Presbyterianism, Presbyterian長老,長老

General Information 一般信息

Presbyterianism is the form of church government in which elders, both lay people and ministers, govern. The name derives from the Greek word presbuteros, or "elder." 長老會的教堂表單政府在其中的長者,都在於人民和部長,執政。名字源於希臘詞presbuteros ,或“老人” 。 Approximately 50 million Protestants around the world practice Presbyterian church government.大約有5000萬新教徒世界各地的實踐長老教會的政府。 Substantial numbers of Presbyterians are found in Scotland, Northern Ireland, England and its former colonies, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Hungary, France, South Africa, Indonesia, and Korea.大量的長老被發現在蘇格蘭,北愛爾蘭,英格蘭和它的前殖民地,荷蘭,瑞士,匈牙利,法國,南非,印度尼西亞和韓國。 The largest Presbyterian body in the United States is the 3 million - member Presbyterian Church, formed in 1983 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church and the (Southern) Presbyterian Church in the United States.最大的長老機構在美國是300萬-長老教會的成員,成立於1 983年由工會聯合長老教會和(南)長老教會在美國。 A number of other Presbyterian and Reformed denominations in America trace their origins to Europe or to secessions from the larger American bodies. (The older name Reformed Churches remains prevalent among groups of continental European origin; "Presbyterian" is generally used by churches of British origin.)其他一些長老和改革教派在美國追踪它們的起源到歐洲或從secessions較大的美國機構。 (老名字仍然歸正會群體中普遍存在的歐洲大陸原產地; “長老”是普遍使用的英國教會的原產地。 )

Presbyterianism emerged in the 16th century Reformation as an effort by Protestant reformers to recapture the form as well as the message of the New Testament church. Lutherans were content to adapt the Roman Catholic episcopacy and medieval connections between church and state to their Protestant needs. 長老會出現在16世紀的宗教改革作為努力的新教改革者奪回的形式,以及信息的新約教會。路德會的內容以適應羅馬天主教主教和中世紀教堂之間的聯繫和國家的新教的需要。 Other reformers in Switzerland, the Netherlands and south Germany were more radical.其他改革者在瑞士,荷蘭和德國南部更為激進。 They noted that in the New Testament "elders" had been appointed to rule the early churches (Acts 14:23) and that the term elder had been used interchangeably with the word bishop, Greek episcopos (Acts 20:17, 28; Titus 1:5 - 7).他們指出,在新約全書“老人”被任命為規則的早期教會(使徒14時23分) ,而且長期一直老互換使用這個詞的主教,希臘episcopos (使徒20:17 , 28 ;泰特斯1 : 5 -7 ) 。 These reformers argued that although a hierarchy among elders could be observed in New Testament times (1 Tim. 5:17), it was not the sharp division between bishop and priest (a contraction of presbyter) that characterized the Roman Catholic church.這些改革者認為,雖然各等級的長者可以看到在新約時代( 1蒂姆。 5點17 ) ,它不是急劇之間的分工主教和神父(收縮發起人)的特點是羅馬天主教教堂。

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From his study of the Bible, John Calvin, the Reformed leader in Geneva, concluded that Jesus Christ himself is the sole ruler of the church and that he exercises that rule through four kinds of officers: preachers (to exhort, admonish, and encourage), doctors or teachers (to instruct), deacons (to aid the poor), and lay elders (to guide and discipline the church). Calvin felt that church and state were parallel authorities, sovereign in their own spheres, which should aid each other.從他的研究聖經,約翰卡爾文,改革領導人在日內瓦,得出的結論是耶穌自己是唯一的統治者,教會和他演習規則通過四種人員:傳教士(以規勸,訓誡,並鼓勵) ,醫生或教師(指導) ,執事(扶貧) ,並奠定長老(以指導和紀律的教堂) 。卡爾文認為,教會與國家平行當局,主權在自己的領域,其中應互相援助。 Today the Church of Scotland is the only Presbyterian body that retains even the vestige of a governmental connection.今天,蘇格蘭教會是唯一的長老會的機構,即使保留的痕跡政府連接。

When Calvin's Genevan church order was carried to Scotland by John Knox, it evolved into the Presbyterianism that, in essentials, is still practiced today. Individual local congregations elect their own elders, including the minister, who together govern the church as a session (or consistory in certain Reformed churches). 當加爾文的教會為了Genevan進行到蘇格蘭的約翰諾克斯,它演變成的長老,在必需品,仍然是今天實行。個別地方教會選出自己的長輩,包括部長,誰治理在一起的教堂作為一個會議(或一致性在某些歸正教會) 。 The minister (or teaching elder), who is called by the local church and who usually serves as moderator of the session, is, however, ordained and disciplined by the next level of church organization, the presbytery (or classis), which administers groups of churches in one area.部長(或教學老) ,誰是所謂的由當地教會,誰通常擔任主持人的會議,但是,祝和紀律的一個新的水平教會組織,長老(或賽) ,負責管理集團教會在一個地區。

Presbyteries select delegates to regional synods, which in turn select representatives to the General Assembly (or General Synod), a national body, the final judiciary of the church. Presbyteries選擇代表區域synods ,這反過來又選擇代表大會(或總議會) ,一個國家機構,最後的司法機構教堂。 Traditionally, presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies have consisted of equal numbers of ordained ministers and lay elders.傳統上, presbyteries , synods ,一般議會由同等數目的祝部長和奠定的長者。 From the precedent set by the Scottish Barrier Act of 1697, Presbyterians have made major changes only after approving them in two different general assemblies and in a majority of individual presbyteries.從先例蘇格蘭屏障法的1697年,長老會取得了重大的變化之後才批准他們在兩個不同的集會和一般在大多數個人presbyteries 。

The Westminster Assembly, held in London at the behest of the English Parliament (1643 - 49), produced doctrinal and ecclesiastical standards that have been foundational for Presbyterians.威斯敏斯特大會在倫敦舉行的遺志英語議會( 1643至1649年) ,生產理論和教會的標準,已基本為長老。 The Westminster Confession, along with the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, made Calvinism teachable to the English.威斯敏斯特信條,加上放大和中短程Catechisms ,取得加爾文教教英語。 Even recent Presbyterians who have modified the theology of Westminster in many particulars continue to honor its doctrinal pronouncements.即使最近長老誰修改了神學威斯敏斯特在許多細節繼續履行其學說的聲明。 Westminster's Form of Church Government and Directory for Public Worship set standards for ecclesiastical practice.威斯敏斯特的教堂表單政府和公共目錄崇拜一套標準的教會的做法。 Although the Westminster documents were never adopted in England itself, they became official standards in Scotland and have shaped Presbyterianism in America and other English - speaking areas of the world.儘管威斯敏斯特文件從來沒有在英格蘭通過的本身,他們成為正式標準在蘇格蘭和塑造了長老會在美國和其他英語-講領域的世界。

Presbyterian worship is simple and orderly. 長老禮拜是簡單而有序。 It revolves around preaching from the Scriptures. Presbyterian hymnody is indebted to the Calvinistic tradition of singing paraphrased Psalms. Two sacraments are recognized: the Lord's Supper, which is usually celebrated monthly or quarterly; and baptism, which is administered to the infant children of church members as a sign of God's covenant of mercy. The discipline of the local church is not as rigorous as in Calvin's Geneva. 它圍繞著說教的聖經。長老歌唱讚美詩是感激加爾文傳統的唱歌轉述詩篇。 兩項聖禮承認:在上帝的晚餐,通常是慶祝每月或每季;和洗禮,這是管理的嬰兒教堂作為一個成員簽署上帝的盟約憐憫。紀檢當地的教堂是不是在嚴格的卡爾文的日內瓦。 It is, nonetheless, still the responsibility of the session, whose decisions, as also those of presbyteries, can be appealed to synods and the General Assembly.這是,儘管如此,仍然有責任的會議,其決定,這也是那些presbyteries ,可以呼籲synods和大會。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾

Bibliography 目錄
JHS Burleigh, The Church History of Scotland (1961); JH Leith, An Introduction to the Reformed Tradition (1977). JHS伯利,教會歷史的蘇格蘭( 1961年) ;華雷斯,介紹改革傳統( 1977年) 。 LA Loetscher, The Broadening Church (1954) and A Brief History of the Presbyterians (1984); JT McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism (1967); J Melton, Presbyterian Worship in America (1967); JH Smylie, American Presbyterians (1985); ET Thompson, Presbyterians in the South (1963 - 73); LJ Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition: A Reexamination of Colonial Presbyterianism (1949); BB Warfield, Assembly at Westminster (1931)洛杉磯Loetscher ,擴大教會( 1954年)和A史略長老( 1984年) ;里克奇麥克尼爾,歷史和特性的加爾文主義( 1967年) ; J麥爾登,長老宗教在美國( 1967年) ;紅Smylie ,美國長老( 1985年) ;素湯普森,長老在南方( 63年至73年) ;軍Trinterud ,形成一個美國傳統:一個複審殖民地長老( 1949年) ;體沃菲爾德,大會在威斯敏斯特( 1931 )


Presbyterianism長老

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies called presbyteries, in opposition to government by bishops (episcopal system, prelacy), or by congregations (congregationalism, independency), in its strict sense, Presbyterianism is the name given to one of the groups of ecclesiastical bodies that represent the features of Protestantism emphasized by Calvin.長老會在廣泛意義上的制度是教堂的政府代表呼籲presbyteries集會,反對政府的主教(主教制度, prelacy ) ,或由教會(公理,獨立性) ,在其嚴格意義上說,長老會的名稱是考慮到一個教會團體的代表機構的特點,強調了新教加爾文。 Of the various churches modelled on the Swiss Reformation, the Swiss, Dutch, and some German are known as the Reformed; the French as Huguenots; those in Bohemia and Hungary by their national names; the Scotch, English, and derived churches as Presbyterian.各教會仿照瑞士宗教改革,瑞士,荷蘭,德國和一些被稱為改革;法國作為胡格諾派;那些波希米亞和匈牙利本國的名稱;蘇格蘭,英文,並衍生長老教會的。 There is a strong family resemblance between all these churches, and many of them have given their adherence to an "Alliance of the Reformed Churches throughout the World holding the Presbyterian System", formed in 1876 with the special view of securing interdenominational cooperation in general church work.有一種強烈的家族相似性之間的所有這些教堂,其中許多人由於其加入了“聯盟歸正會在世界各地舉行長老會制度” ,成立於1876年的特別鑑於確保interdenominational合作總體教堂工作。

I. DISTINCTIVE PRINCIPLES一,獨特的原則

The most important standards of orthodox Presbyterianism are the "Westminster Confession of Faith" and "Catechisms" of 1647 (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF).最重要的標準,正統長老是“威斯敏斯特信條”和“ Catechisms ”的1647 (見信仰,新教的自白) 。 Their contents, however, have been more or less modified by the various churches, and many of the formulas of subscription prescribed for church officials do not in practice require more than a qualified acceptance of the standards.其內容,但已或多或少地修改了各種教堂,和許多公式訂閱明教會官員並不需要在實踐中多一名合格的驗收標準。 The chief distinctive features set forth in the Westminster declarations of belief are Presbyterian church government, Calvinistic theology, and absence of prescribed forms of worship.主要特色所列威斯敏斯特聲明信仰基督教長老教會政府,加爾文神學,並沒有訂明的形式的崇拜。

A. Polity字母a.政體

Between the episcopal and congregational systems of church government, Presbyterianism holds a middle position, which it claims to be the method of church organization indicated in the New Testament.之間的教區主教和教會制度的政府,長老會擁有一個中等的位置,它聲稱的方法,教會組織在新約。 On the one hand, it declares against hierarchical government, holding that all clergymen are peers one of another and that church authority is vested not in individuals but in representative bodies composed of lay (ruling) elders and duly ordained (ruling and teaching elders).一方面,它宣布政府對層次,認為所有的神職人員是同行的另一人,並教會權力屬於個人不但在代表機構組成的奠定(執政黨)的長者,並適當祝(執政黨和教師的長者) 。 On the other hand, Presbyterianism is opposed to Congregational independency and asserts the lawful authority of the larger church.另一方面,長老會反對公理獨立性和資產的合法權力較大的教堂。 The constitutions of most of the churches provide for four grades of administrative courts: the Session, which governs the congregation; the Presbytery, which governs a number of congregations within a limited territory; the Synod, which governs the congregations within a larger territory; and the General Assembly, which is the highest court.憲法的大多數教堂為四個級別的行政法庭:會議期間,管轄教會的長老,這制約了一些教會內有限的領土;主教會議,其中教區管轄範圍內的更大的領土;和大會,這是最高的法院。 Generally the church officers include, besides the pastor, ruling elders and deacons.一般來說,教會人員包括,除了牧師,長老和執政執事。 These officers are elected by the congregation, but the election of the pastor is subject to the approval of the presbytery.這些人員都選出的聚集,但選舉的牧師是受批准的長老。 The elders with the pastor as presiding officer form the session which supervises the spiritual affairs of the congregation.長老與牧師的主持會議的主席團成員會議的形式負責監督的精神事務的聚會。 The deacons have charge of certain temporalities, and are responsible to the session.執事掌管的某些temporalities ,並負責了會議。

B. Theology灣神學

The Westminster Confession gives great prominence to the question of predestination, and favours the infralapsarian view of reprobation.在韋斯敏斯德高度重視突出問題的命,而且有利於infralapsarian鑑於非難。 It teaches the total depravity of fallen man and the exclusion of the non-elect from the benefits of Christ's atonement.它教導的總墮落下降男子和排斥非選舉的好處基督的贖罪。 But within the last thirty years there has been a tendency to mitigate the harsher features of Calvinistic theology, and nearly all the important Presbyterian churches have officially disavowed the doctrines of total depravity and limited redemption.但在過去30年出現了趨勢,以減輕嚴厲的特點加爾文神學,幾乎所有的重要長老教會已正式否認理論的總墮落和有限的贖回。 Some have even gone so far as to state a belief that all who die in infancy are saved.有些人甚至國家的信念,所有誰死在嬰兒得救。 Such passages of the standards as proclaim the necessity of a union between Church and State and the duty of the civil magistrate to suppress heresy have also to a great extent been eliminated or modified.這些通道的標準,作為宣布的必要性,工會教會與國家之間和義務的民事裁判壓制異端也很大程度上被取消或修改。 In its doctrine on the Sacraments the Presbyterian Church is thoroughly Calvinistic.在其學說的聖禮長老教會是徹底的加爾文。 It holds that baptism is necessary to salvation not as a means (necessitate medii), but only as something that has been commanded (necessitate prœcepti).它認為是必要的洗禮,以拯救不能作為一種手段(需要medii ) ,但只作為東西已命令(需要prœcepti ) 。 It teaches that Christ is present in the Lord's Supper not merely symbollically, as Zwingli held, nor, on the other hand, substantially, but dynamically or effectively and for believers only.它教導我們,基督是目前在上帝的晚餐不僅symbollically ,如茨溫利舉行,也沒有,另一方面,大量,但動態或有效和唯一的信徒。

C. Worship角崇拜

No invariable forms are recognized in the conduct of public services. Directories of worship have been adopted as aids to the ordering of the various offices but their use is optional.沒有一成不變的形式確認在開展公共服務。目錄的崇拜已經獲得通過,成為艾滋病的排序各辦事處,但它們的使用是可選的。 The services are generally characterized by extreme simplicity and consist of hymns, prayers, and readings from the Scriptures.該服務一般特點是極端簡單,包括讚美詩,祈禱,並讀了聖經。 In some of the churches instrumental music is not allowed nor the use of any other songs than those contained in the Book of Psalms.在一些教堂器樂是不允許的,也沒有使用任何其他的歌曲比那些載於書詩篇。 The communion rite is administered at stated intervals or on days appointed by the church officers.禮儀的共融經管表示間隔天或任命的教會人員。 Generally the sermon is the principal part of the services.一般來說,講道是主要的部分服務。 In Europe and in some American churches the minister wears a black gown while in the pulpit.在歐洲和美國一些教會牧師穿著黑色禮服,而在講壇。 Of recent years certain Presbyterian missionary societies in the United States and Canada have used a form of Mass and other services according to the Greek liturgy in their missions for Ruthenian immigrants近年來某些社會長老會傳教士在美國和加拿大使用了某種形式的質量和其他服務根據希臘的禮儀任務的魯塞尼亞移民

II.二。 HISTORY歷史

The Presbyterian, like the Reformed churches, trace their origin to Calvin.長老一樣,歸正教會,追踪其原產地為卡爾文。 The claims to historical continuity from the Apostles through the Waldenses and the Scotch Culdees have been refuted by Presbyterian scholars.索賠的歷史連續性從使徒Waldenses通過和蘇格蘭Culdees已駁斥了長老會的學者。 It was in the ecclesiastical republics of Switzerland that the churches holding the Presbyterian polity were first established.這是在教會共和國瑞士舉行的教堂長老政體是首次設立。 John Knox, who had lived with Calvin at Geneva, impressed upon the Scottish Reformation the ideas of his master, and may be regarded as the father of Presbyterianism as distinct from the Reformed churches.約翰諾克斯,誰住的卡爾文在日內瓦,留下深刻印象的蘇格蘭宗教改革的思想他的主人,並可能被視為父親的長老有別於歸正教會。 In 1560 a Confession of Faith which he drew up was sanctioned by the Scotch Parliament, which also ratified the jurisdiction exercised by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church.在1560年1信條,他制定了被認可的蘇格蘭議會,其中還批准了行使管轄權大會的長老教會。 This was the beginning of the Kirk or the Scotch Establishment.這是年初的柯克或蘇格蘭建立。 There have been many divisions among the Presbyterians of Scotland, but today nearly all the elements of Presbyterianism in that country have been collected into two great churches: the Established Church and the United Free Church (see SCOTLAND, ESTABLISHED CHURCH OF).有許多部門之間的長老蘇格蘭,但今天幾乎所有的要素長老在該國已收集到兩個偉大的教堂:教堂的成立和美國自由教會(見蘇格蘭,建立教會) 。 After Scotland the important centres of Presbyterianism are England, Ireland, Wales, the British colonies, and the United States.在蘇格蘭的重要中心的長老會是英格蘭,愛爾蘭,威爾士,英國殖民地,和美國。

A. England英格蘭字母a.

There was a strong Presbyterian tendency among certain English Reformers of the sixteenth century.有一個強有力的長老,在某些傾向英文改革者的16世紀。 For a time men like Cranmer, Latimer, and Hooper would have reconstructed the church after the manner of Geneva and Zurich but during the reign of Elizabeth the "prelatical" system triumphed and was firmly maintained by the sovereign.一時間男人一樣克蘭麥,拉蒂默,並胡珀將重建後的教堂的方式日內瓦和蘇黎世,但在伊麗莎白統治的“ prelatical ”系統獲勝,並堅定地維護國家主權。 This policy was opposed by the Puritans who included both Presbyterians and Congregationalists.這項政策是反對的清教徒誰既包括長老會和公理。 Towards the close of Elizabeth's reign, the Presbyterians secretly formed an organization out of which grew in 1572 the first English presbytery.建立密切的伊麗莎白統治的長老組成了一個秘密組織,其中在1572年增長了第一次英語長老。 During the reigns of James I and Charles I the struggle between the Established Church and Presbyterianism continued.在普遍存在的詹姆斯一世和查理一世之間的鬥爭成立教會和長老會繼續下去。 In 1647 the Long Parliament abolished the prelacy and Presbyterianism was established as the national religion.在1647年的長期議會廢除了prelacy和長老被確立為國家宗教。 In the same year the Westminster Assembly of divines presented to Parliament its Confession of Faith.同年威斯敏斯特大會divines向議會提交其信條。 With the restoration of the monarchy (1660), the State Church became once more episcopal.隨著恢復君主立憲制( 1660 ) ,國家會再次成為主教。 English Presbyterianism now began to decline.英語長老會現在開始下降。 Its principle of government was quite generally abandoned for independent administration and during the eighteenth century most of its churches succumbed to rationalism.其原則的政府是相當普遍放棄獨立的行政和在十八世紀的大部分教堂屈從於理性。 But during the latter part of the nineteenth century there was a revival of Presbyterianism in England.但是,在後者的一部分, 19世紀有一個復興的長老在英格蘭。 Those who belonged to the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland coalesced in 1876 with the English Presbyterian Synod (an independent organization since the Scotch disruption of 1843), forming the Presbyterian Church of England, which is a very active body.這些誰屬於美國長老教會的蘇格蘭合併於1876年與英文長老會議(一個獨立的組織,因為蘇格蘭破壞1843年) ,形成了長老教會的英格蘭,這是一個非常活躍的機構。

B. Wales灣威爾士

The "Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church" had its origin prior to, and independent of, English Methodism.在“威爾士加爾文基督教衛理公會”有其原產地之前,獨立的,英語循道。 Its first organization was effected in 1736, and it shared the enthusiasm of the Methodists of England under the Wesleys, but differed from them in doctrine and polity, the English being Arminian and episcopal, the Welsh, Calvinistic and presbyterian.第一次組織是在1736年生效,它的熱情共同的英國衛理公會下Wesleys ,但不同於他們在理論和政體,英國正在Arminian和推崇,威爾士,加爾文和長老。 A Confession of Faith adopted in 1823 follows the Westminster Confession, but is silent as to election and the asperities of the Calvinistic doctrine of reprobation.阿信條在1823年通過了如下威斯敏斯特信條,但保持沉默,以選舉和粗糙的加爾文學說的非難。 In 1864 a General Assembly was organized.在1864年大會舉辦。 The Welsh Presbyterians give great attention to home and foreign missions.威爾士長老十分重視家庭和外國使團。

C. Ireland角愛爾蘭

The history of Presbyterianism in Ireland dates from the Ulster plantation during the reign of James I. The greater part of Ulster had been confiscated to the crown, and thither emigrated a large number of Scotch Presbyterians.歷史上的長老在愛爾蘭的日期從種植阿爾斯特時期的詹姆斯一大部份阿爾斯特已被沒收的冠,並移居到那裡了大量的蘇格蘭長老。 At first they received special consideration from the Government, but this policy was reversed whilst William Laud was Archbishop of Canterbury.首先,他們收到的特別考慮到政府,但這一政策得到扭轉,而威廉勞德是坎特伯雷大主教。 The independent life of Presbyterianism in Ireland began with the formation of the Presbytery of Ulster in 1642, but its growth was checked for a time after the Stuart restoration in 1660.獨立生活的長老在愛爾蘭開始形成的阿爾斯特長老在1642年,但其增長是檢查的時間後,斯圖爾特在1660年恢復。 During the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth century there was a general departure from the old standards and Unitarian tendencies caused various dissensions among the Ulster Presbyterians.在第十八和早期的一部分,在十九世紀,人們普遍偏離了舊的標準和統一的傾向引起各種糾紛的阿爾斯特長老。 There are still two Presbyterian bodies in Ireland that are Unitarian.還有兩個長老機構在愛爾蘭的統一。 The disruption in the Scottish churches and other causes produced further divisions, and today there are, exclusive of the two mentioned above, five Presbyterian bodies in Ireland, the most important of which is the Presbyterian Church of Ireland.中斷在蘇格蘭教堂和其他原因產生進一步分裂,今天有,但不包括上述兩宗五長老機構在愛爾蘭,其中最重要的是長老教會的愛爾蘭。

D. Colonial and Missionary Churches D.殖民地和基督教的傳教士

Presbyterianism in Canada dates its origin from 1765, when a military chaplain began regular ministrations in Quebec.長老會在加拿大的起源日期從1765年,當一個軍事牧師ministrations開始經常在魁北克省。 There was very little growth, however, until the early part of the nineteenth century, when British immigration set in. Before 1835 there were six independent organizations.有很少的增長,但是,直到年初在十九世紀,當英國移民英寸一套1835年前有6個獨立的組織。 The disruption of 1843 in Scotland had its echo in Canada, and secessionist bodies were formed, but during the sixties four organic unions prepared the way for the consolidation in 1875 of all the important bodies into one denomination, the Presbyterian Church in Canada.破壞1843年在蘇格蘭有其回波在加拿大,分裂主義和機構成立了,但在六十年代四個有機結合的方式編寫為鞏固1875年的所有重要機構合併為一個單位,長老教會在加拿大。 There remain only two small organizations not affiliated with this main body.還有只有兩個小型組織不屬於這個主體。 The Canadian Church maintains many educational institutions and carries on extensive mission work.加拿大教會保持許多教育機構和進行廣泛的使命工作。 Its doctrinal standards are latitudinarian.它的理論標準latitudinarian 。 Canada has the largest of the colonial churches, but there are important Presbyterian organizations in the other British possessions.加拿大最大的殖民教堂,但也有重要的長老會組織在英國的其他財產。 In Australia Presbyterianism may be dated from the formation of the Presbytery of New South Wales in 1826.在澳大利亞長老可追溯到成立了長老會的新南威爾士州於1826年。 There have been several divisions since then, but at present all the churches of the six provinces are federated in one General Assembly.已經有若干部門自那時以來,但目前所有教堂的6個省份的聯合在一個大會。 In New Zealand the church of North Island, an offshoot of the Scottish Kirk, organized 1856, and the church of South Island (founded by Scottish Free Churchmen, 1854) have consolidated in one General Assembly.在新西蘭教堂的北港島,一個分支的蘇格蘭柯克,有組織1856年,和教會的南島(成立由蘇格蘭自由教會, 1854年)已合併為一個大會。 There is a considerable number of Scotch and English Presbyterians in S. Africa.有相當數量的蘇格蘭威士忌和英文長老在南非。 In 1909 they proposed a basis of union to the Wesleyan Methodists, Congregationalists, and Baptists, but thus far without result. 1909年,他們提出了一個根據工會的衛斯理衛理公會,公理,以及浸信會,但迄今沒有結果。 In Southern India a basis of union was agreed on by the Congregationalists, Methodists, and Presbyterians in July, 1908.在印度南部的基礎工會商定的公理,衛,並在7月長老, 1908年。 There are Presbyterian churches organized by British and American missionaries in various parts of Asia, Africa, Mexico, S. America, and the West Indies.有長老教會舉辦的英國和美國傳教士在各個部分亞洲,非洲,墨西哥,美國美國,西印度群島。

E. United States美國體育

In tracing the history of Presbyterianism in the United States the churches may be divided into three groups:在追查歷史的長老在美國的教堂可分為三組:

(1) the American churches, which largely discarded foreign influences; ( 1 )美國的教堂,這在很大程度上拋棄外國的影響;

(2) the Scottish churches directly descended from Presbyterian bodies in Scotland; ( 2 )蘇格蘭教堂直接後裔長老機構在蘇格蘭;

(3) the Welsh church, a descendant of the Calvinistic Methodist church of Wales. ( 3 )威爾士教堂,子孫的加爾文基督教衛理公會的威爾士。

(1) The American Churches ( 1 )美國基督教協進會

The earliest American Presbyterian churches were established in Virginia, New England, Maryland, and Delaware during the seventeenth century and were chiefly of English origin.最早的美國長老教會成立於弗吉尼亞,新英格蘭,馬里蘭,特拉華,並在17世紀被英國主要來源。 The man who brought the scattered churches into organic unity, and who is considered as the apostle of American Presbyterianism, was Rev.該名男子是誰把分散的教會變成有機統一,誰被認為是使徒的美國長老會,是牧師 Francis Makennie from the Presbytery of Laggan, Ireland.弗朗西斯Makennie從長老的拉根,愛爾蘭。 With six other ministers he organized in 1706 the Presbytery of Philadelphia, which ten years later was constituted a synod.與其他六個組織部長,他在1706的費城長老會,其中10年後是構成主教。 Between 1741 and 1758 the synod was divided into two bodies, the "Old Side" and the "New Side", because of disagreements as to the requirements for the ministry and the interpretation of the standards. During this period of separation the College of New Jersey, later Princeton University, was established by the "New Side", with Rev. John Witherspoon, afterwards a signer of the Declaration of Independence, as first president.至1741年和1758年的主教會議分為兩個機構, “老邊”和“新邊” ,因為分歧,以要求該部和解釋的標準。在此期間離職學院新新澤西州普林斯頓大學後,成立了“新邊” ,與牧師約翰威瑟斯龐,後來簽字的獨立宣言,作為第一任總統。 In 1788 the synod adopted a constitution, and a general assembly was established. The dissolution of the Cumberland Presbytery by the Synod of Kentucky led to the formation in 1810 of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.在1788年會議上通過了一項憲法,大會正式成立。解散坎伯蘭長老會議由肯塔基導致在1810年形成的坎伯蘭長老教會。 From controversies regarding missionary work and doctrinal matters two independent branches resulted (1837), the "Old School" and the "New School".從爭論的傳教工作和理論問題兩個獨立的部門造成( 1837 ) , “老學校”和“新學校” 。 Both lost most of their southern presbyteries when anti-slavery resolutions were passed.這失去了其大部分南部presbyteries時,反奴役的決議獲得通過。 The seceders united to form a southern church known since 1865 as the Presbyterian Church in the United States.該seceders團結起來,形成一個稱為南部教會自1865年作為基督教長老教會在美國。 Fraternal relations exist between the northern and the southern churches, who are kept apart especially by their different policies as to the races.兄弟般的關係之間存在的北部和南部的教會,誰是分開尤其是他們的不同的政策,以比賽。 In the Cumberland church the coloured members were organized into a separate denomination in 1869.在教會金巴倫有色成員組織成一個單獨的教派於1869年。 That same year the "Old School" and the "New School" reunited forming the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, the largest and most influential of the Presbyterian bodies in America. Since then its harmony has been seriously threatened only by the controversy as to the sources of authority in religion, and the authority and credibility of the Scriptures (1891-4).同年的“老學校”和“新學校”團聚形成長老教會在美利堅合眾國,最大和最具影響力的長老機構在美國。自那時以來它的和諧受到嚴重威脅的只有爭議作為消息來源的權力在宗教和的權威和信譽聖經( 1891-4 ) 。 This difficulty terminated with the trials of Prof. Charles A. Briggs and Prof. HP Smith, in which the court declared its loyalty to the views of the historic standards.這種困難而終止的審判教授查爾斯A布里格斯和惠普史密斯教授,在法院宣布,它忠誠的意見,歷史性的標準。 In 1903 the church revived the Confession of Faith, mitigating "the knotty points of Calvinism". 1903年教堂重新信條,減輕“的疑難點加爾文主義” 。 Its position became thereby essentially the same as that of the Cumberland church (white), and three years later (1906) the two bodies entered into an organic union.它的立場變得從而基本上是一樣的,在坎伯蘭教堂(白色) ,三年後( 1906年)這兩個機構簽訂了一個有機的工會。 A part of the Cumberland church, however, repudiated the action of its general assembly and still undertakes to perpetuate itself as a separate denomination.部分坎伯蘭教堂,但否認其行動大會和承諾仍然延續自己作為一個單獨的面額。

(2) The Scottish Churches ( 2 )蘇格蘭教會

(a) Seceders (一) Seceders

The second secessionist body from the established church of Scotland, the Associated Synod (Seceders), organized through its missionaries in 1753 the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania.第二次分裂機構從成立的蘇格蘭教堂,美聯社主教( Seceders ) ,通過其組織的傳教士在1753年協理長老賓夕法尼亞州。 Not long after another separatist body of Scotland, the Old Covenanter Church (Cameronians), founded a daughter church in America known as the Reformed Presbytery (1774).沒多久又分裂機構的蘇格蘭,舊盟約教會( Cameronians ) ,成立了一個女兒在美國教會被稱為改革長老會( 1774 ) 。 In 1782 these new seceder and covenanter bodies united under the name of Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church.在1782年這些新seceder和盟約聯合國機構的名義下協理改革長老教會。 Some members of the former body refused to enter this union and continued the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania.一些成員的前體拒絕進入這個聯盟,並繼續協理長老賓夕法尼亞州。 There were secessions from the united organization in 1801, and 1820.有secessions由聯合國組織在1801年和1820年。 In 1858 nearly all these various elements were brought together in the United Presbyterian Church of North America.在1858年幾乎所有的這些不同的要素聚集在美國長老教會北美。 Two bodies that remain outside this union are the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, which since 1821 has maintained an independent existence, and the Associate Synod of North America, a lineal descendant of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, founded in 1858 by those who preferred to continue their own organization rather than enter into the union effected that year.兩具屍體仍未這個工會協理改革長老教會,自1821年一直保持一個獨立的存在,和協理主教北美,一個直系後裔協理長老的賓夕法尼亞州,成立於1858年由誰願意繼續他們自己的組織,而不是進入工會的影響這一年。

(b) Cameronians or Covenanters. (二) Cameronians或盟約。

The Reformed Presbytery, which merged with the Associate Presbytery in 1782, was renewed in an independent existence in 1798 by the isolated covenanters who had taken no part in the union of 1782.長老會的改革,其中合併協理長老會於1782年,又重新在一個獨立的存在, 1798年由孤立的盟約誰沒有採取任何參加工會的1782年。 This renewed presbytery expanded into a synod in 1809.這再次長老擴大成為一個主教會議於1809年。 In 1833 there was a division into two branches, the "Old Lights" (synod) and the "New Lights" (general synod), caused by disagreements as to the attitude the church should take towards the Constitution of the United States. In 1840 two ministers, dissatisfied with what they considered laxity among the "Old Lights", withdrew from the synod, and formed the "Covenanted Reformed Church" which has been several times disorganized and counts only a handful of members.在1833年有一個分成兩個分支, “老燈” (主教)和“新燈” (總議會) ,所造成的分歧,作為對教會的態度應當採取對美國憲法。 1840年兩位部長,不滿意,他們認為鬆弛之間的“老燈” ,退出了會議,並成立了“ Covenanted歸正會”已多次混亂和計數只有少數幾個成員。 In 1883 dissatisfaction with a disciplinary decision of the general synod (New Lights) caused the secession of a small number of its members, who have formed at Allegheny, Pa., the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada.在1883年的不滿與紀律的決定的一般主教(新燈)造成分裂的少數成員,形成了誰在阿勒格尼,賓夕法尼亞州的改革長老教會在美國和加拿大。 Negotiations for a union of the general synod and the synod were made in 1890, but were unsuccessful.談判工會的一般主教和主教是在1890年,但都沒有成功。

(3) The Welsh Church ( 3 )威爾士教會

The first organization of a Welsh Calvinistic Methodist church in the United States was at Remsen, NY, in 1824.第一次組織了威爾士加爾文基督教衛理公會在美國是雷姆森,紐約,於1824年。 Four years later a presbytery was established, and the growth of the denomination has kept pace with the increase in the Welsh population.四年後,長老,建立和成長的面值已經跟上增加威爾士人口。 The English language is fast gaining control in the church services.英語是快速上漲控制在教會服務。

III.三。 STATISTICS統計

The Presbyterian denomination throughout the world, exclusive of the Reformed churches, numbers over 5,000,000 communicants.長老教會在世界各地,獨家的歸正教會,人數超過5000000聖餐。 Of these the United States has 1,897,534 (12 bodies); Scotland, 1,233,226 (6 bodies); Canada, 289,556 (3 bodies); Wales, 195,000; Ireland, 112,481 (4 bodies); England, 90,808 (2 bodies); Australia, 50,000; New Zealand, 28,000; Jamaica, 12,017; S. Africa, 11,323.這些美國1897534 ( 12機構) ;蘇格蘭, 1233226 ( 6機構) ;加拿大, 289556 ( 3機構) ;威爾士,十九萬五千;愛爾蘭, 112481 ( 4機構) ;英格蘭, 90808 ( 2機構) ;澳大利亞, 50000 ;新西蘭, 28000 ;牙買加, 12017 ;南非, 11323 。

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息撰稿:茉莉休。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.專門為聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

BENSON, Non-Catholic Denominations (New York, 1910).本森,非天主教教派(紐約, 1910年) 。 91-117; LYON, A Study of the Sects (Boston, 1891), 99-109; New Schaff-Herzog Encyc. 91-117 ;里昂的研究教派(波士頓, 1891年) , 99-109 ;新沙夫-赫爾佐格Encyc 。 of Religious Knowledge, IX (New York, 1911), sv宗教知識,九(紐約, 1911年) ,希沃特

IA - HODGE, Discussions in Church Polity (New York, 1878); IDEM, What is Presbyterian Law as Defined by the Church Courts?保險業監督-霍吉,討論教會政體(紐約, 1 878年) ;同上,什麼是長老法所界定的教會法院? (Philadelphia, 1882); THOMPSON, The Historic Episcopate (Philadelphia, 1910). B. (費城, 1882年) ;湯普森,歷史主教(費城, 1910年) 。灣 - SCHAFF, The Creeds of Christendom (New York, 1905), I, 669-817; III, 600-76; HODGE, Systematic Theology (3 vols., New York, 1885); SMITH, The Creed of the Presbyterians (New York, 1901); Encyc. -沙夫,在信仰的基督教(紐約, 1 905年) ,我6 69-817;三, 6 00-76;霍奇,系統神學( 3卷。 ,紐約, 1 885年) ;史密斯信條的長老(新紐約, 1901年) ; Encyc 。 of Religion and Ethics, III (New York, 1911), see Confessions. C.宗教與倫理,三(紐約, 1911年) ,見自白。角 - BAIRD, Eutaxia. -貝爾德, E utaxia。 or the Presbyterian Liturgies (New York, 1855); SHIELDS, Liturgia Expurgata (New York, 1844); The Book of Common Worship (Philadelphia, 1906).或長老Liturgies (紐約, 1855年) ;盾牌, Liturgia Expurgata (紐約, 1844年) ;書共同崇拜(費城, 1906年) 。

II.二。 - KERR, The People's History of Presbyterianism (Richmond, 1888); BROADLEY, The Rise and Progress of Presbyterianism; DRYSDALE, History of Presbyterianism in England (London, 1889); REID, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland (3 vols., Belfast, 1867); PATTON, Popular History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (New York. 1900); THOMPSON, A History of the Presbyterian Churches in the United States (New York, 1895) in Am. -科爾,人民的歷史長老(里奇蒙, 1 888年) ; B ROADLEY的興起與進展長老;德賴斯代爾,歷史的長老在英國(倫敦, 1 889年) ;里德的歷史長老教會在愛爾蘭( 3卷。 ,貝爾法斯特, 1867年) ;巴頓,通俗歷史的長老教會在美國(紐約。 1900年) ;湯普森,史長老教會在美國(紐約, 1895年)的配對。 Church Hist.教會組織胺。 Ser., VI, bibliog., xi-xxxi; Amer.絲氨酸。 ,六, bibliog 。 ,西三十一;阿米爾。 Church Hist.教會組織胺。 Ser., XI, 145-479.絲氨酸。 ,十一, 145-479 。

III.三。 - STEPHENS, The Presbyterian Churches (Philadelphia, 1910); ROBERTS, The Presbyterian Handbook (Philadelphia, 1911). -蒂芬長老教會(費城, 1 910) ;羅伯茨,長老手冊(費城, 1 911年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
London (Westminster) Confession 倫敦(西敏寺)懺悔

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