Puritanism, Puritans清教主義,清教徒

General Information 一般信息

Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants within the Church of England who thought the English Reformation had not gone far enough in reforming the doctrines and structure of the church; they wanted to purify their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence. In the 17th century many Puritans emigrated to the New World, where they sought to found a holy Commonwealth in New England.清教徒的名稱在16世紀的更極端的新教徒的英格蘭教會誰認為英格蘭宗教改革並沒有遠遠不夠,改革的理論和結構的教堂,他們希望淨化本國教堂,消除每一絲一毫天主教的影響力。在17世紀的許多清教徒移居到新的世界,在那裡他們設法找到了神聖的英聯邦在新英格蘭地區。 Puritanism remained the dominant cultural force in that area into the 19th century.清教仍然佔主導地位的文化力量在這一領域進入19世紀。

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English Puritanism英國清教

Associated exclusively with no single theology or definition of the church (although many were Calvinists), the English Puritans were known at first for their extremely critical attitude regarding the religious compromises made during the reign of Elizabeth I. Many of them were graduates of Cambridge University, and they became Anglican priests to make changes in their local churches.美聯社完全沒有單一的神學或定義的教堂(雖然許多人加爾文教派) ,英文清教徒被稱為第一次在他們的極端危急的態度就妥協了宗教統治期間的伊麗莎白一世其中許多畢業生劍橋大學和他們成為英國聖公會牧師,以改變當地的教堂。 They encouraged direct personal religious experience, sincere moral conduct, and simple worship services.他們鼓勵直接個人宗教經驗,真誠的品行,和簡單的禮拜服務。 Worship was the area in which Puritans tried to change things most; their efforts in that direction were sustained by intense theological convictions and definite expectations about how seriously Christianity should be taken as the focus of human existence.崇拜是在這方面清教徒試圖改變的東西最;他們朝著這個方向努力是持續的激烈的神學信念和一定的期望如何認真基督教應採取的重點人類的生存。

After James I became king of England in 1603, Puritan leaders asked him to grant several reforms.在詹姆斯一世成為英國國王在1603年,清教徒的領導人要求他給予一些改革。 At the Hampton Court Conference (1604), however, he rejected most of their proposals, which included abolition of bishops.在漢普頓法院會議( 1604 ) ,然而,他拒絕了大部分的建議,其中包括廢除主教。 Puritanism, best expressed by William Ames and later by Richard Baxter, gained much popular support early in the 17th century.清教,最佳威廉表示艾姆斯,後來由理查德巴克斯特,獲得許多民眾的支持早在17世紀。 The government and the church hierarchy, however, especially under Archbishop William Laud, became increasingly repressive, causing many Puritans to emigrate.政府和教會等級制度,但是,尤其是在大主教威廉勞德,成為越來越多的鎮壓,造成許多清教徒移民。 Those who remained formed a powerful element within the parliamentarian party that defeated Charles I in the English Civil War.這些誰仍然形成了強大的因素在黨的議員擊敗查爾斯一世在英國內戰。 After the war the Puritans remained dominant in England until 1660, but they quarreled among themselves (Presbyterian dominance gave way to Independent, or congregational, control under Oliver Cromwell) and proved even more intolerant than the old hierarchy.戰爭結束後仍清教徒在英國佔主導地位,直到1660年,但它們彼此之間的爭吵(長老統治地位讓位給了獨立,或公理,控制下奧利弗克倫威爾) ,並證明了更加寬容比舊的等級制度。 The restoration of the monarchy (1660) also restored Anglicanism, and the Puritan clergy were expelled from the Church of England under the terms of the Act of Uniformity (1662). Thereafter English Puritans were classified as Nonconformists.恢復君主立憲制( 1660 )也恢復Anglicanism ,以及清教徒牧師被趕出英格蘭教會根據該法的條款的均勻度( 1662年) 。 此後英國清教徒被列為Nonconformists 。

American Puritanism美國清教

Early in the 17th century some Puritan groups separated from the Church of England. Among these were the Pilgrims, who in 1620 founded Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place.早在十七世紀清教徒群體一些脫離英國國教。 其中包括朝聖者,誰在1620年成立普利茅斯殖民地。 10年後的主持下,馬薩諸塞灣公司,第一大清教徒移民到了新英格蘭地點。 The Puritans brought strong religious impulses to bear in all colonies north of Virginia, but New England was their stronghold, and the Congregationalist churches established there were able to perpetuate their viewpoint about a Christian society for more than 200 years.清教徒帶來了強大的宗教衝動承擔一切殖民地弗吉尼亞州北部,但新英格蘭是他們的據點,並公理會教堂設在那裡能夠延續他們的觀點對基督教社會超過200年。

Richard Mather and John Cotton provided clerical leadership in the dominant Puritan colony planted on Massachusetts Bay.理查德馬瑟和約翰棉花提供宗教領袖在佔主導地位的清教徒殖民地種植馬薩諸塞州灣。 Thomas Hooker was an example of those who settled new areas farther west according to traditional Puritan standards.托馬斯胡克是一個例子,誰解決這些新的西部地區更遠按照傳統清教徒標準。 Even though he broke with the authorities of the Massachusetts colony over questions of religious freedom, Roger Williams was also a true Puritan in his zeal for personal godliness and doctrinal correctness.雖然他打破了當局在馬薩諸塞州的殖民地問題的宗教信仰自由,威廉斯是一個真正的清教徒在他的熱情為個人信仰和理論的正確性。 Most of these men held ideas in the mainstream of Calvinistic thought. In addition to believing in the absolute sovereignty of God, the total depravity of man, and the complete dependence of human beings on divine grace for salvation, they stressed the importance of personal religious experience. These Puritans insisted that they, as God's elect, had the duty to direct national affairs according to God's will as revealed in the Bible.大多數這些人的想法舉行的主流加爾文思想。 除了相信絕對主權的上帝,總有墮落的人,完全依賴於人的神聖恩典得救,他們強調個人的重要性宗教經驗。這些清教徒堅持認為,他們作為上帝的選舉,有責任向國家事務的直接根據天意顯示在聖經。 This union of church and state to form a holy commonwealth gave Puritanism direct and exclusive control over most colonial activity until commercial and political changes forced them to relinquish it at the end of the 17th century.這個工會的教會和國家形成一個神聖的英聯邦了清教直接和完全控制了大部分的殖民活動,直到商業和政治的變化迫使他們放棄它在17世紀末。

Because of its diffuse nature, when Puritanism began to decline in America is difficult to say.由於其瀰漫性的,當清教開始下降在美國很難說。 Some would hold that it lost its influence in New England by the early 18th century, but Jonathan Edwards and his able disciple Samuel Hopkins revived Puritan thought and kept it alive until 1800.有些人會認為它失去了它的影響力在新英格蘭地區的18世紀初,但喬納森愛德華茲和他的弟子能夠塞繆爾霍普金斯恢復清教徒思想和保持它活著,直到1800年。 Others would point to the gradual decline in power of Congregationalism, but Presbyterians under the leadership of Jonathan Dickinson and Baptists led by the example of Isaac Backus (1724 - 1806) revitalized Puritan ideals in several denominational forms through the 18th century.其他人則指出,在逐漸下降的力量公理,但長老的領導下,喬納森迪金森和浸禮會為首的例子艾薩克巴科斯( 1724年至1806年)振興清教徒理想在幾個教會的形式通過18世紀。

During the whole colonial period Puritanism had direct impact on both religious thought and cultural patterns in America.在整個殖民時期的清教已直接影響到這兩個宗教思想和文化模式在美國。 In the 19th century its influence was indirect, but it can still be seen at work stressing the importance of education in religious leadership and demanding that religious motivations be tested by applying them to practical situations.在19世紀的影響是間接的,但它仍然可以看到在工作中強調教育的重要性,在宗教領袖,並要求宗教動機進行測試運用他們的實際情況。

Henry Warner Bowden亨利華納鮑登

Bibliography 目錄
S Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self (1975); S Brachlow, The Communion of Saints (1988); C Cohen, God's Caress: The Psychology of the Puritan Religious Experience (1986); P Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (1967); W Haller, The Rise of Puritanism (1938); CE Hambrick - Stowe, The Practice of Piety (1982); C Hill, Puritanism and Revolution (1967); RD Kendall, The Drama of Dissent 1986); P Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (1982); P Miller, The New England Mind (1939, 1953); ES Morgan, Visible Saints: The History of a Puritan Idea (1963); SE Prall, ed., The Puritan Revolution: A Documentary History (1968); DB Ruttman, American Puritanism: Faith and Practice (1970); A Simpson, Puritanism in Old and New England (1955); LJ Trinterud, ed., Elizabethan Puritanism (1971); H Trevor - Roper, Catholics, Anglicans, and Puritans (1988); D Wallace, ed., The Spirituality of the Later English Puritans: An Anthology (1988).這是一種為了滿足Bercovitch ,清教徒的起源自美國( 1975年) ;語Brachlow ,該交流的聖徒( 1988年) ; ç科恩,上帝的愛撫:心理學清教徒宗教經驗( 1986年) ; P哥,伊麗莎白清教徒運動( 1967年) ; W哈勒的興起清教( 1938 ) ;行政長官漢姆布瑞克-斯托,實踐孝道( 1 982年) ; ç山,清教主義和革命( 1 967年) ;路肯德爾,戲劇異議1 986年) ; P湖,適度清教徒和伊麗莎白教堂( 1982年) ; P米勒,新英格蘭心靈( 1939年, 1953年) ;胚胎幹摩根,可見聖人:歷史的清教徒思想( 1963年) ;東南Prall ,編輯。 ,清教徒革命:一種紀錄片的歷史( 1968年) ;數據庫Ruttman ,美國清教:信仰與實踐( 1970年) ;阿辛普森,清教在舊和新英格蘭( 1955年) ;軍Trinterud ,編輯。 ,伊麗莎白清教( 1971 ) ; H特雷弗-羅佩爾,天主教徒,英國聖公會和清教徒( 1988年) ; D華萊士版。 ,在精神的英文後來清教徒:文選( 1988年) 。


Puritanism清教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Puritanism was a loosely organized reform movement originating during the English Reformation of the sixteenth century.清教是一個組織鬆散的改革運動源於英文在改革的16世紀。 The name came from efforts to "purify" the Church of England by those who felt that the Reformation had not yet been completed.的名稱來自努力,以“淨化”英格蘭教會的人誰認為,改革尚未完成。 Eventually the Puritans went on to attempt purification of the self and society as well.最終,清教徒又企圖淨化自我和社會以及。

History歷史

The theological roots of Puritanism may be found in continental Reformed theology, in a native dissenting tradition stretching back to John Wycliffe and the Lollards, but especially in the theological labors of first - generation English reformers.神學根源清教可能會發現在大陸歸正神學,在本地持反對意見的傳統可追溯到約翰威克里夫和Lollards ,尤其是在神學勞動者的第一-新一代英語改革者。 From William Tyndale (d. 1536) the Puritans took an intense commitment to Scripture and a theology which emphasized the concept of covenant; from John Knox they absorbed a dedication to thorough reform in church and state; and from John Hooper (d. 1555) they received a determined conviction that Scripture should regulate ecclesiastical structure and personal behavior alike.從威廉代爾(草1536 )清教徒發生了濃厚的承諾,聖經和神學,強調概念的契約,從約翰諾克斯吸收了他們的奉獻精神,以徹底改革的教會和國家;和約翰胡珀(草1555 )他們收到了決心的信念,即規範聖經教會結構和個人行為都。

Puritans achieved a measure of public acceptance in the early years of Queen Elizabeth's reign.清教徒取得了一定的公眾接受在最初幾年的女王伊麗莎白二世的統治地位。 They then suffered a series of reverses that lasted through the reigns of her successors James I and Charles I.然後,他們遭受了一系列挫折通過持續的統治,她的繼任者詹姆斯一世和查爾斯一 In the days of James I some Puritans grew discouraged about their reforming efforts and separated entirely from the Church of England. These Separates included the "Pilgrims," who after a sojourn in Holland established in 1620 the Plymouth Colony in what is now southeastern Massachusetts.在兩天的詹姆斯一世一些清教徒增長勸阻他們的改革努力和失散完全由英格蘭教會。列入這些分開的“朝聖者, ”誰在逗留在荷蘭成立於1620年的普利茅斯殖民地現在的馬薩諸塞州東南部。

When Charles I attempted to rule England without Parliament and its many Puritan members, and when he tried systematically to root Puritans out of the English church, a larger, less separatistic body emigrated to Massachusetts Bay (1630), where for the first time Puritans had the opportunity to construct churches and a society reflecting their grasp of the word of God.當查爾斯一世企圖統治英格蘭的議會和它的許多清教徒的成員,當他試圖系統地根清教徒的英語教堂,大,身體不太分裂移居馬薩諸塞州灣( 1630 ) ,其中首次清教徒了有機會建造的教堂和社會反映其掌握單詞的上帝。 In England other Puritans continued the struggle for reform.在英國清教徒其他的鬥爭繼續進行改革。 When war with Scotland forced Charles I to recall Parliament in 1640, civil war was the ultimate result.當戰爭與蘇格蘭查爾斯一世被迫召回議會在1640年,內戰是最終結果。

That conflict ended with the execution of the king (1649), the rise of Oliver Cromwell to the protectorate of England, the production of the Westminster Confession and Catechisms, and the erection of a Puritan Commonwealth.衝突結束時,執行國王( 1649年) ,崛起的奧利弗克倫威爾的保護,英國生產的韋斯敏斯德和Catechisms ,並豎立一個清教徒英聯邦。 Yet Cromwell, for all his abilities, found it impossible to establish a Puritan state.然而,克倫威爾,他的所有的能力,認為不可能建立一個清教徒的狀態。 After his death (1658), the people of England asked the son of Charles I to return, a restoration marking the collapse of organized Puritanism in England.在他死後( 1658年) ,人民的要求英格蘭的兒子查爾斯一世返回,標誌著恢復崩潰的組織在英格蘭清教。 Across the Atlantic a vital Puritanism survived only a little longer.大西洋彼岸的一個重要清教只存活一段時間。 By the time of Cotton Mather (d. 1728) Indian warfare, the loss of the original Massachusetts charter, and a growing secularization had brought an end to Puritanism as a way of life in America.的時候,棉花奧美(草1728 )印度的戰爭中,失去了原來的馬薩諸塞州包機,越來越世俗化已經結束了清教作為一種生活方式在美國。

Convictions信念

Puritanism generally extended the thought of the English Reformation, with distinctive emphases on four convictions: (1) that personal salvation was entirely from God, (2) that the Bible provided the indispensable guide to life, (3) that the church should reflect the express teaching of Scripture, and (4) that society was one unified whole.清教普遍延長了思想改造的英語, 具有鮮明的重點在四個信念: ( 1 ) ,個人得救完全是上帝, ( 2 )聖經提供了不可缺少的生活指南, ( 3 ) ,教會應該反映教學中表示聖經, ( 4 ) ,社會是一個統一的整體。

The Puritans believed that humankind was utterly dependent upon God for salvation. With their predecessors in England and with Luther and Calvin they believed that reconciliation with God came as a gift of his grace received by faith. 清教徒認為,人類完全依賴上帝救贖。隨著他們的前輩在英格蘭和路德和卡爾文他們認為,和解與上帝來作為禮物送給他的寬限期收到的誠意。 They were Augustinians who regarded humans as sinners, unwilling and unable to meet the demands, or to enjoy the fellowship, of a righteous God apart from God's gracious initiative.他們是誰奧古斯丁認為人類的罪人,不願和不能滿足要求,或享受獎學金,一個正義的上帝除了上帝的仁慈的倡議。

But Puritans also made distinctive contributions to the general Reformed idea of salvation.但是,清教徒也作了獨特的貢獻,改革的總體構想得救。 They advocated a "plain style" of preaching, as exemplified in the masterful sermons of John Dod (1555 - 1645) and William Perkins (1558 - 1602), which was consciously designed to point out simply the broad way of destruction and the strait gate to heaven. They also placed a new emphasis on the process of conversion.他們主張一個“平式”的說教,如在高超的說教約翰國防部( 1555年至1645年)和威廉帕金斯( 1558年至1602年) ,這是自覺旨在指出簡單的方式廣泛的破壞和兩岸門天堂。他們也把新的重點放在過程的轉換。 In the journals and diaries of leaders like Thomas Shepard (1605 - 49) they charted the slow, and often painful, process by which God brought them from rebellion to obedience.在期刊和日記類似的領導人托馬斯謝帕德( 1605年至1649年) ,他們繪製了緩慢,而且往往是痛苦的,過程,上帝把他們從反叛到服從。 They also spoke of salvation in terms of "covenant." In the notes to the Geneva Bible, the translation of proto - Puritans completed during the reign of Mary Tudor, emphasis was on a personal covenant of grace, whereby God both promised life to those who exercised faith in Christ and graciously provided that faith, on the basis of Christ's sacrificial death, to the elect.他們還以拯救在“公約” 。注意到在日內瓦聖經,翻譯原-完成清教徒時期的瑪麗都鐸,強調的是個人契約的寬限期,即上帝都答應向那些生活誰行使在基督信仰和慷慨地提供了這種信心的基礎上,基督的犧牲死亡,給選舉。

Later Puritans expanded the idea of covenant to take in the organization of churches, seen most clearly in the rise of Congregationalism (or Independency) and the structuring of all society under God, of which the "Holy Commonwealths" of Massachusetts and Connecticut were the major examples.後來擴大清教徒的想法,採取契約的組織教堂,看到最清楚的崛起公理(或獨立性)和構建全社會上帝之下,其中的“神聖英聯邦”的馬薩諸塞州和康涅狄格州的主要例子。

With the early English Reformers the Puritans believed, second, in the supreme authority of the Bible. The use of Scripture, however, soon came to be a great cause of offense between Puritans and their Anglican opponents and among Puritans themselves.隨著早期英語改革者清教徒認為,第二次,在最高權威的聖經。使用聖經,但很快就被偉大的事業之間的進攻清教徒和他們的英國聖公會的對手,他們之間的清教徒。 Puritans, Anglicans, and the many in between all believed in the Bible's final authority. But Puritans came to argue that Christians should do only what the Bible commanded.清教徒,英國聖公會,和許多之間都認為聖經中的最後權威。 但是,清教徒來到認為,基督徒應該做的只是聖經指揮。 Anglicans contended rather that Christians should not do what the Bible prohibited. The difference was subtle but profound. 聖公會爭辯相反,基督徒不應該做聖經禁止。區別是微妙而深刻的。 Among Puritans considerable differences eventually appeared over what Scripture demanded, especially in questions relating to the church.在清教徒相當大的差異最終出現什麼聖經要求,特別是在有關教堂。

Some (mostly in England) contended for a presbyterian state - church organization, others (in Massachusetts and Connecticut) supported a congregational organization in league with the state, while still others (English Independents and Baptists as well as Roger Williams in New England) believed that the Bible mandated congregational churches separate from the state.一些國家(主要在英國)爭辯的長老狀態-教會組織,其他人(在馬薩諸塞州和康涅狄格州)支持公理組織在聯賽的狀態,同時還有(英文獨立和浸禮會以及威廉斯在新英格蘭)認為該授權公理聖經教會分開的狀態。 In short, Puritans disagreed with Anglicans about the way to interpret the Bible, but they differed among themselves about which biblical interpretations were best. The former disagreement dominated English religious life so long as the king and his episcopalian allies were in control.總之,清教徒不同意聖公會的方式來解釋聖經,但它們彼此之間的分歧哪些聖經的解釋最好。前者佔主導地位的分歧英語的宗教生活,只要國王和他的聖公會盟國的控制權。 The latter came to the fore after the success of the Puritan Revolution, and it led to the disintegration of Puritanism in England.後者來到後前成功的清教徒革命,它導致了解體的清教在英格蘭。

These disagreements should not hide the Puritans' overriding commitment to the authority of Scripture. They made as serious an attempt as has ever been made in the English - speaking world to establish their lives on the basis of biblical instruction. When Puritan efforts to reform the kingdom of England faltered in the last years of Elizabeth's reign, they turned to the one sphere they could still control, their individual families.這些分歧不應掩蓋清教徒'壓倒一切的承諾權威的聖經。 他們為嚴重的,企圖作為曾經在英國-講的世界建立自己的生活的基礎上,聖經的指示。當清教徒努力改革英國英格蘭動搖在過去幾年裡伊麗莎白的統治地位,他們把一個領域,他們仍然可以控制,其個人的家庭。 It was during this period around 1600 that Puritans began to place new emphasis on the sabbath, to revive family worship, and to encourage personal acts of mercy to the sick and dying.這是在此期間,圍繞1600年的清教徒開始發生新的重點放在安息日,恢復家庭禮拜,並鼓勵個人行為的憐憫的生病和死亡。 When Puritan prospects brightened in the 164os, this "spiritualization of the household" emerged into the open.當清教徒前景光明的164os ,這個“ spiritualization家庭”出現公開化。

Puritans believed, third, that the church should be organized from Scripture. Anglicans contended that episcopacy, since it was tried and tested by time and did not violate any command of Scripture, was a godly and appropriate way of organizing the church. 清教徒認為,第三,教會應該是舉辦聖經。聖公會主教爭辯說,因為它是經得起考驗的時候,並沒有違反任何命令的聖經,是一個虔誠和適當的方式來組織教會。 Puritans responded that the defenders of episcopacy missed the point, for they neglected to follow the positive teachings of the Bible. Puritans argued that Scripture laid down specific rules for constructing and governing churches.清教徒回答說,捍衛主教錯過了點,因為他們忽視了後續的積極教義的聖經。清教徒認為聖經放下具體規則的建設和管理的教堂。 Furthermore, the Bible taught a system of church order that was not based on bishops.此外,聖經教系統的教會秩序,不是基於主教。 Puritans maintained this conviction even when they failed among themselves to agree on what that biblical system was.清教徒保持這種信念,即使它們彼此之間沒有達成什麼聖經系統。 But even these disagreements were fruitful, for they grounded the modern polity of Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Baptists as well.但是,即使這些分歧是富有成果的,因為他們立足現代政體的長老,公理和浸禮會的。

The reason that Puritan beliefs concerning salvation, Scripture, and the church created such upheaval was their fourth basic conviction, that God had sanctioned the solidarity of society. Most Puritans believed that a single, coordinated set of authorities should govern life in society.之所以清教徒信仰得救,聖經和教會建立這種動亂是他們的第四個基本信念, 上帝已經批准了團結的社會。大部分清教徒認為,一個單一的,協調的一套管理當局應社會生活。 The result was that Puritans sought nothing less than to make all England Puritan. Only late during the Puritan Commonwealth did ideas of toleration and of what is known today as pluralism arise, but these ideas were combated by most Puritans themselves and firmly set to rest for another generation by the restoration of Charles II.其結果是,清教徒尋求不亞於使所有英國清教徒。只有在後期清教徒英聯邦沒有思想的寬容和所謂多元化的今天出現,但這些想法是打擊最清教徒自己和確立休息又一代的恢復查理二世。

From a modern vantage point the intolerance entailed by a unified view of society has harmed the Puritans' reputation.從現代的角度所帶來的不容忍一個統一的社會觀已經損害了清教徒的聲譽。 From a more disinterested perspective it is possible also to see great advantages.從更無私的角度看是有可能也看到了巨大的優勢。 The Puritans succeeded in bursting the bonds of mere religiosity in their efforts to serve God.清教徒成功爆破債券僅僅是宗教在他們的努力為上帝。 Puritanism was one of the moving forces in the rise of the English Parliament in the early seventeenth century.清教是一個動人力量的崛起英文議會在17世紀初。 For good and for ill, it provided a foundation for the first great political revolution in modern times.對於好是壞,它提供了一個基礎的第一個偉大的政治革命在現代倍。 It gave immigrants to Massachusetts a social vision whose comprehensively Christian character has never been matched in America.它使移民馬薩諸塞州的社會遠景的全面性格基督教從來沒有在美國相匹配。 And, for such a putatively uncreative movement, it liberated vast energies in literature as well.而且,這樣一個近似於有點類似於運動,它解放了巨大的精力以及文學。

Notable Puritans值得注意的清教徒

The Puritans enjoyed a great number of forceful preachers and teachers.清教徒享受了大量有力的傳教士和教師。 The learned Dr. William Ames explained "the doctrine of living of God" in The Marrow of Theology, a book used as a text during the first fifty years of Harvard College.的經驗教訓威廉艾姆斯博士解釋說: “理論的生活水平上帝”在骨髓神學,一本書作為文字在第一個50年的哈佛學院。 The sermons and tracts of William Perkins outlined with sympathy the steps that a repentant sinner should take to find God.的說教和大片的威廉帕金斯與同情概述的步驟,一個懺悔的罪人應採取尋找上帝。 John Preston preached the severity of God's law and the wideness of his mercy fearlessly in the courts of James I and Charles I. John Owen, adviser to Cromwell and vice - chancellor of the University of Oxford, wrote theological treatises on the atonement and on the Holy Spirit which still influence Calvinistic thought in the English - speaking world.約翰普雷斯頓的嚴重性宣揚上帝的法律和寬度憐憫他的無畏在法庭上的詹姆斯一世和查爾斯一約翰歐文,顧問和副克倫威爾-校長牛津大學的神學論文寫的贖罪和聖靈仍然影響加爾文思想的英語-講的世界。 His contemporary, Richard Baxter, published nearly two hundred works expounding the virtues of theological moderation and the truths of what CS Lewis in the twentieth century would call "mere Christianity."他的當代,理查德巴克斯特,出版近200工程闡述了美德的節制和神學的真理是路易斯在二十世紀稱之為“僅僅是基督教。 ” In America, Boston's John Cotton labored to present God's glory in conversion, and Hartford's Thomas Hooker glorified God in the labors of the converted.在美國,波士頓的約翰棉花的工人介紹上帝的榮耀的轉換,和哈特福德的托馬斯胡克頌揚上帝的勞動者的轉換。

The Westminster Confession and Catechisms which Puritan divines wrote at the request of Parliament (1643 - 47) remain a guide to Reformed theology, especially in Presbyterian circles, to this day. 威斯敏斯特信條和Catechisms其中寫道清教徒divines的請求議會( 1643至1647年)仍是指導改革的神學,尤其是在長老會人士,這一天。 Together, the works of the Puritans comprise Protestantism's most extensive library of sacred and practical theology.同時,工程的基督教清教徒組成的最廣泛的圖書館的神聖和實際神學。

Important as the contributions of ministers were, the greatest contribution of Puritans to Christian history probably resided with its laymen.重要的貢獻,部長們,最大的貢獻清教徒基督教歷史上很可能居住的門外漢。 The English - speaking world has never seen such a cluster of thoroughly Christian political leaders as the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, the governor of Massachusetts John Winthrop, or the governor of Plymouth William Bradford.英語-講世界從未見過這樣一組徹底的基督教政治領導人作為主保護奧利弗克倫威爾的馬薩諸塞州州長約翰溫,或普利茅斯總督的布雷德福威廉。 These leaders erred, perhaps often, but they yet devoted their lives to public service, self - consciously and whole - heartedly, out of deepest gratitude to the God of their salvation.這些領導人犯了錯誤,也許經常,但他們尚未獻身公共服務,自我-自覺地和整個-全心全意,在最深切的感謝上帝給他們的救贖。

We also glimpse the genius of Puritanism when we look beyond its politicians to its writers.我們還看到了天才的清教時,我們期待超越其政治家的作家。 It is all too easy to forget that John Milton, who in Paradise Lost dared "assert Eternal Providence / And justify the ways of God to men," had earlier defended the execution of Charles I and served as Cromwell's Latin (or corresponding) secretary.這是太容易忘記,約翰彌爾頓,誰在失樂園敢“斷言永恆的普羅維登斯/和辯解的方式,以上帝的男人” ,曾辯護執行查爾斯一世,並擔任克倫威爾的拉丁美洲(或相應)的秘書。 John Bunyan served in Cromwell's army and preached as a layman during the Commonwealth before he was jailed in Bedford for his Puritan beliefs, where he redeemed the time by writing The Pilgrim's Progress.約翰本仁擔任克倫威爾的軍隊和鼓吹作為一個門外漢在英聯邦,他被關押在貝德福德他的清教徒信仰,他在贖回時,以書面的朝聖者的進步。 In America, Puritanism produced a woman poet of note in Anne Bradstreet (1616 - 72).在美國,清教製作了一個女人的詩人注意到安妮鄧白氏( 1616年至1672年) 。 It also gave us the poems of Edward Taylor (1645 - 1729), a retiring country minister.它也使我們有詩愛德華泰勒( 1645年至1729年) ,卸任的國家總理。 Taylor's meditations, composed to prepare his own heart for quarterly celebrations of the Lord's Supper, are among the finest poems ever written by an American.泰勒的冥想,準備組成自己的心臟季度慶祝上帝的晚餐,屬於有史以來最好的詩寫的是美國。

Evaluation評價

The Puritans resemble other groups in Christian history who, in forsaking all for God, have won back not only God but much of the world as well. They stand with the early Franciscans, the Protestant Reformers, the Jesuits, the Anabaptists, the early Methodists, and the Reformed Dutch of the late nineteenth century who, in their own separate ways, were transfixed by the glories of redemption and who went far in redeeming the world around themselves. With these groups the Puritans also verified the truth of the gospel words: they sought first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and much more was added to them besides.清教徒類似於其他團體在基督教歷史上誰,在放棄所有為上帝,贏得回來不僅上帝,但在世界許多地方的。 他們站在一起的早期方濟,新教改革者,耶穌的Anabaptists ,早期衛理公會和荷蘭的改革十九世紀末期誰,在自己單獨的方法,是呆若木雞的輝煌贖回,誰遠在挽救周圍的世界本身。與這些團體的清教徒也驗證真理的福音的話:他們首先尋求上帝的國和他的正氣,和更增加了他們負擔。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
EH Emerson, ed., English Puritanism from John Hooper to John Milton; D Neal, The History of the Puritans; W Haller, The Rise of Puritanism; P Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement; C Hill, Society and Puritanism in Pre - Revolutionary England; RS Paul, The Lord Protector: Religion and Politics in the Life of Oliver Cromwell; R Baxter, Reliquiae Baxterianae; P Miller and T Johnson, eds., The Puritans; FJ Bremer, The Puritan Experiment; P Miller, The New England Mind; S Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self; ES Morgan, The Puritan Family and the Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop; W Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation.高血壓艾默生,編輯。 ,英文清教從約翰胡珀將約翰米爾頓; D奧尼爾,歷史的清教徒; W哈勒的興起清教; P哥,伊麗莎白清教徒運動; ç希爾,社會和清教前-革命英格蘭;遙感保羅,主保護:宗教與政治生活中的奧利弗克倫威爾; R巴克斯特Reliquiae Baxterianae ; P米勒和T約翰遜,合編。 ,清教徒;福建布雷默,清教徒實驗; P米勒,新英格蘭心靈;語Bercovitch ,清教徒的起源自美國;胚胎幹摩根,清教徒家庭和清教徒的困境:故事約翰溫; W布拉德福德,普利茅斯種植園。


Puritans清教徒

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is to frame an exact definition capable of including the varied and sometimes mutually inconsistent forms of belief usually classified under that name.一個主要的困難在研究各種運動鬆散談到作為清教框架是一個確切的定義能包括不同的,有時相互矛盾形式的信仰通常歸入這個名字。 In its original meaning it signified "those who strove for a worship purified from all taint of popery" (Maitland, op. cit. inf., 590).在其原來的含義它標誌著“誰力求一個禮拜純化所有污點popery ” (梅特蘭,同前。書的。 inf 。 , 590 ) 。 A more recent writer adopting and expanding this definition adds: "The many various sects and persons who fall under this definition, were usually characterized both by an aversion from gaiety and by a passionate love of civic freedom" (Trevelyan, op. cit. inf., 60).最近的一個作家通過和擴大這一定義補充說: “許多不同教派的人誰屬於這個定義,特點通常都厭惡的歡樂和一個熱愛自由的公民” (廉,同前。書的。 inf 。 , 60 ) 。 We may see the first beginnings of English Puritanism in the attitude of those who in 1563 entered into the "Vestiarian Controversy" by opposing the use, by the clergy, of the cap and gown in daily life and of the surplice in church.我們可能會看到的第一個開始在英國清教的態度是誰在1563年進入“ Vestiarian爭議”的反對使用,由神職人員,在帽子和袍子在日常生活和教堂法衣的。 English exiles from Geneva were active in the cause, and by 1565 their resistance to the queen's wishes subjected some of them to loss of benefices.英語從日內瓦流亡者積極參與的原因,以及他們的抵抗第1565號女王的願望受到一些人的損失benefices 。 This controversy of rights and vestments developed into a controversy of polity, until Presbyterianism emerged in antagonism to Episcopalianism.這爭議的權利和法衣已發展成為一個爭議的政體,直到長老會出現在對抗Episcopalianism 。 Yet in the process the movement developed on such divergent lines that Puritanism soon included three different theories of Church government.然而,在這一進程中的流動等發達國家不同的線,盡快清教包括三種不同的理論,教會的政府。 First there were the moderates who were willing to retain government by bishops, though they preferred the title "superintendent", but who wished the usages of the Establishment to conform more nearly to Genevan practices.首先有溫和派誰願意保留政府的主教,但他們更傾向於標題為“院長” ,但誰希望慣例的建立,以符合更接近Genevan做法。 Those who held this system were in agreement with the Scottish Presbyterianism which had been established by John Knox.這些誰該系統舉行了協議,蘇格蘭長老會已設立的約翰諾克斯。 Secondly there were the strict Presbyterians who wished for the Calvinistic form of government as well as the theology and order of worship.第二有嚴格的長老誰願意為加爾文的政府形式以及神學和秩序的崇拜。 In England the movement was led by Thomas Cartwright of Cambridge, whose doctrine that there should be equality of authority and that bishop and presbyter were all one was soon adopted in Scotland.在英格蘭的運動是由托馬斯卡特賴特的劍橋大學,他的理論,應當有平等的權力和主教和牧師都是一個很快通過在蘇格蘭。 Thirdly there were the Free Churchmen or Independents who repudiated all coercive power in the Church and wished all men to be free in forming congregations.第三有自由教會或獨立誰否定所有的強制力,在教會,並希望所有的人是免費的形成頒授學位。 Their leader was Robert Brown, whose followers were at first persecuted by Anglicans and Presbyterians alike, but whose descendants grew in power and influence until under Oliver Cromwell they became the predominant party.他們的領導人是羅伯特布朗,他的追隨者在第一次被迫害聖公會和長老一樣,但其後代成長的權力和影響下,直到奧利弗克倫威爾他們成為主要的政黨。

The three bodies differed from one another in doctrine, in ecclesiastical polity, and in their view of toleration.這三具屍體從一個不同的另一學說,在教會的政體,並在他們認為的寬容。 The strength of Puritanism as common to these three bodies lay in the results effected by the general study of the Bible, in which the Puritans learned the relations of man with God as exemplified in the histories and parables of Holy Writ.強度的清教作為共同的這三個機構奠定基礎的結果,由一般性研究聖經,其中的經驗教訓清教徒的關係人與神的例子在歷史和寓言的聖經。 This private study of the Scriptures was carried on by the aid of private interpretation which inevitably resulted in the multiplication of minor sects such as Fifth Monarchy men, Levellers, Diggers, and others.這私人研究聖經是由私人援助解釋這不可避免地造成了未成年人乘法教派,如第五君主立憲制的男子,平等派,掘,等等。 Thus Puritanism could never attain a recognized dogmatic system.因此,清教決不可能實現一個公認的教條式系統。 At first it shared many Calvinistic views with the theologians of the Established Church, but these were abandoned by some and Calvin's doctrines were rejected first by the Baptists and afterwards by the Quakers and the Unitarians.首先它有許多共同的看法加爾文的神學家成立的教會,但這些被遺棄的一些和Calvin的理論第一次被否決的浸禮會和以後的誼和Unitarians 。 However, the lack of a consistent theology was the less felt because of the great stress which the Puritans laid upon "serving God in spirit and in truth" - by feeling and conduct rather than by doctrine.但是,由於缺乏一致的神學是因為感覺不到的巨大壓力清教徒規定對“上帝的服務精神和真理” -通過感情和行為,而不是理論。 This spirit is most pronounced in the Puritan works which achieved the highest popularity: Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress", George Fox's "Journal", Thomas Ellwood's "History of My Own Life" and Baxter's "Saint's Everlasting Rest".這種精神是最明顯的清教徒工程,取得最高的受歡迎程度:本仁的“朝聖者的進展” ,喬治福克斯的“日報” ,托馬斯埃爾伍德的“歷史的我自己的生活”和巴克斯特的“聖的永恆的休息” 。 In matters of Church government some kind of system became necessary and the Scottish Presbyterians evolved a plan, embodied in the First Book of Discipline which had been drawn up in the Edinburgh Assembly of 1560, and which was concerned chiefly with the congregation itself.在教會的事項政府某種形式的系統成為必要和蘇格蘭長老發展計劃,體現在第一本書的學科已制定了在愛丁堡大會1560年,這主要是關注與聚集本身。 This was supplemented by the Second Book of Discipline of 1578 which regulated the dependence of the congregation on the higher courts.這是補充的第二次圖書學科的1578其中規定了依賴眾的更高一級的法院。 By it Presbyterianism was fully established; for the superintendents were abolished and all authority was transferred from individual ministers to four bodies, the Kirk Session, the Presbytery, the Provincial Synod, and the General Assembly.由長老是完全建立;的警長被廢除,所有的權力移交個別部長四個機構,柯克會議上,長老會,省議會和大會。

The English Puritans regarded this system from two diametrically opposed points of view.英國清教徒認為,這個系統從兩個截然相反的觀點。 It was approved by the Presbyterians and condemned by the Independents. But for a time they were kept united by the common necessity of opposing the alliance between the High Church party and the Crown which took place under James I. The struggle became political, and the Arminianism, Episcopalianism, and divine right of the sovereign maintained by the one party were opposed by the Calvinism, Presbyterianism, and Republicanism of the other.這是批准的長老和譴責的獨立。但是有一段時間他們保持團結的必要性,共同反對同盟之間的高級教會黨和皇冠發生根據詹姆斯一,成為政治鬥爭,以及亞米紐斯主義, Episcopalianism ,和神聖的權利,維護主權的一方是反對的加爾文主義,長老,以及共和其他。 When the enactments of the Long Parliament had resulted in victory for the Puritans, their own internal differences clamoured for settlement and the Westminster Assembly of 1643 was an unsuccessful attempt at composing them.當頒布的長期議會造成了勝利,清教徒,他們自己的內部分歧的解決叫囂和威斯敏斯特大會1643是一個失敗的嘗試,撰寫他們。 The four parties, Moderate Presbyterians, Scottish Presbyterians, Erastians, and Independents having quarrelled fiercely, agreed on a compromise favouring the Moderates.這四個政黨,適度長老,蘇格蘭長老, Erastians ,並具有獨立激烈爭吵,同意一項妥協有利於溫和。 The Presbyterians, however, gradually lost ground, owing to the growing power of the Independents who had the strong support of Cromwell and his army.該長老然而,漸漸失去了地面,由於不斷增長的電力的獨立了誰的大力支持下克倫威爾和他的軍隊。 They in their turn were destroyed as a political power by the Restoration, since when Puritanism ceased to be a force in England under that name, and survived only in the various Nonconformist sects which have increased and multiplied in number down to the present day, without, however, any augmentation of collective strength.他們又在其被摧毀作為一個政治權力的恢復,因為當清教不再是英格蘭隊根據該名稱,只有在生存的各種異己教派有成倍增加的數量下降到目前的一天,而不然而,任何增加的集體力量。 Many of these bodies have long ceased to represent Puritanism in any respect save that of dissent from the Established Church.許多這些機構已不再代表清教在任何方面節省的持不同政見從成立教會。 One of the most picturesque incidents in the history of Puritanism and one of far reaching influence on subsequent American history was the departure of the "Pilgrim Fathers" - seventy-four English Puritans and twenty-eight women - who sailed from England in the May Flower and landed on Plymouth Rock, 25 December, 1620.其中最風景如畫的事件歷史上的清教之一深遠影響以後的美國歷史上是離開的“朝聖者們” -7 4英國清教徒和2 008年婦女-誰從英國航行在5月花並降落在普利茅斯搖滾, 1620年十二月二十五日。 There they founded a colony, representing both types, the Plymouth colony being Congregationalists, the Massachusetts Bay settlers, Presbyterians.他們在那裡建立一個殖民地,代表這兩種類型,在普利茅斯殖民地的公理,麻省理工灣定居者,長老。

Publication information Written by Edwin Burton.出版信息撰稿:埃德溫伯頓。 Transcribed by ME Smith. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.轉錄我史密斯。天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

CAMPBELL, "Puritanism in Holland, England, and America" (London, 1892); DEXTER, "England and Holland" (London, 1906); GREGORY, "Puritanism" (London, 1895); WAKEMAN, "The Church and the Puritans: 1570-1660" (London, 1887); BYINGTON, "The Puritan in England and New England" (London, 1896), giving a useful bibliography; NEAL, "History of the Puritans, 1517-1688" (London, 1822); STOWELL AND WILSON, "History of the Puritans in England" (London, 1849); HOPKINS, "The Puritans: Church, Court and Parliament during the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth" (Boston, 1859-61); MARSDEN, "History of the early Puritans, to 1642" (London, 1850); IDEM, "History of the later Puritans, 1642-62" (London, 1852); TULLOCH, "English Puritanism and its leaders" (Edinburgh, 1861); MAITLAND, "The Anglican Settlement and the Scottish Reformation" in "Cambridge Modern History", II (Cambridge, 1903); TREVELYAN, "England under the Stuarts" (London, 1904).坎貝爾, “清教在荷蘭,英格蘭,和美國” (倫敦, 1892年) ;德克斯特, “英格蘭隊和荷蘭” (倫敦, 1906年) ;格雷戈里“清教徒” (倫敦, 1895年) ;魏斐德, “教會和清教徒: 1570至1660年“ (倫敦, 1887年) ;拜因頓說: ”在英國清教徒和新英格蘭“ (倫敦, 1896年) ,提供了有益的書目; NEAL , ”歷史的清教徒, 1517年至1688年“ (倫敦, 1822年) ;斯托厄爾和威爾遜, “歷史的英國清教徒” (倫敦, 1849年) ;霍普金斯說: “清教徒:教堂,法院和議會的統治期間的愛德華六世和伊麗莎白” (波士頓, 1859年至1861年) ;馬斯登“歷史的早期清教徒,以1642年“ (倫敦, 1850年) ;同上, ”歷史的後來清教徒, 1642年至1662年“ (倫敦, 1852年) ;塔洛克, ”英語清教及其領導人“ (愛丁堡, 1861年) ;梅特蘭“英國聖公會沉降和蘇格蘭宗教改革”中的“劍橋近代史” ,二(劍橋, 1903年) ;廉, “英格蘭的斯圖亞特” (倫敦, 1904年) 。 See also "Reprints of the Clarendon Historical Society" (Edinburgh, 1882-6).又見“再版的克拉倫登歷史學會” (愛丁堡, 1882-6 ) 。


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