Pietism虔誠主義

General Information 一般信息

Originally a German Lutheran religious movement of the 17th and 18th centuries, pietism emphasized heartfelt religious devotion, ethical purity, charitable activity, and pastoral theology rather than sacramental or dogmatic precision.本來德國路德宗教運動的17和18世紀,虔誠主義強調衷心的宗教獻身精神,道德純潔,慈善活動和牧靈神學,而不是聖禮或教條的精度。 The term now refers to all religious expressions that emphasize inward devotion and moral purity.現在這個詞是指所有的宗教表現形式,強調外來的獻身精神和道德上的純潔性。 With roots in Dutch precisionism and mysticism, pietism emerged in reaction to the formality of Lutheran orthodoxy.隨著植根於荷蘭precisionism和神秘主義,虔誠主義出現的反應,流於形式的正統路德派。

In his Pia Desideria (1675), Philipp Jakob Spener proposed a "heart religion" to replace the dominant "head religion."在他的皮婭Desideria ( 1675 ) ,拉姆雅各布Spener提出了“心的宗教” ,以取代佔主導地位的“頭部的宗教。 ” Beginning with religious meetings in Spener's home, the movement grew rapidly, especially after August Hermann Francke (1663 - 1727) made the new University of Halle a Pietist center.從宗教會議Spener的家中,流動迅速增長,特別是在8月赫爾曼弗朗克( 1663年至1727年)取得新的哈雷大學一Pietist中心。 Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf, a student of Francke's and godson of Spener, helped spread the movement.尼古路德維希,親岑多夫伯爵,學生的弗朗克和龍芯的Spener ,幫助傳播運動。 His Moravian Church promoted evangelical awakenings throughout Europe and in North America in the 18th and 19th centuries.他摩拉維亞教會福音覺醒促進了整個歐洲和北美在18世紀和19世紀。 John Wesley and Methodism were profoundly influenced by pietism.約翰衛斯理和循道了深刻影響虔誠主義。

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Bibliography 目錄
FE Stoffler, The Rise of Evangelical Pietism (1971).有限元Stoffler的興起福音虔誠主義( 1971年) 。


Pietism虔誠主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A recurring tendency within Christian history to emphasize more the practicalities of Christian life and less the formal structures of theology or church order.反复出現的一個趨勢在基督教的歷史,強調更多的實用性的基督徒的生活和少的正式結構的神學或教會秩序。 Its historians discern four general traits in this tendency: (1) Its experiential character, pietists are people of the heart for whom Christian living is the fundamental concern; (2) its biblical focus, pietists are, to paraphrase John Wesley, "people of one book" who take standards and goals from the pages of Scripture; (3) its perfectionistic bent, pietists are serious about holy living and expend every effort to follow God's law, spread the gospel, and provide aid for the needy; (4) its reforming interest, pietists usually oppose what they regard as coldness and sterility in established church forms and practices.其四歷史學家辨別一般性狀的這一趨勢: ( 1 )它的經驗性質,虔誠主義的人的心臟的人是基督徒生活的基本問題; ( 2 )聖經中的重點,虔誠主義的,套用約翰衛斯理, “人民一本書“誰採取的標準和目標,從網頁的聖經; ( 3 )其perfectionistic彎曲,虔誠主義者認真對待生活和神聖的花費一切努力,按照上帝的法律,傳播福音,並提供援助的貧困; ( 4 )其改革的興趣,虔誠主義者通常反對它們認為,冷淡和不育的建立教會形式和做法。

Spener and Francke Spener和弗朗克

The German Lutheran Church at the end of the seventeenth century labored under manifold difficulties.德國信義會結束時的17世紀下吃力多方面的困難。 Its work was tightly confined by the princes of Germany's many sovereign states.它的工作緊緊局限於王子德國的許多主權國家。 Many of its ministers seemed as interested in philosophical wrangling and rhetorical ostentation as in the encouragement of their congregations.它的許多部長似乎有意哲學爭論和修辭排場,在鼓勵他們頒授學位。 And the devastating Thirty Years War (1618 - 48), fought ostensibly over religion, had created widespread wariness about church life in general.和災難性的三十年戰爭( 1618至1648年) ,表面上鬥爭的宗教,建立了廣泛的戒心有關教會生命一般。 To be sure, the picture was not entirely bleak.可以肯定的是,圖片並沒有完全嚴峻。 From Holland and Puritan England came stimulation for reform.從荷蘭和英國清教徒來到刺激進行改革。 And in German - speaking lands signs of Christian vitality remained, like the writings of Johann Arndt, whose True Christianity (1610) was a strong influence on later leaders of pietism.在德國-講土地的跡象基督教的活力依然存在,如著作的約翰阿恩特,其真正的基督教( 1 610年)是一個強有力的影響,後來虔誠主義的領導人。

But in many places these signs of life were obscured by the formalism and the insincerity of church leaders.但是,在許多地方,這些生命的跡象是模糊的形式主義和誠意的教會領袖。 This situation was altered by the unstinting work of Philipp Jakob Spener, known often as the father of pietism, who was called in 1666 to be the senior minister in Frankfurt am Main.這種情況改變了不懈的工作菲利普雅各布Spener ,往往是已知的父親虔誠主義,誰被稱為在1666年成為高級部長在美因河畔法蘭克福。 There he appealed for moral reform in the city.他呼籲有道德改革的城市。 He initiated a far - flung correspondence which eventually won him the title "spiritual counselor of all Germany." Most importantly, he also promoted a major reform in the practical life of the churches.他發起了一個遠-偏遠函授,最終贏得了冠軍“精神顧問的所有德國。 ”最重要的是,他還推動了一項重大的改革在實際生活中的教堂。 A sermon in 1669 mentioned the possibility of laymen meeting together, setting aside "glasses, cards, or dice," and encouraging each other in the Christian faith.一次布道中提到1669年的可能性外行人會議在一起,撇開“眼鏡,卡,或骰子” ,並鼓勵彼此信仰基督教。 The next year Spener himself instituted such a Collegia pietatis ("pious assembly") to meet on Wednesdays and Sundays to pray, to discuss the previous week's sermon, and to apply passages from Scripture and devotional writings to individual lives.明年Spener本人提起這樣一個Collegia pietatis ( “虔誠的大會” ) ,以滿足在星期三和星期日祈禱,討論前一周的布道,並適用於段落聖經和虔誠的著作對個人的生命。

Spener took a major step toward reviving the church in 1675 when he was asked to prepare a new preface for sermons by Johann Arndt. The result was the famous Pia Desideria (Pious Wishes). Spener了重大的一步走向振興的教堂1675年當他被要求編寫一份新的序言中的說教約翰阿恩特。結果是著名的皮婭Desideria (虔誠的願望) 。 In simple terms this brief work examined the sources of spiritual decline in Protestant Germany and offered proposals for reform.簡單來說,這個簡短的審查工作的精神來源減少新教德國,並提出改革建議。 The tract was an immediate sensation.該道立即轟動。 In it Spener criticized nobles and princes for exercising unauthorized control of the church, ministers for substituting cold doctrine for warm faith, and lay people for disregarding proper Christian behavior.在它Spener批評和王公貴族行使授權控制的教堂,代部長冷戰理論熱烈信仰,信徒無視適當基督教的行為。 He called positively for a revival of the concerns of Luther and the early Reformation, even as he altered Reformation teaching slightly. For example, Spener regarded salvation more as regeneration (the new birth) than as justification (being put right with God), even though the Reformers had laid greater stress upon the latter.他呼籲積極為振興的關注路德和改革初期,甚至因為他改變了教學改革略有下降。例如, Spener視為拯救更多的再生(新生) ,而不是理由(正在實施的權利與上帝) ,即使儘管改革者提出了更大的壓力時後者。

Spener offered six proposals for reform in Pia Desideria which became a short summary of pietism: Spener提出六項建議改革皮婭Desideria成為一個簡要的虔誠主義:

Although these proposals constituted an agenda for reform and renewal, they also posed two difficulties which have ever been troublesome for pietism.雖然這些建議構成了議程的改革和革新,他們還提出了兩個困難,過麻煩的虔誠主義。 First, many clergymen and professional theologians opposed them, some out of a concern to preserve their traditional status, but others out of a genuine fear that they would lead to rampant subjectivity and antiintellectualism.首先,許多神職人員和專業的神學家反對他們的一些關切維護他們的傳統地位,但其他人一個真正的恐懼,他們將導致猖獗的主觀性和antiintellectualism 。 Second, some lay people took Spener's proposals as authorization for departing from the established churches altogether, even though Spener himself rejected the separatistic conclusions drawn from his ideas.第二,一些奠定了Spener人的建議,授權偏離既定的教堂完全,即使Spener本人拒絕分裂得出的結論,從他的想法。

Spener left Frankfurt for Dresden in 1686, and from there he was called to Berlin in 1691. Spener離開法蘭克福的德累斯頓在1686年,並從那裡,他被稱為柏林在1691年。 His time in Dresden was marked by controversy, but it was not a loss, for in Dresden he met his successor, August Hermann Francke.他在德累斯頓的特點是爭議,但它不是一個損失,因為在他會見了德國德累斯頓他的繼任者, 8月赫爾曼弗蘭克。 In Berlin, Spener helped to found the University of Halle, to which Francke was called in 1692. Under Francke's guidance the University of Halle showed what pietism could mean when put into practice.在柏林, Spener有助於找到了哈雷大學,其中被稱為弗朗克在1692年。根據弗朗克的指導大學的哈勒顯示虔誠主義什麼時候可能意味著付諸實踐。 In rapid succession Francke opened his own home as a school for poor children, he founded a world - famous orphanage, he established an institute for the training of teachers, and later he helped found a publishing house, a medical clinic, and other institutions.在繼承弗朗克迅速打開自己家的一所學校的貧困兒童,他創立的世界-著名的孤兒院,他成立了一個研究所,培訓教師,後來又幫助他找到一家出版社,一個醫療診所,和其他機構。

Francke had experienced a dramatic conversion in 1687, the source of his lifelong concern for evangelism and missions.弗蘭克曾經歷了一個戲劇性的轉換在1687年,來源他的終生關注的福音和任務。 Under his leadership Halle became the center of Protestantism's most ambitious missionary endeavors to that time.在他的領導下成為哈雷中心的新教最雄心勃勃的傳教士努力的時間。 The university established a center for Oriental languages and also encouraged efforts at translating the Bible into new languages.這所大學設立了一個中心,東方語言和努力,也鼓勵在翻譯聖經到新的語言。 Francke's missionary influence was felt directly through missionaries who went from Halle to foreign fields and indirectly through groups like the Moravians and an active Danish mission which drew inspiration from the leaders of pietism.弗朗克的傳教士的影響是通過直接感受到傳教士誰從哈雷外國領域和間接地通過團體的摩拉維亞和積極丹麥任務的靈感來源於從領導人的虔誠主義。

The Spread of Pietism蔓延的虔誠主義

Spener and Francke inspired other varieties of German pietism. Spener和弗朗克的啟發其他品種的德國虔誠主義。 Count Nikolas von Zinzendorf, head of the renewed Moravian Church, was Spener's godson and Francke's pupil.伯爵尼古拉馮親岑多夫的負責人再次摩拉維亞教會,是Spener的幹兒子和弗朗克的學生。 Zinzendorf organized refugees from Moravia into a kind of collegia pietatis within German Lutheranism, and later shepherded this group in reviving the Bohemian Unity of the Brethren.親岑多夫有組織的難民從摩拉維亞成一種collegia pietatis在德國路德教,後來又帶領本組在恢復波希米亞統一的弟兄。 These Moravians, as they came to be known, carried the pietistic concern for personal spirituality almost literally around the world.這些摩拉維亞,因為他們後來被稱為,進行了pietistic關注的個人靈性字面上幾乎在世界各地。 This was of momentous significance for the history of English - speaking Christianity when John Wesley was thrown into a company of Moravians during his voyage to Georgia in 1735.這是重大意義的歷史,英語-基督教發言時,約翰衛斯理被扔進一間公司的摩拉維亞在航程在1 735年格魯吉亞。 What he saw of their behavior then and what he heard of their faith after returning to England led to his own evangelical awakening.他認為他們的行為和什麼然後他聽到他們的信仰回國後,英格蘭導致他自己的福音覺醒。

Another group under the general influence of Spener and Francke developed pietistic concern for the Bible within German Lutheranism at Wurttemberg.另一組根據一般的影響Spener和弗朗克發達國家pietistic關注的聖經內路德教在德國符騰堡州。 Its leading figure, Johann Albrecht Bengel (1687 - 1752), represented a unique combination of scholarly expertise and devotional commitment to Scripture.其領先的數字,德國阿爾布雷希特本格爾( 1687年至1752年) ,代表了獨特的綜合學術專長和虔誠的承諾聖經。 Bengel did pioneering study in the text of the NT, exegeted Scripture carefully and piously, and wrote several books on the millennium.本格爾沒有開創性的研究報告中的文字新台幣, exegeted聖經認真和虔誠,並寫了幾本書上千年。

Influences radiating from Halle, Wurttemberg, and the Moravians moved rapidly into Scandinavia.輻射的影響由Halle ,符騰堡州,和摩拉維亞迅速成為斯堪的納維亞半島。 When soldiers from Sweden and Finland were captured in battle with Russia (1709), pietist commitments migrated to Siberia.當士兵從瑞典和芬蘭被俘虜在戰鬥中與俄羅斯( 1709年) , pietist承諾遷移到西伯利亞。 Pietism exerted its influence through Wesley in England.虔誠主義施加其影響力通過韋斯利在英格蘭。 The father of American Lutheranism, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, was sent across the Atlantic by Francke's son in response to requests for spiritual leadership from German immigrants.父親的美國路德教,亨利梅爾基奧爾Muhlenberg ,被送往大西洋彼岸的弗朗克的兒子響應要求的精神領導從德國移民。 In addition, pietism also influenced the Mennonites, Moravians, Brethren, and Dutch Reformed in early America.此外,還虔誠主義的門諾派的影響,摩拉維亞,弟兄們,和荷蘭改革初美國。 The continuing influence of Spener, Francke, and their circle went on into the nineteenth century.持續不斷的影響Spener ,弗朗克,他們的圈子就到了十九世紀。 A renewal of interest in Luther and his theology, the active evangelism of the Basel Mission and the Inner Mission Society of Denmark, the revivalistic activity of Norwegian Hans Nielsen Hauge (1771 - 1824), and the establishment of the Swedish Mission Covenant Church (1878) could all trace roots back to the pietism of an earlier day.續期的興趣路德和他的神學,積極傳道巴塞爾團和內蒙古團學會丹麥, revivalistic活動的挪威漢斯尼爾森豪格( 1771年至1824年) ,並設立了瑞典基督教聖約教會( 1878年)都可以追踪到基層的虔誠主義早先一天。

Pietistic Influences Pietistic影響

Historians have long studied the relationship between pietism and the Enlightenment, that rationalistic and humanistic movement which flourished during the eighteenth century and which contributed to the eventual secularization of Europe. They have noted that pietism and the Enlightenment both attacked Protestant orthodoxy, that both asserted the rights of individuals, and that both were concerned about practice more than theory.歷史學家們長期研究之間的關係和虔誠主義的啟示,即理性與人文運動的蓬勃發展在18世紀,並有助於最終世俗化的歐洲。他們指出,和虔誠主義的啟示兩個攻擊新教正統派,他們都主張個人的權利,而且都擔心多實踐的理論。 The crucial historical question is whether pietistic antitraditionalism, individualism, and practicality paved the way for a non - Christian expression of these same traits in the Enlightenment.在關鍵的歷史問題是,是否pietistic antitraditionalism ,個人主義,和實用性鋪平了道路非-基督教表達這些相同的性狀的啟示。 The fact that pietism remained faithful to Scripture and that its subjectivity was controlled by Christian beliefs suggests that, whatever its relationship to the Enlightenment, it was not the primary source of the latter's skepticism or rationalism.事實上,虔誠主義仍然忠實於聖經,其主體是由基督教信仰表明,不論其關係的啟示,但這不是主要來源,後者的懷疑或理性。

A further historical uncertainty surrounds the tie between pietism and the intellectual movements arising in reaction to the Enlightenment.另一種圍繞著歷史的不確定性之間的聯繫和虔誠主義的智力運動的反應中產生的啟示。 Striking indeed is the fact that three great postenlightenment thinkers, the idealist philosopher Immanuel Kant, the literary genius Johann Wolfgang Goethe, and the romantic theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, had been exposed to pietism as youths.的確引人注目的事實是,三個偉大的postenlightenment思想家,哲學家的唯心論的康德,文學天才約翰沃爾夫岡歌德,和浪漫的神學家弗里德里希施,已暴露在虔誠主義的青年。 It is probably best to regard pietism as a movement that paralleled the Enlightenment and later European developments in its quest for personal meaning and its disdain for exhausted traditions.這可能是最好方面虔誠主義作為一個運動,平行的啟示,後來在歐洲的發展尋求個人的意義和其蔑視用盡傳統。 Yet insofar as the heart of pietism was captive to the gospel, it remained a source of distinctly Christian renewal.然而,只要虔誠主義的核心是圈養的福音,它仍然是一個明顯的來源基督教更新。

Religious movements resembling pietism were active beyond Germany in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.類似的宗教虔誠主義運動活躍在德國以外的17和18世紀。 In fact, German pietism was but one chord in a symphony of variations on a common theme, the need to move beyond sterile formulas about God to a more intimate experience with him.事實上,德國的虔誠主義是一個和弦,但在交響樂的變化對一個共同的主題,必須超越育公式上帝更親密的與他的經驗。 The English Puritans of the late 1500s and 1600s exhibited this.英國清教徒已故的十六和十七世紀展示這一點。 The New England Puritan Cotton Mather, who corresponded with Francke, strove to encourage pietistic vitality in the New World.新英格蘭清教徒的棉花奧美,誰相符弗朗克,竭力鼓勵pietistic活力的新世界。 Shortly after Mather's death the American Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s exhibited pietistic features.奧美後不久去世的美國大覺醒的1730s和1740年代展出pietistic功能。 In England, William Law's Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1728) advocated a kind of pietistic morality.在英格蘭,威廉法的嚴重呼喚一個虔誠和神聖人壽( 1728 )提倡一種pietistic道德。 And Wesley's Methodism, with its emphasis on Scripture, its commitment to evangelism and edification, its practical social benevolence, and its evangelical ecumenicity, was pietistic to the core.和韋斯利的循道,其重點是聖經,它致力於傳道和熏陶,但其實際的社會善,其福音ecumenicity ,是pietistic的核心。

Even beyond Protestantism, pietistic elements can be seen in contemporary Roman Catholicism and Judaism.甚至超越了基督教, pietistic的內容中可以看出當代羅馬天主教和猶太教。 The Jansenist movement in seventeenth century France stressed the concern for heart religion that Spener also championed.該Jansenist運動在17世紀法國強調,關注的核心宗教Spener還倡導。 The work of Baal Shem Tov (1700 - 1760) in founding the Hasidic movement in Judaism also sought to move beyond orthodox ritual to a sense of communion with God.工作巴爾閃Tov ( 1700年至1760年)在建國運動的哈西德派猶太教還試圖超越正統的儀式,一種與上帝。

An overall evaluation of pietism must take into consideration the circumstances of its origin in seventeenth century Europe.全面評價虔誠主義必須考慮到的情況起源於十七世紀的歐洲。 Whether in its narrow German usage or its more generic sense, pietism represented a complex phenomenon.無論是在其狹隘的德國使用或其較一般意義上說,虔誠主義派一個複雜的現象。 It partook of the mysticism of the late Middle Ages.它partook的神秘主義的中世紀後期。 It shared the commitment to Scripture and the emphasis on lay Christianity of the early Reformation.它的共同承諾,聖經,並強調奠定基督教早期的改革。 It opposed the formalism and cold orthodoxy of the theological establishment.它反對形式主義和冷戰的正統神學的建立。 And it was a child of its own times with its concern for authentic personal experience.這是一個孩子自己的時間與關注真實的個人經驗。 It was, in one sense, the Christian answer to what has been called "the discovery of the individual" by providing a Christian form to the individualism and practical - mindedness of a Europe in transition to modern times.這是,在某種意義上,基督教答案,所謂的“發現個人”提供了一個基督教的形式向個人主義和實踐-精神的歐洲過渡到現代倍。

In more specifically Christian terms pietism represents a significant effort to reform the Protestant heritage.在更具體的條款基督教虔誠主義的一個重大努力,改革的新教傳統。 Some of the fears of its earliest opponents have been partially justified.有些擔心其最早的反對者已部分有道理的。 At its worst the pietistic tendency can lead to inordinate subjectivism and emotionalism; it can discourage careful scholarship; it can fragment the church through enthusiastic separatism; it can establish new codes of almost legalistic morality; and it can underrate the value of Christian traditions. On the other hand, pietism was, and continues to be, a source of powerful renewal in the church.在其最壞的pietistic趨勢可能會導致過度的主觀主義和感情主義,它可以阻止認真獎學金;它可以教會片段通過熱情的分裂主義,它可以建立新的守則,幾乎法律道德;它可以低估價值的基督教傳統。論另一方面,是虔誠主義,並繼續成為一個強大的源續期的教堂。 At its best it points to the indispensability of Scripture for the Christian life; it encourages lay people in the work of Christian ministry; it stimulates concern for missions; it advances religious freedom and cooperation among believers; and it urges individuals not to rest until finding intimate fellowship with God himself.在其最佳點,是不可或缺的聖經的基督徒的生活;在於它鼓勵人們工作中的基督教部;刺激關心的任務;推進宗教自由和信仰之間的合作;並敦促個人沒有休息,直到找到金親密與上帝本人。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
A Ritschl, Geschichte des Pietismus; FE Stoeffler, The Rise of Evangelical Pietism, German Pietism During the Eighteenth Century, and (ed.) Continental Pietism and Early American Christianity; DW Brown, Understanding Pietism; R Lovelace, The Dynamics of Spiritual Life.阿Ritschl ,史Pietismus ;有限元Stoeffler的興起福音虔誠主義,德國虔誠主義在十八世紀,和(編)大陸架和虔誠主義美國早期基督教;德國之聲布朗,虔誠主義的認識; R洛夫萊斯,動態的精神生活。


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