Papacy教皇

General Information 一般信息

The papacy denotes the office of the pope, or bishop of Rome, and the system of central ecclesiastical government of the Roman Catholic Church over which he presides.教宗指辦公室的教皇,或羅馬主教,該系統的中央教會政府的羅馬天主教會超過他主持。 Believed by Roman Catholics to be the successor of the apostle Peter, the pope grounds his claim to jurisdictional primacy in the church in the so - called Petrine theory.相信羅馬天主教徒要繼承的使徒彼得,教宗的理由要求他管轄至高無上的教堂做-稱為伯多祿的理論。 According to that theory, affirmed by the Council of Florence in 1439, defined as a matter of faith by the First Vatican Council in 1870, and endorsed by the Second Vatican Council in 1964, Jesus Christ conferred the position of primacy in the church upon Peter alone.根據這一理論,肯定了理事會的佛羅倫薩在1439年,其定義是一個問題的信念第一梵蒂岡理事會在1870年,並經第二次梵蒂岡會議於1964年,耶穌基督賦予的立場,首要的應彼得教堂單獨的。 In solemnly defining the Petrine primacy, the First Vatican Council cited the three classical New Testament texts long associated with it: John 1:42, John 21:15 ff., and, above all, Matthew 16:18 ff.在莊嚴確定伯多祿至高無上,第一梵蒂岡委員會列舉了三個經典的新約文本長期與之相關的:約翰1點42分,約翰21:15頁。 ,最重要的是,馬修16:18頁。

The council understood these texts, along with Luke 22:32, to signify that Christ himself constituted Saint Peter as prince of the apostles and visible head of the church, possessed of a primacy of jurisdiction that was to pass down in perpetuity to his papal successors, along with the authority to pronounce infallibly on matters of faith or morals.該委員會了解這些文字,連同盧克22點32分,以表明自己是基督聖彼得王子作為使徒和明顯的負責教會,擁有一個至高無上的管轄權是通過在他的永久教皇的繼任者隨著權力infallibly發音問題上的信仰或道德。

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Although the pope's priestly powers as bishop come from the sacramental act of ordination, the pope derives his papal authority from an act of election, which since 1179 has been the right of the Sacred College of Cardinals.雖然教皇的神父主教的權力來自聖事的行為,協調,教宗源於他的羅馬教皇權力行為的選舉, 1179年以來一直在以正確的神聖樞機主教。 It is by virtue of their decision that each new pope inherits his official titles, ancient and modern, secular and sacred: bishop of Rome, vicar of Jesus Christ, successor of the prince of the apostles, supreme pontiff of the universal Church, patriarch of the West, primate of Italy, archbishop and metropolitan of the Roman province, sovereign of the state of Vatican City, servant of the servants of God.這是由於他們的決定,每個新教皇繼承他的官方名稱,古老和現代的,世俗和神聖:羅馬主教,副主教耶穌基督,繼承王子的使徒,最高教宗的普世教會,家長的西方國家,靈長類動物的意大利,大主教和都市的羅馬省,主權國家的梵蒂岡城,僕人的僕人的上帝。

The Early Papacy早期的教皇

Scanty pieces of evidence dating back to the 1st century AD indicate that the church at Rome had already attained a certain preeminence in doctrinal matters even among those few churches which could lay claim to apostolic foundation.微薄的證據可以追溯到公元1世紀表明,在羅馬教會已經達到了一定超群的理論問題即使在一些教堂可能奠定聲稱牧靈的基礎。 The apostolic credentials of Rome, moreover, would appear to have been uniquely impressive.使徒羅馬證書,此外,似乎已獨特的令人印象深刻。 It is certain that Saint Paul had preached at Rome, and he was probably put to death there about 67 during the reign of Nero.可以肯定的是,聖保羅宣揚了在羅馬,他可能是把死亡有大約67時期的尼祿。 It seems likely, as well, that Saint Peter had visited Rome and had also been martyred there.看來,以及,即聖彼得訪問了羅馬,也有殉難。 About Peter's actual position at Rome, however, and about the position of the early Roman bishops, the historical record is silent.關於彼得的實際位置在羅馬,然而,有關的立場,早日羅馬主教,歷史記錄是沉默。 What is unquestioned is that by the 3d century the Roman bishops were representing themselves as having succeeded to the primacy that Peter had enjoyed among the apostles and as wielding within the universal church a primacy of authority in doctrinal matters.什麼是無可置疑的是,通過三維世紀羅馬主教代表自己有成功的首要的彼得一直享有的使徒和揮舞的普遍教會一至高無上權力的理論問題。

During the 4th and 5th centuries, after the Roman emperor Constantine's grant of toleration to Christianity (the Edict of Milan, 313) and its rise to the status of an official religion, a series of popes, most notably Leo I (r. 440 - 61), translated that claim into a primacy of jurisdiction over the church.在第4和第5世紀後,羅馬皇帝君士坦丁的給予寬容基督教(在米蘭敕令, 313章)及其引起的地位官方宗教,一系列的教皇,最顯著利奧一世(河440 - 61 ) ,這種說法翻譯成一個至高無上的管轄權教堂。 That claim was matched, however, by the rival claim of the church at Constantinople to a jurisdictional primacy in the East equal to that of Rome in the West.這種說法匹配,然而,由於競爭對手索賠的教堂君士坦丁堡管轄的首要東相當於羅馬在西方。 In fact, for at least another century, it was the Byzantine emperor of Constantinople who could actually claim to be functioning as the supreme leader of Christendom in spiritual as well as temporal matters.事實上,在至少一個世紀,是拜占庭皇帝君士坦丁堡誰實際上可以聲稱自己是作為最高領導人的基督教精神,以及時間問題。

The Medieval Papacy中世紀的教皇

The 6th to the 16th century marked the rise of the papacy to the position of unique prominence within the Christian community that, despite vicissitudes, it has since retained.第六屆16世紀顯著的崛起教皇的立場,獨特的突出的基督教社區,儘管滄桑,它一直保留下來。 In that complex development three broad phases may be emphasized.在這種複雜的發展三大階段可能得到強調。 The first, extending from the late 6th to the late 8th century, was marked by the turning of the papacy to the West and its escape from subordination to the authority of the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople.第一,擴大從6月底到8世紀後期,主要標誌是轉折點的教皇向西方和擺脫從屬地位的權威拜占廷皇帝君士坦丁堡。 This phase has sometimes, but improperly, been identified with the reign (590 - 604) of Gregory I, who, like his predecessors, represented to the inhabitants of the Roman world a church that was still identified with the empire.在這一階段,有時,但不當,已查明的統治( 590 -6 04)的格雷戈里我,誰像他的前任,代表居民的羅馬教會世界仍處於確定的帝國。 Unlike some of those predecessors, Gregory was forced to confront the collapse of imperial authority in northern Italy.不像一些前輩,格雷戈里是被迫面對崩潰的帝國權力的意大利北部。 As the leading civilian official of the empire in Rome, it fell to him to undertake the civil administration of the city and its environs and to negotiate for its protection with the Lombard invaders threatening it.作為領先的文職官員在羅馬帝國,它下降到他進行民事行政該市及其周圍地區和談判的保護與倫巴第侵略者威脅它。

In the 8th century, after the rise of Islam had weakened the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards had renewed their pressure in Italy, the popes finally sought support from the Frankish rulers of the West and received (754) from the Frankish king Pepin The Short the Italian territory later known as the Papal States. With the crowning (800) by Leo III of Charlemagne, first of the Carolingian emperors, the papacy also gained his protection.在8世紀後,崛起的伊斯蘭削弱了拜占庭帝國和倫巴人有壓力,再次在意大利,教皇終於尋求支持,法蘭克統治者西非和收到( 754 )從法蘭克國王丕平短的意大利領土後稱為教皇國。隨著加冕( 800 )由利奧三世查理曼,第一次加洛林皇帝,教宗也得到他的保護。

By the late 9th century, however, the Carolingian empire had disintegrated, the imperial government in Italy was powerless, and the bishopric of Rome had fallen under the domination of the nobles.到了9世紀,但是,加洛林帝國已經解體,帝國政府在意大利是無能為力的,而羅馬主教已經下降統治下的貴族。 Once again the papacy sought aid from the north, and in 962, Pope John XII crowned the German king Otto I emperor.再次尋求援助教皇來自北方,而在962 ,教皇約翰十二加冕德國國王奧托一世皇帝。 In this revived empire, soon called the Holy Roman Empire, the pope theoretically was the spiritual head, and the emperor the temporal head.在此恢復帝國,很快稱為神聖羅馬帝國,教皇在理論上是精神頭,皇帝的時間頭。 The relationship between temporal and spiritual authority, however, was to be a continuing arena of contention.之間的關係時間和精神權威,但是,將是一個持續的舞台上的爭論。 Initially, the emperors were dominant and the papacy stagnated.最初,皇帝還佔主導地位和教皇停滯不前。 The emperors themselves, however, set the papacy on the road to recovery.皇帝自己,但是,設置教皇在復甦的道路上。 In 1046, Emperor Henry III deposed three rival claimants to the papal office and proceeded to appoint, in turn, three successors.在1046年,英皇亨利三世廢黜的三個對手索賠的教皇辦公室,並著手任命反過來,三個接班人。 With the appointment in 1049 of Leo IX, the third of these, the movement of church reform, which had been gathering momentum in Burgundy and Lorraine, finally came to Rome.隨著任命在1049年的獅子座九,第三次,其中流動的教會改革,已勢頭在勃艮第和洛林,終於羅馬。 It found there in Leo and in a series of distinguished successors the type of unified central leadership it had previously lacked.結果發現,在獅子座和一系列傑出的繼任者類型的統一的中央領導集體原先缺乏。

With the papacy taking the leadership in reform, the second great phase in the process of its rise to prominence began, one that extended from the mid 11th to the mid 13th century.隨著教皇的領導,在改革的第二階段的偉大進程中的崛起,以突出的開始,即延長到11中期的13世紀中期。 It was distinguished, first, by Gregory VII's bold attack after 1075 on the traditional practices whereby the emperor had controlled appointments to the higher church offices, an attack that spawned the protracted civil and ecclesiastical strife in Germany and Italy known as the Investiture Controversy.這是尊敬,首先,由格里高利七世的大膽攻擊後, 1075年的傳統做法,即皇帝控制了任命較高的教堂辦公室,一個攻擊,引發了曠日持久的內戰和宗教紛爭在德國和意大利被稱為Investiture爭議。 It was distinguished, second, by Urban II's launching in 1095 of the Crusades, which, in an attempt to liberate the Holy Land from Muslim domination, marshaled under papal leadership the aggressive energies of the European nobility.這是尊敬,第二,城市二世在1095年發起的十字軍東征,其中,企圖解放聖地穆斯林統治,編組教皇的領導下積極能量的歐洲貴族。 Both these efforts, although ultimately unsuccessful, greatly enhanced papal prestige in the 12th and 13th centuries.這兩種努力,但最終沒有成功,大大增強教皇的威望在第12和13世紀。 Such powerful popes as Alexander III (r. 1159 - 81), Innocent III (r. 1198 - 1216), Gregory IX (r. 1227 - 41), and Innocent IV (r. 1243 - 54) wielded a primacy over the church that attempted to vindicate a jurisdictional supremacy over emperors and kings in temporal and spiritual affairs.這種強大的教皇亞歷山大三世(河1159年至1181年) ,英諾森三世(河1198年至1216年) ,格雷戈里九(河1227年至1241年) ,和無辜四(河1243年至1254年)掌握一優先教堂試圖證明管轄至高無上的皇帝和國王在時間和精神上的內政。

This last attempt proved to be abortive.這最後一次嘗試被證明是失敗。 If Innocent IV triumphed over Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, a mere half - century later Boniface VIII (r. 1294 - 1303) fell victim to the hostility of the French king Philip IV.如果無辜的四戰勝羅馬皇帝弗雷德里克二世,只有一半-世紀後波尼法爵八世(河1 294年至1 303年)的股票下跌的受害者的敵意的法國國王菲利普四。 In 1309, Pope Clement V left Rome and took up residence in Avignon, the beginning of the so - called Babylonian Captivity (1309 - 78), during which all the popes were French, lived in Avignon, and were subject to French influence, until Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome.在1309年,教皇克萊門特V離開羅馬,並討論了居住在阿維尼翁,開始做-所謂的巴比倫籠養( 1 309年至1 378年) ,在這期間所有的教皇是法國人,住在阿維尼翁,並受到法國的影響力,直到格雷戈里十一的教皇返回羅馬。 During the 13th and 14th centuries, therefore, papal authority over the universal church was exercised increasingly at the sufferance of national rulers and local princes of Europe.在第13和14世紀,因此,羅馬教皇權威的普遍教堂被越來越多地行使在痛苦的國家的統治者和地方王子歐洲。 This fact became dismally clear during the Great Schism of the West (1378 - 1418), when two, and later three, rival claimants disputed for the papal office, dividing the church into rival "obediences"; in their desperate attempts to win support, the claimants opened the way to the exploitation of ecclesiastical resources for dynastic and political ends.這是令人沮喪的事實清楚地在大分裂的西( 1378年至1418年) ,當兩個,後來三個競爭對手索賠爭議的教皇辦公室,教會分裂成敵對“ obediences ” ;在他們絕望的企圖爭取支持,索賠開闢了道路剝削教會資源王朝和政治目的。

The years of schism, then, and the related efforts of the general councils of Constance and Basel to limit the papal authority, saw the onset of the process whereby the papacy was reduced to the status of an Italian principality.多年的分裂,那麼,和相關的努力,一般理事會的康斯和巴塞爾限制教皇的權威,看到了發生的過程,即減少教皇的地位,摩納哥的意大利。 Its supreme authority over the universal church had come to be no more than theoretical, the power over the national and territorial churches having passed to kings, princes, and rulers of such city - states as Venice.它的最高權力機構的普遍教堂已經到了不超過理論,權力的國家和領土教會了傳遞給國王,王子,和統治者的城市-威尼斯的國家。

The Papacy in the Age of Reformation教宗時代的改革

Such was the situation when the papacy was confronted in the early 16th century with the great challenge posed by Martin Luther to the traditional teaching on the church's doctrinal authority and much else besides.就是這樣的情況時,教皇在面臨16世紀初的巨大所帶來的挑戰馬丁路德傳統的教學教會的理論權威和許多其他負擔。 The seeming inability of Leo X (r. 1513 - 21) and those popes who succeeded him to comprehend the significance of the threat that Luther posed - or, indeed, the alienation of many Christians by the corruption that had spread throughout the church - was a major factor in the rapid growth of the Protestant Reformation.似乎無法里奧十世(河1513年至1521年)和教皇誰接替他的意義理解的威脅,海德提出的-或者更確切地說,疏遠了許多基督徒的腐敗已擴散到整個教堂-是一個主要因素快速增長的新教改革。 By the time the need for a vigorous, reforming papal leadership was recognized, much of northern Europe was lost to Catholicism.的時候,需要有一個強有力的,改革教皇的領導認識到,許多歐洲北部的損失,以天主教。

Not until the election (1534) of Paul III, who placed the papacy itself at the head of a movement for churchwide reform, did the Counter - Reformation begin.直到選舉( 1534年)的保羅三,誰把教皇本身在頭部的運動churchwide改革,沒有反-改革開始。 Paul established a reform commission, appointed several leading reformers to the College of Cardinals, initiated reform of the central administrative apparatus at Rome, authorized the founding of the Jesuits, the order that was later to prove so loyal to the papacy, and convoked the Council of Trent, which met intermittently from 1545 to 1563.保羅建立了一個改革委員會,任命幾個主要的改革派的樞機主教,發起改革的中央行政機構在羅馬,授權成立耶穌的秩序,後來證明,以便忠於教皇,並召集安理會的遄達開會間歇1545年至1563年。 The council succeeded in initiating a far - ranging moral and administrative reform, including the reform of the papacy itself, that was destined to define the shape and set the tone of Roman Catholicism into the mid - 20th century.該委員會成功地發起一個遠-包括道德和行政改革,包括改革教皇本身,這是注定要確定的形狀和定下了基調的羅馬天主教到中期- 20世紀。 The 16th century also saw the development of foreign missions, which were encouraged by the popes and enhanced their prestige. 16世紀也看到了發展的外國使團,它感到鼓舞的是,教皇和增強他們的威望。

The Papacy in the 18th and 19th Centuries教宗在18世紀和19世紀

Their diplomatic skills notwithstanding, the 17th and 18th century popes proved unable to reverse the long - established trend toward increasing royal control of national clergies and increasing autonomy of the national and local doctrines.他們的外交技巧儘管如此, 17和18世紀教皇證明無法扭轉長期-建立越來越多的趨勢王室控制的國家c lergies和提高自主的國家和地方的理論。 National doctrines of French, German, and Austrian provenance (known respectively as Gallicanism, Febronianism, and Josephism, and all of them in some measure promoting the limitation of papal prerogatives) helped reduce these popes progressively to a state of political impotence. Their decline became manifest in 1773, when, capitulating to the Bourbons, Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits, the papacy's most loyal supporters.國家學說法語,德語和奧地利出處(俗稱分別為Gallicanism , Febronianism ,並Josephism ,所有這些在一定程度上促進了限制教皇的特權)有助於減少這些教皇逐步向一個國家的政治陽痿。下降成為他們的表現在1773年,當時屈服的波旁王朝,克萊門特十四抑制耶穌,教宗的最忠實的支持者。 A few years later, despite the Concordat of 1801 reestablishing the church in France after the Revolution, the imprisonment of Pius VII by Napoleon appeared to foreshadow the very demise of the papal office.幾年之後,儘管1801年協約的重建教堂在法國大革命後,監禁皮烏斯第七拿破崙似乎預示非常消亡教皇辦公室。

What this event actually foreshadowed was the demise of the papal temporal power.這實際上預示事件的消亡教皇時間功率。 Although in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars the Congress of Vienna (1815) restored the Papal States, they were forcibly annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy in 1870, and not until 1929 with the Lateran Treaty was the "Roman Question" - the problem of nonnational status for the pope - solved.儘管在之後的拿破崙戰爭維也納大會( 1815年)恢復了教皇國,他們被強行所附新的意大利王國在1870年,而不是到1929年的拉特蘭條約是“羅馬問題” -問題的nonnational地位教皇-解決。 The treaty, which created in the heart of Rome a tiny, sovereign Vatican state, restored to the papacy a measure of temporal independence but left it with political influence rather than actual political power.該條約,它成立於羅馬的心臟微小,梵蒂岡國家主權,恢復教皇一定程度的時間獨立,但它留下的政治影響力,而不是實際的政治權力。

Paradoxically, the eclipse of papal temporal power during the 19th century was accompanied by a recovery of papal prestige.奇怪的是,這次月食的時間功率教皇在19世紀伴隨著恢復教皇的威望。 The monarchist reaction in the wake of the French Revolution and the later emergence of constitutional governments served alike, though in different ways, to sponsor that development.在君主的反應之後,法國大革命和以後出現的憲法政府服務一樣,儘管在不同的方式,以贊助商的發展。 The reinstated monarchs of Catholic Europe saw in the papacy a conservative ally rather than a jurisdictional rival.恢復君主的天主教在歐洲看到的教皇一個保守的盟友,而不是司法的競爭對手。 Later, when the institution of constitutional governments broke the ties binding the clergy to the policies of royal regimes, Catholics were freed to respond to the renewed spiritual authority of the pope.後來,當該機構的憲政政府的關係發生約束力的神職人員的政策王室制度,天主教徒被釋放,以新的精神權威的教宗。

The popes of the 19th and 20th centuries have come to exercise that authority with increasing vigor and in every aspect of religious life.教皇在19世紀和20世紀來行使這一權力日益蓬勃的生機和各個方面的宗教生活。 By the crucial pontificate of Pius IX (r. 1846 - 78), for example, papal control over worldwide Catholic missionary activity was firmly established for the first time in history.由教皇的關鍵庇護九(河1846年至1878年) ,例如,教皇控制全球天主教傳教士活動是確立在歷史上第一次。 The solemn definition of the papal primacy by the First Vatican Council gave clear theoretical underpinnings to Pius IX's own commitment to an intensified centralization of ecclesiastical government in Rome. The council's companion definition of papal infallibility strengthened the energetic exercise of the papal magisterial power that was so marked a feature of the years between Vatican I and the assembly of the Second Vatican Council in 1962.在莊嚴的定義的羅馬教皇至高無上的第一梵蒂岡委員會給予明確的理論基礎,以庇護九自己的承諾,加強中央集權的政府教會在羅馬。安理會的同伴定義教皇犯錯誤加強了有力的行使教皇權威的力量是如此顯著的一個特點梵蒂岡年間我和組裝的第二次梵蒂岡會議於1962年。

The Papacy in the 20th Century教宗在20世紀

Never before had popes been quite so active in moral and doctrinal teaching, and the great encyclicals of Leo XIII (r. 1878 - 1903) and Pius XII (r. 1939 - 58) especially, dealing with an imposing range of topics from sexual morality and eucharistic teaching to economic, social, and political ideas, became determinative in shaping the development of Catholic thinking.從來沒有被教皇如此活躍在道義上和理論上的教學,偉大的通諭的利奧十三世(河1878年至1903年)和庇護十二(河1939至1958年) ,特別是,處理實行一系列的專題性道德和聖教學,經濟,社會和政治理念,成為決定性的塑造發展的天主教思想。 The efforts of these popes, moreover, although punctuated in 1907 by Pius X's condemnation of Modernism, did much to reverse the uncompromising hostility to modern thinking that Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors, which in 1864 had condemned liberalism, socialism, modern scientific thought, biblical studies, and other liberal movements of the day, had served to dramatize.的努力,這些教皇此外,雖然間斷的在皮烏斯1907年X的譴責現代主義,大大扭轉不妥協的敵視現代思想,庇護九的教學大綱的錯誤,這在1864年譴責了自由主義,社會主義,現代科學思想,聖經研究報告,以及其他自由流動的一天,起到了戲劇化。

The continuing strength of the forces within the church favoring theological innovation and energetic reform became unmistakably evident at the Second Vatican Council, convened by John XXIII (r. 1958 - 63), and found expression especially in its decrees on ecumenism, religious liberty, the liturgy, and the nature of the church.持續的力量,力量的神學教會有利於創新和充滿活力的改革顯然是明白無誤的第二次梵蒂岡會議召開的約翰二十三世(河1958年至1963年) ,並發現表達尤其是在其法令合一,宗教的自由,禮儀,以及性質的教堂。 The ambivalence of some of those decrees, however, and the disciplinary turmoil and doctrinal dissension following the ending of the council, brought about new challenges to papal authority.矛盾的一些法令,但是,和紀律混亂和理論上的糾紛結束後,安理會,帶來了新的挑戰教皇的權威。 The establishment of national conferences of bishops tended to erode it to some degree, and Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), reaffirming the prohibition of artificial birth control, was met with both evasion and defiance.建立全國主教會議往往削弱它在一定程度上和保羅六世的通諭Humanae簡歷( 1968年) ,重申禁止人工節育,達到既迴避和無視。 By the late 1970s papal authority itself had become a bone of contention.到20世紀70年代末教皇當局本身已成為一個爭論的焦點。

Paul VI (r. 1963 - 78), however, continued the ecumenical efforts of John XXIII in his contacts with Protestant and Orthodox churches, as in his attempt to make discreet moves in the direction of pragmatic accommodation with the communist regimes of eastern Europe, a policy that would have been unthinkable during the reigns of Pius XI and Pius XII.保羅六世(河63年至78年) ,然而,基督教繼續努力約翰二十三世在他的接觸,新教和東正教教堂,因為他企圖使謹慎的舉措,務實的方向住宿的共產主義政權的東歐,一項政策,將是不可想像的統治碧岳十一和庇護十二。 Paul also reorganized the curia and spoke strongly for peace and social justice.保羅還改組了教廷,並以強烈的和平和社會正義。 With the accession of the Polish John Paul II (1978 - ) the church had, for the first time since Adrian VI in the 16th century, a non - Italian pope.隨著加入波蘭約翰保羅二世( 1978 -)的教堂已以來的第一次阿德里安六世在1 6世紀,一個非-意大利教宗。

Francis Oakley弗朗西斯奧克利

Bibliography 目錄
N Cheetham, Keepers of the Keys: A History of the Popes from Saint Peter to John Paul II (1983); JA Corbett, The Papacy: A Brief History (1956); C Falconi, The Popes in the Twentieth Century (1967); M Guarducci, The Tradition of Peter in the Vatican (1965); P Hebblethwaite, The Year of Three Popes (1979); L Hertling, Communio: Church and Papacy in Early Christianity (1972); E John, ed., The Popes: A Concise Biographical History (1964); H Kung, The Papal Ministry in the Church (1971); PJ McCord, ed., A Pope for All Christians? ñ Cheetham ,保護者的主題詞:史教皇從聖彼得對約翰保羅二世( 1983年) ;茉莉科貝特,教宗:簡史( 1956年) ; ç法爾科尼,教皇在20世紀( 1967年) ; M Guarducci ,傳統的彼得在梵蒂岡( 1965年) ; P Hebblethwaite ,今年三教皇( 1979年) ; L Hertling , Communio :教會和教皇在早期基督教( 1972年) ;電子郵件約翰,版。 ,教皇:簡明歷史傳記( 1964 ) ; H西貢,教皇部在教會( 1971年) ; PJ夜,編輯。 ,教皇為所有基督徒? An Inquiry into the Role of Peter in the Modern Church (1976); P Nichols, The Politics of the Vatican (1968); MM O'Dwyer, The Papacy in the Age of Napoleon and the Restoration: Pius VII, 1800 - 1823 (1985);探討中的作用彼得在現代教會( 1976年) ; P尼科爾斯的政治梵蒂岡( 1968年) ;莫斯利奧德懷爾,教宗時代的拿破崙和恢復:皮烏斯七, 1800至1823年( 1985年) ;

L Pastor, A History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages(1886 - 1933); Y Renouard, The Avignon Papacy, 1305 - 1403 (1970); JMC Toynbee, and JB Ward - Perkins, The Shrine of Saint Peter and the Vatican Excavations (1956); W Ullman, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages (1970); KO Von Aretin, The Papacy and the Modern World (1970). L牧師,史教皇從關閉中世紀( 1886年至1933年) ; Y Renouard ,教皇在阿維尼翁, 1405至03年( 1970年) ;軍委會湯恩比,和JB沃德-珀金斯,該神社的聖彼得和梵蒂岡的發掘( 1956年) ; W烏爾曼,生長教皇政府在中世紀( 1970年) ;正馮Aretin ,教宗與現代世界( 1970年) 。


Papacy教皇

Advanced Information 先進的信息

As head of the Roman Catholic Church the pope is considered the successor of Peter and the vicar of Christ.擔任羅馬天主教教皇被認為是繼任者彼得和基督的副主教。 He is also, and first of all, the bishop of Rome and, for Eastern Christians, the patriarch of the West.他還和第一,羅馬主教,並為東歐基督教徒,家長西。 The term pappa, from which the word "pope" is derived, originated in ancient colloquial Greek as an endearing term for "father," and was then applied, beginning in the third century, to Eastern patriarchs, bishops, abbots, and eventually parish priests (of whom it is still used today).任期pappa ,而改為“教皇” ,推導出,起源於古希臘口語作為一項長期優勝的“父親” ,然後應用,開始在第三世紀,東始祖,主教, abbots ,並最終堂牧師(其中仍然是今天使用) 。 In the West the term was never very common outside Rome (originally a Greek-speaking church), and from the sixth century became reserved increasingly for the bishop of Rome, until in the later eleventh century Pope Gregory VII made that official.在西方的術語是非常常見從未羅馬郊外(原為希臘講教堂) ,並從6世紀開始越來越多地保留為羅馬主教,直到後來在11世紀教宗格雷戈里第七正式提出。 The term "papacy" (papatus), meant to distinguish the Roman bishop's office from all other bishoprics (episcopatus), also originated in the later eleventh century.術語“教皇” ( papatus ) ,意味著區分羅馬主教的辦公地點從所有其他bishoprics ( episcopatus ) ,也起源於11世紀以後。

For Catholics the papacy represents an office divinely instituted by Christ in his charge to Peter (Matt. 16:18-19; Luke 22:31-32; John 21:15-17), and therefore something to be revered and obeyed as a part of Christian faith and duty.對於天主教徒的教宗代表辦公室提起神基督在他負責彼得(瑪特泰16:18-19 ;盧克22:31-32 ;約翰21:15-17 ) ,因此值得尊敬和遵守作為部分信仰基督教和義務。 But the papal role has in fact varied from age to age, and a historical survey is required first to put papal claims into perspective.但是,教皇的作用,事實上從年齡不同的年齡,和一個歷史調查是首先需要把教皇的索賠到的觀點。

History歷史

The first three and a half centuries of papal history have left remarkably little record . 前三個半世紀的教皇歷史留下記錄著什麼 That Peter ministered and died in Rome now seems beyond doubt, but a monarchical episcopate emerged there only in the early second century, and a half-century later still came those lists of successive bishops designed to show their preservation of the original apostolic faith.這ministered和彼得在羅馬去世現在看來毫無疑問的,但君主主教出現只有在第二個世紀早期,和一個半世紀後仍是這些名單歷任主教旨在展示其保存的原始使徒的信仰。 The church at Rome nevertheless enjoyed a certain prominence, owing to its apostolic "founders" and to its political setting, and this eventually inspired its bishops to exercise greater leadership.教會在羅馬仍然享有某些突出,由於其使徒的“創始人”和它的政治背景,而這最終促成其主教行使更大的領導作用。 Victor (ca. 190) rebuked the churches of Asia Minor for celebrating Easter on the incorrect date, and Stephan (254-57), for the first known time explicitly claiming to stand on the Petrine deposit of faith, ruled against the churches of North Africa on sacraments administered by heretics.維克多(約190 )斥責教會的小亞細亞為慶祝復活節不正確的日期和史蒂芬( 254-57 ) ,首次明確地知道時間聲稱站在伯多祿存款的信心,排除對朝鮮教會非洲聖禮管理的異端。

Between the midfourth and the midfifth centuries, the apogee of the Western imperial church, Roman popes developed and articulated those claims which were to become characteristic.之間的midfourth和midfifth世紀,遠地點為西方帝國主義教堂,羅馬教皇制定並闡明這些要求是成為特點。 Over against emperors and patriarchs in Constantinople, who claimed that their church in "new Rome" virtually equaled that of "old Rome," the popes asserted vehemently that their primacy derived from Peter and not from their political setting, making theirs the only truly "apostolic see." Siricius (384-98) and Innocent (401-17) issued the first extant decretals, letters modeled on imperial rescripts in which popes ruled definitively on matters put to them by local churches.在對皇帝和君士坦丁堡牧首,誰聲稱,他們的教堂中的“新羅馬”這幾乎等於“老羅馬” ,在教皇強烈主張,他們的首要來自彼得,而不是從他們的政治背景,使他們的唯一真正的“使徒見。 “ Siricius ( 384-98 )和無辜( 401-17 )發出第一個現存的decretals ,字母仿照帝國rescripts在教皇統治的問題上明確向他們提出的當地教堂。 Leo the Great (440-61), who first appropriated the old pagan title of pontifex maximus, intervened with his Tome at the Council of Chalcedon to establish orthodox Christology, told a recalcitrant archbishop that he merely "participated in" a "fullness of power" reserved to popes alone (this later to become an important principle in canon law), and provided in his letters and sermons a highly influential description of the Petrine office and its primacy, drawing in part upon principles found in Roman law.獅子座大( 440-61 ) ,誰第一次撥款的舊異教徒標題pontifex鮃,干預他的聖多美和普林西比在安理會的卡爾西建立正統的基督說頑抗的大主教說,他只是“參與”了“豐滿的權力“教皇保留單獨(這後來成為一個重要的原則,教會法) ,並提供了在他的信件和說教的高度影響力的說明伯辦公室和其至高無上,利用部分原則時發現羅馬法。 Gelasius (492-96), finally, over against emperors inclined to intervene at will in ecclesiastical affairs, asserted an independent and higher pontifical authority in religious matters.格拉西( 492-96 ) ,最後,對皇帝傾向於在將干預教會事務中,主張獨立的和更高的宗座權力的宗教事務。

Throughout the early Middle Ages (600-1050) papal claims remained lofty, but papal power diminished considerably.在整個中世紀早期( 600-1050 )教皇仍然是崇高的索賠要求,但教皇的權力大大削弱。 All churches, East and West, recognized in the "vicar of St. Peter" a certain primacy of honor, but the East virtually never consulted him and the West only when it was expedient.所有教堂,東方和西方,認識到在“副主教聖彼得”一定至高無上的榮譽,但東方幾乎從未徵詢他和西方只有當它是權宜之計。 In practice, councils of bishops, with kings often presiding over them, ruled in the various Western territorial churches.在實踐中,理事會主教,往往與國王主持他們,排除各種西方領土的教堂。 Reform initiatives came from the outside, even when (as with Boniface and Charlemagne) they sought normative guidance from Rome.改革的多項措施來自境外,即使在(與博尼費斯和查理曼) ,他們要求的規範性指導,羅馬。 Two innovations deserve mention: in the mideighth century the papacy broke with the Eastern ("Roman") emperor and allied itself henceforth with Western royal powers; at the same time popes laid claims to the papal states, lands in central Italy meant to give them autonomy but in fact burdening them with political responsibilities which became very damaging to their spiritual mission during the later Middle Ages and were not finally removed until the forcible unification of Italy in 1870.兩項創新技術值得一提:在mideighth世紀的教皇打破了東區( “羅馬” )皇帝和盟國今後與西方王室的權力,同時規定要求教皇的教皇國,土地在意大利中部意味著給他們自主權,但實際上他們承擔的政治責任,成為嚴重損害他們的精神使命在中世紀晚期,也沒有刪除,直到最後強行統一在1870年意大利。

The papacy emerged during the High Middle Ages (1050-1500) as the real leader of Western Christendom, beginning with the so-called Gregorian reform movement (its claims neatly epitomized in twenty-seven dicta noted down by Pope Gregory VII), culminating initially in the reign of Pope Innocent III (his reforms permanently inscribed in the Fourth Lateran Council), and waning again during the Great Schism and the conciliar movement.在教皇出現在高級中古( 1050年至1500年) ,作為真正的領袖西方基督教開始,所謂的陽曆改革運動(其要求整齊地體現在2007年論述指出由教皇格里高利七) ,最終最初在統治諾森三世(他的改革永遠銘刻在第四次拉特蘭理事會) ,並減弱期間再次大分裂和conciliar運動。 In 1059 a new election law (with modifications made in 1179, the same as that in force today) raised the pope above all other bishops, who were in principle still elected by their clergy and people.在1059年一個新的選舉法(修改了1179年相同,今天生效)提出了教皇高於所有其他主教,誰是在原則上仍然由他們選出的神職人員和人民。 Henceforth the pope would be elected solely by cardinals, themselves papal appointees given liturgical and administrative responsibilities, and he could be chosen from among all eligible clergymen (preferably cardinals) rather than, as the older law held, only from among Romans.從今以後,教皇將完全由選舉產生的樞機主教,自己給羅馬教皇任命的禮儀和行政責任,他可以選擇從所有合資格的神職人員(最好樞機主教) ,而不是作為舉行老年人的法律,只有從羅馬。 Papal decretals replaced conciliar canons as the routine and normative form of regulation, and this "new law" (little changed prior to the new codes issued in 1917 and 1982) reached down uniformly into every diocese in the West.教皇decretals取代conciliar大砲的日常性和規範性的監管方式,這一“新的法律” (變化不大之前發出新的代碼在1917年和1982年)達成了一致到每一個教區在西方。 The papal curia or court, reorganized and massively expanded, became the center of ecclesiastical finance and administration.在教皇的教廷或法院,改組和大規模擴大,成為教會中心的財務和行政管理。 Legates carried papal authority into all parts of Europe. Legates進行教皇權力納入所有歐洲部分地區。 The papal call to crusade brought thousands of laymen to arms, and eventually had important implications in the area of clerical taxation and the issuing of indulgences.教皇呼籲十字軍東征帶來了成千上萬的外行人武器,並最終有重要影響領域的辦事員稅收和發行indulgences 。 Above all, this revitalized papacy constantly asserted the priority of the spiritual over the material world, and adopted for itself a new title as head of the church, that of "vicar [or placeholder] of Christ."總之,這振興教皇不斷聲稱優先的精神的物質世界,並通過自己一個新的標題擔任教堂,即“副主教[或預留位置]基督。 ”

The early modern papacy (1517-1789) began with a staggering defeat. Protestant Reformers, persuaded that the papacy had corrupted the gospel beyond all hope of reform, revolted. The so-called Renaissance papacy had largely lost sight of its spiritual mission, and was forced reluctantly into the reforms articulated by the Council of Trent (1545-63).早期現代教皇( 1517年至1789年)開始了驚人的失敗。新教改革者,說服的教皇已損壞的福音超出所有人都希望改革,反感。 所謂的文藝復興時期的教皇在很大程度上忽略了其精神的任務,被迫不情願地到所闡述的改革,安理會的遄達 ( 1545年至1563年) 。 The papacy then took charge of deep and lasting reforms in, eg, training clergy, upholding new standards for the episcopal and priestly offices, and providing a new catechism.教宗接著負責深刻和持久的改革,例如,培訓神職人員,堅持新標準的主教和司鐸辦事處,並提供了一個新的教義。 The number of cardinals was set at seventy (until the last generation), and "Congregations" were established to oversee various aspects of the church's mission.數量樞機主教被定為七十(直到最後一代)和“公理”的建立是為了監督各方面的教會的使命。

The critical attack of Enlightenment thinkers (Josephinism in Austria) together with growing national (Gallicanism in France) and episcopal (Febronianism in Germany) resistance to papal authority culminated in the French Revolution and its aftermath, during which time two popes (Pius VI, Pius VII) endured humiliating imprisonments.關鍵的攻擊啟蒙思想家( Josephinism在奧地利) ,加上越來越多的國家( Gallicanism在法國)和主教( Febronianism在德國)抵制羅馬教皇的權力導致法國大革命及其後果,在這期間兩個教皇(皮烏斯六,皮烏斯七)遭受屈辱監禁。 But the forces of restoration, combined with the official indifference or open hostility of secularized governments, led to a strong resurgence of centralized papal authority known as ultramontanism. Pope Pius IX (1846-78) made this the program of his pontificate, codified it as a part of the Catholic faith in the decrees on papal primacy and infallibility in Vatican Council I (1869-70), and enforced it with an unprecedented degree of Roman centralization that characterized the Catholic Church into the 1960s.但是,部隊的恢復,加上官方漠不關心或公開敵視的世俗政府,導致了強有力的復甦教皇權力集中稱為ultramontanism 。庇護九( 1846年至1878年)使這一計劃的教皇,這是編纂一部分信仰天主教的法令教皇至高無上和絕對的梵蒂岡理事會口( 1869年至1870年) ,並強迫它了前所未有的程度羅馬中央集權的特點是天主教會進入20世紀60年代。 Leo XIII (1878-1903), the first pope in centuries to have chiefly spiritual obligations following the loss of the papal states, approved neo-Thomism as an official challenge to modern philosophy and defined a Catholic position on social justice over against radical labor unions.利奧十三世( 1878年至1903年) ,第一次教皇世紀的主要精神有以下義務損失的教皇國,批准新Thomism作為正式挑戰現代哲學並確定了天主教對社會正義的反對激進的工會。 Pius X (1903-14) condemned scattered efforts to bring into the Catholic Church the critical study of Scripture and divergent philosophical views known collectively as "modernism."皮烏斯第十章( 1903年至一九一四年)譴責分散的努力,以實現到天主教教會的重要研究聖經和不同的哲學觀點統稱為“現代主義” 。 Pius XII (1939-58) used the papacy's infallible authority for the first time to define the bodily assumption of Mary as Catholic dogma.碧岳十二( 1939年至58年)使用了教皇的絕對權威,首次確定身體瑪麗擔任天主教教條。 Throughout the last century mass media, mass transportation, and mass audiences have made the popes far better known and more highly reverenced in their persons (as distinguished from their office) than ever before.在整個20世紀大眾傳播媒介,大眾交通,大眾作出了教皇遠遠更好地了解和更高度reverenced在其人(不同於其辦公室)比以往任何時候。 Vatican Council II (1962-65) brought deep reforms, in particular a much greater emphasis upon bishops acting collegially with one another and the pope.梵蒂岡理事會第二( 1962至1965年)帶來了深刻改革,特別是更加重視對集體代理主教,它們相互之間以及教皇。 Protestants are pleased to see a return to Scripture in the papacy's conception of the church's mission and the priest's office, together with a far greater openness toward other Christian churches.新教徒高興地看到,回到聖經中的教皇的概念教會的使命和神父的辦公室,同大得多開放對其他基督教教堂。

Papal primacy rests upon the power of the keys which Christ conferred upon Peter and his successors, though it has obviously varied in principle and especially in practice throughout the centuries.教皇至高無上取決於權力的基督鑰匙授予彼得和他的繼任者,但有明顯不同的原則,在實踐中特別是在整個世紀。 Leo the Great and the high medieval popes claimed for themselves a "fullness of power" which Vatican Council I defined as "ordinary" and "immediate" jurisdiction over the church and all the faithful in matters of discipline and ecclesiastical authority as well as faith and morals, thus potentially transforming the pope into a supreme bishop and all other bishops into mere vicars, an imbalance which Vatican Council II sought to redress with far greater emphasis upon the episcopal office. The triumph of papal primacy has nevertheless at least three noteworthy results.李大和高中世紀教皇宣稱自己是“充滿力量”的梵蒂岡理事會我定義為“普通”和“立即”管轄權的教堂和所有忠實的事項的紀律和教會的權力,以及信仰和道德,從而有可能轉化成教宗的最高主教和所有其他主教納入純粹vicars ,一個不平衡,梵蒂岡理事會第二設法補救大得多強調的主教辦公室。的勝利教皇至高無上儘管如此,至少有三個值得注意的結果。 (1) In the continuing tug of war between papal and conciliar/episcopal authority, the pope has effectively gained the upper hand. ( 1 )在繼續拔河之間的教皇和conciliar /主教的權力,教宗已有效地佔上風。 He alone has the divinely given power to convoke councils and to authorize their decisions (something reaffirmed at Vatican Council II).他就有了神給予的權力召集議會,並授權其決定(東西重申梵蒂岡理事會二) 。 (2) Since the fourteenth century, and especially since the ninteenth, episcopal appointments have been removed from local clergy and laymen and reserved to Rome (which tends to preserve loyalty to the pope but also prevents churches from falling prey to local factions and national governments). ( 2 )自14世紀,特別是自十九,主教的任命已被調離當地神職人員和外行人,並保留向羅馬(往往保持忠於教宗,但也可以防止從教堂陷入地方派系和國家政府) 。 (3) In general, Rome's approval is needed for all laws which govern the church's institutions, liturgies which shape its worship, courts which enforce its discipline, orders which embody its religious life, and missions sent around the world, though there has been some decentralization in the immediate aftermath of Vatican Council II. ( 3 )一般來說,羅馬的批准所需的所有法律,管理教會的機構,其形狀liturgies的崇拜,法院強制執行其紀律,訂單體現其宗教生活,並派遣調查團在世界各地,儘管出現了一些在權力下放後立即梵蒂岡理事會二。 Like all monarchical structures, primacy can be and usually is a very conservative force, though it can also initiate sweeping change, as in the reforms of the last two decades.像所有的君主結構,優先可以和通常是一個非常保守勢力,但它也可以開始發生翻天覆地變化,如在改革過去二十年。

Until the last century, when papal pronouncements on a host of religious issues first became a regular feature of the Catholic Church, primacy in matters of faith and morals received far less attention than primacy of jurisdiction.直到上個世紀,教皇的言論時,就一系列宗教問題首次成為一個經常性特點的天主教教會,首要的問題的信念和道德收到少得多注意多至上的管轄範圍之內。 Down to the sixteenth century and beyond, popes normally adjudicated matters first argued in schools and local churches, rather than initiating legislation themselves.到16世紀以後,教皇裁決的事項通常認為首先在學校和地方教會,而不是發起立法本身。 All bishops originally possessed the magisterium, or the authority to preserve and to teach the faith handed down from the apostles, and general councils of bishops were called (usually by emperors) to resolve controverted doctrinal issues.所有的主教原先擁有magisterium ,或權威,維護和教的信仰流傳的使徒,和一般理事會主教被稱為(通常是皇帝) ,以解決controverted理論問題。

Rome eventually gained a certain preeminence, owing partly to the fame of its apostolic "founders" (Peter and Paul) and partly to its enviable record of orthodoxy, though this was not always above reproach, as in the condemnation of Honorius I (625-38) for his position on monothelitism, something which entered into the debate on infallibility.羅馬最終取得了一定的優越,部分原因是對名利的使徒“創始人” (彼得和保羅)和部分令人羨慕的記錄正統,雖然這並不總是無可指責,如譴責挪留口( 625 - 38歲) ,他的立場monothelitism ,這是進入辯論犯錯誤。 In the High Middle Ages the unfailing faith Christ promised to pray for (Luke 22:31-32) was understood to apply not to the whole church but to the Roman Church and then more narrowly to the Roman pope.在高級中世紀的不懈信仰基督答應祈禱(路22:31-32 )被理解為不是適用於整個教堂,但羅馬教會,然後更狹義的羅馬教皇。 Infallibility was first ascribed to him in the fourteenth century and defined as binding dogma after much debate and some dissent in 1870.犯錯誤是第一次歸因於他在14世紀,並確定有約束力的教條許多辯論之後,一些持不同政見在1870年。 This was intended to guarantee and preserve the truths of the apostolic faith.這是旨在保障和維護真理的使徒的信仰。 When Protestants disagree about Scripture's teaching on a certain doctrine, they appeal to a famous founder (Calvin, Wesley, etc.), their denominational creeds, or their own understanding; Catholics appeal to the authority they believe Christ conferred upon his vicar.當新教徒不同意聖經的教學上有一定的理論,他們呼籲著名的創始人(加爾文,韋斯利等) ,他們的教派信仰,或自己的理解;呼籲天主教徒的權威,他們相信基督賦予他的副主教。 Though popes are careful to distinguish fallible from infallible statements and have in fact made only one of the latter, their Petrine authority and frequent modern pronouncements can tend, as Luther first charged, to generate a new law and obscure the freedom of Christ.雖然教皇是仔細區分犯錯誤從萬無一失的陳述和已經實際上只有一個是後者,其伯權威和頻繁的現代言論往往可以作為路德首次指控,創造了一項新的法律,並掩蓋了自由的基督。

Comparative Views比較觀

It is helpful to compare the position of the Eastern Orthodox, contemporary dissenting Catholics, and Protestants with the traditional view of the papacy. 這是有益的,比較的立場,東正教,當代持反對意見的天主教徒,新教徒與傳統觀點的教皇。

The Orthodox considered the church to be organized around five patriarchates, with the see of Peter in the West holding a certain primacy of honor but not final authority. They have consistently refused to recognize any extraordinary magisterial authority (which resides in the teachings of general councils). 東正教教會認為,將舉辦約5牧首轄區,與彼得看到在西方某些持有至高無上榮譽,但不是最終的權力。他們始終拒絕承認任何非凡的權威機構(其中居住在教導一般理事會) 。 The catalyst which finally divided the Eastern and Western churches in 1054 was Rome's revitalized claim to primacy, worsened by papal support for the crusades and establishment of a Latin hierarchy in the East.該催化劑,最終分為東歐和西歐的教堂是在1054年羅馬的振興首要要求,進一步惡化了教皇的支持,十字軍和建立一個拉丁美洲層次的問題。 As hostility toward Rome increased, the Orthodox became ever clearer in their exegesis of the keys: the church was built upon Peter's confession of faith (which the Orthodox had preserved intact), not upon Peter himself or his sometime wayward successors.至於羅馬敵意增加,正成為越來越清楚地在其註釋的關鍵:教會是建立在彼得的自白信仰(其中東正教保存了完整的) ,而不是根據彼得本人或其某個任性的接班人。 More recently, the Orthodox found the declaration of infallibility almost as offensive as did Protestants.最近,東正教發現申報犯錯誤的進攻幾乎一樣新教徒。

Catholics have never uniformly reverenced the papacy to the degree that most Protestants believe and that the ultramontane movement of the last century might have suggested .天主教徒從來沒有統一的教皇reverenced的程度,大多數的新教徒認為,而且ultramontane運動上個世紀可能有建議。 Outright repudiation nevertheless was rare.然而,徹底否定是罕見的。 The so-called Old Catholics split away after the infallibility decree, and a small conservative group has denounced the changes wrought by Vatican Council II.所謂的老天主教徒分割出去後,絕對命令,和一個小保守團體譴責的變化所造成的梵蒂岡理事會二。 But in the last generation some theologians, led by Hans Kung, have openly questioned infallibility, and many faithful Catholic have rejected the stand on contraception enunciated in Pope Paul VI's Humanae vitae (1968).但是,在上一代的一些神學家,由漢斯西貢,曾公開質疑犯錯誤,許多忠實的天主教反對避孕的立場中所闡述的教皇保羅六世的Humanae簡歷( 1968年) 。 There is increased suspicion of Roman primatial claims and considerable ferment in favor of episcopal and conciliar authority.人們越來越懷疑羅馬primatial索賠和大量發酵有利於主教和conciliar權威。 But whether this is merely a momentary reaction or something of lasting significance is not yet clear.但是,這是否僅僅是一種暫時的反應或某種持久的意義尚不清楚。

Until the last generation Protestants have had almost nothing but evil to say of the papacy. Luther, contrary to popular myth, did not revolt easily against papal authority and for a long time held to the conviction of a Petrine office charged with the care of souls in the church; but when he became convinced that the vicar of Christ had in fact distorted and obstructed the proclamation of the gospel, he labeled him instead the "antichrist," and that label stuck for centuries. 直到最後一代的新教徒已幾乎沒有,但說邪惡的教皇。路德相反,流行的神話,沒有反抗很容易對教皇的權威和很長一段時間舉行的一個信念伯多祿辦公室負責照顧的靈魂在教堂裡;但是當他成為深信,副主教基督實際上已經歪曲和阻撓宣布福音,他不是他標示的“反基督” ,並堅持該標籤的世紀。 Indeed "popery" and its equivalent in other languages came to stand for all that was wrong with the Roman Catholic Church.事實上“ popery ”和與其等值的其他語言來立場的一切是錯誤的羅馬天主教。

Liberal Protestants have meanwhile dismissed the papacy as a vestige of superstition, while several extremely conservative groups, often in gross misunderstanding of the papacy and its actual function, continue to link it with all that is evil in the world. 自由新教徒已同時駁回了教皇作為一個遺留的迷信,而一些極端保守的群體,往往是在嚴重誤解教皇和它的實際作用,繼續聯繫與一切邪惡的世界。

Since Vatican Council II evangelical Christians have come better to understand and to appreciate the pope as a spokesman for Christ's church, yet few would go so far as some ecumenically minded Lutherans, who suggested that a less authoritarian papacy could function as the rallying point for a reunited church. 自從梵蒂岡第二福音派基督徒來更好地理解和欣賞教宗的發言人基督的教會,但很少有人會去迄今ecumenically一些志同道合路德會,誰建議,那麼專制教皇可以發揮作為著力點為團聚教堂。 Most Protestants still consider the notion of a primatial Petrine office, instituted by Christ and conferred upon the bishops of Rome, to be scripturally and historically unfounded. Therefore the doctrine and office of the papacy will probably continue to divide Catholic from Protestant and Orthodox Christians for the foreseeable future.多數新教徒仍然認為的概念primatial伯辦公室,制定了基督和賦予的主教,羅馬將scripturally和歷史上是毫無根據的。因此,理論和辦事處的教皇將可能繼續鴻溝新教天主教和東正教基督徒在可預見的未來。

J Van Engen J範根
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
NCE, X, 951-70; XI, 779-81; LTK, VIII, 36-48; VI, 884-90; DTC, XI, 1877-1944; XIII, 247-391; RGG, V, 51-85; TG Jalland, The Church and the Papacy; K. von Aretin, The Papacy and the Modern World; JD Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See; S. Hendrix, Luther and the Papacy; PC Empie, ed., Papal Primacy and the Universal Church; C. Mirbt and K. Aland, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums und des romischen Katholizismus.競爭性考試,第十, 951-70 ;十一, 779-81 ;樂庭,八, 36-48 ;六, 884-90 ;存款,十一, 1877至1944年;十三, 247-391 ; RGG ,五, 51-85 ;熱Jalland ,教會和教皇的K.馮Aretin ,教宗與現代世界;第納爾霍姆斯的勝利羅馬教廷;美國里克斯,路德和教皇;電腦Empie ,編輯。 ,教皇的Primacy和普世教會;角Mirbt和K.奧蘭, Quellen楚史與Papsttums萬romischen Katholizismus 。


Papacy教皇

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of these uses it denotes the ecclesiastical system in which the pope as successor of St. Peter and Vicar of Jesus Christ governs the Catholic Church as its supreme head.這個詞是在一個宗教和歷史意義。前在這些使用它是指系統在教會的教皇作為繼任者的聖彼得和牧師耶穌基督執政的天主教會作為其最高元首。 In the latter, it signifies the papal influence viewed as a political force in history.在後者,它標誌著教皇的影響力看作是一個政治力量的歷史。 (See APOSTOLIC SEE; APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION; CHURCH; PAPAL ARBITRATION; POPE; UNITY.) (見使徒看使徒繼承;教會PAPAL仲裁;教宗;團結。 )

Publication information Written by GH Joyce.出版信息撰稿生長激素喬伊斯。 Transcribed by Marcia L. Bellafiore. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄的瑪西婭研究Bellafiore 。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat二月一日1911 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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