Pseudepigrapha

General Information 一般信息

The word pseudepigrapha, meaning "books with false titles," refers to books similar in type to those of the Bible whose authors gave them the names of persons of a much earlier period in order to enhance their authority. Among the best known are 3 and 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses, which are included in the Apocrypha. pseudepigrapha一詞,意思是“虛假的書籍名稱, ”是指類似的書籍類型是聖經的作者給了他們名字的人更早的時期,以提高其權威。其中最著名的是3和第4埃斯德拉斯和祈禱的Manasses ,其中包括在偽經。

The term is applied to many Jewish and Jewish - Christian books written in the period 200 BC - 200 AD.這個詞適用於許多猶太人和猶太-基督教書籍的書面時期公元前2 00-公元20 0。 The Jewish books include Jubilees, Enoch, Psalms of Solomon, Assumption (or Testament) of Moses, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Sibylline Oracles, and the Apocalypse of Baruch.猶太人的著作包括Jubilees ,伊諾克,所羅門詩篇,假設(或全書)的摩西,聖經十二始祖的Sibylline甲骨文和啟示巴魯克。 Fragments of the Damascus Document have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.片段的大馬士革文件已發現的死海古卷。

Other pseudepigrapha exist in Greek, Slavonic, and other languages, many of them revisions of Jewish books.其他pseudepigrapha存在於希臘文,斯拉夫語,和其他語言,其中許多是猶太人的修訂本書。 These include the Apocalypse of Peter, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Ascension of Isaiah.這些措施包括彼得的啟示,在牧人的書,阿森松島和以賽亞。 The Gospel of Thomas and the Protevangelium of James contain many legends about Jesus and Mary and show the influence of Gnosticism, as does the Apocalypse of Adam.福音托馬斯和詹姆斯Protevangelium包含許多傳說耶穌和瑪麗和顯示諾斯替主義的影響一樣,亞當的啟示。 The Gospel of Nicodemus is composed of the Acts of Pilate and the Harrowing of Hell.福音尼科迪默斯組成的行為彼拉多和痛苦的地獄。

The pseudepigrapha are important for the light they throw on Judaism and early Christianity.該pseudepigrapha是重要的考慮,他們扔在猶太教和早期基督教。 The Epistle of Jude, for example, reflects a knowledge of Enoch and the Assumption of Moses.在洛書,例如,反映了知識的伊諾克和設想摩西。

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Bibliography 目錄
IH Brockington, A Critical Introduction to the Apocrypha (1961); RH Charles, ed., Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (1913); JH Charlesworth, ed., Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (1986); O Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction (1965); PD Hanson, Old Testament Apocalyptic (1987); JT Milik, ed., The Aramaic Books of Enoch (1968); GW Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (1981); CC Torrey, The Apocryphal Literature (1945). 44/198 Brockington ,批判導言偽經( 1961年) ;濕度查爾斯版。 ,偽經和Pseudepigrapha舊約( 1913年) ;家查爾斯沃思主編。 ,舊約Pseudepigrapha ( 1986年) ; ö Eissfeldt ,舊約:簡介( 1965年) ;放電漢森,舊約啟示( 1987年) ;里克奇Milik ,編輯。 ,圖書的阿拉姆的伊諾克( 1968年) ;毛重Nickelsburg ,猶太文學之間的聖經和米示拿( 1981年) ;連鑄多,該未經文學( 1945年) 。


Pseudepigraphic Writings Pseudepigraphic創作

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(See vol. i. pp. 37, 38, and other places.) (見卷。島頁。 37 , 38 ,和其他地方。 )

ONLY the briefest account of these can be given in this place; barely more than an enumeration.只有到了這一問題的可考慮在這個地方;勉強超過枚舉。

I. The Book of Enoch. As the contents and the literature of this remarkable book, which is quoted by St. Jude (vv. 14, 15), have been fully described in Dr. Smith's and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography (vol. ii. pp. 124-128), we may here refer to it the more shortly. 以諾書。由於內容和文學的這一顯著的書,這是引述聖裘德( vv. 14日, 15日) ,已經充分說明史密斯博士和Wace詞典基督教傳(第一卷二。頁。 124-128 ) ,我們可能會在這裡提到它更很快。

It comes to us from Palestine, but has only been preserved in an Ethiopic translation (published by Archbishop Laurence [Oxford, 1838; in English transl. 3rd ed. 1821-1838; German transl. by AG Hoffmann], then from five different MSS. by Professor Dillmann [Leipzig, 1851; in German transl. Leipzig, 1853]).它給我們留下的巴勒斯坦,但只保存在一個埃塞俄比亞翻譯(大主教發表的勞倫斯[牛津, 1838 ;英文譯。第三版。 1821年至1838年;德國譯。由公司霍夫曼] ,然後從5個不同的衛星。 Dillmann教授[萊比錫, 1851年,在德國譯。萊比錫, 1853年] ) 。 But even the Ethiopic translation is not from the original Hebrew or Aramaic, but from a Greek version, of which a small fragment has been discovered (ch. lxxxix. 42-49;published by Cardinal Mai. Comp. also Gildemeister, Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges. for 1855, pp. 621-624, and Gebhardt, Merx' Arch. ii. 1872, p. 243).但即使是埃塞俄比亞的翻譯不是從原來的希伯來文或阿拉姆語,但來自希臘的版本,其中一個小片段被發現(章lxxxix 。 42-49 ;公佈的樞機主教05 。構件。還吉特邁, Zeitschr 。 d 。 D. Morg 。水電站。為1855頁。 621-624 ,並Gebhardt , Merx '拱。二。 1872年,第243頁) 。

As regards the contents of the work: An Introduction of five brief chapters, and the book (which, however, contains not a few spurious passages) consists of fiveparts, followed by a suitable Epilogue.至於內容的工作:介紹的五個簡短的章節,和這本書(其中,但不包含一些虛假的段落)由fiveparts ,其次是一個合適的尾聲。 The most interesting portions are those which tell of the Fall of the Angels and its consequences, of Enoch's rapt journeys through heaven and earth, and of what he saw and heard (ch. vi.-xxxvi.); the Apocalyptic portions about the Kingdom of Heaven and the Advent of the Messiah (lxxxiii-xci.); and, lastly, the hortatory discourses (xci.-cv.).最有趣的部分是那些告訴秋季的天使及其後果,對伊諾克的旅途全神貫注通過天地,以及他所看到和聽到(章vi. -三十六。 ) ;的啟示部分的王國天堂和降臨的彌賽亞( lxxxiii-xci. ) ;最後,勸告論述( xci.-cv. ) 。 When we add, that it is pervaded by a tone of intense faith and earnestness about the Messiah, 'the last things,' and other doctrines specially brought out in the New Testament, its importance will be understood.當我們加入,這是一個瀰漫著緊張的語氣誠意和認真的彌賽亞,過去的事情,和其他理論特別提出了在新約,其重要性將理解。 Altogether the Book of Enoch contains 108 chapters.共有的以諾書包含108個章節。

From a literary point of view, it has been arranged (by Schurer and others) into three parts:,1.從文學的角度來看,已安排(按Schurer和其他人)分為三個部分: 1 。 The Original Work (Grundschrift), ch.原著( Grundschrift ) ,膽固醇。 i.-xxxvi.; lxxii.-cv.島,三十六。 ; lxxii.版。 This portion is supposed to date from about 175 BC 2. The Parables, ch. xxxvii.- liv.該寓言,膽固醇。三十七.-貓。 6; lv. 6 ;閭。 3-lix.; lxi.-lxiv.; lxix. 3 -螺旋。 ; lxi. - lxiv 。 ; lxix 。 26-lxxi. 26 lxxi 。 This part also dates previous to the Birth of Christ, perhaps from the time of Herod the Great.這部分還日期前的基督誕生,也許來自時間的大希律王。 3. 3 。 The so-called Noachian Sections, ch.所謂Noachian科,膽固醇。 liv.貓。 7-lv. 7閭。 2; lx.; lxv.-lxix. 2 ,光照。 ; lxv. - lxix 。 25. 25 。 To these must be added ch.這些必須補充膽固醇。 cvi., and the later conclusion in ch. CVI的。 ,以及後來的結論,在CH 。 cviii. cviii 。 On the dates of all these portions it is impossible to speak definitely.日期所有這些部分是不可能的發言肯定。

II.二。 Even greater, though a different interest, attaches to the Sibylline Oracles, written in Greek hexameters.甚至更大,但不同的利益,重視Sibylline甲骨文,寫在希臘hexameters 。 [1 We have in the main accepted the learned criticism of Professor Friedlieb (Oracula Sibyllina, 1852.] In their present form they consist of twelve books, together with several fragments. Passing over two large fragments, which seem to have originally formed the chief part of the introduction to Book III., we have (1) the two first Books. These contain part of an older and Hellenist Jewish Sibyl, as well as of a poem by the Jewish Pseudo-Phocylides, in which heathen myths concerning the first ages of man are curiously welded with Old Testament views. The rest of these two books was composed, and the whole put together, not earlier than the close of the second century, perhaps by a Jewish Christian. (2) The third Book is by far the most interesting. Besides the fragments already referred to, vv. 97-807 are the work of a Hellenist Jew, deeply imbued with the Messianic hope. This part dates from about 160 before our era, while vv. 49-96 seem to belong to the year 31 BC [ 1我們已經在主要接受了教訓的批評教授Friedlieb ( Oracula Sibyllina , 1852年。 ]在其目前的形式,他們組成12本書,連同一些碎片。經過兩個大的碎片,這似乎已經形成最初的首席部分介紹了第三卷。 ,我們有: ( 1 )兩個第一本書。這些包含的一個組成部分老年人和Hellenist猶太Sibyl ,以及一首詩的猶太偽Phocylides ,其中異教徒的神話就第年齡的男子是奇怪的焊接與舊約的意見。剩下的這些兩本書組成,整個集中在一起,不得早於結束的第二個世紀,也許由一個猶太基督徒。 ( 2 )第三本書是由最有趣的。片段除了已經提到的,超強。 97-807是工作的Hellenist猶太人,深感充滿希望的救世主。這一部分日期的約160名在我們的時代,而超強。 49-96似乎屬於公元前31年

The rest (vv. 1-45, 818-828) dates from a later period.其餘( vv. 1-45 , 818-828 )的日期從後期。 We must here confine our attention to the most ancient portion of the work.我們必須在這裡限於我們注意最古老的部分工作。 For our present purpose, we may arrange it into three parts.對於我們目前的宗旨,我們會安排分為三個部分。 In the first, the ancient heathen theogony is recast in a Jewish mould, Uranus becomes Noah; Shem, Ham, and Japheth are Saturn, Titan, and Japetus, while the building of the Tower of Babylon is the rebellion of the Titans.第一,古代異教徒的神譜改寫是一個猶太模具,天王星成為諾亞;閃,火腿,和雅弗是土星,土衛六,並Japetus ,而建設的巴比倫塔是叛亂泰坦。 Then the history of the world is told, the Kingdom of Israel and of David forming the centre of all.然後,世界歷史上是說,在英國和以色列的大衛形成了中心所有。 What we have called the second is the most curious part of the work.我們稱之為第二次是最好奇的部分工作。 It embodies ancient heathen oracles, so to speak, in aJewish recension, and interwoven with Jewish elements.它體現古代異教徒的神諭,這麼說吧,在aJewish recension ,並交織在一起猶太人的內容。 The third part may be generally described as anti-heathen, polemical, and Apocalyptic.第三部分一般可描述為反異教徒,論戰和啟示。

The Sibyl is thoroughly Hellenistic in spirit. She is loud and earnest in her appeals, bold and defiant in the tone of her Jewish pride, self-conscious and triumphant in her anticipations.該是徹底Sibyl希臘精神。她是認真的大聲在她的上訴,大膽和蔑視的口吻她的猶太人的驕傲,自我意識和凱旋在她的預期。 But the most remarkable circumstance is, that this Judaising and Jewish Sibyl seems to have passed, though possibly only in parts, as the oracles of the ancient Erythraean Sibyl, which had predicted to the Greeks the fall of Troy, and those of the Sibyl of Cumae, which, in the infancy of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus had deposited in the Capitol, and that as such it is quoted from by Virgil (in his 4th Eclogue) in his description of the Golden Age.但是,最顯著的情況是,這Judaising和猶太Sibyl似乎已經過去了,但可能只在部分,作為神諭古代Erythraean Sibyl ,它預測到秋季希臘人的特洛伊,和那些Sibyl的Cumae ,這在初期的羅馬,塔克文Superbus已存放在國會大廈,並作為它引用了維吉爾(在他第4次牧歌)在他的描述黃金時代。

Of the other Sibylline Books little need be said.其他Sibylline圖書沒有必要說。 The 4th, 5th, 9th, and 12th Books were written by Egyptian Jews at dates varying from the year 80 to the third century of our era.在第4 ,第5 ,第9 ,和12本書撰寫的埃及猶太人在不同的日期從今年80至三世紀的時代。 Book VI.圖書六。 is of the Christian origin, the work of a Judaising Christian, about the second half of the second century.是基督教起源,工作的Judaising基督教,對下半年的第二個世紀。 Book VIII., which embodies Jewish portions, is also of Christian authorship, and so are Books X. and XI.圖書八。 ,這體現猶太部分,也是基督教的作者,所以是圖書十和十一。

III.三。 The collection of eighteen hymns, which in their Greek version bear the name of the Psalter of Solomon, must originally have been written in Hebrew, and dates from more than half a century before our era.收集的18讚美詩,其中希臘在其承擔的版本的名稱Psalter所羅門群島,必須原來已希伯來文寫的,和日期從半個多世紀以來在我們的時代。 They are the outcome of a soul intensely earnest, although we not unfrequently meet expressions of Pharisiac self-religiousness.這些成果的靈魂激烈的真誠,雖然我們不能滿足unfrequently表達Pharisiac自我宗教。 [1 Comp. [ 1比較。 for example, ix.例如,九。 7, 9.] 7日, 9日。 ]

It is a time of national sorrow in which the poet sings, and it almost seems as if these 'Psalms' had been intended to take up one or another of the leading thoughts in the corresponding Davidic Psalms, and to make, as it were, application of them to the existing circumstances. [2 This view which, so far as I know, has not been suggested by critics, will be confirmed by an attentive perusal of almost every 'Psalm' in the collection (comp. the first three with the three opening Psalms in the Davidic Psalter).這是一個國家時悲痛中唱的詩人,而且幾乎好像這些'詩篇'已打算採取了一種或另一種領先的思想在相應的Davidic詩篇,並提出,因為它是,應用他們現有的情況。 [ 2這種看法的,所以據我所知,還沒有提出批評,將所證實細心閱讀幾乎每一個'詩篇'收集( comp.前三個與三個開放的詩篇Davidic Psalter ) 。 Is our 'Psalter of Solomon,' as it were, an historical commentary by the typical 'sage?'是我們的' Psalter所羅門群島,因為它是一個歷史的評注典型的'聖人? ' And is our collection only a fragment?] Though somewhat Hellenistic in its cast, the collection breathes ardent Messianic expectancy, and firm faith in the resurrection, and eternal reward and punishment (iii. 16; xiii. 9, 10; xiv. 2, 6, 7; xv. 11 to the end).和我們收集只是一個片段? ]雖然有點希臘在其鑄造,收集呼吸殷切期望彌賽亞,並堅定信念的復活,以及永恆的獎勵和處罰( iii. 16 ;十三。 9日, 10日;十四。 2 , 6日, 7日;十五。 11日至年底) 。

IV.四。 Another work of that class, 'Little Genesis,' or 'The Book of Jubilees' , has been preserved to us in its Ethiopic translation (though a Latin version of part of it has lately been discovered) and is a Haggadic Commentary on Genesis. Professing to be a revelation to Moses during the forty days on Mount Sinai, it seeks to fill lacunae in the sacred history, specially in reference to its chronology.另一種工作類別, '小創'或' 書Jubilees ' ,已經給我們保存在埃塞俄比亞翻譯(雖然拉丁美洲版本的一部分,它最近被發現) ,是一個Haggadic評成因。自稱是一個啟示摩西在四十天的西奈山,它試圖填補空白的神聖的歷史,特別是在參照其年表。 Its character is hortatory and warning, and it breathes a strong anti-Roman spirit.其特點是勸告和警告,而且呼吸強有力的反羅馬的精神。 It was written by a Palestinian in Hebrew, or rather Aramaean, probably about the time of Christ.這是寫的一個巴勒斯坦在希伯來文,或者更確切地說Aramaean ,大概的時間基督。 The name, 'Book of Jubilees,' is derived from the circumstance that the Scripture-chronology is arranged according to Jubilee periods of forty-nine years, fifty of these (or 2,450 years) being counted from the Creation to the entrance into Canaan.的名稱, '書Jubilees ,源自情況聖經,排列順序是根據大慶期間四十九年,這些50 (或2450年)正在清點從創作到進入迦南。

V. Among the Pseudepigraphic Writings we also include the 4th Book of Esdras, which appears among our Apocrypha as 2 Esdras ch.五,在Pseudepigraphic著作,我們還包括第4次圖書埃斯德拉斯,這似乎是我們的偽經2埃斯德拉斯路。 iii.-xiv. iii. - 14 。 (the two first and the two last chapters being spurious additions). (兩個第一和最後兩個章節被虛假的增加) 。 The work, originally written in Greek, has only been preserved in translation into five different languages (Latin, Arabic, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Armenian).這項工作,最初寫的希臘文,只保留在翻譯成5種不同的語言(拉丁文,阿拉伯文,敘利亞,埃塞俄比亞,和亞美尼亞) 。 It was composed probably about the end of the first century after Christ.這是大概組成結束的第一個世紀後,基督。 From this circumstance, and the influence of Christianity on the mind of the writer, who, however, is an earnest Jew, its interest and importance can be scarcely exaggerated.從這種情況下,和基督教的影響就考慮到的作家,誰然而,是一個認真的猶太人,其興趣和重視可幾乎誇大了。 The name of Ezra was probably assumed, because the writer wished to treat mainly of the mystery of Israel's fall and restoration.的名稱以斯拉可能是假設,因為作者希望把主要的神秘以色列的下降和恢復。

The other Pseudepigraphic Writings are:其他Pseudepigraphic著作有:

VI. The Ascension (ch. i.-v.) and Vision (ch. vi.-xi.) of Isaiah, which describes the martyrdom of the prophet (with a Christian interpolation [ch. iii. 14-iv. 22] ascribing his death to prophecy of Christ, and containing Apocalyptic portions), and then what he saw in heaven.六。 阿森松 (章i.-v. 遠景 (章vi.-xi. ) 以賽亞,其中敘述了烈士先知(與基督教插值[膽固醇。三。 14四。 22 ]歸咎於他的死亡預言的基督,並載有啟示的部分) ,然後他看到什麼天堂。 The book is probably based on an older Jewish account, but is chiefly of Christian heretical authorship.這本書也許是基於一個老猶太人的帳戶,但主要是基督教的異端邪說作者。 It exists only in translations, of which that in Ethiopic (with Latin and English versions) has been edited by Archbishop Laurence.它只存在於翻譯,其中,在衣索比亞(與拉丁美洲和英文版本)已編輯的大主教勞倫斯。

VII. The Assumption of Moses (probably quoted in St. Jude ver. 9) also exists only in translation, and is really a fragment.七。 升天摩西 (可能引用聖裘德查看。 9 )也只存在於翻譯,確實是一個片段。 It consists of twelve chapters.它由12個章節。 After an Introduction (ch. i.), containing an address of Moses to Joshua, the former, professedly, opens to Joshua the future of Israel to the time of Varus.經過言(章島) ,其中載有地址的摩西約書亞,前,明言,開放給約書亞的未來以色列的時間內翻。

This is followed by an Apocalyptic portion, beginning at ch.這是後一部分的啟示,開始在膽固醇。 vii.七。 and ending with ch.結束與膽固醇。 x. The two concluding chapters are dialogues between Joshua and Moses.這兩個結論是章光之間的對話和摩西。 The book dates probably from about the year 2 BC, or shortly afterwards.這本書的日期可能從今年第2年,或之後不久。 Besides the Apocalyptic portions the interest lies chiefly in the fact that the writer seems to belong to the Nationalist party, and that we gain some glimpses of the Apocalyptic views and hopes, the highest spiritual tendency, of that deeply interesting movement.除了啟示部分的利益所在,主要的是,作家似乎屬於民族主義黨,我們看到獲得一些啟示的意見和希望,最高的精神傾向,這種深深有意思的運動。 Most markedly, this Book at least is strongly anti-Pharisaic, especially in its opposition to their purifications (ch. vii.).最顯著,本書至少是強烈的反Pharisaic ,特別是在反對他們purifications (七章。 ) 。 We would here specially note a remarkable resemblance between 2 Tim.在這裡,我們將特別注意顯著的相似之處第2蒂姆。 iii.三。 1-5 and this in Assump. 1-5 ,這在Assump 。 Mos.莫斯。 vii.七。 3-10: 3-10 :

(3) 'Et regnabunt de his homines pestilentiosi et impii, dicentes se esse iustos, (4) et hi suscitabunt iram animorum suorum, qui erunt homines dolosi, sibi placentes, ficti in omnibus suiset onmi hora diei amantes convivia, devoratores gulae (5) ... ( 3 ) '菌regnabunt由他homines pestilentiosi等impii , dicentes本身存在iustos , ( 4 )等高科技suscitabunt螺旋animorum suorum ,歸仁erunt homines dolosi , sibi placentes , ficti在綜合suiset onmi一點鐘diei amantes convivia , devoratores gulae ( 5 ) ... (6) [paupe] rum bonorum comestores, dicentes se haec facere propter misericordiam eorum, (7) sed et exterminatores, queruli et fallaces, celantes se ne possint cognosci, impii in scelere, pleni et inquitate ab oriente usque ad occidentem, (8) dicentes: habebimus discubitiones et luxurian edentes et bibentes, et potabimus nos, tamquam principes erimus. ( 6 ) [ paupe ]朗姆酒bonorum comestores , dicentes本身haec facere propter misericordiam eorum , ( 7 )基於等exterminatores , queruli等fallaces , celantes本身基因possint cognosci , impii在scelere , pleni等inquitate從頭東方usque廣告occidentem , ( 8 ) dicentes : habebimus discubitiones等luxurian edentes等bibentes等potabimus數, tamquam原理erimus 。 (9) Et manus eorum et dentes inmunda tractabunt, et os eorum loquetur ingentia, et superdicent: (10) noli [tu me] tangere, ne inquines me ...' ( 9 )等癬eorum等dentes inmunda tractabunt等操作系統eorum loquetur ingentia等superdicent : ( 10 )諾利[圖箱]風,氖inquines我... ' But it is very significant, that instead of the denunciation of the Pharisees in vv.但它是非常重要的,這不是譴責法利賽在超強。 9,10 of the Assumptio, we have in 2 Tim. 9,10的Assumptio ,我們已經在2蒂姆。 iii.三。 5. 5 。 the words 'having the form of godliness, but denying the power thereof.'改為'具有形式的信仰,但不可否認的電力不足。

VIII. The Apocalypse of Baruch. This also exists only in Syriac translation, and is apparently fragmentary, since the vision promised in ch lxxvi.八。 啟示巴魯克。這也只存在於敘利亞語翻譯,顯然是零零碎碎的,因為視力答應在CH lxxvi 。 3 is not reported, while the Epistle of Baruch to the two and a half tribes in Babylon, referred to in lxxvii.三是沒有報告,而巴魯克書的兩年半在巴比倫的部落中提到的lxxvii 。 19, is also missing. 19日,也是下落不明。 The book had been divided into seven sections(i.-xii.; xiii.-xx.; xxi.-xxxxiv.; xxxv.-xlvi.; xlvii.-lii.; liii.-lxxvi.; lxxvii.-lxxxvii.).這本書分為七個部分(一至十二。 ; xiii.-xx. ; xxi. - xxxxiv 。 ; xxxv. -四十六。 ; xlvii.崇禮。 ; liii. - lxxvi 。 ; lxxvii. - lxxxvii 。 ) 。

The whole is in a form of revelation to Baruch, and of his replies, and questions, or of notices about his bearing, fast, prayers, &c.整個是在一種形式的啟示巴魯克和他的答复,問題,或者通知他的同時,快速,祈禱,與角 The most interesting parts are in sections v.最有趣的部分是在部分訴 and vi.和第六。 In the former we mark (ch. xlviii. 31-41) the reference to the consequence of the sin of our first parents (ver. 42; comp. also xvii. 3; xxiii. 4; liv. 15, 19), and in ch.在我們紀念前(章四十八。 31-41 )提及的後果的罪惡我們第一次家長(版本42 ;補償。還十七。 3 ;二十三。 4 ;貓。 15日, 19日) ,以及在CH 。 xlix. xlix 。 the discussion and information; with what body and in what form the dead shall rise, which is answered, not as by St. Paul in 1 Cor.討論和信息;與什麼機構以及以何種方式死亡,須起立,這是回答,而不是由聖保祿1肺心病。 xv., though the question raised (1 Cor. xv. 35) is precisely the same, but in the strictly Rabbinic manner, described by us in Vol.十五。 ,但提出的問題( 1肺心病。十五。 35 )恰恰是相同的,但在嚴格拉比的方式,描述了我們在卷。 ii.二。 pp.頁。 398, 399. 398 , 399 。 In section vi.第六節。 we specially mark (ch. lxix.-lxxiv.) the Apocalyptic descriptions of the Last Days, and of the Reign and Judgment of Messiah.我們專門標誌(章lxix. - lxxiv 。 )的啟示說明最後的日子,以及執政和判斷的救世主。

In general, the figurative language in that Book is instructive in regard to the phraseology used in the Apocalyptic portions of the New Testament.一般來說,比喻的語言在這書是有啟發性方面的用語中使用的啟示部分的新約。 Lastly, we mark that the views on the consequences of the Fall are much more limited than those expressed in 4 Esdras.最後,我們紀念這一看法的後果秋季更有限,比表示, 4埃斯德拉斯。 Indeed, they do not go beyond physical death as the consequence of the sin of our first parents (see especially liv. 19: Non est ergo Adam causa, nisi animae suaetantum; nos vero unusquisque fuit animae suae Adam).事實上,他們沒有超越肉體死亡的後果的罪惡我們第一次家長(尤其見貓。 19 :不就是前置亞當原因,暫準animae suaetantum ;數維羅unusquisque fuit animae愛亞當) 。 At the same time, it seems to use, as if perhaps the reasoning rather than the language of the writer indicated hesitation on his part (liv. 14-19; comp. also first clause of xlviii. 43).與此同時,它似乎使用,如果可能的推理,而不是語言的作家毫不猶豫地指出他的部分( liv. 14-19 ;補償。還首次條款四十八。 43 ) 。 It almost seems as if liv.它幾乎好像貓。 14-19 were inteded as against the reasoning of St. Paul, Rom. 14-19人inteded對推理聖保祿,光盤。 v. 12 to the end.訴12日至年底。

In this respect the passage in Baruch is most interesting, not only in itself (see for ex. ver. 16: Certo enim qui credit recipiet mercedem), but in reference to the teaching of 4 Esdrasm which, as regards original sin, takes another direction than Baruch.在這方面,通過在巴魯克最有趣的是,不僅本身(見前。查看。 16 : Certo enim歸仁信貸recipiet mercedem ) ,但在提到教學4 Esdrasm其中,關於原罪,另需巴魯克方向。 But I have little doubt that both allude to the, to them, novel teaching of St. Paul on that doctrine.但我毫無疑問,都提到了,他們新穎的教學聖保祿這一理論。 Lastly, as regards the question when this remarkable work was written, we would place its composition after the destruction of Jerusalem.最後,關於這一問題時,這一顯著的撰寫工作,我們將進行其組成後的破壞耶路撒冷。 Most writers date if before the publication of 4 Esdras, Even the appearance of a Pseudo-Baruch and Pseudo-Esdras are significant of the political circumstances and the religious hopes of the nation.大多數作家的日期,如果前出版的4埃斯德拉斯,甚至出現了偽巴魯克和偽埃斯德拉斯重大的政治環境和宗教界希望的民族。

For criticism and fragments of other Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, comp.對於批評和其他碎片舊約Pseudepigrapha ,補償。 Fabricius, Codex Pseudepigraphus Vet. Test., 2 vols.蟬,法典Pseudepigraphus獸醫。測試。 ,第2卷。 (ed. 2, 1722). (編2 , 1722 ) 。 The Psalter of Sol., IV.該Psalter溶膠。 ,四。 Esdr. (or, as he puts it, IV. and V. Esd.), the Apocal of Baruch, and the Assumption of Mos., have been edited by Fritzsche (Lips. 1871); other Jewish (Hebrew) OT Pseudepigraphs, though of a later date, in Jellinek's beth haMidrash (6 vols.), passin. Esdr 。 (或者,正如他所說的那樣,四。公共服務電子化和五。 )中, Apocal的巴魯克,並擔任莫斯。 ,已編輯的弗里切( Lips. 1871年) ;其他猶太人(希伯來文)加時賽Pseudepigraphs ,儘管在稍後的日期,在耶利內克的貝特haMidrash ( 6第一卷和第二卷。 ) passin 。 A critical review of the literature of the subject would here be out of place.一個重要文獻複習的主題將在這裡得到了地方。

From Appendix 1, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah從附錄1 ,生活和時代的耶穌救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886由阿爾弗雷德愛德生, 1886年


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