Pilgrims朝聖者

General Information 一般信息

The Pilgrims were English Separatists who founded (1620) Plymouth Colony in New England.朝聖者是誰英文分離主義者成立( 1620年)普利茅斯殖民地新英格蘭。 In the first years of the 17th century, small numbers of English Puritans broke away from the Church of England because they felt that it had not completed the work of the Reformation.在頭幾年的17世紀,少量的英文清教徒脫離英國教會,因為他們認為,沒有完成工作的改革。 They committed themselves to a life based on the Bible.他們承諾的生活基礎上的聖經。 Most of these Separatists were farmers, poorly educated and without social or political standing.大多數這些分離主義者是農民,文化素質較低和沒有社會或政治地位。 One of the Separatist congregations was led by William Brewster and the Rev. Richard Clifton in the village of Scrooby in Nottinghamshire.一個分裂集會是由威廉布魯斯特和牧師理查德利夫頓村的司寇在諾丁漢。 The Scrooby group emigrated to Amsterdam in 1608 to escape harassment and religious persecution.司寇組的移民在1608阿姆斯特丹逃避騷擾和宗教迫害。 The next year they moved to Leiden, where, enjoying full religious freedom, they remained for almost 12 years.明年,他們轉移到荷蘭萊頓,在那裡,享有充分的宗教自由,他們仍然為近12年。

In 1617, discouraged by economic difficulties, the pervasive Dutch influence on their children, and their inability to secure civil autonomy, the congregation voted to emigrate to America. Through the Brewster family's friendship with Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the London Company, the congregation secured two patents authorizing them to settle in the northern part of the company's jurisdiction.在1617年,沮喪的經濟困難,普遍荷蘭影響其子女,他們無法保證公民的自主權,該會投移居到美國。通過布魯斯特家族的友誼,埃德溫桑迪斯先生,財務公司在倫敦的眾擔保兩項專利授權他們解決在北部的一部分,公司的管轄範圍之內。 Unable to finance the costs of the emigration with their own meager resources, they negotiated a financial agreement with Thomas Weston, a prominent London iron merchant.無法資助的費用移民用自己微薄的資源,他們達成了一項協議,金融托馬斯韋斯頓,突出鐵倫敦商人。 Fewer than half of the group's members elected to leave Leiden.不到一半的集團的成員當選為離開萊頓。 A small ship, the Speedwell, carried them to Southampton, England, where they were to join another group of Separatists and pick up a second ship.一個小型船舶,婆婆,進行他們南安普敦,英格蘭,他們在那裡參加另一組的分裂主義分子和拿起第二船。 After some delays and disputes, the voyagers regrouped at Plymouth aboard the 180 - ton Mayflower.經過一些拖延和爭端,旅行者集中在普利茅斯乘坐180 -噸五月花。 It began its historic voyage on Sept. 16, 1620, with about 102 passengers - fewer than half of them from Leiden.它開始其歷史性航程9月16日1620年,約102名乘客-不到一半,其中由L eiden。

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After a 65 - day journey, the Pilgrims sighted Cape Cod on November 19.經過65 -一天的旅程,有遠見的朝聖者科德角在1 1月1 9日。 Unable to reach the land they had contracted for, they anchored (November 21) at the site of Provincetown.無法到達他們的土地承包了,他們紮根( 11月21日)在網站Provincetown 。 Because they had no legal right to settle in the region, they drew up the Mayflower Compact, creating their own government.由於他們沒有合法的權利來解決該地區,他們制定了五月花契約,創造他們自己的政府。 The settlers soon discovered Plymouth Harbor, on the western side of Cape Cod Bay and made their historic landing on December 21; the main body of settlers followed on December 26.定居者很快發現普利茅斯港,西邊的科德角灣,並作了歷史性降落在12月21日;主體的定居者之後於12月26日。

The term Pilgrim was first used by William Bradford to describe the Leiden Separatists who were leaving Holland.朝聖者的任期最早是由威廉布拉德福德描述萊頓分離主義誰離開荷蘭。 The Mayflower's passengers were first described as the Pilgrim Fathers in 1799.五月花的乘客首先描述為朝聖者們在1799年。

Oscar Zeichner奧斯卡Zeichner

Bibliography 目錄
W Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620 - 1647 (1952); F Dillon, The Pilgrims (1975); C Gill, Mayflower Remembered: A History of the Plymouth Pilgrims (1970); J Harris, Saga of the Pilgrims (1990); AW / RC Notson, eds., Stepping Stones: The Pilgrim's Own Story (1987); D Plooij, Pilgrim Fathers from a Dutch Point of View (1932); B Smith, Bradford of Plymouth (1951); RG Usher, Pilgrims and Their History (1918); GF Willison, The Pilgrim Reader (1953) and Saints and Strangers: Pilgrim Fathers (1965). W布拉德福德,普利茅斯種植園, 1620至47年( 1952年) ,女狄龍,朝聖者( 1975年) ; ç樂平,五月花回憶:歷史的普利茅斯朝聖者( 1970年) ; J哈里斯,佐賀的朝聖者( 1990年) ;抗磨/鋼筋混凝土Notson合編。 ,墊腳石:天路歷程的自己的故事( 1987年) ; D Plooij ,朝聖者們從荷蘭的角度看( 1932年) ;乙史密斯,布拉德普利茅斯( 1951年) ;的RG亞瑟,朝聖者和他們的歷史( 1918年) ;石墨威利森,讀者的朝聖者( 1953年)和聖徒和陌生人:朝聖者們( 1965年) 。


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