Philosophy of Religion宗教哲學

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The philosophical investigation of the nature and grounds of religious beliefs is one of the oldest and most persistent areas of philosophical endeavor.調查的哲學的性質和理由的宗教信仰是一種最古老和最持久領域的哲學努力。 Religious belief and practice give rise to a variety of philosophical issues, posing epistemological questions about the justification of religious belief, metaphysical questions about the nature of God and the soul, and ethical questions about the relation of God to moral values.宗教信仰和實踐引起了各種哲學問題,對認識論問題的理由宗教信仰,形而上學問題的性質,上帝和靈魂,和道德問題的關係上帝的道德價值觀。 So many are the intersecting major philosophical concerns in the religious arena, and so immediate is the interest, that philosophy of religion is one of the most significant fields of philosophical endeavor to both Christian philosophers and those of other persuasions.因此,許多是交叉的主要哲學關注的是,宗教場所,因此是直接的利益,即哲學宗教是其中一項最重要的哲學領域的努力都基督教哲學家和其他信仰。 The classic problems in the philosophy of religion center on the grounds for belief in God, the immortality of the soul, the nature of miracles, and the problem of evil.經典的問題,哲學宗教中心的理由相信上帝,不朽的靈魂,性質的奇蹟,問題的邪惡。

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Grounds for Belief in God理由信仰上帝

Religious believers have generally found themselves obliged to defend their belief in such a supersensible reality as God by an appeal to philosophical argument.信教群眾一般都發現自己不得不捍衛自己的信仰在supersensible這樣一個現實的上帝呼籲的哲學爭論。 The classical arguments for God's existence are the five ways of Thomas Aquinas and the ontological argument of Anselm of Canterbury.經典的論據為上帝的存在是五個途徑托馬斯阿奎那和本體論的論點,安瑟倫的坎特伯雷。

Aquinas's arguments are variations of two major forms, the cosmological and teleological arguments.阿奎那的論點是變化的兩個主要形式,宇宙和目的的論點。 The cosmological argument is based upon the contention that the existence and activity of the universe demand an explanation in an entity beyond itself.宇宙的論點是根據的論點,即存在和活動的需求,宇宙中的解釋以外的實體本身。 On one version propounded by Aquinas and by contemporary philosophers such as Richard Taylor and Frederic Copleston, the universe is seen as a merely contingent or possible being.上一個版本所提出阿奎那和當代哲學家如理查德泰勒和弗雷德里克Copleston ,宇宙被看作是僅僅有或可能的福祉。 As a contingent being its existence requires explanation in some being outside itself, a being that is capable of sustaining the universe in existence. According to this argument the universe owes its existence to a being who is "necessary," that is, incapable of nonexistence, which provides an explanation for its own existence.作為一個有其存在被要求解釋在一些本身之外,一個被認為是能夠維持宇宙中的存在。根據這一論點的宇宙欠其存在一個被誰是“必要的” ,即無法不存在,它提供了一個解釋,它本身的存在。 Thus, from the contingent, merely possible existence of the world, it is argued that God can be shown to exist.因此,從隊伍,僅僅是可能存在的世界,有人認為,上帝可以表明存在。

The teleological or "design" argument advanced by Aquinas and William Paley, among others, urges us to infer from the well - orderedness of nature the existence of a supreme designer.的目的或“設計”的論調先進的阿奎那和威廉佩利,除其他外,敦促我們的推斷以及-o rderedness的性質存在一個最高設計師。 Paley compares our experience of the intricate order and adaptation of parts to the whole in nature to finding a watch; surely the watch, by virtue of its complexity and apparent purposiveness of design, requires a watchmaker to explain it.佩利比較我們的經驗,錯綜複雜的秩序和適應的部分對整個性質找到一塊手錶;肯定的手錶,由於其複雜性和明顯的針對性的設計,需要一個鐘錶匠來解釋它。 No less than does the vastly more remarkable universe require a worldmaker.不少於也遠遠更為顯著的宇宙需要一個worldmaker 。 In Aquinas's more sophisticated version the constant, dynamic adaptation of various aspects of nonintelligent nature to the realization of a stable order in the world demands a granted orchestrator to account for this action.在阿奎那的更先進的版本不斷,動態適應各方面的nonintelligent性質為實現一個穩定的秩序,世界需要一個給予Orchestrator的考慮到這一行動。

Cosmological and teleological arguments have come under sustained criticism, notably by Scottish philosopher David Hume, noted empiricist and skeptic.宇宙論和目的論的論點也受到了持續的批評,主要是由蘇格蘭哲學家大衛休謨指出,經驗主義和懷疑。 Hume mounted a multipronged attack on the arguments, suggesting among other things that the phenomena in question are capable of alternative explanations, and that the arguments in general prove no single, all - powerful being, but at best a being of limited power or a group of entities far from infinitely wise or powerful, capable merely of bringing about the results in question.休謨多管齊下展開攻擊的論點,這表明除其他外,這種現象在問題能夠替代的解釋,而且在一般的論點證明沒有一個單一的,所有-強大的,但充其量只是被有限的權力或一組實體遠離無窮智慧或強大,僅僅能夠實現的結果的問題。 Since Hume's day debate has been pursued in philosophical circles with great ingenuity and care, with neither side being able to claim lasting victory.自休謨的為期一天的辯論一直追求哲學界以極大的聰明才智和醫療服務,其中任何一方都可以索賠持久的勝利。 Nonetheless, such arguments on behalf of God continue to exercise a considerable appeal on the popular as well as the academic levels.然而,這種論點代表上帝繼續行使相當吸引力的流行,以及學術水平。

Anselm's ontological argument is the only theistic proof to proceed a priori, that is, by reflection on the concept of God alone, with no reference to such external evidence as the existence or nature of the world.安瑟倫的本體論的爭論是唯一的有神論的證據進行先驗,即反射的概念,只有上帝,沒有任何提及此種外部證據的存在或性質的世界。 Anselm observed that if God is defined as "the Being greater than whom nothing can be conceived," then to deny the existence of such a being lands one in a contradiction.安瑟倫指出,如果上帝是定義為“大於其中沒有任何東西可以設想” ,然後否認存在這樣一個土地被一中的矛盾。 One is thus implying that "something greater than God" can be conceived, that is, an existing God.因此,一個暗示“的東西大於天災”可以設想,即現有的上帝。 This conceivable being would have, in addition to God's properties, a quality lacked by God, ie, existence, and so would be greater than the being greater than whom nothing could be conceived.這種設想正在本來,除了上帝的性能,質量沒有上帝,即存在,因此將大於大於沒有人可以設想。 In his own day Anselm was criticized by the monk Gaunilo, who reasoned that along similar lines we would be bound to accept the existence of such fantastic entities as a "most perfect island," and later by Immanuel Kant.在他自己每天安瑟莫批評和尚Gaunilo ,誰的理由是,類似我們將有義務接受存在著這種美妙的實體作為一個“最完美的島嶼” ,以及後來康德。 Briefly, Kant argued that to lack existence is not to be deficient in a property.簡單地說,康德認為,缺乏存在是不可缺乏的財產。 Thus, the concept of an existing God is not "greater" than a nonexisting God, since the existing God has no properties not shared by a nonexisting God.因此,概念的一個現有的上帝不是“大”不是nonexisting上帝,因為現有的上帝沒有性能不同意由nonexisting上帝。

In addition to the use of arguments for God's existence, philosophers of religion traditionally have been interested in another avenue of possible knowledge about God, religious experience.除了使用的論據為上帝的存在,宗教哲學家一向感興趣的另一個可能的途徑了解上帝,宗教的經驗。 Does a mystical experience or other putative encounter with the Divine provide good rational grounds for belief, as believers of all religious traditions have sometimes maintained? As would be expected, skeptics tend to dismiss such experiences as evidence of oversuggestibility in the experiencer, as evidenced by Bertrand Russell's pithy comment that "we can make no distinction between the man who eats little and sees heaven and the man who drinks much and sees snakes."是否有一種神秘的經驗或其他假定遇到的神聖提供了良好的合理的理由相信,作為所有信徒的宗教傳統,有時維持?正如預計將,懷疑論者往往解僱這些經驗作為證據的oversuggestibility在當事證明,羅素簡練評論說, “我們可以沒有區別的人誰吃什麼,看到天堂和飲料的人誰看到許多蛇。 ”

Status of the Soul地位的靈魂

Another classic problem is the status of the soul and its fate after death.另一個典型的問題是地位的靈魂和自己的命運後死因。 Plato's Socrates and others have held that the soul is related to the stable realm of eternal truth and thus is itself eternal, unlike the body, which belongs to the material world of impermanence and decay.柏拉圖的蘇格拉底和其他人認為的靈魂與穩定的境界永恆真理,因而本身是永恆的,不同的機構,屬於物質世界的無常和腐爛。 Further, since soul is immaterial and has no parts, it, unlike body, is incapable of disintegration.此外,由於靈魂是無關緊要的,也沒有地方,它不像機構,是不能解體。 Later philosophers less ambitiously have generally contented themselves with attempting to demonstrate that the soul logically is capable of being conceived as distinct from the mortal human body.後來的哲學家少雄心勃勃一般都心滿意足自己試圖表明,在邏輯上的靈魂能夠被設想為不同於凡人人體。 Much recent philosophical discussion has been concerned with whether it is intelligible to assert that one could "witness one's own funeral," that is, survive bodily death.許多哲學的討論最近一直關注它是否可理解斷言,人們可以“看到自己的葬禮” ,即生存的身體死亡。

The Miraculous神奇的

Much philosophical effort has been expended in subjecting basic theistic, supernaturalistic doctrines to critique or in providing refinements and defense of theism.許多哲學的努力一直在遭受支出基本有神論, supernaturalistic理論來批判或提供改進和國防的有神論。 The concept of miracle has received significant attention in philosophy. Christianity asserts the reality of the miraculous and stresses the importance of biblical miracles to Christian faith and doctrine, especially the conception of Jesus Christ in a virgin's womb and the resurrection of Christ from the dead.這一概念的奇蹟已收到顯著的關注哲學。基督教聲稱現實的奇蹟,並強調必須聖經的奇蹟,以基督教信仰和理論,特別是觀念耶穌基督在處女的子宮和基督的復活從死亡。 In addition, Christ's miraculous deeds are intended to be taken as a sign of his divinity.此外,基督的奇蹟般的事蹟是打算作為一個標誌,他的神。 Hume's monumental work on the miraculous in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, sect.休謨的重大工作中的一個奇蹟人類理解論,第二節。 X, depicted miracles as contradictions of our "firm and unalterable" experience in the regularity of natural laws, rendering them improbable in the extreme.十,描繪奇蹟作為矛盾的“堅定的和不可改變的”經驗規律的自然法則,使他們不大可能在極端。

It is much more probable that the miracle account is false.這是更可能的奇蹟帳戶是虛假的。 Hume's critique of the miraculous has had widespread acceptance in an age dominated by naturalism.休謨的批判神奇已得到普遍接受的時代為主的自然主義。 Even many Christians have been disinclined to place much importance on miracles, some even explaining them away or preferring to see them as symbolic.即使許多基督徒已不願十分重視的奇蹟,有些甚至解釋他們離開或寧願看到他們作為象徵性的。 Still, many Christian thinkers join CS Lewis, who in Miracles: A Preliminary Study has argued that an open mind must accept the possibility of divine "interferences" in the ordinary course of nature.儘管如此,許多基督教思想家加入路易斯,誰的奇蹟:一個初步研究認為,開放的心態必須接受的可能性神聖的“干擾”正常經營過程中的性質。

The Problem of Evil這個問題的邪惡

The most potent criticism of theism, both philosophically and personally, arises from the so - called problem of evil.最有力的批判有神論,既哲理和個人,源於做-所謂的問題的邪惡。 A significant intellectual problem is posed for theism by virtue of the fact that it asserts the existence of a God with unlimited power, wisdom, and goodness in the face of the existence of a world acknowledged to be rife with both moral evil and suffering.一個重要的問題是對有神論憑藉的事實,聲稱存在著上帝與無限的權力,智慧和善良,面對存在的世界公認為是充滿道德罪惡和痛苦。 In a weak version the problem of evil raises a persistent problem in reconciling the traditional concept of God to the existence of such evils.在一個弱者的版本的問題,引起了邪惡的一個長期存在的問題在調和的傳統概念上帝存在這種罪惡。 In a stronger version, such as propounded by JL Mackie, it is seen as a positive disproof of God's existence, amounting to what Alvin Plantinga has called "natural atheology."在一個更強有力的版本,如提出的巨浪麥基,它被看作是一個積極的反證上帝的存在,相當於什麼普蘭丁格了所謂的“自然atheology 。 ” Briefly, the core of the problem of evil is as follows: God is held to be unlimited in power, goodness, and knowledge.簡單地說,問題的核心是邪惡如下:上帝是舉行是無限的權力,善良,和知識。

However, evil exists, in the form of undeserved suffering, perpetrated by man and nature, unchallenged victimization of weak by strong, pestilence, war, famine, and other horrors.然而,存在著邪惡的形式,不應有的痛苦,行為人與自然,挑戰受害的弱強,瘟疫,戰爭,飢荒和其他恐怖事件。 In the face of this, either God is limited in power, goodness, or knowledge, or he does not exist at all; that is, either he is incapable or unwilling to remove evil, or he is unaware of its existence or of solutions to it.面對這種情況,要么上帝是有限的力量,善良,或知識,或他不存在,也就是說,無論他是不能或不願意以消除邪惡,或者他不知道它的存在或解決方案它。 The problem of evil presupposes that God would have no reason for permitting evil that is adequate ultimately to outweigh in significance the negative effects of evil.這個問題的邪惡的前提是,上帝沒有理由允許邪惡,是足夠的最終的意義大於負面影響的邪惡。 Traditional theistic responses, or theodicies, have focused on this assumption. Augustine's "free will defense" argues that God needed to allow the possibility of evil if he was to create free beings, and a world with free beings is superior to a world of automata.傳統的有神論的答复,或theodicies ,都集中在這一假設。奧古斯丁的“自由意志防禦”認為,上帝需要,讓邪惡的可能性,如果他是創造自由人,和世界自由人是優於世界的機。

Recently John Hick, taking a cue from Irenaeus, has suggested that God has placed us in a difficult environment that would be suitable for developing moral and spiritual maturity in his creatures rather than creating a maximally comfortable world.最近,約翰希克,採取了從依線索,建議,上帝使我們在困難的環境,將適合於發展中國家的道德和精神成熟的動物,而不是建立一個世界上最大舒適。 While Gottfried Leibniz attempted to argue that every evil is thus world is necessary, more modest modern theodicies such as Hick's restrict themselves merely to removing the ground for alleged contradiction, showing that one can consistently affirm both God's existence and the reality of evil.雖然戈特弗里德萊布尼茨試圖爭辯說,每一個邪惡的,因此世界上是必要的,更為溫和的現代theodicies如希克的限制本身只是消除地面指控的矛盾,這表明人們可以肯定始終都上帝的存在和現實的罪惡。

Contemporary Emphases當代重點

Much contemporary philosophy of religion focuses on questions surrounding the use of language in referring to God.許多當代哲學的宗教的重點問題,圍繞著語言的使用在提到上帝。 Following Hume, contemporary philosophers such as AJ Ayer and AGN Flew have raised critical questions about religious language.休謨之後,當代的哲學家,如歐塞爾艾耶爾和活動星系核飛越提出了關鍵問題,宗教的語言。 In particular, they have argued that talk about God is as cognitively meaningless as mere gibberish, since it is incapable of empirical verifiability or falsifiability.特別是,他們認為,談論上帝無意義的認知僅僅作為胡言亂語,因為它是無法實證核查或falsifiability 。 Also of interest on the contemporary front is the logical coherence of the doctrine of God as he is traditionally understood in Judeo - Christian thought.還的利息當代戰線是合乎邏輯的連貫性的理論,上帝,他是傳統的理解,猶太教-基督教思想。

DB Fletcher數據庫弗萊徹

Bibliography 目錄
Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Pt.阿奎那,神學大全,鉑。 1, Q. 2; A Flew and A MacIntyre, eds., New Essays in Philosophical Theology; J Hick, ed., Classical and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Religion; W James, Varieties of Religious Experience; JL Mackie, "Evil and Omnipotence," Mind (Apr 1955); B Mitchell, The Justification of Religious Belief; A Plantinga, God, Freedom, and Evil; R Swinburne, The Coherence of Theism; TW Tilley, Taking of God. 1 ,問: 2 ;甲和A飛越麥金太爾合編。 ,新散文的哲學神學; J希克,編輯。 ,古典與現代讀物的宗教哲學; W詹姆斯,品種的宗教經驗;巨浪麥基, “惡和萬能, “心( 1955年4月) ;乙米切爾的理由,宗教信仰;阿柏庭,上帝,自由,善惡; R斯威,一致性的有神論;荃灣蒂利,以上帝的。


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