Protestantism新教

General Information 一般信息

Protestantism is a movement in Western Christianity whose adherents reject the notion that divine authority is channeled through one particular human institution or person such as the Roman Catholic pope. Protestants look elsewhere for the authority of their faith. Most of them stress the Bible - the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament - as the source and the norm of their teaching. Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians also stress the authority of the Bible, but they also look to tradition, and, in the case of Catholics, to the pope as a source of authority.新教是一種運動在西方的基督教信徒拒絕概念,即神聖的權力是通過一個渠道尤其是人類的機構或個人,如羅馬天主教教宗。新教徒目光轉移到其他地方的權威,他們的信仰。 他們大部分強調聖經-希伯來文聖經和新約全書-的來源和規範的教學。羅馬天主教和東正教基督徒還強調權威的聖經,但他們也期待著傳統,並在案件的天主教徒,教宗作為的權力來源。

The Reformation改革

Although reform movements have been a feature of the Christian church throughout its history and were particularly evident in the 14th and 15th centuries, most Protestants date the beginning of their movement to 1517, when the German monk Martin Luther posted for debate a series of theses that challenged Roman Catholic teaching.儘管改革運動已經一個特點基督教教堂在其整個歷史,並特別明顯,在第14和15世紀以來,迄今最新教徒開始他們的行動,以1517年時,德國馬丁路德僧人辯論張貼了一系列的論文說挑戰羅馬天主教教學。 Protestantism took its name from the "Protestatio" issued by reformers at the Diet of Speyer in 1529.基督教在其名稱由“ Protestatio發布的”改革派在國會的斯派爾在1529年。

Within two decades the Reformation had spread through most of northwest Europe.在二十年的改革傳播到西北的大部分歐洲。 In England, King Henry VIII repudiated papal authority over the church, and the Church of England was set on a course of reform that made it essentially a Protestant body (although Anglicans, also called Episcopalians, are often classified separately). In Switzerland, France, parts of Germany, Scotland, and the Netherlands, a second style of non - Lutheran reform, influenced chiefly by the French - turned - Genevan John Calvin and the Swiss leader Ulrich Zwingli, began to take shape.在英國, 亨利八世國王譴責羅馬教皇權威的教堂,以及英格蘭教會是建立在改革過程中所作出的基本上是一個基督教機構(儘管英國聖公會教徒,也稱為聖公會,往往歸類另發) 。在瑞士,法國部分德國,蘇格蘭,荷蘭, 第二次風格的非-路德改革的影響,主要由法國-打開-G en evan約翰凱爾文和瑞士領先烏爾里希茨溫利,開始形成。

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At the same time a more radical style of Protestantism appeared on the left wing of the movement. Anabaptists, Mennonites, and others rebaptized Christians and initiated them into a movement that drastically rejected Catholic practices even where Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism did not.與此同時,一個更激進的作風,新教出現在左翼運動。 Anabaptists ,門諾派和其他rebaptized基督徒和他們發起的運動急劇拒絕天主教的做法即使在路德教,加爾文主義,並Anglicanism沒有。

The Reformation spread from these bases into Scandinavia and central Europe, but it rarely penetrated Russian and southeastern Europe, where the Orthodox church prevailed, or southern Europe, which remained staunchly Roman Catholic.改革傳播這些基地成為斯堪的納維亞和中歐國家,但很少侵入俄羅斯和歐洲東南部,那裡的東正教教堂佔了上風,或南歐,仍然堅定的羅馬天主教。 After a series of religious wars from the mid 16th to the mid 17th century, most Protestants (except the radicals) and Catholics settled for the principle that the rulers of a region should determine the religion of that province or state.經過一系列的宗教戰爭中從第16到17世紀中期,大多數的新教徒(除自由基)和天主教徒解決的原則,即統治者的區域應確定宗教的省份或國家。 Separation of church and state, a principle that other Protestants came to hold late in the 18th century, began to break the purely Protestant hold on northwest Europe.政教分離的原則,其他新教徒來到下旬舉行的18世紀,開始打破了純粹的新教舉行的歐洲西北部。 In the latter part of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century into the present, Protestant missionaries spread the movement into most of the world.在後者的一部分, 18世紀整個19世紀到現在,基督教的傳教士運動蔓延到世界上大多數國家。

Protestant beachheads were established on many Asian and African shores but not until recently in Catholic Latin America.新教的灘頭陣地建立了許多亞洲和非洲海岸,但直到最近在拉丁美洲天主教。 From 1607, when Anglicans arrived in Virginia, until late in the 19th century, after large - scale immigration from southern Europe and Ireland, all of North America except Quebec was thought of as a largely Protestant domain.從1607年時,英國聖公會抵達弗吉尼亞州,直到19世紀後,大型-大規模移民來自南歐和愛爾蘭,所有北美以外魁北克是思想作為一個主要的新教的網域。

The Authority of the Bible權威的聖經

Protestants have always made much of the Bible, but acceptance of its authority has not led to unanimity among them.新教徒一直取得了很大的聖經接受其權威並沒有導致它們之間的一致性。 Differing interpretations of the same Bible have produced the most divided movement of any in the great world religions, as hundreds of sects in at least a dozen great Protestant families of churches (Anglicanism, Congregationalism, Methodism, Presbyterianism, Lutheranism, the Baptist churches, and the like) compete in free societies. 不同的解釋相同的聖經產生的最除以任何運動中的偉大的世界宗教,數百名教派至少有十幾種偉大的新教家庭教會( Anglicanism ,公理,循道,長老,路德教的浸信會教堂,並等)在自由競爭的社會。 Attitudes toward the Bible in contemporary Protestantism range from belief in its literal truth on the fundamentalist end of the spectrum (Fundamentalism) to extremely free interpretations among liberal Protestants.態度聖經在當代基督教從信仰在其字面真理的原教旨主義結束譜(原教旨主義) ,以極其自由的解釋新教徒之間的自由。

Justification by Faith因信稱義

Second only to belief in the Bible as a mark of Protestantism is the conviction that humans are not saved by their merits or good works, as the 16th century reformers heard Catholics claiming, but only "by grace, through faith." According to Protestants, God took the initiative in saving the world from sin through his activity in Jesus Christ, and even the faith that led people to believe in this activity was a gift, not an achievement. Nonetheless, however consistent Protestant teaching on this subject may be, Protestant cultures have often produced earnest strivers after God - sober and hard - working people who try to prove that they are God's elect (Predestination) and preachers or other leaders who seem as legalistic in their approach to church life as the 16th century Catholics were. 第二只相信聖經中的一個標誌是新教的信念,即人類是沒有救了它們的優點或好的作品,作為16世紀的改革者聲稱聽到天主教徒,但只有“的寬限期,通過信仰。 ”根據新教徒,神採取了主動行動,拯救世界免於通過他的罪惡活動耶穌基督,甚至信仰,導致人們相信這一活動是一個禮物,而不是一種成就。儘管如此,但一貫教學新教關於這個問題的可能是新教文化往往會產生後,認真strivers上帝-清醒和硬-勞動人民誰試圖證明他們是上帝的選舉(預定)和傳教士或其他領導人誰似乎墨守成規的辦法,教會生活,1 6世紀天主教徒。

Sacraments聖禮

Most Protestants share faith in the divine Trinity - God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; most of them keep alive the ancient creedal witness to the fact that Jesus Christ was and is both divine and human; most of them celebrate two Sacraments (sacred acts they believe were instituted by Christ): baptism and the Lords Supper. 大多數信仰新教的份額在神聖的三位一體-聖父,聖子和聖靈;其中大多數是永葆古代c reedal見證這樣一個事實,即耶穌是和是神聖和人力;其中大部分是慶祝兩個聖禮(神聖他們相信行為人提起的基督) : 洗禮和上帝的晚餐。 They are divided over whether to immerse the baptized in water or to apply water in other ways; over the age at which to baptize people, although most practice infant baptism; over whether baptism imparts grace or is a sign of response and obedience. 他們的分歧是否浸在水中的洗禮,或適用於水的其他方式;的年齡來洗的人,雖然大多數的做法嬰兒的洗禮; 是否洗禮imparts寬限期或跡象的反應和服從。 Some Protestants believe that Jesus is somehow really present in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper (Eucharist), whereas others consider this sacrament an act of remembrance and obedience. In their worship Protestants more than most other Christians stress the preaching of the Word of God as an agent for building faith. 一些新教徒認為,耶穌是真的不知目前在麵包和酒的上帝的晚餐(體) ,而另一些認為這聖禮行為的悼念和服從。他們崇拜的新教徒超過大多數其他基督徒強調說教的話語上帝作為代理人建立的信念。

Church Polity教會政體

Protestants allow for many styles of church government, from the episcopal, where bishops rule, to the congregational, which acknowledges no earthly authority beyond the local. Accenting "the priesthood of all believers," they have assigned an important role to the laity, although in practice many Protestant churches are quite clerical in outlook.新教徒允許多種風格的教堂政府,由主教,在主教的規則,對公理,它承認沒有世俗權力之外的地方。 Accenting “的神職人員的所有信徒, ”他們已經指派了重要作用的俗人,雖然在實踐中,許多新教教堂是相當辦事員的前景。 Increasingly during the past century and especially in recent decades, Protestant churches have ordained women to the ministry and have encouraged them to take lay leadership roles.越來越多的在過去的一個世紀,特別是在近幾十年來,基督教有祝婦女部,並鼓勵他們採取領導作用奠定基礎。

Protestantism, more than Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy, has faced two recurrent problems.新教,超過羅馬天主教和東正教,面臨著兩個反复出現的問題。 The first relates to the internal unity of the movement.第一個問題涉及到的內部團結的運動。 From the Reformation until the present, Protestants have sought concord but more often than not have remained in dispute.從改革到現在,新教徒尋求和諧,但更多的往往不是一直存在爭議。 In the 20th century, however, the Ecumenical Movement has gathered strength.在20世紀,然而,基督教運動已聚集力量。 In addition to the organic mergers of separate bodies that have taken place, movements of federation, councils for cooperation, and coalitions for common tasks have been formed.除了有機兼併單獨的機構已經發生,運動聯合會,理事會進行合作,和聯盟的共同任務已經形成。

The second problem involves civil authority.第二個問題涉及到民間權威。 Orthodoxy and Catholicism found alliances with the throne congenial, but Protestants were restless about their early decisions to keep such alliances.東正教和天主教聯盟發現的王位相投,但新教徒了他們的不安早日作出決定保持這種聯盟。 Movements for religious toleration were most aggressive and successful in Protestant countries.運動對宗教寬容是最積極和成功的新教國家。 The act of separating church and state (in most countries) has made it difficult for Protestants to produce coherent views of how Christians should live with both spiritual and civil responsibilities.該法分離教會和國家(大多數國家)已很難新教徒產生協調一致的意見,基督徒應該如何生活與精神文明和公民的責任。 This problem was presented in its most acute form in the dilemma of the Confessing church in Nazi Germany這個問題已經在其最嚴重的形式在困境的認信教會在納粹德國

Cultural Impact文化影響

The rejection of the Catholic tradition and in some instances a tendency toward iconoclasm militated against the development of a specifically Protestant style in the visual arts, although many great artists have been Protestants.反對天主教的傳統,並在某些情況下傾向iconoclasm妨礙發展的一個特定的新教風格的視覺藝術,雖然有許多偉大的藝術家已經新教徒。 In general the Protestant contribution has been a simplicity, even austerity, of design and decoration.總之,新教的貢獻一直是簡單,甚至緊縮,設計和裝飾。 This is particularly true of the Calvinist tradition.尤其是這樣的加爾文主義的傳統。

In music and literature the Protestant contribution has been enormous.在音樂和文學新教的貢獻是巨大的。 The vernacular versions of the Bible, such as Luther's and the King James Version, played a formative role in the development of modern German and English literature. Emphasis on preaching and lack of strong centers of doctrinal authority contributed to a diversity of opinion and expression, as reflected, for example, in the work of John Milton.白話文版本的聖經,如路德和國王詹姆斯版本,發揮了作用,形成發展現代德語和英語文學。 重在說教和缺乏強有力的中心理論權威促成了各種各樣的見解和言論自由,所反映,例如,在工作的約翰米爾頓。 A strong musical tradition developed out of the encouragement of hymn singing and the use of the organ and other instruments, reaching its pinnacle in the work of Johann Sebastian Bach.一個強有力的傳統音樂的發展,鼓勵讚美歌唱和使用的機關和其他文書,達到了巔峰的工作巴赫。

The lack of central authority and thus the acceptability of divergent views has also borne fruit in a rich theological tradition, which embraces such figures as Karl Barth, Rudolf Bultmann, and Paul Tillich in the 20th century.由於缺乏中央權威,因此,接受不同的意見也結出了碩果了豐富的神學傳統,其中包括諸如數字卡爾巴特,魯道夫布特曼,和保羅蒂里希在20世紀。

Martin E Marty馬丁é馬蒂

Bibliography 目錄
K Barth, Protestant Theology in the Nineteenth Century (1952) and Protestant Thought (1959); RM Brown, The Spirit of Protestantism (1961); BA Gerrish, The Old Protestantism and the New: Essayson the Reformation Heritage (1983); H Gollwitzer, An Introduction to Protestant Theology (1982); P Greven, The Protestant Temperament (1978); WE Hordern, A Layman's Guide to Protestant Theology (1968); E Leonard, A History of Protestantism (1968); ME Marty, Protestantism (1972) and Protestantism in the United States: Righteous Empire (1986); R Mehl, The Sociology of Protestantism (1970); WR Miller, Contemporary American Protestant Thought, 1900 - 1970 (1973); W Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation (1968); L Spitz, The Protestant Reformation (1985); C Welch, Protestant Christianity Interpreted through Its Development (1954) and Protestant Thought in the 19th Century (1972 - 85); JS Whale, The Protestant Tradition (1955); JF White, Protestant Worship: Traditions in Transition (1989) K巴特,新教神學在十九世紀( 1952年)和新教思想( 1959年) ;產品布朗,本著基督教( 1961年) ;廣管局Gerrish ,舊的基督教和新: Essayson改革遺產( 1983 ) ; H Gollwitzer ,介紹新教神學( 1982年) ; P Greven ,新教氣質( 1978年) ;我們霍登,一個門外漢指南新教神學( 1968年) ;電子郵件倫納德史新教( 1968年) ; ME的馬蒂,新教( 1972年)和基督教在美國:正義帝國( 1986年) ; R Mehl ,社會學新教( 1970年) ;水利米勒,當代美國新教思想, 1900至1970年( 1973年) ; W Pauck ,傳統的改革( 1968年) ; L施皮茨,在新教改革( 1985年) ; ç韋爾奇,解釋基督教新教通過其發展( 1954年)和新教的思想在19世紀( 1972年至1985年) ;江蘇鯨,新教傳統( 1955年) ;櫻白,新教崇拜:傳統的過渡時期( 1989年)


Protestantism新教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

In its broadest sense Protestantism denotes the whole movement within Christianity that originated in the sixteenth century Reformation and later focused in the main traditions of Reformed church life. Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist / Presbyterian), and Anglican - Episcopalian (although Anglicanism par excellence claims to be both Catholic and Protestant), Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostal, and many others, down to modern African Independent churches.在最廣泛的意義新教是指整個基督教運動的起源於十六世紀的宗教改革,後來集中在主要的傳統歸正教會的生活。 路德會,歸正(加爾文主義/長老) ,和英國聖公會-聖公會(雖然A nglicanism卓越索賠既天主教和新教) ,浸信會,衛理公會,五旬節,和許多其他國家,到現代非洲獨立教會。

The term derives from the "protestation" submitted by a minority of Lutheran and Reformed authorities at the German Imperial Diet at Speyer in 1529 in dissenting from a clampdown on religious renewal.一詞源於“抗議”提出的少數路德和改革當局在德國帝國國會在斯派爾在1529年在反對從鎮壓宗教復興。 The "protestation" was at once objection, appeal, and affirmation.的“抗議”是一次反對,提出上訴,並肯定。 It asked urgently, "What is the true and holy Church?" and asserted: "There is no sure preaching or doctrine but that which abides by the Word of God. According to God's command no other doctrine should be preached. Each text of the holy and divine Scriptures should be elucidated and explained by other texts. This Holy Book is in all things necessary for the Christian; it shines clearly in its own light, and is found to enlighten the darkness. We are determined by God's grace and aid to abide by God's Word alone, the holy gospel contained in the biblical books of the Old and New Testaments. This Word alone should be preached, and nothing that is contrary to it. It is the only truth. It is the sure rule of all Christian doctrine and conduct. It can never fail or deceive us."它要求迫切, “什麼是真正的和神聖的教會? ” ,並斷言 “沒有確定說教或理論,但它遵守天主的聖言。根據上帝的命令沒有任何其他理論應該宣揚。每個文神聖和神聖的聖經應闡述和解釋的其他文書。 這項聖書是在一切必要的基督教,它清楚地照耀在自己的光,並啟發發現的黑暗。 我們有決心上帝的恩典和援助遵守上帝的詞,僅神聖的福音載於聖經的書籍,新舊聖經。僅此Word應該宣揚,並沒有任何違背它。 它是唯一的真理。這是法治的保證所有基督教學說和行為。使它永遠不能失敗或欺騙我們。 “

Lutherans and other advocates of reform thus became known as Protestants.路德會和其他改革的倡導者因此被稱為新教徒。 The English word originally had the force of "resolute confession, solemn declaration," standing for gospel truth against Roman corruption.英文原本的力量“堅決的懺悔,莊嚴宣誓, ”站在真理的福音對羅馬腐敗。 "Essentially Protestantism is an appeal to God in Christ, to Holy Scripture and to the primitive Church, against all degeneration and apostasy." “從本質上講是一個新教呼籲上帝在基督裡,以聖經和原始的教會,對所有變性和叛教。 ” The narrowing of "Protestant" to mean anti - or non - Roman has led some to prefer "Evangelical" (though in continental Europe this normally designates Lutherans) and "Reformed" (more commonly used of Calvinist Presbyterians).縮小“新教”的意思反-非-羅馬已導致有些人喜歡“福音”(雖然在歐洲大陸通常指定路德會)和“改革”(更常用的加爾文主義長老)。

Fundamental Principles基本原則

The fundamental principles of sixteenth century Protestantism included the following:的基本原則,十六世紀的新教包括下列內容:

Soli deo Gloria索利索視頻凱萊

the justification of God's wisdom and power against papal usurpation and manmade religion, honoring God's sovereign transcendence and providential predestination.理由上帝的智慧和力量對教皇的侵占和人為的宗教,尊重上帝的主權超越和天賜命。

Sola Gratia索拉特惠

redemption as God's free gift accomplished by Christ's saving death and resurrection.贖回作為上帝的免費禮物所完成基督的拯救死亡和復活。 This was articulated chiefly in Pauline terms as justification by faith alone, as in the Augsburg Confession: "We cannot obtain forgiveness of sin and righteousness before God by our own merits, works or satisfactions, but receive forgiveness of sin and become righteous before God by grace, for Christ's sake, through faith, when we believe that Christ suffered for us and that for his sake our sin is forgiven and righteousness and eternal life are given to us." Assurance of salvation is therefore a mark of Protestant faith, grounded in the promise of the gospel and released from all pursuit of merit.這主要是在闡述保條款作為理由的信仰,僅在奧格斯堡信條: “我們不能獲得寬恕的罪惡和正義的上帝面前我們本身的是非曲直,工程或滿意,但得到寬恕的罪孽,並成為正義的上帝面前寬限期,為了基督的緣故,通過信仰,當我們相信,基督受苦受難的我們,對於他為了我們的罪過是原諒和正義,永恆的生命都交給我們。 “拯救保證,因此標誌著新教的信仰,植根於承諾福音,並釋放所有追求優點。

Sola Scriptura唯獨聖經

the freedom of Scripture to rule as God's word in the church, disentangled from papal and ecclesiastical magisterium and tradition.自由的聖經,以法治為上帝的字詞的教堂,從disentangled教皇和教會magisterium和傳統。 Scripture is the sole source of Christian revelation.聖經是唯一的來源,基督教的啟示。 Although tradition may aid its interpretation, its true (ie, spiritual) meaning is its natural (ie, literal) sense, not an allegorical one.雖然傳統的援助可能的解釋,其真正的(即精神)的意義是它的自然(即文字)意義上來說,不是一個寓言之一。

The Church as the Believing People of God教會作為人民相信上帝

constituted not by hierarchy, succession, or institution, but God's election and calling in Christ through the gospel.構成而不是由等級,繼承,或機構,但上帝的選舉,並呼籲通過在基督福音。 In the words of the Augsburg Confession, it is "the assembly of all believers among whom the gospel is preached in its purity and the holy sacraments are administered according to the gospel."在的話,奧格斯堡信條,它是“集結所有信徒其中福音是在宣揚純度和神聖的聖禮的管理按照福音。 ” The sacraments appointed by Christ are two only, baptism and the Lord's Supper, and may be spoken of as "visible words," reflecting the primacy of preaching in Protestant conviction.獲委任的聖禮由基督是兩個唯一的洗禮和上帝的晚餐,可談到作為“看得見的話來說, ”反映了至高無上的說教在新教的信念。

The Priesthood of All Believers牧師的所有信徒

the privileged freedom of all the baptized to stand before God in Christ "without patented human intermediaries" and their calling to be bearers of judgment and grace as "little Christs" to their neighbors.享有特權的自由,所有的洗禮面前站立在基督上帝“沒有專利的人力中介機構” ,並要求他們必須承擔的判斷和優雅的“小基督”他們的鄰居。 Pastor and preacher differ from other Christians by function and appointment, not spiritual status.牧師和佈道者不同於其他基督徒的功能和任命,而不是精神狀態。 (Later Protestantism has forgotten this perhaps more than any other foundation principle.) (後來新教已經忘記這也許超過其他任何基礎的原則。 )

The Sanctity of All Callings or Vocations神聖的所有調用或職業

the rejection of medieval distinctions between secular and sacred or "religious" (ie, monastic) with the depreciation of the former, and the recognition of all ways of life as divine vocations.反對中世紀的區別的世俗和神聖或“宗教” (即寺院)與折舊前,並承認所有的生活方式作為神聖的職業。 "The works of monk and priest in God's sight are in no way whatever superior to a farmer laboring in the field, or a woman looking after her home" (Luther). “工程的僧侶和牧師在上帝的視線絕不是什麼優於勞動的農民在外地,或一個女人照顧她的家” (路德) 。 None is intrinsically more Christian than any other, an insight obscured by phrases such as "the holy ministry."無本質上是基督教更比其他任何一個有識之士模糊詞語,如“神聖的省。 ”

Protestant Developments新教的發展

Protestantism has developed a distinctive ethos in each of the several traditions derived from the Reformation and also within their historical, cultural, and geographical variations.新教制定了一個獨特的民族精神在每一個傳統一些來自改革,並在其歷史,文化和地理的變化。 On some issues, such as the manner (not the reality) of Christ's presence in the Supper, Protestants have disagreed from a very early stage, while agreeing in rejecting transubstantiation and the sacrifice of the Mass and insisting that living faith alone feeds upon Christ's flesh and blood.在一些問題,如方式(而不是現實)基督的存在,在晚餐,已經不新教徒從非常早期的階段,而拒絕同意transubstantiation和犧牲的群眾,堅持獨自生活的信念飼料時基督的肉和血。 On others, such as church order, diversity of practice has not always involved disagreement in principle.在其他國家,如教堂秩序,多樣性的實踐並不總是參與在原則上的分歧。 In this and other areas Protestantism's scriptural principle has itself been articulated in different ways, both to sanction the retention of traditions (eg, episcopacy) not repugnant to Scripture (a typically Lutheran and Anglican approach) and to debar from the church's life anything not explicitly warranted in Scripture (a tendency of Reformed Protestantism implemented most consistently by Puritanism and some derivative traditions).在這一領域和其他領域新教的聖經原則,本身就是闡明以不同的方式,既要制裁保留傳統的(例如,主教)不令人厭惡的,以聖經(一個典型的信義和英國聖公會的辦法) ,並取消比賽從教堂的生活沒有明確什麼值得聖經(一種傾向新教的改革實施最一貫的清教和一些衍生物的傳統) 。

Nothing has so much promoted the disunity of Protestantism as the inroads of post - Enlightenment rationalism and its offspring in theological liberalism and modernism, which have gravely eroded Protestantism's Reformation and biblical foundations.沒有如此多的推動分裂的新教的進展後-啟蒙理性及其後代在神學自由主義和現代主義,這已經嚴重侵蝕新教的改革和聖經的基礎。

Another pattern of Reformation in the sixteenth century, generally called Anabaptist or Radical despite its diversity, sought to restore the precise shape of apostolic Christianity.另一種模式的改革在16世紀,一般稱為再洗禮派或根治儘管它的多樣性,力求恢復的精確形狀的使徒基督教。 Pentecostalism has a similar aim, along with other movements, including some Baptists and (Plymouth) Brethren.五旬節運動也有類似的目的,與其他運動,包括一些浸禮會和(普利茅斯)弟兄。 Some African Independent churches have pursued a restorationist approach even to the OT.一些非洲獨立教會推行了restorationist做法甚至到了加時賽。 Although Anabaptism gave birth to no major Protestant tradition (but note the Mennonites), its rejection of the Constantinian state - church and all its works (endorsed unreservedly by all three primary Protestant traditions) became in time the common property of most of Protestantism, especially outside Europe.雖然Anabaptism生下沒有發生重大的新教傳統(但請注意的門諾派) ,它拒絕君士坦丁狀態-教會和所有的作品(毫無保留地贊同所有三個主要的新教傳統)成為時間的共同財產大部分新教,尤其是歐洲以外地區。 (E Troeltsch has stressed the revolutionary significance of later Protestantism's abandonment of its early ideal of all - embracing church - civilization, a reformed Christendom.) The Anabaptist "protestation," though persecuted by the authoritarian Protestants, Lutheran, Reformed, and Anglican, is increasingly regarded as a parallel pattern of pristine Protestantism, with perhaps more to contribute to its future than any other pattern. (戊Troeltsch強調了革命性的意義,後來新教放棄其早期所有的理想-擁抱教堂-文明,基督教改革。)的再洗禮派“斷言,”儘管受迫害的專制新教徒,信義,改革,和英國聖公會,是越來越多地被視為一個平行的格局原始基督教,或許更有助於其未來比任何其他的模式。

Despite its divisions the community of Protestantism is still discernible in cross - denominational movements, eg, missionary expansion, Bible translation, biblical criticism and modern theological study, welfare and relief agencies, and the ecumenical movement itself.儘管其分裂社會的新教仍然是辨別兩岸-教會運動,例如,傳教士擴張,聖經翻譯,聖經的批評和現代神學研究,社會福利和救濟機構,以及基督教運動本身。 Protestants are also held together by common convictions, chief among them the acceptance of the Reformation as an indispensable part of their history.新教徒也一併舉行的共同信念,其中主要是接受改造作為一項不可或缺的一部分的歷史。 For no Protestants does this exclude a lineage going back tothe apostles, but continuity with patristic and medieval Christianity would be variously prized in different Protestant traditions.對於沒有新教徒,這排除宗族回去孟使徒,但與教父的連續性和中世紀的基督教會在各種不同的珍貴的新教傳統。

Protestantism's scriptural principle finds expression in the axiom Ecclesia reformata sed semper reformanda, "a church reformed but always open to further reformation."基督教的聖經原則體現在公理教會reformata基於森佩爾reformanda , “一所教堂,但總是改革開放的進一步改革。 ” Subjection to the word of God means that no traditions or institutions, secular or religious, not even Reformation or Protestant ones, can be absolutized.遭受上帝的話,意味著沒有任何傳統或機構,世俗或宗教,甚至不改革或新教的,可以絕對化。 Paul Tillich regarded "the Protestant principle" as "the prophetic judgment against religious pride, ecclesiastical arrogance and secular self - sufficiency and their destructive consequences."保羅蒂利希認為“新教原則”為“先知判決對宗教的驕傲,教會和世俗的傲慢自我-自給自足和他們的破壞性後果。 ” This was nobly exemplified in the Barmen Declaration of the Confessing Church in Nazi Germany ("Confessing" here being a good modern synonym of sixteenth century "Protestant"). Intellectually, "the co - operation of uninhibited inquiry and religious faith, of theology and science, is possible only on Protestant territory where all human traditions and institutions stand open both to man's scrutiny and to God's" (JH Nichols).這是高尚的例子在巴門宣言認信教會在納粹德國( “認”這裡是一個很好的現代同義詞16世紀“新教” ) 。智力, “聯合-操作不受限制的調查和宗教的信仰,神學和科學,是可能只在新教領土的所有人權傳統和機構都主張開放的人的監督和對上帝的“ (紅尼科爾斯) 。

Finally, Protestantism seeks to draw its life from the gospel of God's grace in Christ.最後,基督教要求提請其生命的福音上帝的恩典在基督。 True to its heritage it can tolerate no do - it - yourself Christianity, no ground for human self - confidence before God's face.真正的遺產它可以容忍沒有這樣做-它-自己的基督教,沒有理由對人類自我-信心在上帝面前的臉。 It will ultimately always value the Christ of faith more than the church of history.它最終將永遠珍視的信仰基督超過教堂的歷史。

DF Wright東風賴特

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
H Wace, Principles of the Reformation; EG Leonard, A History of Protestantism; W Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation; J Dillenberger and C Welch, Protestant Christianity Interpreted through Its Development; P Schaff, A History of the Creeds of Christendom, I, III; RN Flew and RE Davies, eds., The Catholicity of Protestantism; JH Nichols, Primer for Protestants; W Niesel, Reformed Symbolics: A Comparison of Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism; L Bouyer, The Spirit and Forms of Protestantism; E Troeltsch, Protestantism and Progress; P Tillich, The Protestant Era; CS Carter and GEA Weeks, eds., The Protestant Dictionary; JS Whale, The Protestant Tradition. H Wace ,原則改革;乙二醇倫納德史新教; W Pauck ,傳統的改革; J Dillenberger和C韋爾奇,解釋基督教新教通過其發展; P沙夫史信仰的基督教,我三;考試弗盧和RE戴維斯合編。 ,在天主教的新教;紅尼科爾斯,引為新教徒; W Niesel ,歸正符號:一個比較天主教,東正教和新教; L Bouyer ,精神和形式的新教;電子郵件Troeltsch ,新教和進展; P蒂利希,新教時代;政務司司長卡特和全球就業議程週合編。 ,新教詞典;江蘇鯨,新教傳統。


Protestantism新教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.:這個問題將處理以下元首,即。 :

I. Origin of the Name.一,原產地的名稱。

II.二。 Characteristic Protestant Principles.新教特點的原則。

III.三。 Discussion of the Three Fundamental Principles of Protestantism:討論的三項基本原則的新教:

A. The Supremacy of the Bible;答:至高無上的聖經;

B. Justification by Faith Alone;灣因信稱義孤獨;

C. The Universal Priesthood of Believers.角的普遍神職人員的信徒。

IV.四。 Private Judgment in Practice.私營企業在實踐中判斷。

V. "Justification by Faith Alone" in Practice.五, “因信稱義孤獨”的實踐。

VI.六。 Advent of a New Order: Cæsaropapism.出現一個新秩序: Cæsaropapism 。

VII.七。 Rapidity of Protestant Progress Explained.快速新教進展解釋。

VIII.八。 Present-day Protestantism.當代基督教。

IX.九。 Popular Protestantism.大眾新教。

X. Protestantism and Progress:十,基督教和進展:

A. Prejudices;字母a.偏見;

B. Progress in Church and Churches; B.進展在教會和教會;

C. Progress in Civil Society; C.方案的民間社會;

D. Progress in Religious Toleration; D.進展宗教寬容;

E. The Test of Vitality. E.本試驗的生命力。

XI.十一。 Conclusion.結論。

I. ORIGIN OF THE NAME一,原產地的名稱

The Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, assembled at Speyer in April, 1529, resolved that, according to a decree promulgated at the Diet of Worms (1524), communities in which the new religion was so far established that it could not without great trouble be altered should be free to maintain it, but until the meeting of the council they should introduce no further innovations in religion, and should not forbid the Mass, or hinder Catholics from assisting thereat.國會的神聖羅馬帝國,聚集在斯派爾4月, 1529年,解決的是,根據頒布的法令在國會的蠕蟲( 1524 ) ,社區的新的宗教是迄今成立,它不能沒有大麻煩改變應該能夠自由地維護它,但直到理事會會議上介紹他們應該沒有進一步創新宗教,也不應該禁止的群眾,或妨礙天主教徒協助該處。

Against this decree, and especially against the last article, the adherents of the new Evangel - the Elector Frederick of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, the Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, the Dukes of Lüneburg, the Prince of Anhalt, together with the deputies of fourteen of the free and imperial cities - entered a solemn protest as unjust and impious.反對這項法令,特別是對過去的文章,信徒新的福音-弗雷德里克選民薩克森州的領地黑森州,阿爾貝的M argrave勃蘭登堡的L üneburg公爵,王子安哈爾特州,連同代表14自由和帝國城市-進入了一個莊嚴的抗議不公正和i mpious。 The meaning of the protest was that the dissentients did not intend to tolerate Catholicism within their borders.的含義抗議是dissentients不打算容忍天主教在其境內。 On that account they were called Protestants.在這個帳戶它們被稱為新教徒。

In course of time the original connotation of "no toleration for Catholics" was lost sight of, and the term is now applied to, and accepted by, members of those Western Churches and sects which, in the sixteenth century, were set up by the Reformers in direct opposition to the Catholic Church.在隨著時間的推移,原來的內涵, “不容忍天主教徒”被忽略,而現在的應用,並接受了,這些成員的西方教會和教派,在十六世紀,設立了改革者直接對立的天主教教會。 The same man may call himself Protestant or Reformed: the term Protestant lays more stress on antagonism to Rome; the term Reformed emphasizes adherence to any of the Reformers.同樣的男子,可致電本人或改制新教:新教的任期奠定更加注重對抗羅馬;一詞強調堅持改革的任何改革者。 Where religious indifference is prevalent, many will say they are Protestants, merely to signify that they are not Catholics.凡宗教的冷漠很普遍,許多人會說,他們是新教徒,僅僅是為了表明他們不是天主教徒。 In some such vague, negative sense, the word stands in the new formula of the Declaration of Faith to be made by the King of England at his coronation; viz.: "I declare that I am a faithful Protestant".在一些諸如模糊,消極意義上說,站在這個詞在新的公式宣言信仰,才能由英國國王在他的加冕典禮;即。 : “我宣布我是一名忠實的新教” 。 During the debates in Parliament it was observed that the proposed formula effectively debarred Catholics from the throne, whilst it committed the king to no particular creed, as no man knows what the creed of a faithful Protestant is or should be.在議會辯論中有人認為,擬議的公式有效地禁止天主教徒的寶座,而它承諾的國王沒有特別的信仰,因為沒有人知道什麼是對的信仰新教的忠實或應。

II.二。 CHARACTERISTIC PROTESTANT PRINCIPLES新教特點的原則

However vague and indefinite the creed of individual Protestants may be, it always rests on a few standard rules, or principles, bearing on the Sources of faith, the means of justification, and the constitution of the Church.然而含糊和無限期的信仰新教的個人可,它總是落在幾個標準規則,或原則,同時對信仰的來源,手段的理由,和憲法的教會。 An acknowledged Protestant authority, Philip Schaff (in "The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge", sv Reformation), sums up the principles of Protestantism in the following words:公認的新教權威,菲利普沙夫(在“新沙夫-赫爾佐格百科全書宗教知識” ,希沃特改革) ,總結出的原則,新教在以下文字:

The Protestant goes directly to the Word of God for instruction, and to the throne of grace in his devotions; whilst the pious Roman Catholic consults the teaching of his church, and prefers to offer his prayers through the medium of the Virgin Mary and the saints.新教直接向天主的聖言的指示,王位的寬限期在他devotions ;而虔誠的羅馬天主教協商的教學他的教會,並願意提供他的祈禱通過媒介的聖母和聖人。

From this general principle of Evangelical freedom, and direct individual relationship of the believer to Christ, proceed the three fundamental doctrines of Protestantism - the absolute supremacy of (1) the Word, and of (2) the grace of Christ, and (3) the general priesthood of believers.從這個一般原則的福音自由和直接的個人關係的基督信徒,開始的三個基本理論的基督教-絕對的優勢( 1 )的W ord,以及( 2 )基督的恩典,和( 3 )一般神職人員的信徒。 . . .

1. 1 。 Sola Scriptura ("Bible Alone")唯獨聖經( “聖經孤獨” )

The [first] objective [or formal] principle proclaims the canonical Scriptures, especially the New Testament, to be the only infallible source and rule of faith and practice, and asserts the right of private interpretation of the same, in distinction from the Roman Catholic view, which declares the Bible and tradition to be co-ordinate sources and rule of faith, and makes tradition, especially the decrees of popes and councils, the only legitimate and infallible interpreter of the Bible.在[第一次]目標[或正規]的原則宣布典型聖經,尤其是新約,是唯一可靠的來源和法治的誠意和做法,並聲稱有權私營解釋的同時,在區分從羅馬天主教看來,其中宣布聖經和傳統,要統籌來源和法治的信心,並使得傳統,尤其是法令教皇和議會,唯一合法的和可靠的翻譯聖經。 In its extreme form Chillingworth expressed this principle of the Reformation in the well-known formula, "The Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible, is the religion of Protestants."在其極端形式渥斯表示這一原則的改革眾所周知的公式, “聖經,整個聖經,並沒有什麼,但聖經,是新教徒的宗教。 ” Protestantism, however, by no means despises or rejects church authority as such, but only subordinates it to, and measures its value by, the Bible, and believes in a progressive interpretation of the Bible through the expanding and deepening consciousness of Christendom.基督教,但絕不輕視或拒絕教堂等權力,但只有它的下屬,並採取措施其價值的,聖經,並認為在一個逐步的解釋聖經通過擴大和深化基督教意識。 Hence, besides having its own symbols or standards of public doctrine, it retained all the articles of the ancient creeds and a large amount of disciplinary and ritual tradition, and rejected only those doctrines and ceremonies for which no clear warrant was found in the Bible and which seemed to contradict its letter or spirit.因此,除了有自己的符號或標準的公共理論,它保留的所有條款古老的信仰和大量的紀律和禮儀的傳統,並拒絕只有那些理論和儀式而沒有明確的手令被發現在聖經和這似乎矛盾的信件或精神。 The Calvinistic branches of Protestantism went farther in their antagonism to the received traditions than the Lutheran and the Anglican; but all united in rejecting the authority of the pope.分支機構的加爾文新教去更遠的對抗收到比傳統的信義和英國聖公會;但都拒絕聯合國的權威,教宗。 [Melanchthon for a while was willing to concede this, but only jure humano, or a limited disciplinary superintendency of the Church], the meritoriousness of good works, indulgences, the worship of the Virgin, saints, and relics, the sacraments (other than baptism and the Eucharist), the dogma of transubstantiation and the Sacrifice of the Mass, purgatory, and prayers for the dead, auricular confession, celibacy of the clergy, the monastic system, and the use of the Latin tongue in public worship, for which the vernacular languages were substituted. [梅蘭希頓了一會兒願意承認這一點,但只有法律上的humano ,或有限的紀律監督的教會]的體面的優秀作品, indulgences ,崇拜美屬維爾京,聖人,和文物的聖禮(除洗禮和聖體)中,教條的transubstantiation和犧牲的質量,煉獄,並祈禱死者的供詞耳,獨身神職人員的修道院制度,並利用拉丁美洲的舌頭在公共崇拜,這白話文的語言所取代。

2. 2 。 Sola Fide ("Faith Alone")索拉善意( “信仰孤獨” )

The subjective principle of the Reformation is justification by faith alone, or, rather, by free grace through faith operative in good works.主觀原則的改革是由信仰的理由僅僅,或者說,由自由寬限期通過信仰手術中的優秀作品。 It has reference to the personal appropriation of the Christian salvation, and aims to give all glory to Christ, by declaring that the sinner is justified before God (ie is acquitted of guilt, and declared righteous) solely on the ground of the all-sufficient merits of Christ as apprehended by a living faith, in opposition to the theory - then prevalent, and substantially sanctioned by the Council of Trent - which makes faith and good works co-ordinate sources of justification, laying the chief stress upon works.它提到了個人批基督教救贖,目的是讓所有榮耀基督,所宣布的罪人是有道理的上帝面前(即是有罪無罪,並宣布正義)只在地面上的所有足夠的案情逮捕基督的生活信念,反對理論-那麼普遍,大大批准理事會的遄達-這使得信仰和良好的工程統籌來源的理由,奠定了首席應力時的作品。 Protestantism does not depreciate good works; but it denies their value as sources or conditions of justification, and insists on them as the necessary fruits of faith, and evidence of justification.新教不貶值的優秀作品; ,但否認其價值的來源或條件的理由,並堅持對他們進行必要水果的信念,以及證據的理由。

3. 3 。 Priesthood of All Believers神職人員的所有信徒

The universal priesthood of believers implies the right and duty of the Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the vernacular, but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church.普遍神職人員的信徒意味著權利和義務的基督教信徒不僅要閱讀聖經中的方言,而且還參加了政府和所有公共事務的教會。 It is opposed to the hierarchical system, which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people". See also Schaff "The Principle of Protestantism, German and English" (1845).這是反對等級制度,這使的本質和權威的教會獨家鐸,使祝神父必要的調停人之間的上帝和人民。 “又見沙夫”的原則新教,德語和英語“ ( 1845年) 。

III.三。 DISCUSSION OF THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTESTANTISM討論的三個基本原則新教

A. Sola Scriptura ("Bible Alone")字母a.唯獨聖經( “聖經孤獨” )

The belief in the Bible as the sole source of faith is unhistorical, illogical, fatal to the virtue of faith, and destructive of unity.相信在聖經中作為唯一的來源信仰是unhistorical ,不合邏輯的,致命的美德信念,破壞團結。

It is unhistorical.這是unhistorical 。 No one denies the fact that Christ and the Apostles founded the Church by preaching and exacting faith in their doctrines.沒有人否認的事實,基督和使徒的教會創辦的鼓吹和嚴格的信念,他們的學說。 No book told as yet of the Divinity of Christ, the redeeming value of His Passion, or of His coming to judge the world; these and all similar revelations had to be believed on the word of the Apostles, who were, as their powers showed, messengers from God.沒有書還告訴了神的基督,挽救價值的熱情,或其判斷未來世界;這些問題和所有類似的啟示,必須相信對這個詞的使徒,是誰,因為他們的權力,表明,送信來自上帝。 And those who received their word did so solely on authority.和那些誰收到的話這樣做完全的權威。 As immediate, implicit submission of the mind was in the lifetime of the Apostles the only necessary token of faith, there was no room whatever for what is now called private judgment.立即,隱含提交注意在一生的使徒的唯一必要的象徵性的信念,沒有任何的餘地現在的所謂私人的判斷。 This is quite clear from the words of Scripture: "Therefore, we also give thanks to God without ceasing: because, that when you had received of us the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men, but (as it is indeed) the word of God" (1 Thessalonians 2:13).這是相當清楚的從聖經的話: “因此,我們也感謝上帝沒有停止:因為,當你收到我們的話,聽證會的上帝,您收到沒有這個詞的男人,但(因為它確實是)上帝的話, “ (帖撒羅尼迦前書2點13分) 。 The word of hearing is received through a human teacher and is believed on the authority of God, who is its first author (cf. Romans 10:17).這個詞的聽證會收到一個人的教師認為是對權力的上帝,誰是它的第一作者(見羅馬10點17 ) 。 But, if in the time of the Apostles, faith consisted in submitting to authorized teaching, it does so now; for the essence of things never changes and the foundation of the Church and of our salvation is immovable.但是,如果在時間上的使徒,信仰包括提交授權教學,它這樣做,現在的本質的東西永遠不會改變的基礎,教會和我們的救恩是不動產。

Again, it is illogical to base faith upon the private interpretation of a book. For faith consists in submitting; private interpretation consists in judging.再次,這是不合邏輯的信仰為基礎的私營解釋的一本書。組成的信念在提交;私營解釋包括判斷。 In faith by hearing, the last word rests with the teacher; in private judgment it rests with the reader, who submits the dead text of Scripture to a kind of post-mortem examination and delivers a verdict without appeal: he believes in himself rather than in any higher authority.在信仰的聽證會,最後一個字在於教師;在私人判斷它在於讀者,誰死提交的案文聖經,以一種驗屍,並提供了一個判決上訴:他相信自己,而不是在任何更高的權威。 But such trust in one's own light is not faith.但是,這種信任自己的光不是信仰。 Private judgment is fatal to the theological virtue of faith.私人的判斷是致命的神學美德的信念。 John Henry Newman says "I think I may assume that this virtue, which was exercised by the first Christians, is not known at all amongst Protestants now; or at least if there are instances of it, it is exercised toward those, I mean their teachers and divines, who expressly disclaim that they are objects of it, and exhort their people to judge for themselves" ("Discourses to Mixed Congregations", Faith and Private Judgment).紐曼說: “我想我可以承擔這一美德,這是行使第一次基督徒,不知道在所有的新教徒之間的現在,或至少如果有實例,它是對那些行使,我的意思是他們的教師和divines ,誰明確聲明,他們的對象,並告誡其人民自己判斷“ ( ”話語混合公理“ ,信仰和私人的判決) 。 And in proof he advances the instability of Protestant so-called faith: "They are as children tossed to and fro and carried along by every gale of doctrine. If they had faith they would not change. They look upon the simple faith of Catholics as if unworthy the dignity of human nature, as slavish and foolish".在他進步的證據不穩定的新教所謂的信念: “他們是作為兒童拋出來回和執行的每一起大風的原則。如果他們有信心,他們不會改變。他們期望的簡單的信念,天主教徒如果不配人的尊嚴的性質,因為盲從和愚蠢的“ 。 Yet upon that simple, unquestioning faith the Church was built up and is held together to this day. Where absolute reliance on God's word, proclaimed by his accredited ambassadors, is wanting, ie where there is not the virtue of faith, there can be no unity of Church.然而,對這麼簡單,無條件地信仰教會就建立起來了,是一起舉行的這一天。凡絕對依賴於上帝的一句話,他宣布了派駐大使,是希望,即那裡不是憑藉信念,就不可能有統一的教會。 It stands to reason, and Protestant history confirms it.這合乎情理,和基督教的歷史證實了這一點。 The "unhappy divisions", not only between sect and sect but within the same sect, have become a byword.在“不快樂分裂” ,不僅節和節,但在同一節,已成為一種代名詞。 They are due to the pride of private intellect, and they can only be healed by humble submission to a Divine authority.他們是由於私人驕傲的智慧,他們只能癒合謙虛提交的神聖權力。

B. Sola Fide (Justification by "Faith Alone")索拉善意灣(理由的“信仰孤獨” )

See the separate article JUSTIFICATION.見單獨的一條理由。

C. Priesthood of All Believers角神職人員的所有信徒

The "universal priesthood of believers" is a fond fancy which goes well with the other fundamental tenets of Protestantism. “普遍神職人員的信徒”是一個喜歡幻想的順利進行,其他基本原理新教。 For, if every man is his own supreme teacher and is able to justify himself by an easy act of faith, there is no further need of ordained teachers and ministers of sacrifice and sacraments.因為,如果每個人都是自己最高的教師,並能證明他的一個簡單的信念行事,已不再需要的祝老師和部長們的犧牲和聖禮。 The sacraments themselves, in fact, become superfluous.自己的聖禮,事實上,成為多餘的。 The abolition of priests, sacrifices, and sacraments is the logical consequence of false premises, ie the right of private judgment and justification by faith alone; it is, therefore, as illusory as these.廢除神職人員,犧牲,聖禮是合乎邏輯的結果錯誤的前提,即權利的私營判斷和理由的信仰就有,它是,因此,虛幻的,因為這些。 It is moreover contrary to Scripture, to tradition, to reason.此外,這是違背聖經,傳統,理智。 The Protestant position is that the clergy had originally been representatives of the people, deriving all their power from them, and only doing, for the sake of order and convenience, what laymen might do also.新教的立場是,神職人員本來是人民的代表,其產生的一切權力從他們,只有這樣做,是為了秩序和方便,是外行人也可以這樣做。 But Scripture speaks of bishops, priests, deacons as invested with spiritual powers not possessed by the community at large, and transmitted by an external sign, the imposition of hands, thus creating a separate order, a hierarchy.但聖經談到主教,神父,執事作為投資與精神不擁有權力的社會,並轉交由外部標誌,實行手中,從而創造一個單獨的秩序,等級。 Scripture shows the Church starting with an ordained priesthood as its central element. History likewise shows this priesthood living on in unbroken succession to the present day in East and West, even in Churches separated from Rome.聖經顯示,教會,首先是祝聖司鐸作為其核心內容。歷史同樣表明,該司鐸生活在完整繼承至今在東方和西方,甚至在教會脫離羅馬。 And reason requires such an institution; a society confessedly established to continue the saving work of Christ must possess and perpetuate His saving power; it must have a teaching and ministering order commissioned by Christ, as Christ was commissioned by God; "As the Father has sent me, I also send you" (John 20:21). Sects which are at best shadows of Churches wax and wane with the priestly powers they subconsciously or instinctively attribute to their pastors, elders, ministers, preachers, and other leaders.和理智,需要這樣一個機構;一個社會明白,繼續建立節能工作的基督必須擁有和延續他的節能電源,它必須有一個教學和ministering為了基督的委託,作為委託基督上帝“的父親已寄給我,我也向您發送“ (約20:21 ) 。教派這是最好的陰影教會蠟和衰落與祭司的權力,他們本能的下意識或屬性的牧師,長老,部長,傳教士,和其他領導人。

IV.四。 PRIVATE JUDGMENT IN PRACTICE私營判決在實踐中

At first sight it seems that private judgment as a rule of faith would at once dissolve all creeds and confessions into individual opinions, thus making impossible any church life based upon a common faith.乍一看似乎私營判決作為一項規則的信仰將立即解散所有的信仰和口供到個人的意見,從而無法進行任何教會的生活依據一個共同的信念。 For quot capita tot sensus: no two men think exactly alike on any subject.對於quot人均托特感覺:沒有兩名男子想一模一樣的任何問題。 Yet we are faced by the fact that Protestant churches have lived through several centuries and have moulded the character not only of individuals but of whole nations; that millions of souls have found and are finding in them the spiritual food which satisfies their spiritual cravings; that their missionary and charitable activity is covering wide fields at home and abroad.然而,我們所面臨的一個事實,即新教經歷了幾個世紀,並已成型的特點不僅是個人,而是整個國家; ,數以百萬計的靈魂已經找到,並發現他們的精神食糧滿足他們的精神渴望,這他們的傳教和慈善活動是涵蓋廣泛領域在國內和國外。 The apparent incongruity does not exist in reality, for private judgment is never and nowhere allowed full play in the framing of religions.明顯的不協調並不存在於現實,為私營的判斷是從來沒有,無處可充分發揮在制定宗教。 The open Bible and the open mind on its interpretation are rather a lure to entice the masses, by flattering their pride and deceiving their ignorance, than a workable principle of faith.開放的聖經和開放的心態上的解釋是相當吸引來吸引群眾,恭維他們的驕傲和欺騙他們的無知,而不是一個可行的原則的信念。

The first limitation imposed on the application of private judgment is the incapacity of most men to judge for themselves on matters above their physical needs.首先限制的申請私營判斷是喪失工作能力的大多數人自行判斷上述問題上他們的身體的需要。 How many Christians are made by the tons of Testaments distributed by missionaries to the heathen?有多少基督徒是由噸分發的聖經傳教士的異教徒? What religion could even a well-schooled man extract from the Bible if he had nought but his brain and his book to guide him? The second limitation arises from environment and prejudices.是什麼宗教,甚至良好的學習男子摘錄聖經如果他一無所獲,但他的大腦和他的書來指導他呢?第二個限制來源於環境和偏見。 The assumed right of private judgment is not exercised until the mind is already stocked with ideas and notions supplied by family and community, foremost among these being the current conceptions of religious dogmas and duties.假定權的私營的判斷是沒有行使,直至心已經擺放著的思想和觀念所提供的家庭和社區,其中首要的當前觀念的宗教教條和職責。 People are said to be Catholics, Protestants, Mahommedans, Pagans "by birth", because the environment in which they are born invariably endows them with the local religion long before they are able to judge and choose for themselves.人們說是天主教徒,新教徒, Mahommedans ,異教徒“出生”的,因為環境中出生,他們總是賦予他們與當地的宗教很久以前他們能夠判斷和選擇自己。 And the firm hold which this initial training gets on the mind is well illustrated by the fewness of changes in later life.和牢牢把握這得到初步培訓的心靈是很好的說明了fewness的變化在以後的生活。 Conversions from one belief to another are of comparatively rare occurrence.從一個轉換到另一個信念是比較罕見的現象。 The number of converts in any denomination compared to the number of stauncher adherents is a negligible quantity.數量轉換在任何名目相比,一些stauncher信徒是一個微不足道的數量。 Even where private judgment has led to the conviction that some other form of religion is preferable to the one professed, conversion is not always achieved. The convert, beside and beyond his knowledge, must have sufficient strength of will to break with old associations, old friendships, old habits, and to face the uncertainties of life in new surroundings.即使在私人的判斷導致了信念,一些其他形式的宗教是最好的之一宣稱,轉換並不總是實現。的轉換,旁邊和他的知識之外,必須有足夠的實力將打破舊的協會,老友誼,舊習慣,以及面對生活的不確定性在新的環境。 His sense of duty, in many eases, must be of heroical temper.他的責任感,在許多例,必須是英雄的脾氣。

A third limitation put on the exercise of private judgment is the authority of Church and State.第三個限制了對行使私人的判斷是權威的教會和國家。 The Reformers took full advantage of their emancipation from papal authority, but they showed no inclination to allow their followers the same freedom.改革者充分利用他們擺脫教皇的權威,但他們沒有傾斜,使他們的追隨者同樣的自由。 Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Knox were as intolerant of private judgment when it went against their own conceits as any pope in Rome was ever intolerant of heresy.路德,茨溫利,卡爾文和諾克斯為狹隘的私人判決時,去對自己的任何conceits在羅馬教皇是以往任何時候都不能容忍異端。 Confessions of faith, symbols, and catechism were set up everywhere, and were invariably backed by the secular power.真誠的自白,符號和理成立隨處可見,總是支持的世俗權力。 In fact, the secular power in the several parts of Germany, England, Scotland, and elsewhere has had more to do with the moulding of religious denominations than private judgment and justification by faith alone.事實上,世俗的權力在一些地方,德國,英格蘭,蘇格蘭,和其他地方有更多的是塑造宗教派別比私人的判斷和理由的信仰就有。 Rulers were guided by political and material considerations in their adherence to particular forms of faith, and they usurped the right of imposing their own choice on their subjects, regardless of private opinions: cujus regio hujus religio.統治者遵循的政治和物質方面的考慮它們加入特殊形式的信仰,他們被剝奪的權利強加自己選擇的對象,無論私人意見: cujus雷hujus宗教。

The above considerations show that the first Protestant principle, free judgment, never influenced the Protestant masses at large.上述因素表明,第一新教的原則,自由判斷,從來沒有影響到新教廣大人民群眾。 Its influence is limited to a few leaders of the movement, to the men who by dint of strong character were capable of creating separate sects.其影響是有限的幾個領導人的運動,誰的男子憑藉強大的特點是能夠創造不同的教派。 They indeed spurned the authority of the Old Church, but soon transferred it to their own persons and institutions, if not to secular princes.他們確實唾棄的權威,老教堂,但很快轉移到自己的個人和機構,如果不是世俗的王子。 How mercilessly the new authority was exercised is matter of history.如何無情的新的權力行使是歷史問題。 Moreover, in the course of time, private judgment has ripened into unbridled freethought, Rationalism, Modernism, now rampant in most universities, cultured society, and the Press.此外,隨著時間的推移,私人判決成熟到肆無忌憚freethought ,理性主義,現代主義,現在最猖獗的大學,培養社會和新聞。 Planted by Luther and other reformers the seed took no root, or soon withered, among the half-educated masses who still clung to authority or were coerced by the secular arm; but it flourished and produced its full fruit chiefly in the schools and among the ranks of society which draw their intellectual life from that source. The modern Press is at infinite pains to spread free judgment and its latest results to the reading public.種植路德和其他改革者的種子沒有根,或者很快枯萎,在半誰受過教育的群眾仍堅持權力或被迫世俗的手臂,但它生產的蓬勃發展和充分水果主要是在學校和各隊伍的社會吸取他們的生活來源。現代出版社是嘔心瀝血傳播自由的判斷和其最新的成果向廣大讀者。

It should be remarked that the first Protestants, without exception, pretended to be the true Church founded by Christ, and all retained the Apostles' Creed with the article "I believe in the Catholic Church".應該說,第一次新教徒,無例外地,假裝是真正的教會創辦的基督,並保留了所有使徒信經的文章“我相信,在天主教會” 。 The fact of their Catholic origin and surroundings accounts both for their good intention and for the confessions of faith to which they bound themselves.事實上,他們的天主教原產地及周邊地區的帳目都為他們良好的意圖和招供的信念,以他們的約束自己。 Yet such confessions, if there be any truth in the assertion that private judgment and the open Bible are the only sources of Protestant faith, are directly antagonistic to the Protestant spirit.然而,這種坦白,如果有任何真理的斷言,私人的判斷和開放聖經是唯一的來源新教的信仰,是直接對立的新教精神。 This is recognized, among others, by JH Blunt, who writes: "The mere existence of such confessions of faith as binding on all or any of the members of the Christian community is inconsistent with the great principles on which the Protestant bodies justified their separation from the Church, the right of private judgment. Has not any member as just a right to criticise and to reject them as his forefathers had a right to reject the Catholic creeds or the canons of general councils? They appear to violate another prominent doctrine of the Reformers, the sufficiency of Holy Scripture to salvation. If the Bible alone is enough, what need is there for adding articles? If it is rejoined that they are not additions to, but merely explanations of, the Word of God, the further question arises, amid the many explanations, more or less at variance with each other given by the different sects of Protestantism, who is to decide which is the true one? Their professed object being to secure uniformity, the experience of three hundred years has proved to us what may not have been foreseen by their originators, that they have had a diametrically opposite result, and have been productive not of union but of variance" (Dict. of Sects, Heresies, etc.", London, 1886, sv Protestant Confessions of Faith). By pinning private judgment to the Bible the Reformers started a book religion, ie a religion of which, theoretically, law of faith and conduct is contained in a written document without method, without authority, without an authorized interpreter. The collection of books called "the Bible" is not a methodical code of faith and morals; if it be separated from the stream of tradition which asserts its Divine inspiration, it has no special authority, and, in the hands of private interpreters, its meaning is easily twisted to suit every private mind. Our modern laws, elaborated by modern minds for modern requirements, are daily obscured and diverted from their object by interested pleaders: judges are an absolute necessity for their right interpretation and application, and unless we say that religion is but a personal concern, that coherent religious bodies or churches are superfluous, we must admit that judges of faith and morals are as necessary to them as judges of civil law are to States. And that is another reason why private judgment, though upheld in theory, has not been carried out in practice. As a matter of fact, all Protestant denominations are under constituted authorities, be they called priest or presbyters, elders or ministers, pastors or presidents. Notwithstanding the contradiction between the freedom they proclaim and the obedience they exact, their rule has often been tyrannical to a degree, especially in Calvinistic communities. Thus in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there was no more priest-ridden country in the world than Presbyterian Scotland. A book-religion has, moreover, another drawback. Its devotees can draw devotion from it only as fetish worshippers draw it from their idol, viz. by firmly believing in its hidden spirit. Remove belief in Divine inspiration from the sacred books, and what remains may be regarded as simply a human document of religious illusion or even of fraud. Now, in the course of centuries, private judgment has partly succeeded in taking the spirit out of the Bible, leaving little else than the letter, for critics, high and low, to discuss without any spiritual advantage.這是公認的,除其他外,由華鈍,誰寫道: “僅僅存在這種招供的信念作為具有約束力的全部或任何成員的基督教社區,不符合的偉大原則的新教機構離職的理由從教會的權利,私人的判斷。已沒有任何成員的只是一個正確的批評和拒絕他們的祖先為他有權拒絕天主教教義教規或一般議會呢?他們似乎違反了另一個突出的理論改革者,是否有足夠的聖經救贖。如果單單是聖經不夠的,需要的是什麼有新增文章?如果是回到他們不會增加,而只是解釋,天主的聖言,進一步的問題時,由於許多解釋,或多或少的差異互相給予不同教派的基督教,是誰的決定這是真正的呢?他們宣稱的目的是要確保統一性,經驗三百年已被證明我們可能沒有預見到他們的始作俑者,他們產生了截然相反的結果,並已生產沒有工會,但變異“ ( Dict.的教派,異端,等等” ,倫敦, 1886年,希沃特新教的自白信仰) 。通過固定私營判決聖經改革者開始一本書的宗教,即宗教的,從理論上說,法律的信仰和行為載於一份書面文件沒有法,沒有權威,沒有授權的翻譯。收集書籍所謂的“聖經”不是一個有條理的代碼的信念和道德,如果它脫離流的傳統聲稱其神聖的靈感,它沒有任何特殊的權力,並在私人手中的口譯員,其含義是容易扭曲,以適應每一個私人想法。我們現代的法律,闡述了現代思想對現代的要求,每天都在掩蓋和偏離其感興趣的對象pleaders :法官是絕對必要的正確解釋和適用,除非我們說,宗教只是個人問題,是連貫一致的宗教機構或教堂是多餘的,我們必須承認,法官的信念和道德是必要的,以它們作為法官的民事法律的國家。這是另一個原因私營判決,但堅持理論上,尚未進行實踐。事實上,所有新教教派正在構成當局,不管是所謂的牧師或長老,長老或部長,牧師或總統。雖有之間的矛盾,他們宣布自由和服從他們確切的,他們的規則往往被殘暴的程度,特別是在加爾文的社區。因此,在17和18世紀,沒有更多的牧師深重的國家在世界上超過蘇格蘭長老會。一本書,宗教,此外,另一項缺點。及其信徒可以利用它奉獻精神只能作為吸引信徒迷信它從他們的偶像,分別了。堅信在其隱藏的精神。移除信仰神靈感來自神聖的書籍,仍然可被視為一種人權文件宗教幻想,甚至欺詐行為。現在的過程中,幾百年來,私營判決部分成功的精神採取了聖經,讓沒有其他比信中,對批評者,高,低,討論沒有任何精神的優勢。

V. "JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ALONE" IN PRACTICE五, “正當理由的信仰獨立”在實踐中

This principle bears upon conduct, unlike free judgment, which bears on faith. It is not subject to the same limitations, for its practical application requires less mental capacity; its working cannot be tested by anyone; it is strictly personal and internal, thus escaping such violent conflicts with community or state as would lead to repression.這一原則的行為時有不同,自由判斷,這事關信仰。沒有受到同樣的限制,其實際應用需要較少的心理能力;其工作不能測試的人,這是個人和嚴格的內部,從而逃避這種暴力衝突與社區或國家作為將導致鎮壓。 On the other hand, as it evades coercion, lends itself to practical application at every step in man's life, and favours man's inclination to evil by rendering a so-called "conversion" ludicrously easy, its baneful influence on morals is manifest.另一方面,因為它迴避脅迫,適合於在實際應用中的每一步人的生命,並有利於人的傾向邪惡的渲染所謂的“轉換”滑稽容易的,其流毒的道德表現。 Add to justification by faith alone the doctrines of predestination to heaven or hell regardless of man's actions, and the slavery of the human will, and it seems inconceivable that any good action at all could result from such beliefs.添加到理由的信仰只有在理論的預定天堂或地獄,無論人的行動,和奴役人的意志,這似乎是不可思議,任何良好的行動都可能導致這種信念。 As a matter of history, public morality did at once deteriorate to an appalling degree wherever Protestantism was introduced.作為一個歷史問題,公共道德一次沒有惡化到一定程度令人震驚只要新教介紹。 Not to mention the robberies of Church goods, brutal treatment meted out to the clergy, secular and regular, who remained faithful, and the horrors of so many wars of religion, we have Luther's own testimony as to the evil results of his teaching (see Janssen, "History of the German People", Eng. tr., vol. V, London and St. Louis, 1908, 27-83, where each quotation is documented by a reference to Luther's works as published by de Wette).更不用說搶劫教會的貨物,殘酷的待遇,以神職人員,世俗和經常性,始終忠於誰,以及恐怖的如此眾多的宗教戰爭,我們已經路德自己的證詞,以邪惡的結果,他的教學(見揚森, “歷史的德國人” ,英。文。 ,第二卷。五,倫敦和聖路易斯, 1908年, 27-83 ,每個報價的記載中提到路德的作品發表的Wette ) 。

VI.六。 ADVENT OF A NEW ORDER: CÆSAROPAPISM出現一個新秩序: CÆSAROPAPISM

A similar picture of religious and moral degradation may easily be drawn from contemporary Protestant writers for all countries after the first introduction of Protestantism.一個類似圖片的宗教和道德退化可能很容易地從當代新教作家對所有國家後,第一次引進新教。 It could not be otherwise.它不能有別的。 The immense fermentation caused by the introduction of subversive principles into the life of a people naturally brings to the surface and shows in its utmost ugliness all that is brutal in human nature.巨大的發酵所造成的引進顛覆的原則納入生活的人們自然帶來的表面,並顯示在其最大的醜惡一切殘酷的人性。 But only for a time.但是,只有一段時間。 The ferment exhausts itself, the fermentation subsides, and order reappears, possibly under new forms.發酵尾氣的本身,發酵補貼,並以重新出現,可能在新的形式。 The new form of social and religious order, which is the residue of the great Protestant upheaval in Europe, is territorial or State Religion - an order based on the religious supremacy of the temporal ruler, in contradistinction to the old order in which the temporal ruler took an oath of obedience to the Church.新形式的社會和宗教秩序,這是殘留的巨大動盪新教在歐洲,是國家領土或宗教-一種秩序,其基礎是對宗教的至高無上的統治者的時間,對比的舊秩序,使顳統治者發誓服從教會。 For the right understanding of Protestantism it is necessary to describe the genesis of this far-reaching change.對於正確的理解基督教,有必要說明的起源這一具有深遠意義的變化。

Luther's first reformatory attempts were radically democratic.路德的第一感化院企圖從根本上民主。 He sought to benefit the people at large by curtailing the powers of both Church and State. The German princes, to him, were "usually the biggest fools or the worst scoundrels on earth".他要求,以造福於廣大人民的限制的權力都教會與國家。德國的王子,他說,是“通常是最大的傻瓜或最壞的壞蛋地球上” 。 In 1523 he wrote: "The people will not, cannot, shall not endure your tyranny and oppression any longer. The world is not now what it was formerly, when you could chase and drive the people like game".在1523年他寫道: “人民不會,不能,不應忍受的暴政和壓迫的任何更長的時間。世界是不是現在這是什麼以前,當你可以追逐和推動人們喜歡遊戲” 。 This manifesto, addressed to the poorer masses, was taken up by Franz von Sickingen, a Knight of the Empire, who entered the field in execution of its threats.這個宣言,給貧窮的人民群眾,是採取行動弗朗茨馮Sickingen ,一個騎士的帝國,誰進入了外地在執行其威脅。 His object was two-fold: to strengthen the political power of the knights - the inferior nobility - against the princes, and to open the road to the new Gospel by overthrowing the bishops.他的目的是雙重的:加強政治權力的騎士-劣貴族-對王子,並開闢道路的新福音推翻的主教。 His enterprise had, however, the opposite result.他的企業然而,相反的結果。 The knights were beaten; they lost what influence they had possessed, and the princes were proportionately strengthened.騎士被毆打,他們失去了什麼影響,他們已經擁有的,以及王子的比例加強。 The rising of the peasants likewise turned to the advantage of the princes: the fearful slaughter of Frankenhausen (1525) left the princes without an enemy and the new Gospel without its natural defenders.增加農民同樣轉向利用王子:在可怕的屠殺Frankenhausen ( 1525 )離開王子沒有敵人和新的福音未經其自然維護者。 The victorious princes used their augmented power entirely for their own advantage in opposition to the authority of the emperor and the freedom of the nation; the new Gospel was also to be made subservient to this end, and this by the help of Luther himself.勝利的王子用他們的力量完全擴充自己的優勢,反對權威的皇帝和自由的國家;新的福音,還可以取得屈從於為此,這個所的幫助下,路德本人。

After the failure of the revolution, Luther and Melanchthon began to proclaim the doctrine of the rulers' unlimited power over their subjects.失敗後革命,路德和梅蘭希通宣布開始學說的統治者權力無限,他們的問題。 Their dissolving principles had, within less than ten years, destroyed the existing order, but were unable to knit together its debris into a new system.其溶解原則,在不到十年,摧毀現有秩序,但無法縶其碎片進入了一個新系統。 So the secular powers were called on for help; the Church was placed at the service of the State, its authority, its wealth, its institutions all passed into the hands of kings, princes, and town magistrates.因此,世俗的權力,要求提供幫助;教會放在服務於國家,它的權威,其財富,其機構都通過手中的國王,王子,和城鎮治安。 The one discarded Pope of Rome was replaced by scores of popes at home.一個廢棄的羅馬教皇取代分數教皇在家裡。 These, "to strengthen themselves by alliances for the promulgation of the Gospel", banded together within the limits of the German Empire and made common cause against the emperor.其中, “加強自己的聯盟,頒布了福音” ,聯合起來的範圍內,德意志帝國和共同的事業取得的皇帝。 From this time forward the progress of Protestantism is on political rather than on religious lines; the people are not clamouring for innovations, but the rulers find their advantage in being supreme bishops, and by force, or cunning, or both impose the yoke of the new Gospel on their subjects.從這個時間前進的新教是政治而不是宗教系;人民是不會叫囂的創新,但統治者找到自己的優勢,被最高主教,並以武力,或狡黠,或強加的枷鎖新的福音的主題。 Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, and all the small principalities and imperial towns in Germany are examples in point.丹麥,瑞典,挪威,英格蘭,和所有的小公和帝國主義在德國城鎮的例子了這一點。 The supreme heads and governors were well aware that the principles which had brought down the authority of Rome would equally bring down their own; hence the penal laws everywhere enacted against dissenters from the state religion decreed by the temporal ruler.最高元首和省長們十分清楚,目前的原則帶來了下降的權威,羅馬將同樣帶來了他們自己的,因此刑法頒布了各地對持不同政見者從國家頒布的宗教時間的統治者。 England under Henry VIII, Elizabeth, and the Puritans elaborated the most ferocious of all penal codes against Catholics and others unwilling to conform to the established religion.英格蘭亨利八世,伊麗莎白,並闡述了清教徒最兇猛的所有刑法打擊教友和其他不願意,以符合既定的宗教。

To sum up: the much-vaunted Protestant principles only wrought disaster and confusion where they were allowed free play; order was only restored by reverting to something like the old system: symbols of faith imposed by an outside authority and enforced by the secular arm.總結:人們引以為豪的新教原則,不僅造成災難和混亂,他們在那裡可以自由發揮;只是為了恢復恢復到像舊的制度:符號的信仰強加的一個外部的權力和所執行的世俗的胳膊。 No bond of union exists between the many national Churches, except their common hatred for "Rome", which is the birthmark of all, and the trade-mark of many, even unto our day.沒有工會債券之間存在著許多國家的教會,但他們的共同仇恨的“羅馬” ,這是胎記的一切,以及商標很多,甚至告訴我們的一天。

VII.七。 RAPIDITY OF PROTESTANT PROGRESS EXPLAINED迅速進展新教解釋

Before we pass on to the study of contemporary Protestantism, we will answer a question and solve a difficulty.在我們傳給研究當代新教,我們將回答問題和解決困難。 How is the rapid spread of Protestantism accounted for?如何迅速傳播新教佔? Is it not a proof that God was on the side of the Reformers, inspiring, fostering, and crowning their endeavours?這難道不是證明了上帝是在一側的改革者,鼓勵,促進和至高無上的努力? Surely, as we consider the growth of early Christianity and its rapid conquest of the Roman Empire, as proofs of its Divine origin, so we should draw the same conclusion in favour of Protestantism from its rapid spread in Germany and the northern parts of Europe. In fact the Reformation spread much faster than the Apostolic Church.當然,因為我們認為增長的早期基督教和其迅速征服了羅馬帝國,作為證明其神聖的起源,因此,我們應當借鑒了同樣的結論有利於從新教迅速蔓延,並在德國北部的歐洲部分。事實上,改革蔓延速度遠遠超過了使徒教會。 When the last of the Apostles died, no kingdoms, no vast tracts of lands, were entirely Christian; Christianity was still hiding in the catacombs and in out-of-the-way suburbs of heathen towns.當最後的使徒死亡,沒有王國,沒有大片的土地,完全是基督教;基督教仍然躲藏在地下墓穴,並失去了雙向郊區的異教徒城鎮。 Whereas, in a period of similar duration, say seventy years, Protestantism had taken hold of the better part of Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, England, and Scotland.然而,在一段時間內類似的期限,說七十年,新教舉行了較好的一部分,德國,斯堪的納維亞,瑞士,英格蘭,蘇格蘭。 A moment's consideration supplies the solution of this difficulty.一會兒審議用品解決這一困難。 Success is not invariably due to intrinsic goodness, nor is failure a certain proof of intrinsic badness.成功不是必然的內在原因善良,也不是沒有證據證明有一定的內在惡。 Both largely depend on circumstances: on the means employed, the obstacles in the way, the receptivity of the public.這在很大程度上取決於情況:對所使用的手段,障礙的方式,接受公眾。 The success of Protestantism, therefore, must itself be tested before it can be used as a test of intrinsic goodness.成功的新教,因此,本身必須進行測試,然後才能被用來作為測試的內在善良。

The reformatory movement of the sixteenth century found the ground well prepared for its reception.在改革運動的16世紀發現了地面準備好了招待會。 The cry for a thorough reformation of the Church in head and members had been ringing through Europe for a full century; it was justified by the worldly lives of many of the clergy, high and low, by abuses in church administration, by money extortions, by the neglect of religious duties reaching far and wide through the body of the faithful.該哭徹底改革的教會負責人及成員已經通過歐洲鈴響了充分的世紀,這是有道理的世俗生活的許多神職人員,高,低,濫用行政部門在教堂,金錢勒索,所忽視的宗教義務,並達成廣泛深遠通過機構的忠誠。 Had Protestantism offered a reform in the sense of amendment, probably all the corrupt elements in the Church would have turned against it, as Jews and pagans turned against Christ and the Apostles.有基督教提供了一個改革的意義修正案,大概所有的腐敗分子在教會將轉向反對,因為猶太人和異教徒轉向反對基督和使徒。 But what the Reformers aimed at was, at least in the first instance, the radical overthrow of the existing Church, and this overthrow was effected by pandering to all the worst instincts of man.但是,改革者,旨在是,至少在一審,激進推翻現有的教會,這推翻是由迎合所有最壞的本能的人。 A bait was tendered to the seven-headed concupiscence which dwells in every human heart; pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, sloth, and all their offspring were covered and healed by easy trust in God.誘餌是招標的七個戶主concupiscence其中居住在每個人的心;驕傲,貪婪,慾望,憤怒,暴食,嫉妒,懶惰,以及所有它們的後代覆蓋和癒合容易對上帝的信仰。 No good works were required: the immense fortune of the Church was the prize of apostasy: political and religous independence allured the kings and princes: the abolition of tithes, confession, fasting, and other irksome obligations attracted the masses.沒有好的作品,需要:巨大的財富,教會是叛教獎:政治和宗教獨立吸引了國王和王子:廢除什一稅,懺悔,齋戒,和其他義務吸引了越來越多的群眾。 Many persons were deceived into the new religion by outward appearances of Catholicism which the innovators carefully maintained, eg in England and the Scandinavian kingdoms. Evidently we need not look for Divine intervention to account for the rapid spread of Protestantism.許多人被騙到新的宗教外表天主教的創新保持謹慎,例如,在英國和斯堪的納維亞王國。顯然,我們不需要尋找神聖的干預,以帳戶的迅速蔓延新教。 It would be more plausible to see the finger of God in the stopping of its progress.這將是更為合理地看到,上帝的手指在阻止其進展。

VIII.八。 PRESENT-DAY PROTESTANTISM當今基督教

Theology神學

After nearly four centuries of existence, Protestantism in Europe is still the religion of millions, but it is no more the original Protestantism.經過近四個世紀的存在,基督教在歐洲仍然是宗教的數以百萬計,但它沒有更多的原始基督教。 It has been, and is, in a perpetual flux: the principle of untrammelled free judgment, or, as it is now called, Subjectivism, has been swaying its adherents to and fro from orthodoxy to Pietism, from Rationalism to Indifferentism.它一直是,而且是在一個永久的通量:的原則,自由奔放的判決,或者因為它是現在所謂的,主觀主義,一直搖擺不定其信徒來回從以虔誠主義的正統,從理性到Indifferentism 。 The movement has been most pronounced in intellectual centres, in universities and among theologians generally, yet it has spread down to the lowest classes.該運動已在最明顯的智力中心,大學和神學之間的一般,但它已經蔓延到最低階層。 The modern Ritschl-Harnack school, also called Modernism, has disciples everywhere and not only among Protestants.現代Ritschl -哈納克學校,也稱為現代,已經和世界各地的弟子不僅是新教徒。 For an accurate and exhaustive survey of its main lines of thought we refer the reader to the Encyclical "Pascendi Dominici Gregis" (8 Sept., 1907), the professed aim of which is to defend the Catholic Church against Protestant infiltrations.準確和詳盡的調查,其主要思路,我們的讀者提到的通諭“ Pascendi Dominici Gregis ” ( 1907年9月8日)中,宣稱其目的是捍衛天主教對新教的滲透。 In one point, indeed, the Modernist condemned by Pius X differs from his intellectual brothers: he remains, and wishes to remain, inside the Catholic Church, in order to leaven it with his ideas; the other stands frankly outside, an enemy or a supercilious student of religious evolution.在一個點,實際上,現代的譴責庇護X不同於他的智慧兄弟:他依然存在,並希望仍然存在,在天主教會,以曲與他的想法;其他坦率地站在外面,敵國或目空一切的學生對宗教的演變。 It should also be noted that not every item of the Modernist programme need be traced to the Protestant Reformation; for the modern spirit is the distilled residue of many philosophies and many religions: the point is that Protestantism proclaims itself its standard-bearer, and claims credit for its achievements.還應當指出,並非每一個項目的現代派方案必須要追溯到新教改革;的現代精神是蒸餾殘留的許多哲學和許多宗教:的一點是,新教宣布其本身的旗手,並聲稱信貸的成就。

Moreover, Modernistic views in philosophy, theology, history, criticism, apologetics, church reform etc., are advocated in nine-tenths of the Protestant theological literature in Germany, France, and America, England only slightly lagging behind.此外,現代化的意見,哲學,神學,歷史,批評,護教學,教會的改革等等,都主張在十分之九的新教神學文學在德國,法國,美國,英國只是略有落後。 Now, Modernism is at the antipodes of sixteenth-century Protestantism.現在,現代主義是在拓地的16世紀新教。 To use Ritschl's terminology, it gives new "values" to the old beliefs.若要使用Ritschl的術語,它提供了新的“價值觀”的舊觀念。 Scripture is still spoken of as inspired, but its inspiration is only the impassioned expression of human religious experiences; Christ is the Son of God, but His Son-ship is like that of any other good man; the very ideas of God, religion, Church, sacraments, have lost their old values: they stand for nothing real outside the subject in whose religious life they form a kind of fool's paradise.聖經仍是談論的啟發,但它的靈感僅是慷慨激昂表達人的宗教經驗;基督是上帝的兒子,但他的女婿船舶一樣,任何其他善良的人;非常上帝的思想,宗教,教會聖禮,失去了舊價值觀:他們主張什麼真正的主題之外在其宗教生活,他們形成一種傻瓜的天堂。 The fundamental fact of Christ's Resurrection is an historical fact no longer; it is but another freak of the believing mind.在基本事實基督的復活是一個歷史事實不再,它只不過是另一個反常的相信一點。 Harnack puts the essence of Christianity, that is the whole teaching of Christ, into the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of man: Christ Himself is no part of the Gospel!哈納克把基督教的本質,這是整個教學中的基督,到上帝的父親和兄弟的人:耶穌本人是沒有任何一部分的福音! Such was not the teaching of the Reformers.這種不是教學的改革者。 Present-day Protestantism, therefore, may be compared with Gnosticism, Manichæism, the Renaissance, eighteenth-century Philosophism, in so far as these were virulent attacks on Christianity, aiming at nothing less than its destruction.當今基督教,因此,可能會比較諾斯替主義,摩尼教,文藝復興,十八世紀Philosophism ,只要這些都是惡毒攻擊基督教,旨在不亞於其銷毀。 It has achieved important victories in a kind of civil war between orthodoxy and unbelief within the Protestant pale; it is no mean enemy at the gate of the Catholic Church.它已取得了重要的勝利,一種之間的內戰和不信教的正統的新教臉色蒼白,這是沒有意思的敵人在門口的天主教教會。

IX.九。 POPULAR PROTESTANTISM深受歡迎的新教

In Germany, especially in the greater towns, Protestantism, as a positive guide in faith and morals, is rapidly dying out.在德國,尤其是在更大的城鎮,新教,是一個積極的指導信念和道德,正迅速消失。 It has lost all hold of the working classes.它已失去了所有舉行的工人階級。 Its ministers, when not themselves infidels, fold their hands in helpless despair.它的部長,如果沒有自己的異教徒,他們的手褶在無助的絕望。 The old faith is but little preached and with little profit. The ministerial energies are turned towards works of charity, foreign missions, polemics against Catholics.舊的信仰是什麼,但鼓吹和很少的利潤。部長級精力轉向慈善工作,外國使團,論戰對天主教徒。 Among the English-speaking nations things seem just a little better.在講英語的國家的事情似乎只是一個更好一點。 Here the grip of Protestantism on the masses was much tighter than in Germany, the Wesleyan revival and the High Church party among Anglicans did much to keep some faith alive, and the deleterious teaching of English Deists and Rationalists did not penetrate into the heart of the people.在這裡,抓地力的新教群眾是更嚴格的比在德國,衛斯理復興和高級教會黨在聖公會大大保持某種信仰活著,和有害的英語教學Deists和理性主義沒有進入的心臟人們。

Presbyterianism in Scotland and elsewhere has also shown more vitality than less well-organized sects.長老會在蘇格蘭和其他地方也顯示出更多的活力不是更少井井有條節。 "England", says JR Green, "became the people of a book", and that book was the Bible. “英格蘭”說,乘坐JR綠色“ ,成為人民的一本書” ,這本書是聖經。 It was as yet the one English book which was familiar to every Englishman; it was read in the churches and read at home, and everywhere its words, as they fell on ears which custom had not deadened, kindled a startling enthusiasm.這是迄今為止一個英文的書,熟悉每一個英國人,這是閱讀的教堂和閱讀在家裡,和世界各地的話,因為它們落在耳朵的習慣並沒有deadened ,點燃了一個令人吃驚的熱情。 . . . So far as the nation at large was concerned, no history, no romance, hardly any poetry, save the little-known verse of Chaucer, existed in the English tongue when the Bible was ordered to be set up in churches.迄今為止的全國大問題,沒有歷史,沒有浪漫,幾乎沒有任何詩歌,保存鮮為人知的詩的喬叟,存在於英語母語聖經時,被下令成立教會。 . . . The power of the book over the mass of Englishmen showed itself in a thousand superficial ways, and in none more conspicuously than in the influence exerted on ordinary speech.的權力書的質量本身表明英國人在1000膚淺的方式,在沒有更多地比施加影響普通講話。 . . . But far greater than its effect on literature or social phrase was the effect of the Bible on the character of the people at large .但是,遠遠超過其對文學或社會用語的影響,聖經的性質人在逃。 . . (Hist. of the English People, chap. viii, 1). ( Hist.英語社區,第八章。 , 1 ) 。

X. PROTESTANTISM AND PROGRESS十,基督教和進展

A. Prejudices字母a.偏見

The human mind is so constituted that it colours with its own previous conceptions any new notion that presents itself for acceptance.人的頭腦是如此構成,它的顏色與自己以前的概念,任何新的概念,提出了自己接受。 Though truth be objective and of its nature one and unchangeable, personal conditions are largely relative, dependent on preconceptions, and changeable.雖然事實是客觀的,其性質是和一成不變的,個人條件主要是相對的,依賴於成見,複雜多變。 The arguments, for example, which three hundred years ago convinced our fathers of the existence of witches and sent millions of them to the torture and the stake, make no impression on our more enlightened minds.的論點,例如,三百年前相信我們的先輩存在的巫婆和發送數以百萬計的人的酷刑和股份,沒有在我們的印象更開明的頭腦。 The same may be said of the whole theological controversy of the sixteenth century.同樣可以說整個神學爭議的16世紀。 To the modern man it is a dark body, of whose existence he is aware, but whose contact he avoids.現代男子這是一個黑暗的機構,他們的存在,他已經意識到,但其避免接觸他。 With the controversies have gone the coarse, unscrupulous methods of attack.隨著爭論已經粗,肆無忌憚的攻擊方法。 The adversaries are now facing each other like parliamentarians of opposite parties, with a common desire of polite fairness, no longer like armed troopers only intent on killing, by fair means or foul.的敵人現在正面臨著對方像對面議員政黨,一個共同的願望禮貌公平,不再像武裝戰將只打算殺害,不擇手段。 Exceptions there are still, but only at low depths in the literary strata.例外情況仍然存在,但只能在低深度的文學階層。 Whence this change of behaviour, notwithstanding the identity of positions?何處這一變化的行為,儘管身份的立場? Because we are more reasonable, more civilized; because we have evolved from medieval darkness to modern comparative light.因為我們是更合理,更文明; ,因為我們已經從中世紀的黑暗現代比較輕。 And whence this progress?與這一進展何處? Here Protestantism puts in its claim, that, by freeing the mind from Roman thraldom, it opened the way for religious and political liberty; for untrammelled evolution on the basis of self-reliance; for a higher standard of morality; for the advancement of science - in short for everygood thing that has come into the world since the Reformation.基督教在這裡提出索賠中指出,釋放心靈從羅馬thraldom ,它開闢了道路宗教和政治自由;的無節制發展的基礎上,自力更生;更高的道德標準;為提高科學-在短期的e verygood事情已來到這個世界以來的改革。 With the majority of non-Catholics, this notion has hardened into a prejudice which no reasoning can break up: the following discussion, therefore, shall not be a battle royal for final victory, but rather a peaceful review of facts and principles.由於大多數的非天主教徒,這一概念已硬化成一個沒有偏見的推理可以打破了:下面的討論,因此,不應成為皇室鬥爭的最後勝利,而是一個和平審查的事實和原則。

B. Progress in Church and Churches B.進展在教會和教會

The Catholic Church of the twentieth century is vastly in advance of that of the sixteenth.天主教會的二十世紀是大大提前,在第十六。 She has made up her loss in political power and worldly wealth by increased spiritual influences and efficiency; her adherents are more widespread, more numerous, more fervent than at any time in her history, and they are bound to the central Government at Rome by a more filial affection and a clearer sense of duty.她已失去了她在政治權力和世俗的財富增加了精神的影響和效率;她的信徒更廣泛,更大量,更熱切地比任何時候在她的歷史,他們必然要中央政府在羅馬的更孝順感情和明確的責任感。 Religious education is abundantly provided for clergy and laity; religious practice, morality, and works of charity are flourishing; the Catholic mission-field is world-wide and rich in harvest.宗教教育是非常神職人員的規定和俗人;宗教習俗,道德和慈善工作的蓬勃發展;天主教團場是世界各地和豐富的收穫。 The hierarchy was never so united, never so devoted to the pope.等級是從來沒有這樣團結,從來沒有這樣專門教宗。 The Roman unity is successfully resisting the inroads of sects, of philosophies, of politics.羅馬團結,是成功地抵禦進軍的教派,對哲學,政治。 Can our separated brethren tell a similar tale of their many Churches, even in lands where they are ruled and backed by the secular power?我們可以分開的兄弟告訴了類似的故事,他們的許多教會,甚至在他們的土地被裁定和支持的世俗權力嗎? We do not rejoice at their disintegration, at their falling into religious indifference, or returning into political parties.我們並不感到高興,他們的解體,在它們落入宗教冷漠,或返回到政黨。 No, for any shred of Christianity is better than blank worldliness.沒有,任何一絲一毫的基督教優於空白俗氣。 But we do draw this conclusion: that after four centuries the Catholic principle of authority is still working out the salvation of the Church, whereas among Protestants the principle of Subjectivism is destroying what remains of their former faith and driving multitudes into religious indifference and estrangement from the supernatural.但是,我們得出這樣的結論:經過四個世紀的天主教原則的權力仍然是工作的拯救教會,而在新教徒的原則,主體是什麼仍然是摧毀他們的信仰和前駕駛眾多宗教冷漠和疏遠超自然。

C. Progress in Civil Society角的進展民間社會

The political and social organization of Europe has undergone greater changes than the Churches.政治和社會組織的歐洲經歷了更大的變化比教會。 Royal prerogatives, like that exercised, for instance, by the Tudor dynasty in England, are gone for ever.皇家特權,這樣的行使,例如,都鐸王朝在英國,是以往任何時候都一去不復返了。 "The prerogative was absolute, both in theory and in practice. Government was identified with the will of the sovereign, his word was law for the conscience as well as the conduct of his subjects" (Brewer, "Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic etc.", II, pt. I, 1, p. ccxxiv). “的特權是絕對的,無論在理論和實踐。政府確定的將主權,他的話是法律的良心,以及他的行為主體” (布魯爾, “信函和文件,外國和國內等“ ,二角。一, 1 ,第ccxxiv ) 。 Nowhere now is persecution for conscience' sake inscribed on the national statute-books, or left to the caprice of the rulers.現在無處迫害的良心,為了列入國家法規書籍,或者留待任性的統治者。 Where still carried on it is the work of anti-religious passion temporarily in power, rather than the expression of the national will; at any rate it has lost much of its former barbarity.凡仍在進行它的工作是反宗教的激情暫時掌權,而不是表達的國家意志;無論如何它已經失去了很多其前野蠻行徑。 Education is placed within reach of the poorest and lowest. The punishment of crime is no longer an occasion for the spectacular display of human cruelty to human beings.教育是放在達到最貧窮的和最低的。懲罰犯罪不再是一個機會,壯觀的展示人類殘酷對待人類。 Poverty is largely prevented and largely relieved.貧困主要是防止和很大程度上緩解。 Wars diminish in number and are waged with humanity; atrocities like those of the Thirty Years War in Germany, the Huguenot wars in France, the Spanish wars in the Netherlands, and Cromwell's invasion of Ireland are gone beyond the possibility of return.星球大戰的數量減少,並發動與人類類似的暴行的三十年戰爭在德國,胡格諾派在法國的戰爭,西班牙戰爭中,荷蘭和克倫威爾入侵愛爾蘭超出了返回的可能性。 The witch-finder, the witchburner, the inquisitor, the disbanded mercenary soldier have ceased to plague the people. Science has been able to check the outbursts of pestilence, cholera, smallpox, and other epidemics; human life has been lengthened and its amenities increased a hundredfold.女巫儀的witchburner的審判官,被解散的僱傭軍士兵已不再困擾著人們。科學已能檢查爆發瘟疫,霍亂,天花,和其他傳染病;人的生命已經延長,並增加其設施一百倍。 Steam and electricity in the service of industry, trade, and international communication, are even now drawing humanity together into one vast family, with many common interests and a tendency to uniform civilization. From the sixteenth to the twentieth century there has indeed been progress.蒸汽和電力服務的工業,貿易,和國際交流,即使現在是利用人類共同為一個龐大的家庭,有許多共同的利益和傾向統一的文明。從第十六至二十世紀的確取得了進展。 Who have been its chief promoters?誰是其主要推動者? Catholics, or Protestants, or neither?天主教徒,或新教徒,或沒有?

The civil wars and revolutions of the seventeenth century which put an end to the royal prerogatives in England, and set up a real government of the people by the people, were religious throughout and Protestant to the core.在內戰和革命的17世紀從而結束王室的特權在英國,並成立了一個真正的人民的政府的人,在整個宗教和基督教的核心。 "Liberty of conscience" was the cry of the Puritans, which, however, meant liberty for themselves against established Episcopacy. “自由的良心”是哭的清教徒,然而,意味著自由,對建立自己的主教。 Tyrannical abuse of their victory in oppressing the Episcopalians brought about their downfall, and they in turn were the victims of intolerance.殘暴虐待他們的勝利壓迫聖公會帶來了他們的垮台,他們又是受害者的不容忍。 James II, himself a Catholic, was the first to strive by all the means at his command, to secure for his subjects of all the denominations "liberty of conscience for all future time" (Declaration of Indulgence, 1688).詹姆斯二世,自己是天主教徒,是第一個努力通過一切手段在他的指揮下,以確保他的臣民的所有面額的“良心自由的未來所有的時間” (宣言的豪華, 1688 ) 。 His premature Liberalism was acquiesced in by many of the clergy and laity of the Established Church, which alone had nothing to gain by it, but excited the most violent opposition among the Protestant Nonconformists who, with the exception of the Quakers, preferred a continuance of bondage to emancipation if shared with the hated and dreaded "Papists".他過早的自由主義是默許的許多神職人員和信徒的教會成立,它就有什麼好處,但興奮最為激烈的反對派之間的新教Nonconformists誰,唯一的例外是誼,傾向於繼續解放束縛,如果共享的憎恨和害怕“ Papists ” 。 So strong was this feeling that it overcame all those principles of patriotism and respect for law of which the English people are wont to boast, leading them to welcome a foreign usurper and foreign troops for no other reason than to obtain their assistance against their Catholic fellow-subjects, in part to do precisely what the latter were falsely accused of doing in the time of Elizabeth.如此強烈的這種感覺,它克服了所有這些原則的愛國主義和對法律的尊重,其中的英文人慣於對吹噓,這使得他們歡迎外國篡權和外國軍隊沒有別的原因,以取得它們的援助對他們的天主教同胞學科,部分原因是為了不正是後者是誣告做的時候伊麗莎白。

The Stuart dynasty lost the throne, and their successors were reduced to mere figure-heads.在斯圖亞特王朝失去了王位,他們的繼任者減少到僅僅是數字領導人。 Political freedom had been achieved, but the times were not yet ripe for the wider freedom of conscience.政治自由已經實現,但時間尚未成熟更廣泛的良心。 The penal laws against Catholics and Dissenters were aggravated instead of abolished.刑法對天主教徒和平息加劇而不是取消。 That the French Revolution of 1789 was largely influenced by the English events of the preceding century is beyond doubt; it is, however, equally certain that its moving spirit was not English Puritanism, for the men who set up a declaration of the Rights of Man against the Rights of God, and who Paris, drew their ideals from Pagan Rome rather than from Protestant England.法國1789年革命的影響主要是由英國發生的事件前的世紀是不容置疑的,它是,但同樣可以肯定,其運動的精神是不是英語清教,男子誰設立一個人權宣言的人對上帝的權利,誰巴黎,提請他們的理想從蒲甘羅馬,而不是從新教英格蘭。

D. Progress in Religious Toleration D.進展宗教寬容

As regards Protestant influence on the general progress of civilization since the origin of Protestantism we must mark off at least two periods: the first from the beginning in 1517 to the end of the Thirty Years War (1648), the second from 1648 to the present day; the period of youthful expansion, and the period of maturity and decay.至於新教影響的一般性文明進步的,因為基督教起源,我們必須標誌了至少兩個時期:第一個從一開始就在1517年底的三十年戰爭( 1648年) ,第二次從1648年本一天;時期的年輕的擴張,期間的成熟和腐爛。 But before apportioning its influence on civilization the previous questions should be examined: in how far does Christianity contribute to the amelioration of man - intellectual, moral, material - in this world: for its salutary effects on man's soul after death cannot be tested, and consequently cannot be used as arguments in a purely scientific disquisition. There were highly-civilized nations in antiquity, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, Rome: and there are now China and Japan, whose culture owes nothing to Christianity. When Christ came to enlighten the world, the light of Roman and Greek culture was shining its brightest, and for at least three centuries longer the new religion added nothing to its lustre.但是,在分配的影響文明以前的問題,應當審查:在不多遠基督教有助於改善人-智力,精神,物質-在這個世界上:其有益的影響,人的靈魂在死後無法測試,因此不能被用來作為論據,一個純粹的科學本屆。有高度文明國家在古代,亞述,埃及,希臘,羅馬:目前有中國和日本,其文化欠任何基督教。當基督來啟迪世界,光的羅馬和希臘文化的光輝其亮,並至少在三個世紀不再增加新的宗教無關的光澤。 The spirit of Christian charity, however, gradually leavened the heathen mass, softening the hearts of rulers and improving the condition of the ruled, especially of the poor, the slave, the prisoner.精神的基督教慈善機構,但是,逐漸的,還有一些不信教的群眾,軟化心中的統治者和改善條件的裁定,特別是窮人,奴隸,囚犯。 The close union of Church and State, begun with Constantine and continued under his successors, the Roman emperors of East and West, led to much good, but probably to more evil.密切結合教會與國家,開始與君士坦丁和繼續進行他的繼任者,羅馬帝王的東方和西方,導致很多好的,但可能更多的邪惡。 The lay episcopacy which the princes assumed well-nigh reduced the medieval Church to a state of abject vassalage, the secular clergy to ignorance and worldliness, the peasant to bondage and often to misery.該主教這奠定王子以及承擔幾乎減少了中世紀教會的狀態赤貧vassalage ,世俗的神職人員,以無知和世故,農民奴役和經常的痛苦。

Had it not been for the monasteries the Church of the Middle Ages would not have saved, as it did, the remnant of Roman and Greek culture which so powerfully helped to civilize Western Europe after the barbarian invasions.如果沒有的寺廟教堂的中世紀不會有救,因為它的殘留的羅馬和希臘的文化,以便有力地幫助西歐文明的野蠻暴行後入侵。 Dotted all over the West, the monks formed model societies, well-organized, justly ruled, and prospering by the work of their hands, true ideals of a superior civilization. It was still the ancient Roman civilization, permeated with Christianity, but shackled by the jarring interests of Church and State.虛線所有西方國家,僧侶的社會形成示範,組織嚴密,公正裁決,並繁榮的工作他們的手,真正的理想,卓越的文明。它仍然是古羅馬文明,洋溢著基督教,但所束縛利益的不和諧的教會和國家。 Was Christian Europe, from a worldly point of view, better off at the beginning of the fifteenth century than pagan Europe at the beginning of the fourth?是基督教歐洲,從世俗的角度來看,最好開始的時候,比15世紀歐洲異教開始時的第四? For the beginning of our distinctly modern progress we must go back to the Renaissance, the Humanistic or classical, ie pagan revival, following upon the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (1453); upon the discovery of the new Indian trade route round the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese; upon the discovery of America by the Spaniards, and upon the development of all European interests, fostered or initiated at the end of the fifteenth century, just before the birth of Protestantism.開始我們的現代進步明顯,我們必須返回到文藝復興,人文或古典,即異教的復興後,對征服君士坦丁堡的土耳其人( 1453 ) ;後發現印度新一輪貿易通道角好望角葡萄牙;後發現美洲的西班牙人,並呼籲所有各方的發展歐洲的利益,促進或開始在年底15世紀,就在基督教誕生的。 The opening of the New World was for Europe a new creation. Minds expanded with the vast spaces submitted to them for investigation; the study of astronomy, at first in the service of navigation, soon reaped its own reward by discoveries in its proper domain, the starry heavens; descriptive geography, botany, anthropology, and kindred sciences demanded study of those who would reap a share in the great harvest East and West.開放的新的世界是歐洲一個新的創造。頭腦擴大空間廣闊提交給他們進行調查;研究天文學,首先服務的導航,很快獲得獎勵自己的發現在其適當的網域,天上的繁星;描述地理學,植物學,人類學,科學和親屬要求這些研究將獲得誰分享收穫的偉大東方和西方。 The new impulse and new direction given to commerce changed the political aspect of old Europe.新的動力和新的方向給商業改變了政治方面的老歐洲。 Men and nations were brought into that close contact of common interests, which is the root of all civilization; wealth and the printing-press supplied the means for satisfying the awakened craving for art, science, literature, and more refined living.男人和國家帶進的密切聯繫,共同的利益,這是根本的一切文明財富和印刷媒體提供的手段滿足喚醒渴望藝術,科學,文學和更精緻的生活。 Amid this outburst of new life Protestantism appears on the scene, itself a child of the times.在此突出的新生活新教出現在現場,這本身就是一個兒童的時代。 Did it help or hinder the forward movement? The youth of Protestantism was, naturally enough, a period of turmoil, of disturbing confusion in all the spheres of life.沒有幫助或阻礙前進?的青年基督教是自然不夠的,一個時期的動盪,混亂,令人不安的所有生活領域。 No one nowadays can read without a sense of shame and sadness the history of those years of religious and political strife; of religion everywhere made the handmaid of politics; of wanton destruction of churches and shrines and treasures of sacred art; of wars between citizens of the same land conducted with incredible ferocity; of territories laid waste, towns pillaged and levelled to the ground, poor people sent adrift to die of starvation in their barren fields; of commercial prosperity cut down at a stroke; of seats of learning reduced to ranting and loose living; of charity banished from social intercourse to give place to slander and abuse, of coarseness in speech and manners, of barbarous cruelty on the part of princes, nobles, and judges in their dealings with the "subject" and the prisoner, in short of the almost sudden drop of whole countries into worse than primitive savagery.沒有人現在可以閱讀的知恥和悲傷的歷史,這些年來的宗教和政治紛爭;世界各地的宗教了侍女的政治;的肆意破壞教堂和聖祠和財富的神聖藝術;之間的戰爭公民同樣的土地進行了難以置信的殘酷;領土荒蕪,城鎮掠奪和剷平地面,窮人落後發送給餓死在貧瘠的領域;的商業繁榮削減在腦卒中;席位的學習減少到演說鬆散的生活;慈善放逐從社會交往給地方誹謗和虐待,在粗糙的言論和舉止,野蠻殘酷的一部分,王子,貴族,和法官打交道的“主體”和囚犯在短期的突然下降幾乎整個國家納入不如原始的野蠻行徑。 "Greed, robbery, oppression, rebellion, repression, wars, devastation, degradation" would be a fitting inscription on the tombstone of early Protestantism. “貪婪,搶劫,壓迫,反抗,壓迫,戰爭,破壞,退化”將是一個合適的銘文的墓碑上的早期基督教。

But violenta non durant.但是violenta非杜蘭特。 Protestantism has now grown into a sedate something, difficult to define.新教現在已經成長為一個穩重的東西,很難界定。 In some form or other it is the official religion in many lands of Teutonic race, it also counts among its adherents an enormous number of independent religious bodies.在某種形式或其他它是官方宗教在許多土地的日爾曼種族,它也罪狀其信徒之間大量的獨立的宗教機構。 These Protestant Teutons and semi-Teutons claim to be leaders in modern civilization: to possess the greatest wealth, the best education, the purest morals; in every respect they feel themselves superior to the Latin races who still profess the Catholic religion, and they ascribe their superiority to their Protestantism.這些新教日爾曼和半日爾曼人聲稱自己是領導人在現代文明的:擁有最大的財富,最好的教育,道德的純潔;在各方面都覺得自己優於拉丁美洲的比賽誰仍然信奉天主教,他們賦予他們的優勢,他們的新教。

Man knows himself but imperfectly: the exact state of his health, the truth of his knowledge, the real motives of his actions, are all veiled in semi-obscurity; of his neighbour he knows even less than of himself, and his generalizations of national character, typified by nicknames, are worthless caricatures.人知道自己,但不完美:確切的健康,其實他的知識,真正的動機,他的行動,都隱含在半默默無聞;他的鄰居,他知道甚至低於自己,他概括的國家性格,典型的綽號,是毫無價值的漫畫。 Antipathies rooted in ancient quarrels - political or religious - enter largely into the judgments on nations and Churches. Antipathies植根於古老的爭吵-政治或宗教-輸入基本上納入判斷國家和教會。 Opprobrious, and so far as sense goes obsolete epithets applied in the heat and passion of battle still cling to the ancient foe and create prejudice against him.侮辱,迄今的意義不用過時綽號適用於高溫和激情的戰鬥仍堅持古老的敵人,並建立對他的偏見。 Conceptions formed three hundred years ago amid a state of things which has long ceased to be, still survive and distort our judgments.概念形成三百年前由於一個國家的事情,早已不再是,仍有生存和歪曲我們的判斷。 How slowly the terms Protestant, Papist, Romanist, Nonconformist, and others are losing their old unsavoury connotation.如何緩慢的條件新教, Papist , Romanist ,非國教徒,和其他正在失去其舊令人厭惡的內涵。 Again: Is there any of the greater nations that is purely Protestant?再次:是否有更大的國家,純粹是新教? The richest provinces of the German Empire are Catholic, and contain fully one-third of its entire population.最富裕的省份的德意志帝國是天主教徒,並載有充分三分之一的全部人口。 In the United States of America, according to the latest census, Catholics form the majority of the church-going population in many of the largest cities: San Francisco (81.1 per cent); New Orleans (79.7 per cent); New York (76.9 per cent); St. Louis (69 per cent); Boston (68.7 per cent); Chicago (68.2 per cent); Philadelphia (51.8 per cent). Great Britain and its colonies have a Catholic population of over twelve millions.在美利堅合眾國,根據最新的人口普查,天主教徒的大多數教堂正在進行的人口在許多最大的城市:舊金山(百分之81.1 ) ;新奧爾良(百分之79.7 ) ,紐約( 76.9百分之) ;聖路易斯(百分之六十九) ;波士頓(百分之68.7 ) ,芝加哥(百分之68.2 ) ; 76人(百分之51.8 ) 。大不列顛和它的殖民地有一個天主教的總人口超過12百萬。 Holland and Switzerland have powerful Catholic provinces and cantons; only the small Scandinavian kingdoms have succeeded in keeping down the old religion.荷蘭和瑞士擁有強大的天主教省份和縣,只有小斯堪的納維亞王國已成功地壓低舊宗教。 A further question suggests itself: granting that some states are more prosperous than others, is their greater prosperity due to the particular form of Christianity they profess?進一步的問題表明自己:給予,有些國家更繁榮超過其他國家,是他們更大的繁榮由於特定形式的,他們信奉基督教? The idea is absurd.這個想法是荒謬的。 For all Christian denominations have the same moral code - the Decalogue - and believe in the same rewards for the good and punishments for the wicked.對於所有基督教派有相同的道德準則-十誡-並認為在同一獎勵的良好和懲罰惡人。 We hear it asserted that Protestantism produces self-reliance, whereas Catholicism extinguishes it. Against this may be set the statement that Catholicism produces disciplined order - an equally good commercial asset.我們聽到它斷言,基督教產生自力更生,而天主教消滅它。反對這可能是設置聲明,天主教生產紀律秩序-一個同樣良好的商業資產。 The truth of the matter is that self-reliance is best fostered by free political institutions and a decentralized government.事情的真相是,自力更生最好是促進了自由的政治體制和權力下放的政府。 These existed in England before the Reformation and have survived it; they likewise existed in Germany, but were crushed out by Protestant Cæsaropapism, never to revive with their primitive vigour.這些存在之前,在英格蘭的改革與它的生存,他們同樣存在於德國,但粉碎了新教Cæsaropapism ,從來沒有為恢復其原始的活力。 Medieval Italy, the Italy of the Renaissance, enjoyed free municipal government in its many towns and principalities: though the country was Catholic, it brought forth a crop of undisciplined self-reliant men, great in many walks of life, good and evil.中世紀的意大利,意大利的文藝復興運動,享受免費市政府在許多城鎮和公:雖然是天主教國家,它提出了作物的紀律自力更生的男子,在許多偉大的各界人士,善和惡。 And looking at history, we see Catholic France and Spain attaining the zenith of their national grandeur, whilst Germany was undermining and disintegrating that Holy Roman Empire vested in the German nation - an empire which was its glory, its strength, the source and mainstay of its culture and prosperity.並期待在歷史上,我們看到天主教法國和西班牙達到頂峰的國家宏偉,而德國是破壞和瓦解的神聖羅馬帝國賦予德意志民族-一個帝國是它的榮耀,其強大的實力,來源和支柱它的文化和繁榮。

England's grandeur during the same epoch is due to the same cause as that of Spain: the impulse given to all national forces by the discovery of the New World.英格蘭的宏偉在同一時代是因為相同的原因是西班牙:脈衝考慮到所有國家的力量,發現了新大陸。 Both Spain and England began by securing religious unity.西班牙和英格蘭隊一開始就確保宗教團結。 In Spain the Inquisition at a small cost of human life preserved the old faith; in England the infinitely more cruel penal laws stamped out all opposition to the innovations imported from Germany.在西班牙宗教裁判所在一個小成本的生命維護了舊的信仰;在英格蘭的無限更殘酷刑法消滅所有反對創新從德國進口。 Germany itself did not recover the prominent position it held in Europe under the Emperor Charles V until the constitution of the new empire during the Franco-German War (1871) Since then its advance in every direction, except that of religion, has been such as seriously to threaten the commercial and maritime supremacy of England.德國本身並沒有收回突出的位置它在歐洲舉行的皇帝查爾斯五世,直到憲法的新帝國期間,法國和德國的戰爭( 1871年)自那時以來它的每一個進步的方向,但宗教,已如嚴重威脅到商業和海上霸權的英格蘭。 The truth of the whole matter is this: religious toleration has been placed on the statute books of modern nations; the civil power has severed itself from the ecclesiastical; the governing classes have grown alarmingly indifferent to things spiritual; the educated classes are largely Rationalistic; the working classes are widely infected with anti-religious socialism; a prolific press daily and periodically preaches the gospel of Naturalism overtly or covertly to countless eager readers; in many lands Christian teaching is banished from the public schools; and revealed religion is fast losing that power of fashioning politics, culture, home life, and personal character which it used to exercise for the benefit of Christian states.事實上,整個事件是這樣的:宗教寬容已列入法規書籍,現代國家的民間力量已斷絕了自己的教會;執政的階級增長驚人的事情漠不關心的精神;受過教育的課程基本上是理性;工人階級是感染了廣泛的反宗教的社會主義;一位多產的每日新聞,並定期宣揚的福音自然裡暗裡無數讀者渴望;在許多土地基督教教學是流放的公立學校;和啟示宗教正在迅速失去形成權力政治,文化,家庭生活和個人性格用它行使的利益基督教國家。 Amid this almost general flight from God to the creature, Catholicism alone makes a stand: its teaching is intact, its discipline stronger than ever, its confidence in final victory is unshaken.在這種幾乎是全面的飛行從上帝的造物,天主教單獨提出了立場:它的教學是完整的,它的紀律比以往任何時候都更強大,它的信心,最後勝利是堅定不移的。

E. The Test of Vitality體育測試的生命力

A better standard for comparison than the glamour of worldly progress, at best an accidental result of a religious system, is the power of self-preservation and propagation, ie vital energy.一個更好的標準比較多的魅力世俗的進展情況,最好的意外結果一個宗教制度,是權力的自我保護和繁殖,即重要的能源。 What are the facts?什麼是事實? "The anti-Protestant movement in the Roman Church" says a Protestant writer, "which is generally called the Counter-Reformation, is really at least as remarkable as the Reformation itself. Probably it would be no exaggeration to call it the most remarkable single episode that has ever occurred in the history of the Christian Church. Its immediate success was greater than that of the Protestant movement, and its permanent results are fully as large at the present day. It called forth a burst of missionary enthusiasm such as has not been seen since the first day of Pentecost. So far as organization is concerned, there can be no question that the mantle of the men who made the Roman Empire has fallen upon the Roman Church; and it has never given more striking proof of its vitality and power than it did at this time, immediately after a large portion of Europe had been torn from its grasp. Printing-presses poured forth literature not only to meet the controversial needs of the moment but also admirable editions of the early Fathers to whom the Reformed Churches appealed - sometimes with more confidence than knowledge. Armies of devoted missionaries were scientifically marshalled. Regions of Europe which had seemed to be lost for ever [for example, the southern portion of Germany and parts of Austria-Hungary] were recovered to the Papacy, and the claims of the Vicar of Christ were carried far and wide through countries where they had never been heard before" (RH Malden, classical lecturer, Selwyn College, Cambridge, in "Foreign Missions", London, 1910, 119-20). “反基督教運動在羅馬教會說: ”新教作家“ ,這是一般稱為反改革,確實是至少在顯著的改革本身。也許它可以毫不誇張地稱為最顯著的單這一事件曾經發生在歷史上的基督教教會。立即成功大於新教運動,其長期結果是完全大在本一天。它要求提出了爆裂的傳教士的熱情,如不一直以來的第一天,聖靈降臨節。只要組織而言,就不會有問題,地幔的男人誰了羅馬帝國已經下降的羅馬教會和它從來沒有給予更多的突出證明了它的生命力和功率比在這個時候,後立即大部分歐洲已經撕裂其掌握。印刷印刷機噴湧而出,文學不僅要滿足有爭議需要的時刻,也令人欽佩的版本的早期父輩的人歸正會呼籲-有時更有信心比知識。軍隊的專門傳教士科學調動。歐洲地區已似乎失去了永遠[例如,南部的部分德國和地區的奧匈帝國]被追回的教皇,並索賠的基督牧師進行廣泛地通過國家,他們從來沒有聽到“ (相對濕度馬爾登,古典講師,塞爾溫學院,劍橋,在”外國使團“ ,倫敦, 1910年, 119-20 ) 。

Dr. G. Warneck, a protagonist of the Evangelical Alliance in Germany, thus describes the result of the Kulturkampf: "The Kulturkampf (ie struggle for superiority of Protestantism against Catholicism in Prussia), which was inspired by political, national, and liberal-religious motives, ended with a complete victory for Rome. When it began, a few men, who knew Rome and the weapons used against her, foretold with certainty that a contest with Romanism on such lines would of necessity end in defeat for the State and in an increase of power for Romanism. . . . The enemy whom we met in battle has brilliantly conquered us, though we had all the arms civil power can supply. True, the victory is partly owing to the ability of the leaders of the Centre party, but it is truer still that the weapons used on our side were blunted tools, unfit for doing serious harm. The Roman Church is indeed, like the State, a political power, worldly to the core, but after all she is a Church, and therefore disposes of religious powers which she invariably brings into action when contending with civil powers for Supremacy. The State has no equivalent power to oppose. You cannot hit a spirit, not even the Roman spirit . . ."博士灣Warneck ,一個主角的福音派聯盟在德國,因此,描述的結果Kulturkampf : “該Kulturkampf (即鬥爭的優越性新教反對天主教的普魯士) ,這是由政治,國家和自由宗教動機,結束了一個完整的勝利,羅馬。時候開始,有幾個男人,誰知道羅馬和使用的武器對她,預言肯定,競賽與羅馬等線路的必要性將在年底打敗的國家和增加電力羅馬。 。 。 。的敵人是我們在戰場上滿足了精闢征服了我們,但我們的所有武器民間力量可以供應。誠然,勝利部分是由於能力的領導人中心黨,但它是真實的仍然是使用的武器在我們一邊被削弱的工具,不適合這樣做嚴重傷害。羅馬教會確實是一樣的國家,一個政治力量,世俗的核心,但畢竟她是一個教會,因此,處理宗教權力,她總是將變成行動時,對立與民間的權力至上。國家有沒有相應的權力,反對。你不能觸及的精神,甚至也不是羅馬的精神。 。 。 “ (Der evangelische Bund und seine Gegner", 13-14). The anti-religious Government of France is actually renewing the Kulturkampf; but no more than its German models does it succeed in "hitting the Roman spirit". Endowments, churches, schools, convents have been confiscated, yet the spirit lives. (明鏡evangelische外灘和圍網Gegner “ , 13日至14日) 。反宗教的法國政府實際上是延長Kulturkampf ;但不超過德國模式不會成功”擊中,羅馬的精神“ 。捐贈,教堂,學校,修道院已經被沒收,但精神的生命。

The other mark of Catholic vitality - the power of propagation - is evident in missionary work.其他商標的天主教活力-的力量傳播-是顯而易見的傳教工作。 Long before the birth of Protestantism, Catholic missionaries had converted Europe and carried the Faith as far as China.很久以前誕生的基督教,天主教傳教士已轉為歐洲和信仰進行盡可能中國。 After the Reformation they reconquered for the Church the Rhinelands, Bavaria, Austria, part of Hungary, and Poland; they established flourishing Christian communities all over North and South America and in the Portuguese colonies, wherever, in short, Catholic powers allowed them free play.改革後,他們reconquered的教會Rhinelands ,巴伐利亞,奧地利的一部分,匈牙利和波蘭,他們建立了繁榮的基督教社區所有北美和南美,並在葡萄牙的殖民地,無論總之,天主教的權力讓他們自由發揮。 For nearly three hundred years Protestants were too intent on self-preservation to think of foreign missionary work.近三百年新教徒意圖過於自我保全認為外國傳教士的工作。 At the present day, however, they develop great activity in all heathen countries, and not without a fair success.目前一天,然而,他們開發大活動在所有信教的國家,沒有一個公平的成功。 Malden, in the work quoted above, compares Catholic with Protestant methods and results: although his sympathy is naturally with his own, his approbation is all for the other side.馬爾登,在上述的工作,比較天主教與新教的方法和結果:雖然他的同情自然是他自己,他讚許的是所有的另一邊。

XI.十一。 CONCLUSION結論

Catholicism numbers some 270 millions of adherents, all professing the same Faith, using the same sacraments, living under the same discipline; Protestantism claims roundly 100 millions of Christians, products of the Gospel and the fancies of a hundred reformers, people constantly bewailing their "unhappy divisions" and vainly crying for a union which is only possible under that very central authority, protestation against which is their only common denominator.天主教人數約270數以百萬計的信徒,所有信奉同樣的信念,利用同樣的聖禮,生活在同一紀律;新教全面索賠100數以百萬計的基督徒,產品的福音和幻想的100改革者,人們不斷bewailing其“不幸的分裂“ ,並妄圖哭了工會這是唯一可能的下非常核心的權威,抗議對這是他們唯一的共同點。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息書面由J.威廉。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

For controversial matter see any Catholic or Protestant textbooks.對於有爭議的問題看不到任何天主教或新教的教科書。 The Catholic standard work is BELLARMINE, Disputations de Controversiis Christianoe fidei etc.天主教標準的工作是貝拉明, Disputations德信Controversiis等Christianoe (4 vols., Rome, 1832-8); on the Protestant side: GERHARD, Loci Theologici, etc. ( 4卷。 ,羅馬, 1832-8 ) ;的新教方面:格哈特,基因Theologici等 (9 vols., Berlin, 1863-75). ( 9第一卷和第二卷。 ,柏林, 1863年至1875年) 。 For the historical, political, and social history of Protestantism the best works are: DÖLLINGER, Die Reformation (3 VOLS., Ratisbon, 1843-51); The Church and the Churches, tr.對於歷史,政治和社會歷史的新教最好的作品是:多林格,模具改造( 3卷。 , Ratisbon , 1843年至1851年) ;教會和基督教協進會,文。 MACCABE (1862); JANSSEN, Hist. MACCABE ( 1862 ) ; JANSSEN ,組織胺。 of the German People at the close of the Middle Ages, tr. CHRISTIE (London, 1896-1910); PASTOR, Hist.德國人民在收中世紀,文。里斯蒂(倫敦, 1996至10年) ;牧師,組織胺。 of the Popes from the close of the Middle Ages, tr.在教皇的密切中世紀,文。 ANTROBUS (London, 1891-1910); BALMES, Protestantism and Catholicity in their effects on the civilization of Europe, tr.安特羅伯斯(倫敦,一八九一年至1910年) ; BALMES ,新教和天主教的影響,文明的歐洲,文。 HANFORD AND KERSHAW (1849); BAUDRILLART, The Catholic Church, the Renaissance and Protestantism, tr.漢福德和克肖( 1849年) ; BAUDRILLART ,天主教會,文藝復興和新教,文。 GIBBS (London, 1908), these are illuminating lectures given at the Institut Catholique of Paris by its rector.吉布斯(倫敦, 1908年) ,這些都是啟發性的講座給予研究所的巴黎天主教其校長。 On the Protestant side may be recommended the voluminous writings of CREIGHTON and GARDINER, both fair-minded.在新教一方可能會建議長篇著作的氯化氫和嘉丁納,既公平的。


Also, see:此外,見:
Canons of Dort 規例的多特
Belgic Confession 比利時信條
Heidelberg Confession 海德堡自白

Helvetic Confession 海爾維第自白
Westminster Confession 韋斯敏斯德
Augsburg Confession 奧格斯堡自白


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