Perfection, Perfectionism完善,完美

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The quest for religious perfection has been an important goal throughout Judeo - Christian history.追求完美的宗教一直是一個重要的目標在整個猶太-基督教的歷史。 Both biblical and theological evidence reflects this continuous concern.這聖經和神學的證據反映了這一持續關注的問題。 Although interpretations have varied with reference to methods and chronology of attainment, most Christian traditions recognize the concept.雖然有各種不同的解釋,參照方法和時間順序排列的實現,大多數基督教傳統認識到的概念。

The Biblical Emphasis聖經中強調

The OT roots for religious perfection signify wholeness and perfect peace.在加時賽的宗教根源完善意味著整體性和完美的和平。 The most frequently used term for "perfect" is tamim, which occurs eighty - five times and is usually translated teleios in the LXX.最常用的術語“完美”是塔米姆,其中發生85次,通常是翻譯teleios在LXX 。 Of these occurrences fifty refer to sacrificial animals and are usually translated "without blemish" or "without spot."這些事件的50指祭祀動物和翻譯通常是“無污點”或“沒有現貨。 ” When applied to persons the term describes one who is without moral blemish or defect (Ps. 101:2, 6; Job 1:1, 8; 2:3; 8:20, etc.).當適用於人的任期描述一個誰是沒有道德污點或缺陷(詩篇101:2 6 ;就業1:1 , 8 ; 2:3 ; 8:20 ,等等) 。 This term is also applied to Jehovah's character, and this dual usage may suggest the resemblance between persons and God.這個術語也適用於耶和華的性格,而這雙重用途可以建議相似之處者和上帝。

Cognate forms of tamim are tom, tam, and tumma.同源形式的塔米姆是湯姆,譚耀宗議員,並tumma 。 These terms have connotations of "integrity," "simple," "uncalculating," "sincere," and "perfect."這些條件有內涵的“完整性” , “簡單” , “ uncalculating ” , “真誠”和“完美的。 ” This spiritual wholeness and uprightness, especially as one is in right relationship to God, reflect a relational / ethical perfection which is patterned after the character of God.這種精神整體性和浩然正氣,特別是作為一個是正確的上帝的關係,反映了關係/道德完善是仿照性質的上帝。

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Another Hebrew term for perfect is salem, an adjectival form of the root slm, which means "peace."另一個希伯來完美的任期是塞勒姆,一個adjectival形式的根源為準,這意味著“和平” 。 This term has a covenant background and indicates the loyalty and purity of motive which are characteristic of a moral and intellectual life of integrity before God (1 Kings 8:61; 11:4; 15:3).這個詞有一個契約的背景和顯示的忠誠和純潔的動機是典型的道德和智慧生命的完整性上帝面前(列王紀上8:61 ; 11時04分, 15點03分) 。 The root idea connotes fellowship between God and his people and a right relationship with the One who is the model of perfection.根的想法意味著金之間的上帝和他的人民和權利關係的一個誰是完美的模型。

The NT vocabulary reflects the OT interpersonal concepts rather than the Greek ideal of static and dispassionate knowledge.新台幣詞彙反映了加時賽人際關係的概念,而不是希臘理想的靜態和冷靜的知識。 The emphases are on obedience, wholeness, and maturity.重點是對服從,整體性,和成熟。 The Greek words derived from telos reflect the ideas of "design," "end," "goal," "purpose." These words describe perfection as the achievement of a desired end. Paul uses teleios to describe moral and religious perfection (Col. 1:28; 4:12).希臘字源自telos反映了思想的“設計” , “結束” , “目標” , “目的。 ”這句話描述的完善作為實現理想的目標。保羅使用teleios來形容道德和宗教完美(中校1點28分, 4時12分) 。 He contrasts it to nepios, "childish," which connotes moral immaturity and deficiency.他對比它nepios , “幼稚” ,這意味著道義上的不成熟和缺陷。 The "perfect man," teleion, is the stable person who reflects "the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ" in contrast to the children who are tossed about by every new wind of doctrine (Eph. 4:13 - 14). “完美的人, ” teleion ,是穩定的人誰反映“衡量的地位充滿基督”相反,孩子們誰扔的是每個新風的理論(以弗所書4時13 -1 4) 。 James uses teleios to describe the end result of spiritual discipline.詹姆斯利用teleios描述的最終結果精神的紀律。 The trying of faith develops patience and character that the disciple may be "perfect and entire, wanting in nothing" (James 1:3 - 4).在努力發展的信心耐心和品格的門徒說,可能是“完美和完整的,希望在沒有任何” (詹姆斯1:3 -4 ) 。

Responsible, spiritual, intellectual, and moral development which conforms to the desired pattern is perfection.負責的精神,智力,和道德發展,符合理想的模式是完美的。 In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus uses teleios to exhort believers to be perfect as the Heavenly Father is perfect (Matt. 5:48).在山上寶訓,耶穌使用teleios敦促信徒要完美的天父是完美的(瑪特泰5點48分) 。 This use of the future tense indicates a moral obligation, however, and not an absolute perfection identical to that of God.這使用將來時態表示道義上的義務,但是,不是絕對的完美相同的上帝。 Jesus is emphasizing the need for having right attitudes of love which are acceptable to God, not the accomplishment of perfect conduct.耶穌是強調必須有正確的態度,愛,是可以接受的上帝,沒有完成完美的行為。

The concept of corporate perfection seen in a community united in love is expressed by the verb katartizein.的概念,完善企業看到了社會的團結一致,愛是表示動詞katartizein 。 The moral integrity and spiritual unity of the community are aspects of wholeness and completeness connoted by this term.的道德操守和精神團結社會各方面的整體性和完整性connoted由這個詞。 Interrelatedness in love is a necessary part of the "perfecting of the saints" (1 Cor. 1:10; Eph. 4:12; Heb. 13:21).在愛的相互關聯是一個必要組成部分的“完善的聖人” ( 1肺心病。 1:10 ;厄。四時12分;河北。 13時21分) 。 Other usages imply putting into order those things which are imperfect (1 Thess. 3:10 - 13), fitting and adjusting (Heb. 11:3), and mending (2 Cor. 13:11; Mark 1:19).其他慣例意味著付諸為了這些東西是不完美的( 1洛尼基。 3:10 -1 3) ,裝配和調整(希伯來書1 1點0 3) ,並修補( 2肺心病。 1 3時1 1分;馬克1時1 9分) 。

Ethical righteousness is expressed by the words amemptos and amemptos, "blameless" or "without fault or defect."道德正義是表達的話amemptos和amemptos , “無辜”或“無故障或欠妥。 ” The piety of Zacharias and Elizabeth is amemptoi (Luke 1:6).在虔誠的撒迦利亞和伊麗莎白是amemptoi (路1:6 ) 。

Personal fitness and perfection in the sense of properly using spiritual resources is denoted by artios (2 Tim. 3:17).個人健身和完善意義上的正確使用精神資源是指由artios ( 2添。 3點17 ) 。 The believer who is sound and lacks nothing needed for completeness is holokleros (James 1:4; 1 Thess. 5:23).該相信誰是健全的,缺乏任何需要的完整性是holokleros (詹姆斯1:4 ;一日洛尼基。 5點23 ) 。

The biblical emphasis on perfection, then, does not imply absolute perfection but an unblemished character which has moral and spiritual integrity in relationship to God.聖經重點放在完善,那麼,並不意味著絕對的完美,但完美無缺性質有道德和精神完整性的關係,上帝。 The goal of spiritual maturity is set forth, and the believer is charged with making sincere and proper use of the spiritual resources available through Christ in order to attain this maturity in fellowship with Christ and the Christian community.的目標是精神的成熟規定,並堅信負責作出真誠和正確使用現有資源的精神通過基督為了實現這一成熟的研究與基督和基督教社會。

Theological Issues and Historical Heritage神的問題和歷史遺產

The Command of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount, "Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect" (Matt. 5:48), is central to the issue of human perfection.命令耶穌在山上寶訓“ ,因此,你們要完善,即使你父親是在天堂是完美的” (瑪特泰5時48分) ,是中央的問題,人類完善。 This text has been variously interpreted and even rejected as inauthentic in the attempts to arrive at theological understanding.這個文本已不同的解釋,甚至拒絕不真實的企圖到達神學的理解。

Christian Platonism基督教柏拉圖

Clement of Alexandria and the Christian Platonists sought for perfection in the transfiguration of earthly life, a hallowing of the secular.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞和基督教Platonists尋求完美的變形人間生活, hallowing世俗。 Faith and knowledge lifted some believers to an experience of religious perfection in which the purposes and desires of the soul were harmonized in love.信仰和知識取消一些信徒的宗教經驗中完善的宗旨和願望,是統一的靈魂在愛。 In his Miscellanies, the ideal was the attainment of uninterrupted communion with God.在他的雜記,理想是實現不間斷地與上帝。 Paradoxically, Clement insisted on God's unlikeness to man while insisting on the possibility of the perfected Gnostic's becoming like God.奇怪的是,克萊門特堅持上帝的unlikeness人類同時堅持的可能性完善諾斯底成為像上帝。

Thus perfection was obedientiary, not absolute, and was attained through obedience to God in prayer and keeping the commandments.因此,完善了obedientiary ,不是絕對的,主要是通過服從上帝祈禱並保持誡命。 The weakness in Clement's view follows from his Platonic tendency to view God as apathetic and without predicates. Although God was active for the salvation of men, Clement emptied both Father and Son of emotions.疲軟的克萊門特的觀點如下從他的柏拉圖式的傾向,認為上帝的冷漠和不謂詞。雖然上帝是積極的拯救男人,克萊門特空都父與子的感情。 This hellenization of God is somewhat incongruous with his view of God as the Father persevering in love.這hellenization上帝有點不協調與他認為上帝的父親堅持愛。 His view of perfection, then, emphasizes that the "Christian Gnostic" rises above human emotions by contemplation of God and is "translated absolutely and entirely to another sphere."他認為完美的,那麼,強調指出, “基督教諾斯底”高於人類情感的沉思上帝的是“翻譯絕對和完全到另一個領域。 ”

Clement's illustrious pupil, Origen, proposed a view of perfection which explicitly reflected the presuppositions of Platonic philosophy.克萊門特的傑出學生,奧利,提出了完善意見,其中明確反映了前提柏拉圖哲學。 He separated faith and knowledge, with faith being the basis of salvation and knowledge being the means to perfection.他失散的信念和知識,正與信仰的基礎上拯救和知識的手段,完善。 A prerequisite to perfection is an ascetic rejection of the external world and all human emotions.一個先決條件的完善是一個禁慾拒絕外部世界和所有人類的情感。 His approach was basically humanistic, even though he asserted that human effort must be assisted by grace.他的做法基本上是人文,儘管他聲稱,人類必須盡力協助寬限期。 Also, his Platonic negative evaluation of the human creature required that perfection be essentially a victory over the body, and more specifically over the sex drive. Furthermore, he anticipated the monastic emphasis of perfection through asceticism and a distinction between the ordinary and the spirtually elite Christian.此外,他柏拉圖式的負面評價的人造物需要完善的基本上是一個戰勝了身體,更具體的性慾。此外,他還預計,修道士重點完善通過禁慾主義和區分普通和精英spirtually基督教。 This tendency toward a double standard of morality reflected the influence of Gnosticism on early Christian thought in that ordinary Christians lived by faith while the enlightened elect lived by gnosis.這種傾向是雙重標準的道德反映的影響諾斯替主義的早期基督教思想在普通基督徒的信仰生活,而開明的選舉靠直覺。 This dual level of spirituality became more pronounced as the chasm between clergy and laity widened in the medieval period.這種雙重的精神生活更加明顯的差距神職人員和信徒擴大在中世紀時期。

Monasticism

One of the most extensive attempts at attaining Christian perfection is found in monasticism.其中最廣泛的企圖實現完美的基督教中發現修道。 Leaders such as Antony of Egypt and Pachomius went into solitude to practice their disciplines with the aim of achieving spiritual perfection.領導人,如埃及的安東尼和帕科謬斯進入孤獨實踐的學科,以期實現精神完美。 They were overwhelmed by the sense of their own unworthiness and by the increasing worldliness of the church.他們是不堪重負的感覺自己unworthiness和日益增加的俗氣的教堂。 The attaining of their goal involved renouncing all encumbrances of the world, taking up their cross, and praying without ceasing.在實現其目標涉及放棄所有抵押權的世界,同時他們的交叉,並沒有停止祈禱。 The ideal of perfection became socialized as expressed in the rules of Basil and Benedict. Monastic communities developed which not only sought perfection by resignation from the world and asceticism, but also attempted to transform the world through extensive missionary efforts and the preservation of spiritual, aesthetic, and intellectual life.理想的完美成為社會中所表達的規則,巴茲爾和篤。寺院社區發展不僅要求完美的辭職從世界和禁慾主義,但也試圖改變世界的傳教士通過廣泛的努力和維護精神,審美和智力的生活。

Some of the most profound spiritual insights are found in the Fifty Spiritual Homilies of Macarius the Egyptian.一些最深刻的精神發現的見解在50精神講道詞的馬卡里烏斯埃及。 Greatly admired by William Law and John Wesley, Macarius stressed the worth of the individual human soul in the image of God, the incarnation as the basis of the life of the soul, moral purity, and love as the highest measure of the Christian life.極大地欽佩威廉法和約翰衛斯理,馬卡里烏斯強調價值的個別人的靈魂在上帝的形象,化身為基礎的生命的靈魂,道德上的純潔,愛情為最高衡量基督徒的生活。 His stress on union with Christ is commendable, but his goal of perfection still is a retreat from reality into ecstasy, lacks a relevant ideal for common humanity, and is excessively individualistic.他強調工會與基督是值得稱讚的,但他的目標是完善仍是一個務虛會從現實到搖頭丸,缺乏相關的理想共同的人性,是過於個人主義。

Gregory of Nyssa was one of the greatest Eastern leaders in the struggle for perfection.格雷戈里的果樹是一個最大的東歐領導人的鬥爭中完善。 He saw Christ as the prototype of the Christian life in his On What It Means to Call Oneself a Christian and On Perfection.他認為基督為原型的基督徒的生活在他的論意味著什麼自稱基督教和完善。 The responsibility of the Christian is to imitate the virtues of Christ and to reverence those virtues which are impossible to imitate.的責任是基督教的美德模仿基督和崇敬這些美德是無法模仿。 Gregory saw the truth of the participation in Christ, which results from rebirth "by water and the Spirit."格雷戈里看到的真相參與基督,結果從新生“的水和聖靈。 ” In this interpersonal sharing the Christian perfects the resemblance to Christ which comes through the continual transformation into his image.在此際交流基督教完善相似基督這是通過不斷轉變自己的形象。

Augustine and Pelagius奧古斯丁和貝拉基

In the fourth century the reaction against perfectionism was typified by the controversy between Augustine and Pelagius. Although Augustine affirmed an ideal of perfection, the summum bonum, it was a perfection attainable only in eternity. He felt that human perfection was an impossible moral ideal in this life because of the sinfulness of mankind resulting from the fall.在四世紀的反應是對完美的典型之間的爭議奧古斯丁和伯拉糾。 雖然奧古斯丁申明一個理想完美的summum善,這是一個完美的實現只有在永恆。他認為,人的完善是不可能的道德理想這種生活,因為人類的罪孽所造成的下跌。

Pelagius attributed the moral laxity of the church to the kind of blasphemy which told God that what he had commanded was impossible. He rejected the concept of original sin and asserted that persons are born with the free capacity to perfect themselves or corrupt themselves as they choose. Sin is simply a bad habit which can be overcome by an act of the will. 貝拉基歸咎於道德鬆弛的教堂,以什麼樣的褻瀆它告訴上帝,他所指揮的是不可能的。他拒絕概念的原罪,並斷言,人人生而自由的能力,完善自己或損毀他們自己的選擇。黃大仙僅僅是一個壞習慣,是可以克服的一項法案的意願。 Since sin is avoidable, however, Pelagius tended to judge severely those who fell into the slightest sin.自罪孽是可以避免的,但是,伯拉糾法官往往造成嚴重的那些誰落入絲毫罪孽。

The response of Augustine was that neither education nor human effort could lead to perfection and the only moral progress persons could make in this life was solely the result of God's grace.的答复是,奧古斯丁既教育人的努力也可能會導致完善和唯一的道德進步的人可以生活在這僅僅是由於上帝的恩典。 He tended to equate sinfulness with humanness in general and with concupiscence in particular, and saw the path to perfection as one of celibacy and virginity.他往往等同罪孽與人性的一般與concupiscence特別是,看到的路徑作為一個完善的獨身和童貞。 While rejecting the attainment of perfection in this life, Augustine made great contributions to spirituality with his emphasis on contemplation, although he tended to diminish the humanity of Christ because of his aversion to the physical.雖然拒絕了實現完美生活在此,奧古斯丁作出了巨大貢獻的精神與他強調沉思,但他往往削弱人類的基督,因為他厭惡的身體。 He was certainly correct in his rejection of Pelagius's exclusive emphasis on moral effort and in his emphasis on grace, but his tendency to identify sinfulness with the physical world is an unnecessary vestige of Greek philosophy.他無疑是正確的拒絕貝拉基獨有的重點放在道德努力,並在他強調的寬限期,但他的傾向找到罪孽與物理世界是一個不必要的痕跡希臘哲學。

Aquinas阿奎那

Often called the "Angelic Doctor," Thomas Aquinas has greatly influenced Roman Catholic theology.經常被稱為“天使博士” ,托馬斯阿奎那,極大地影響羅馬天主教神學。 He was convinced that although Adam lost the gift of divine grace which enabled mankind to enjoy God fully, the free grace of God can restore humanity to God's favor and enable the Christian to follow God's precepts in perfect love.他深信,雖然失去了亞當的禮物神聖的寬限期,使人類充分享受上帝,自由的恩典,上帝可以恢復人類的上帝的青睞,使基督教遵循上帝的戒律在完美的愛情。 Final perfection and the beatific vision of God were reserved for the life to come, but through contemplation a perfect vision of God and perfect knowledge of truth can be enjoyed in this life.最後的完善和幸福的遠景預留上帝的生命來,而是通過沉思一個完美的設想上帝和完善知識的真理能在此生活。 His concept of perfection, however, involved a disparagement of the world and an understanding of the desires of flesh as evil.他完美的概念,但涉及輕視的世界和理解的願望肉邪惡。 Thus the elimination of bodily desires was a prerequisite to perfection, and in this aspect he equated perfection with renunciation.因此,消除身體的慾望是一個先決條件,完善,並在這方面,他與完善等同放棄。 Furthermore, he saw perfection as carrying with it human merit, and thus he contributed to the idea of the treasury of merits from which the imperfect can draw at the discretion of the church.此外,他認為作為完善帶著它人類優點,從而有助於他的想法國庫的優點從不完善可以借鑒的自由裁量權的教堂。

Finally, he formed a hierarchy of the state of perfection which corresponded to the levels of the religious orders.最後,他成立了一個層次的狀況相對完善的水平的宗教命令。 Although he did not deny the possibility of perfection for all persons, religious vows were certainly the shortcut to meritorious perfection.雖然他沒有否認的可能性,完善所有的人,宗教誓言是肯定的捷徑立功完善。 He thus perpetuated the spiritual dichotomy between clergy and laity.因此,他的精神長期對立的神職人員和信徒。

Francis of Sales弗朗西斯銷售

The possibility of perfection for all Christians was emphasized by Francis of Assisi and the Friars Minor, and Francis of Sales presented this doctrine with clarity in his treatise On the Love of God.的可能性完善所有基督徒所強調的方濟各和天主教方濟會,和弗朗西斯的銷售提出了這一理論明確在他的論文在上帝的愛。 He rejected the banishment of the devout life from the experience of common people, and opened up the benefits of spiritual contemplation to all Christians.他拒絕了放逐的虔誠生活的經驗,普通百姓,並開闢了好處沉思的精神給所有基督教徒。

Francois Fenelon弗朗索瓦費內龍

Amid the profligacies of the court of Louis XIV, Fenelon taught his followers to live a life of deep spirituality and introspection.由於該profligacies法院路易十四,費內龍告訴他的追隨者的生活精神和深切的反省。 He saw perfection as totally a work of God's grace, not meritorious human effort.他認為,完善的工作完全是上帝的恩典,而不是人類的努力值得稱讚。 The perfect life is carefree and Christlike loving fellowship with others.完美的生活是無憂無慮的愛好和Christlike金等。 In Christian Perfection he presented single - minded devotion to God as the ideal in attaining perfect love.在基督教的完善,他提出單一-志同道合奉獻上帝的理想,實現完美的愛情。 This perfect life is the imitation of Jesus, and its main obstacle is egocentricity, which must be overcome by an inward act of sanctification by God's Spirit.這完美的生活是模仿耶穌的,其主要障礙是egocentricity ,必須克服內心的行為神聖的上帝的精神。 Thus Fenelon moved the quest for perfection away from its preoccupation with renunciation of the physical and its monopoly by the elite, and focused on God's work of grace which is universally available to the seeker.因此,費內龍動議追求完美遠離其關注放棄的身體和其壟斷地位的精英,並專注於上帝的恩典的工作是普遍提供給求職者。

The Reformers改革者

Both the Lutheran and Calvinist Reformers reflected the Augustinian position that sin remains in humanity until death, and therefore spiritual perfection is impossible in this life. Calvin explicitly stated that while the goal toward which the pious should strive was to appear before God without spot or blemish, believers will never reach that goal until the sinful physical body is laid aside.無論是路德和加爾文主義改革者反映了奧古斯丁的立場,即罪惡留在人類直到死亡,因此,精神完美是不可能在此生活。卡爾文明確指出的目標,而對其中的虔誠應該努力是上帝面前似乎沒有現貨或污點信徒將永遠不會實現這一目標之前,罪孽深重的身體奠定一邊。 Since he saw the body as the residence of the depravity of concupiscence, perfection and physical life are mutually exclusive.因為他看到了機構的住所墮落concupiscence ,完善和物質生活是並行不悖的。

Luther also retained the connection between sin and the flesh. However, he did emphasize a new center of piety, the humanity and work of Jesus Christ.路德還保留了罪惡之間的聯繫和肉。然而,他強調一個新的中心的虔誠,對人類和工作的耶穌基督。 While the previous seekers after perfection focused on the knowledge and love of God which was grasped through contemplation, Luther focused on the knowledge of God through God's revelation in Christ.雖然以前的求職者完善後,側重於知識和上帝的愛是抓住通過沉思,路德側重於知識的上帝通過上帝的啟示在基督。 Faith in Jesus Christ therefore brings an imputed perfection which truly worships God in faith. This true perfection does not consist in celibacy or mendicancy. Luther rejected the distinction between clerical and lay perfection and stressed that proper ethical behavior was not found in renunciation of life, but in faith and love of one's neighbor.信仰耶穌基督因此帶來了估算完善真正崇拜上帝的信仰。這種真正的完美並不在獨身或行乞。路德拒絕之間的區別在於文書和完善,並強調正確的道德行為中找不到放棄生命,但在信仰和愛自己的鄰居。

The Pietists虔誠主義

With the pietists arose a Protestant rejection of the pessimism with which the Lutherans and Calvinists viewed the quest for perfection.隨著虔誠主義產生的新教反對悲觀的路德教和加爾文教派認為,追求完美。 Marked by the quest for personal holiness and an emphasis on devotion rather than doctrine, seventeenth century leaders such as Jakob Spener and AH Francke stressed personal holiness marked by love and obedience.其特點是追求個人的聖潔,強調奉獻精神,而不是理論, 17世紀的領導人,如雅各布Spener和AH弗朗克強調個人神聖的愛的特點和服從。 Perfection was reflected in works done solely for the glory of God and in the ability to distinguish good from evil.完善反映在作品做完全是上帝的榮耀和能力區分好邪惡。

While tending toward narrowness and provincialism and often deteriorating into a negative scrupulosity, the pietists developed strong community contexts for nurtue and motivated extensive missionary endeavors.雖然走向狹隘和省籍,往往惡化成負面scrupulosity ,發達國家的虔誠主義者強烈的社會背景和動機nurtue廣泛的傳教事業。

The Quakers該公

Inspired by a desire to return to the attitude of the NT, George Fox taught both personal responsibility for faith and emancipation from sin in his doctrine of the inner light.靈感的願望返回的態度新台幣,喬治福克斯教授個人責任的信念和解放的罪過在他的學說的內在根據。 He declared a doctrine of real holiness rather than imputed righteousness.他宣布學說的真正聖潔,而不是歸罪於正氣。 This perfection was relative in that it dealt with victory over sin rather than absolute moral development.這完美是相對的,因為它涉及戰勝罪惡,而不是絕對的道德發展。 Fox believed that as a result of the new birth into Christ by the Spirit the believer was free from actual sinning, which he defined as transgressing the law of God, and is thus perfect in obedience. This perfection, however, did not remove the possibility of sinning, for the Christian needed constantly to rely on the inner light and must focus on the cross of Christ as the center of faith. Fox tended toward fanaticism with his teaching that a Christian may be restored to the innocency of Adam before the fall, and could be more steadfast than Adam and need not fall.福克斯認為,由於新誕生到基督的精神,相信是免費的從實際斯辛寧,他定義為超越法律的上帝,因而是完美的服從。這種完美,但沒有消除的可能性的斯辛寧,基督教需要不斷地依靠內在輕,必須著眼於兩岸基督為中心的信仰。福克斯趨向狂熱與他的教學,一個基督徒可能會恢復到innocency亞當面前的秋天,並可以更堅定比亞當和不屬於需要。 William Penn and other Quakers qualified the doctrine to guard it from such overstatement.威廉佩恩和其他誼合格的理論守衛它從這種言過其實。

The strength of Fox's emphasis is that the center of perfection was in the cross of Christ.的力量福克斯的重點是該中心的完善是在兩岸基督。 The cross was no dead relic but an inward experience refashioning the believer into perfect love.兩岸沒有死的遺跡,而是外來的經驗重塑的信徒到完美的愛。 This is a celebrating of the power of grace.這是一個慶祝的權力的寬限期。 While his refusal to be preoccupied with sin was a needed corrective to the Puritan pessimism over the profound sinfulness of man, Fox did tend to distrust the intellect and to suspect all external expressions of faith such as the sacraments.雖然他拒絕將專注於罪孽是一個需要糾正的清教徒悲觀的深刻罪孽的人,福克斯也往往不信任的智慧和懷疑一切外部表現形式的信仰,如聖禮。 His refusal to be satisfied with sin and his concentration upon a perfection of life through grace found direct application in commendable attempts at social justice.他拒絕滿足他的罪惡和濃度取決於完善的生活寬限期發現直接應用在值得稱讚的嘗試社會正義。 This message of renewal and hope for the poor and disenfranchised was certainly motivated by the conviction that the quality of life and faith is not predetermined by a radical sinfulness which is resistant to actual moral transformation by grace.這一信息的更新,並希望為窮人和被剝奪公民權當然是出於信念,即生活質量和信仰是不是預先確定的由一個激進的罪孽是耐實際道德轉化寬限期。

William Law威廉法

The author of A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life and Christian Perfection, William Law was an eighteenth century Anglican nonjuring cleric who influenced John Wesley and was admired by Samuel Johnson, Edward Gibbon, John Henry Newman, and many others.作者嚴重呼喚一個虔誠和神聖生命和基督教完善,威廉法是一個十八世紀的英國聖公會牧師誰nonjuring影響約翰衛斯理和欽佩塞繆爾約翰遜,愛德華吉本,紐曼,以及其他許多人。 Positively, he affirmed the necessity of divine grace for performing the good and the importance of taking up the cross of Christ.積極,他肯定的必要性神聖的寬限期為履行好,重要的是採取行動的跨基督。 He called for absolute dedication of one's life to God and complete renunciation of every aspect of the world.他要求絕對的奉獻自己的一生貢獻給上帝,並完全放棄每一個方面的世界。 He saw Christian perfection functioning in common ways of life.他認為,基督教完善運作的共同生活方式。 He rejected the need for retirement to the cloister or the practice of a particular form of life.他拒絕需要退休的迴廊或實踐中,特定形式的生命。 The whole life is rather an offering of sacrifice to God and praying without ceasing.整個生命,而一個產品的犧牲,向上帝祈禱,並沒有停止。 Christlikeness is the ideal of perfection, and this is accomplished by performing one's human duties as Christ would. Christlikeness是理想的完美,這是表演的成就之一的人力職責基督會。

The weaknesses of Law's system are in his somewhat unrealistic ideals for human achievement, his failure to see meaning in actual life itself, and his tendency to see grace as a means of supplanting nature rather than transforming it.的弱點法的系統在他有點不現實的理想,人類的成就,他沒有看到這意味著在現實生活本身,和他的傾向,見寬限期為手段取代的性質,而不是改變它。 Furthermore, he tended to deprecate religious fellowship and all institutional religion.此外,他往往藐視宗教研究機構和所有宗教。

The Wesleyans該Wesleyans

John Wesley was inspired by the perfectionist themes of the early saints and by the devotional literature of Thomas a Kempis, Jeremy Taylor, and William Law.約翰衛斯理的靈感的完美主題的早期聖人和虔誠的文學托馬斯馬肯培,傑里泰勒和威廉法。 Seeing self - love, or pride, as the root of evil, Wesley taught that "perfect love" or "Christian perfection" could replace pride through a moral crisis of faith.看自我-愛情,或驕傲,因為邪惡的根源,韋斯利教授說, “完美的愛”或“基督教完美”可以取代驕傲通過道德信仰危機。 By grace, the Christian could experience love filling the heart and excluding sin.由寬限期,基督教的愛可以彌補經驗的核心和排除罪孽。 He did not see perfection as sinlessness, nor did he understand it to be attained by merit. He thus combined some aspects of the Catholic emphasis on perfection with the Protestant emphasis on grace.他沒有看到完善的清白,他也沒有理解它要實現的優點。因此,他的某些方面相結合的天主教強調完善與新教強調寬限期。

In contrast to Augustine's Platonic view of sin as being inseparably related to concupiscence and the body, Wesley saw it as a perverted relationship to God.與此相反,以奧古斯丁的柏拉圖認為罪孽是密不可分的關係concupiscence和機構,韋斯利認為這是扭曲的關係,上帝。 In response to God's offer of transforming grace, the believer in faith was brought into an unbroken fellowship with Christ.在回應上帝的轉化提供寬限期,在信徒的信仰被帶到一個完整研究與基督。 This was not an imputed perfection but an actual or imparted relationship of an evangelical perfection of love and intention.這是不是一個估算完善,但實際或傳授關係的一個福音完善的熱愛和打算。 In this life the Christian does not attain absolute Christlikeness but suffers numerous infirmities, human faults, prejudices, and involuntary transgressions.在這生命的基督教並沒有實現,但絕對Christlikeness遭受無數的毛病,人力斷層,偏見,和非自願越軌。 These, however, were not considered sin, for Wesley saw sin as attitudinal and relational.然而,這些並不被視為罪惡,為罪惡韋斯利看到的態度和關係。 In A Plain Account of Christian Perfection he stressed that Christian perfection is not absolute, nor sinless, nor incapable of being lost, is not the perfection of Adam or the angels, and does not preclude growth in grace.在平原帳戶基督教完善他強調說,基督教完善不是絕對的,也不清白,也不能喪失,這不是完美的亞當或天使,以及不排除增長的寬限期。

In removing from the idea of perfection any idea of meritorious effort, Wesley resisted any tendency to exclusiveness and elitism. His relational understanding of sin resisted the hellenistic equation of sin with humanity.在刪除的想法完美的任何想法,建功立業的努力,韋斯利抵制任何傾向排斥和精英。關係的理解他的罪惡抵制希臘方程的罪惡與人性。 A reform of personal and social morality resulted to a large degree from the spiritual renewal which accompanied his work.改革個人和社會道德造成很大程度的精神復興伴隨他的工作。 Thus perfection for Wesley was not based on renunciation, merit, asceticism, or individualism. It was instead a celebration of the sovereignty of grace in transforming the sinful person into the image of Christ's love.因此,完善的韋斯利不放棄的基礎上,擇優,禁慾主義,或個人主義。這是不是慶祝的主權寬限期改造罪孽深重的人進入的形象,基督的愛。

Wesleyan perfectionist thought was, however, not without liabilities.衛斯理認為是完美,但並非沒有責任。 Although Wesley defined sin as involving relationships and intentions, he did not adequately guard against allowing it to become understood as a substance or entity which was separate from the person and which must be extricated.雖然韋斯利界定罪孽涉及的關係和意圖,他沒有足夠的警惕允許它成為理解為一種物質或實體,它是獨立於人,必須擺脫。 Some of his followers did tend to develop this substantialist understanding of sin and a resulting static concept of sanctification.他的一些追隨者也傾向於發展這個實體的理解和罪惡產生的靜態概念成聖。 He also tended to narrow sin to include only conscious will and intent.他還往往以狹隘的罪惡只包括自覺的意願和意圖。 Consequently, some of his interpreters have been led to rationalize serious attitudinal aberrations as expressions of unconscious or unintentional human faults.因此,他的一些口譯已導致嚴重的合理化的態度異常表達的無意識或無意的人類故障。 Finally, Wesley expressed an inward asceticism which tended to derogate the aesthetic, and his emphasis on simplicity was too easily distorted by his followers into a legalistic externalism.最後,韋斯利表示抵港禁慾主義往往減損的審美,他強調簡單是太容易扭曲他的追隨者變成法律形式主義。

Wesley's emphasis on perfection has been preserved in some circles of Methodism, and continues to be promoted in the denominations associated with the Christian Holiness Association.韋斯利的重點放在完善一直保存在某些圈子的循道,並繼續推動在教派與基督教聖潔協會。

Heterodox Sects異端教派

In addition to the Gnostic dualism of the early centuries, perfectionism has expressed itself in varying forms on the fringes of Christianity.除了諾斯底二元早期的世紀,完美表示了自己的不同形式的邊緣基督教。 The second century Montanists taught that men could become gods.第二個世紀這Montanists教男人可以成為神。 In the twelfth through the fourteenth centuries the Albigensian heresy contended that the human spirit was capable of freeing itself from the flesh in order to become one with God.在第十二屆通過第十四世紀的亞爾比根派異端爭辯說,人類的精神能夠擺脫肉體,以便成為一個與上帝。 The late medieval period also saw the condemnation of the Brethren of the Free Spirit, who believed that man could advance in perfection beyond God, who then became superfluous. The English Ranters saw it as logically impossible for perfected man to sin.已故的中世紀時期也看到了譴責弟兄們的自由精神,誰認為男人可以推動完美超越的上帝,誰後來成為多餘的。英文Ranters認為這在邏輯上不可能完善男子罪孽。 Other communal approaches such as the nineteenth century Oneida community sought for ways of reconciling perfected sinlessness with the impulses of the flesh.其他社區的方法,如十九世紀奧奈達社會尋求和解的途徑完善清白的衝動的血肉。

All these heterodox expressions of perfectionism contained forms of antinomianism and egoism.所有這些非正統的完美表現所載形式的antinomianism和利己主義。 They were condemned by orthodox Christianity with varying degrees of severity.他們譴責了正統基督教不同程度的嚴重性。 Characterized by utopian views of human ability and by mystical practices, they tended to ignore divine grace and ethical integrity, and deteriorated because of their own inherent weaknesses.特點是烏托邦式的意見,人類的能力和神秘的做法,他們往往忽視神聖的風度和道德操守,並惡化,因為它們本身固有的弱點。

RL Shelton北京謝爾頓
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
L Lemme, SHERK , VIII; LG Cox, John Wesley's Concept of Perfection; WS Deal, The March of Holiness Through the Centuries; RN Flew, The Idea of Perfection in Christian Theology; R Garrigou - Lagrange, Christian Perfection and Contemplation; WM Greathouse, From the Apostles to Wesley; JA Passmore, The Perfectibility of Man; WE Sangster, The Path to Perfection; M Thornton, English Spirituality; GA Turner, The Vision Which Transforms; BB Warfield, Perfectionism; MB Wynkoop, A Theology of Love; JK Grider, Entire Sanctification. L Lemme , SHERK ,第八; LG電子考克斯,約翰衛斯理的概念完善;的協議, 3月通過的聖潔世紀;考試弗盧的想法完善基督教神學; R加里古-拉格朗日,基督教完善和沉思;西醫結合G reathouse從使徒到韋斯利;茉莉帕斯莫爾,完美的人,我們桑斯特,該路徑完善; M桑頓,英文靈性;遺傳特納的設想變換;體沃菲爾德,完美;甲基溴溫庫普,一個神學的愛情; JK Grider ,整個成聖。


Christian and Religious Perfection基督教和宗教完善

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect in nature, yet imperfect inasmuch as it has not yet attained its end, whether this be in the same order as itself, or whether, by the will of God and His gratuitous liberality, it be entirely above its nature, ie in the supernatural order.事情是完美的,其中沒有什麼希望的性質,宗旨,或結束。可能是完美的性質,但不完善的,因為它尚未達到其目的,無論是在同一命令本身,還是由上帝的意志和他的無端慷慨,它是完全高於其性質,即在超自然的秩序。 From Revelation we learn that the ultimate end of man is supernatural, consisting in union with God here on earth by grace and hereafter in heaven by the beatific vision.從啟示我們了解到,最終目標是超自然的人,包括工會與上帝在地球上的風度和以後在天上的祝福的眼光。 Perfect union with God cannot be attained in this life, so man is imperfect in that he lacks the happiness for which he is destined and suffers many evils both of body and soul.完善工會與上帝就不可能實現在這生活,所以人是不完善的,他缺乏幸福的,他注定和患有許多邪惡雙方身體和靈魂。 Perfection therefore in its absolute sense is reserved for the kingdom of heaven.因此,在完善其絕對意義是保留給天國。

CHRISTIAN PERFECTION基督教完善

Christian perfection is the supernatural or spiritual union with God which is possible of attainment in this life, and which may be called relative perfection, compatible with the absence of beatitude, and the presence of human miseries, rebellious passions, and even venial sins to which a just man is liable without a special grace and privilege of God.基督教完善是超自然或精神與上帝工會是實現盡可能在此生活,這可稱為相對完善,符合缺乏beatitude ,和在場的人的苦難,反抗情緒,甚至venial罪孽而一個公正的人,即屬無特殊的風度和特權的上帝。 This perfection consists in charity, in the degree in which it is attainable in this life (Matthew 22:36-40; Romans 13:10; Galatians 5:14; 1 Corinthians 12:31, and 13:13).這包括完善的慈善事業,在一定程度它是可以實現的在這生活(馬太22:36-40 ;羅馬書13:10 ;加拉太5點14分;哥林多前書12:31和13:13 ) 。 This is the universal teaching of the Fathers and of theologians.這是普遍的教學的父輩和神學家。 Charity unites the soul with God as its supernatural end, and removes from the soul all that is opposed to that union.慈善團結的靈魂與上帝作為其超自然的目的,並移除從所有的靈魂是反對這一聯盟。 "God is charity; and he that abideth in charity abideth in God, and God in him" (1 John 4:16). “上帝是慈善事業,他認為abideth慈善abideth上帝,上帝在他的” (約翰一書4時16分) 。 Francisco Suárez explains that perfection can be attributed to charity in three ways: (1) substantially or essentially, because the essence of union with God consists in charity for the habit as well as for the endeavour or pursuit of perfection; (2) principally, because it has the chief share in the process of perfection; (3) entirely, for all other virtues necessarily accompany charity and are ordained by it to the supreme end.弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯解釋說,完善可以歸因於慈善事業在三個方面: ( 1 )大幅度或基本上是,因為本質與上帝工會組成的慈善習慣以及努力或追求完美; ( 2 )主要是因為它的主要份額的過程中完善; ( 3 )完全,對所有其他的美德伴隨慈善不一定是由它任命的最高目的。 It is true that faith and hope are prerequisites for perfection in this life, but they do not constitute it, for in heaven, where perfection is complete and absolute, faith and hope no longer remain.的確,信念和希望是完美的先決條件在此生活,但他們不構成,因為在天上,在那裡完善是完全和絕對的,信念和希望不再存在。 The other virtues therefore belong to perfection in a secondary and accidental manner, because charity cannot exist without them and their exercise, but they without charity do not unite the soul supernaturally to God.其他的美德因此屬於完善二級和意外的方式,因為慈善事業就不能存在沒有他們和他們的工作,但他們沒有慈善不團結的靈魂supernaturally上帝。 (Lib. I, De Statu Perfectionis, Cap. iii). ( Lib.我Statu Perfectionis德章。三) 。

Christian perfection consists not only in the habit of charity, ie the possession of sanctifying grace and the constant will of preserving that grace, but also in the pursuit or practice of charity, which means the service of God and withdrawal of ourselves from those things which oppose or impede it.基督教完善不僅包括習慣的慈善,即擁有sanctifying寬限期,並不斷將維護該寬限期,而且在追求或慈善機構的做法,這意味著服務的上帝和撤回自己從那些事物反對或阻礙它。 "Be it ever remembered", says Reginald Buckler, "that the perfection of man is determined by his actions, not by his habits as such. Thus a high degree of habitual charity will not suffice to perfect the soul if the habit pass not into act. That is, if it become not operative. For to what purpose does a man possess virtue if he uses it not? He is not virtuous because he can live virtuously but because he does so." “無論是以往任何時候都記住”說,雷防禦“ ,即完善的男子是由他的行動,而不是他的習慣等。因此高度慣常的慈善還不夠完善的靈魂,如果沒有習慣通過進入行為。也就是說,如果它不能成為執行。為了什麼目的做美德的人擁有,如果他不使用它?他是不是良性,因為他能夠生活合乎道德,而是因為他這樣做。 “ (The Perfection of Man by Charity. Ch. vii, p. 77). The perfection of the soul increases in proportion with the possession of charity. (完善的慈善人。膽固醇。七,第77頁) 。完善的靈魂增加的比例佔有的慈善機構。 He who possesses the perfection which excludes mortal sin obtains salvation, is united to God, and is said to be just, holy, and perfect.他誰擁有完善排除彌天大罪得到拯救,是團結起來,上帝,據說是公正,神聖和完善。 The perfection of charity, which excludes also venial sin and all affections which separate the heart from God, signifies a state of active service of God and of frequent, fervent acts of the love of God.完善慈善機構,排除還venial罪惡和所有的感情而單獨的心臟來自上帝,標誌著一個國家的現役上帝和頻繁,熱切的行為上帝的愛。 This is the perfect fulfilment of the law (Matthew 22:37), as God is the primary object of charity.這是完美的履行法律(馬太22:37 ) ,因為上帝是主要對象的慈善機構。 The secondary object is our neighbour.次要對象是我們的鄰居。 This is not limited to necessary and obligatory duties, but extends to friends, strangers, and enemies, and may advance to a heroic degree, leading a man to sacrifice external goods, comforts and life itself for the spiritual welfare of others.這是不僅限於必要的和強制性的義務,而是延伸到朋友,陌生人,和敵人,並可能事先向英雄的程度,導致一名男子犧牲外部商品,舒適和生命本身的精神幸福的人。 This is the charity taught by Christ by word (John 15:13) and example.這是慈善事業的基督教字(約15:13 )和榜樣。 (See THEOLOGICAL VIRTUE OF LOVE). (見憑藉神的愛) 。

RELIGIOUS PERFECTION宗教完善

Christian perfection, or the perfection of charity as taught by our Saviour, applies to all men, both secular and religious, yet there is also religious perfection.基督教完善,或完善慈善事業所教我們的救主,適用於所有的男人,世俗和宗教領袖,但也有宗教完善。 The religious state is called a school (disciplina) of perfection and it imposes an obligation, more strict than that of the secular state, of striving after perfection.宗教國家被稱為學校( disciplina )的完善和它強加一種義務,更嚴格比世俗的狀態,爭取在完善。 Seculars are obliged to perfection by the observance of the precepts or commandments only; while religious are obliged to observe also the evangelical counsels to which they freely bind themselves by the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Seculars有義務完善的遵守戒律或誡命只;而宗教都必須遵守的福音律師他們可以自由結合自己的誓言貧窮,貞潔,服從。 The counsels are the means or instruments of perfection in both a negative and positive sense.該律師的手段或工具的完善既是一種消極和積極的意義。 Negatively: the obstacles in the way of perfection, which are (1 John 1:16) concupiscence of the eyes, concupiscence of the flesh, and pride of life, are removed by the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, respectively.負面:障礙的方式完美的,這是(約翰一書1點16 ) concupiscence的眼睛, concupiscence的肉體,和驕傲的生命,被刪除的誓言貧窮,貞潔,服從,分別。 Positively: the profession of the counsels tends to increase the love of God in the soul.積極:專業的律師往往增加上帝的愛的靈魂。 The affections, freed from earthly ties, enable the soul to cling to God and to spiritual things more intensely and more willingly, and thus promote His glory and our own sanctification, placing us in a more secure state for attaining the perfection of charity.的情感,擺脫世俗的關係,使靈魂依附上帝和精神更為激烈的事情,更願意,從而促進他的光榮和我們自己的神聖,使我們在一個更安全的狀態,以達到完善的慈善事業。

It is true that seculars who also tend to perfection have to perform many things that are not of precept, but they do not bind themselves irrevocably to the evangelical counsels.誠然, seculars誰也往往完善必須執行的許多東西,不是戒律,但是他們沒有約束的不可挽回的福音律師。 It is, however, expedient only for those who are called by God to take upon themselves these obligations.然而,權宜之計只有那些誰被稱為上帝承擔自己的這些義務。 In no state or condition of life is such a degree of perfection attainable that further progress is not possible. God on his part can always confer on man an increase of sanctifying grace, and man in turn by cooperating with it can increase in charity and grow more perfect by becoming more intimately and steadfastly united to God.在任何狀態或條件的生命是如此的完善程度達到進一步的進展是不可能的。天主的他總是能夠賦予人增加了sanctifying寬限期,並把男子與合作,它可以增加慈善和成長更加完善,成為更加密切,堅定不移地團結起來,上帝。

Publication information Written by Arthur Devine.出版信息撰稿阿瑟迪瓦恩。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄由托馬斯J Bress 。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat二月一日1911 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

BUCKLER, The Perfection of Man by Charity (London, 1900); DEVINE, A Manual of Ascetical Theology (London, 1902); IDEM, Convent Life (London, 1904); ST. FRANCIS DE SALES, Treatise on the Love of God (Dublin, 1860); SUAREZ, De religione, tr.防禦,完善人的慈善(倫敦, 1900年) ;迪瓦恩,手冊Ascetical神學(倫敦, 1902年) ;同上,修道院生活(倫敦, 1904年) ;秘。弗朗西斯德國銷售,傷寒論上帝的愛(都柏林, 1860年) ;蘇亞雷斯,德宗教,文。 7, LI; ST. 7 ,李;秘。 THOMAS, Summa, II-II, Q. clxxxiv; IDEM, Opus De perfectione vitæ spiritualis; VERMEERSCH, De religiosis institutis et personis tractatus canonico moralis (Rome, 1907); RODRIGUEZ, The Practice of Christian and Religious Perfection (New York); HUMPHREY, Elements of Religious Life (London, 1905).托馬斯,神學,二,二,問: clxxxiv ;同上,主業德perfectione簡歷精神性; VERMEERSCH ,德religiosis institutis等personis tractatus canonico道德(羅馬, 1907年) ;羅德里格斯,實踐基督教和宗教完善(紐約) ;漢弗萊元素宗教生活(倫敦, 1905年) 。


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