 It was not his intention to increase the religious confusion of the time by the addition of a new sect.這不是他打算增加宗教混亂的時間,增加了一個新的節。 He seems to have been persuaded that the doctrine by means of which he himself had "come up in spirit through the flaming sword into the paradise of God" would be greeted alike by Christian, Turk, and heathen.他似乎已經說服了這一理論,這意味著他本人“來了精神通過燃燒的劍變成天堂的上帝”將迎接同樣的基督徒,土耳其人,和異教徒。 The enthusiasm and evident sincerity of the uncouth young preacher gained him numerous converts in all parts of Britain; whilst the accession of Margaret, wife of Judge Fell, afterwards of Fox himself, secured to the Friends a valuable rallying-point in the seclusion of Swarthmoor Hall, Lancashire.的熱情和誠意,顯然粗魯的年輕牧師他獲得許多轉換中的所有部分英國;同時加入撒切爾夫人法官費,以後福克斯本人,擔保之友了寶貴的凝聚點在其隱居的Swarthmoor大會堂,蘭開夏郡。 In an incredibly short time, a host of unordained apostles, male and female, were scouring the two hemispheres, carrying to the ends of the earth the gospel of Fox.在令人難以置信的短的時間內,大量的未經任命使徒,男性和女性,被沖刷的兩個半球,攜帶到天涯海角的福音福克斯。 One enthusiast hastened to Rome to enlighten the pope; a second went to the Orient to convert the sultan.一個發燒友趕緊羅馬教皇啟發;第二次來到東方轉換蘇丹。 The antagonistic religions dominant in England before and after the Restoration, Presbyterianism and the Established Church, made equally determined efforts, through the aid of the civil power, to crush the growing sect.宗教的對立在英國佔主導地位之前和之後的恢復,長老和教會成立,作出同樣的努力,通過援助的民間力量,粉碎日益節。 From the detailed record which the Friends, in imitation of the primitive Christians, kept of the sufferings of their brethren, we gather that during the reign of Charles II, 13,562 "Quakers" were imprisoned in various parts of England, 198 were transported as slaves beyond seas, and 338 died in prison or of wounds received in violent assaults on their meetings.從詳細記錄的朋友,在模仿的原始基督徒,保管所遭受的苦難的兄弟,我們收集到的,在統治查爾斯二世, 13562 “誼”被監禁在不同地區,英國, 198人作為奴隸運超越海洋,和338在監獄中死亡或受傷收到的暴力攻擊他們的會議。 They fared still worse at the hands of the Puritans in Massachusetts, who spared no cruelty to rid the colony of this "cursed sect of heretics", and hanged four of them, three men and a woman, on Boston Common.他們的表現更糟糕的手中清教徒在馬薩諸塞州,誰不遺餘力地擺脫殘酷的殖民地,這個“詛咒教派的異端” ,並絞死4人,三男一女,在波士頓。 What marked them out for persecution was not so much their theory of the inward light or their rejection of rites and sacraments, as their refusal to pay tithes, or take the oaths prescribed by law, or to have anything to do with the army; these offences being aggravated in the estimation of the magistrates by their obstinacy in refusing to uncover their head in court and "thouing and theeing" the judges.什麼標誌著他們的迫害,沒有那麼多的理論的外來光線或拒絕儀式和聖禮,因為它們拒絕支付什一稅,或採取宣誓由法律規定,或有任何與軍隊;這些罪行嚴重的估計法官其頑固地拒絕揭露其頭部在法庭上和“ thouing和theeing ”的法官。 The suffering Friends found at last a powerful protector in the person of their most illustrious convert, William, son of admiral Penn, who defended his coreligionists in tracts and public disputes, and, through his influence with the last two Stuart kings, was frequently successful in shielding them from the violence of the mob and the severity of the magistrates.朋友的痛苦,最後發現一個強大的保護者的人在其最傑出的轉換,威廉的兒子,海軍上將佩恩,誰辯護coreligionists在村組和公共糾紛,並通過他的影響力與過去兩年斯圖爾特國王,經常成功在保護他們免受暴力的暴徒和嚴重的治安。 Penn furthermore secured for them a safe refuge in his great colony of Pennsylvania, the proprietorship of which he acquired from Charles II in liquidation of a loan advanced to the Crown by his father.佩恩還擔保為他們建立一個安全庇護在他的偉大的殖民地,賓夕法尼亞州的獨資企業,而他獲得的查爾斯二世在清算貸款先進官方由他的父親。 With the accession to the throne of James II the persecution of the Friends practically ceased; and by successive Acts of Parliament passed after the Revolution of 1688, their legal disabilities were removed; their scruples about paying tithes and supporting the army were respected; and their affirmation was accepted as equivalent to an oath.隨著加入王位詹姆斯二世的迫害之友幾乎停止;和歷屆議會法案通過後, 1688年的革命,其法律殘疾人被拆除,他們不惜付出什一稅和支持軍隊,尊重;和他們的肯定被接納為等同於宣誓。

Meanwhile, Fox, in the intervals between his frequent imprisonments, had laboured to impart the semblance of an organization to the society; whilst the excesses of some of his followers compelled him to enact a code of discipline. His efforts in both these directions encountered strong opposition from many who had been taught to regard the inward light as the all-sufficient guide.與此同時,福克斯,中間隔了頻繁的監禁,已辛勤傳授的假象一個組織的社會;而過度的一些他的追隨者迫使他制定的紀律守則。他的努力在這兩個方向遇到強勁許多反對誰教已經把外來光的所有足夠的指導。 However, the majority, sacrificing consistency, acquiesced; and before the death of Fox, 13 Jan., 1691, Quakerism was established on the principles which it has since substantially preserved.然而,多數,犧牲的一致性,默許;之前死亡的福克斯, 1691年1月13日, Quakerism是建立在這些原則,因為它已經大大保存。

Although the Friends repudiate creeds as "external" and "human", yet they, at least the early Quakers and their orthodox modern followers, admit the fundamental dogmas of Christianity as expounded in the Apostles' Creed. Rejecting as non-Scriptural the term Trinity, they confess the Godhead of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the doctrine of the Redemption and salvation through Christ; and the sanctification of souls through the Holy Spirit.雖然友否定信條是“外部”和“人權” ,但他們,至少在早期誼和正統的現代追隨者,承認的基本教義的基督教闡述在使徒信經。剔除非聖經的任期三一,他們供認了神體的父親,兒子,和聖靈;理論的救贖和拯救通過基督;和神聖的靈魂通過聖靈。 Their ablest apologists, as Robert Barclay and William Penn, have not been able to explain satisfactorily in what respect the "inward light" differs from the light of the individual reason; neither have they reconciled the doctrine of the supreme authority of the "inner voice" with the "external" claims of Scripture and the historic Christ.他們能幹辯護士,羅伯特巴克利和威廉佩恩,一直無法令人滿意的解釋在何種方面的“向內輕”不同於鑑於個人原因;既不核對,他們的理論的最高權威的“內在的聲音“與”外部“的說法聖經和基督教的歷史。 These doctrinal weaknesses were fruitful germs of dissensions in later times.這些理論上的弱點是富有成果的糾紛細菌在以後的時間。

Though one of the earliest of Fox's "testimonies" was in reprobation of "steeple-houses", that is, the stately edifices with which Catholic piety had covered the soil of England, nevertheless, as his adherents grew in numbers, he was forced to gather them into congregations for purposes of worship and business.儘管之一的福克斯最早的“證詞”是非難的“尖頂屋” ,這就是堂皇建築物與天主教的虔誠已覆蓋的土壤英格蘭,但是,因為他的追隨者在數量上增長,他被迫他們收集到教會為目的的崇拜和業務。 These "particular meetings" assembled on the first day of the week. They worshipped without any form of liturgy and in silence until some man, woman, or child was moved by the Spirit to "give testimony", the value of which was gauged by the common sense of the assembly.這些“特別會議”組裝的第一天,一周。崇拜,他們在沒有任何形式的禮儀和保持沉默,直到一些男人,女人,兒童是感動的精神,以“作證” ,其價值是衡量共同意義的大會。 By a process of development, a form of church government came into being, which has been described as follows:由一個發展過程中,某種形式的教堂政府誕生,這已說明如下:

"The whole community of Friends is modelled somewhat on the Presbyterian system. Three gradations of meanings or synods -- monthly, quarterly, and yearly -- administer the affairs of the Society, including in their supervision matters both of spiritual discipline and secular policy. The monthly meetings, composed of all the congregations within a definite circuit, judge of the fitness of new candidates for membership, supply certificates to such as move to other districts, choose fit persons to be elders, to watch over the ministry, attempt the reformation or pronounce the expulsion of all such as walk disorderly, and generally seek to stimulate the members to religious duty. They also make provision for the poor of the Society, and secure the education of their children. Overseers are also appointed to assist in the promotion of these objects. At monthly meetings also marriages are sanctioned previous to their solemnization at a meeting for worship. Several monthly meetings compose a quarterly meeting, to which they forward general reports of their condition, and at which appeals are heard from their decisions. The yearly meeting holds the same relative position to the quarterly meetings that the latter do to the monthly meetings, and has the general superintendence of the Society in a particular country." “整個社會的朋友是仿照有所長老制度。三個層次的含義或synods -每月,每季度和每年-管理事務的社會,包括在其監督事項都精神紀律和世俗的政策。每月的會議,由所有的教會內的一個明確的電路,法官的健身新的候選國,供應證書,如移動到其他地區,選擇合適的人是長者,觀看了省,企圖改革或宣布驅逐所有,如步行無序,一般尋求刺激成員的宗教責任。他們還作出規定,窮人的社會,並確保教育自己的孩子。監察也獲委任為協助推動這些物體。在每月的會議還批准的婚姻是以前他們儀式的一次會議上的崇拜。若干撰寫每月的會議季度會議上,它們一般報告提出的條件,並在上訴聽到他們的決定。年度會議持有同樣的相對位置的季度會議,後者做每月的會議,並已普遍監督協會在某一國家。 “ (See Rowntree, Quakerism, Past and Present, p. 60.) (見朗特里, Quakerism ,過去和現在,第60頁。 )

All the yearly meetings are supreme and independent, the only bond of union between them being the circular letters which pass between them.所有的年度會議是最高和獨立的,唯一的債券工會正在它們之間的通函,其中它們之間傳遞。 The annual letter of London Yearly Meeting is particularly prized.一年一度的信每年的倫敦會議是特別珍貴。 With the passing away of its founders and the cessation of persecution, Quakerism lost its missionary spirit and hardened into a narrow and exclusive sect.隨著逝世其創始人和停止迫害, Quakerism失去了其傳教的精神和硬化成一個狹隘和排他性節。 Instead of attracting new converts, it developed a mania for enforcing "discipline", and "disowned", that is, expelled, multitudes of its members for trifling matters in which the ordinary conscience could discern no moral offence.而不是吸引新的轉換,它開發出一種狂熱執行“紀律”和“否認” ,即驅逐,眾多的成員瑣碎事項,其中普通良知可以看出沒有道德的罪行。 In consequence, they dwindled away from year to year, being gradually absorbed by other more vigorous sects, and many drifting into Unitarianism.因此,他們遠離減少每年,正在逐步吸收其他更有力的教派,許多漂流到Unitarianism 。

In the United States, where, in the beginning of the last century, they had eight prosperous yearly meetings, their progress was arrested by two schisms, known as the Separation of 1828 and the Wilburite Controversy.在美國,在那裡,在年初的上個世紀,他們有8個繁榮的年度會議,他們的進步逮捕了兩名分裂,稱為1828年的分離和Wilburite爭議。 The disturbance of 1828 was occasioned by the preaching of Elias Hicks (1748-1830), an eloquent and extremely popular speaker, who, in his later years, put forth unsound views concerning the Person and work of Christ.干擾是1828年所引起宣揚埃利亞斯希克斯( 1748年至1830年) ,雄辯地和極為流行的發言,誰在他的晚年,提出不合理的意見和工作的人是耶穌。 He was denounced as a Unitarian; and, although the charge seemed well founded, many adhered to him, not so much from partaking his theological heresies, as to protest against the excessive power and influence claimed by the elders and overseers.他譴責作為一個統一; ,雖然收費似乎很有道理,許多他的堅持,不是從神學partaking他的邪說,以抗議過多的權力和影響力所主張的老人和監督員。 After several years of wrangling, the Friends were split into two parties, the Orthodox and the Hicksite, each disowning the other, and claiming to be the original society.經過幾年的爭吵之友被分成兩方,東正教和Hicksite ,每個disowning另一方面,和自稱是原始的社會。 Ten years later the Orthodox body was again divided by the opposition of John Wilbur to the evangelistic methods of an English missionary, Joseph John Gurney. 10年後的東正教的屍體被再次除以反對約翰威爾伯的福音方法的英文傳教士,約瑟夫約翰格尼。 As the main body of the Orthodox held with Gurney, the Wilburite faction set up a schismatic yearly meeting.為主體的東正教舉行格尼的Wilburite派成立了一個分裂的年度會議。 These schisms endure to the present day.這些分裂忍受到今天。 There is also a microscopical sect known as "Primitive" Friends, mainly offshoots from the Wilburites who claim to have eliminated all the later additions to the faith and practice of the early founders of the society.還有一個顯微節被稱為“原始之友” ,主要分支從Wilburites誰聲稱已取消所有後來補充的信仰和實踐的早期創始人的社會。

In the fields of education, charity, and philanthropy the Friends have occupied a place far out of proportion to their numbers.領域的教育,慈善,和慈善之友已佔領的地方遠不成比例,他們的人數。 There exist in the United States many important colleges of their foundation.存在著在美國的許多重要大學的基礎。 They are exemplary in the care of their poor and sick.他們是模範的關心他們的窮人和病人。 Long before the other denominations, they denounced slavery and would not permit any of their members to own slaves.早在其他教派,他們譴責奴役,也不會允許任何其成員以自己的奴隸。 They did not, however, advocate the abolition of slavery by violent measures.他們沒有,但是,主張廢除奴隸制的暴力的措施。 They have also been eminently solicitous for the welfare and fair treatment of the Indians. According to Dr. HK Carroll, the acknowledged authority on the subject of religious statistics (The Christian Advocate, Jan., 1907), the standing of the various branches of Friends in the United States is as follows:他們還十分熱心的福利和公平待遇的印度人。博士港元,卡羅爾公認的權威受到宗教統計(基督教代言人, 1月, 1907年) ,常委會各部門的在美國朋友如下:

Orthodox: 1302 ministers, 830 churches, 94,507 communicants東正教: 1302部長, 830教堂, 94507聖餐

Hicksite: 115 ministers, 183 churches, 19,545 communicants Hicksite : 115名部長, 183個教堂, 19545聖餐

Wilburite: 38 ministers, 53 churches, 4,468 communicants Wilburite : 38個部長, 53個教堂, 4468聖餐

Primitive: 11 ministers, 9 churches, 232 communicants原始: 11個部長, 9教堂, 232聖餐

Publication information Written by James F. Loughlin.出版信息撰稿:詹姆斯F Loughlin 。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.轉錄由托馬斯J Bress 。天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年九月一日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

SCHAFF, Creeds and Christendom (New York, 1884), I, III; THOMAS, ALLAN C. AND RICHARD H., History of the Society of Friends in America in American Church History Series (New York, 1894), XII--contains excellent bibliography; SMITH, JOSEPH, Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books (London, 1867; supplement, London, 1893); IDEM, Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, A Catalogue of Books Adverse to the Society of Friends (London, 1873); JANNEY, History of the Religious Society of Friends from the Rise to the year 1828 (2nd ed., Philadelphia, 1837-50).沙夫,信仰和基督教(紐約, 1884年) ,第一,第三;托馬斯,玉C.和理查德史之友協會在美國在美國教會歷史系列(紐約, 1894年) ,第十二章-載出色的書目;史密斯,約瑟夫,描述目錄之友'的書籍(倫敦, 1867年;補充,倫敦, 1893年) ;同上,書目反Quakeriana ,目錄圖書的不良之友協會(倫敦, 1873年) ; JANNEY ,歷史宗教之友協會從興起到1828年(第二版。 ,費城, 1837年至1850年) 。 The Works of FOX were published at London, 1694-1706; the Works of BARCLAY were edited by WILLIAM PENN (London, 1692).該工程的福克斯是在倫敦出版, 1694年至1706年的作品巴克利被編輯威廉佩恩(倫敦, 1692 ) 。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在