Pantheism泛神論

General Information 一般信息

Pantheism is the belief that everything is divine, that God is not separate from but totally identified with the world, and that God does not possess personality or transcendence.泛神論是相信一切都是神聖的,神是不分開的,但完全等同於世界, 上帝不具備個性或超越。

Pantheism generally can be traced to two sources.泛神論一般可以追溯到兩個來源。 The first is the Vedic tradition (Hinduism), which begins with the belief that the divine principle from which everything arises is a unity and that the perception of multiplicity is illusory and unreal.首先是吠陀傳統(印度教),它始於相信,一切神聖的原則,從中產生是一個團結和多樣性的看法是虛幻和不真實。 In the Vedanta, Brahman is the infinite reality behind the illusory and imperfect world of perception.在韋丹塔,婆羅門是無限的現實背後的虛幻和不完美的世界的看法。 Our knowledge is imperfect because we experience subject and object as distinct.我們的知識是不完善的,因為我們的經驗作為不同的主體和對象。 When subject and object are equated, however, all distinctions are eliminated and we know Brahman.當主體與客體是等同起來,但是,所有的區別被淘汰,我們知道婆羅門。

In the Western tradition the cosmology of the Stoics and, more importantly, the emanationist hierarchy of Neoplatonism tend toward pantheism. In Judeo - Christian thought the emphasis on the transcendence of God inhibits pantheism. Nevertheless, a form of pantheism is found in the thought of the medieval scholastic John Scotus Erigena, who viewed the universe as a single, all - inclusive system with various simultaneous stages. The most important modern version of pantheism is that of Baruch Spinoza.在西方傳統的宇宙觀的Stoics,更重要的是,emanationist層次的新柏拉圖趨向泛神論。 在猶太教-基督教思想的重點是抑制的超越神的泛神論。然而,泛神論的形式被發現在該思想中世紀的學術約翰司各脫埃里杰納,誰看宇宙作為一個單一的,所有的-包括系統的各種同步階段。最重要的現代版的泛神論是,巴魯克斯賓諾莎。 For him nature is infinite, but because the only being capable of genuine infinity is God, God must be identical, in essence, with nature.對他來說自然是無限的,而是因為只有能夠真正被無限是上帝,上帝必須是相同的,在本質上與自然。 In the 18th and 19th centuries the various forms of Idealism sometimes tended toward pantheism, often in the form of a theory of cosmic evolution.在18世紀和19世紀的各種形式的唯心主義有時趨向泛神論,常常在構成宇宙演化的理論。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
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Donald Gotterbarn唐納德 Gotterbarn

Bibliography 書目
AH Armstrong, ed., The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy (1967); EM Curley, Spinoza's Metaphysics (1969); AO Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being (1936); N Smart, Doctrine and Argument in Indian Philosophy (1964).啊阿姆斯特朗,編輯。,劍橋歷史後來希臘和中世紀早期的哲學(1967年);電磁柯利,斯賓諾莎的形而上學(1969年);敖洛夫喬伊,大連鎖的存在(1936年); ñ智能,學說爭論的印度哲學(1964年)。


Pantheism泛神論

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The word, coming from the Greek pan and theos, means "everything is God."這個詞,來自希臘泛和西奧斯,意思是“一切都是上帝。” It was coined by John Toland in 1705 to refer to philosophical systems that tend to identify God with the world.這是創造於1705年由約翰托蘭指哲學系統,往往以確定上帝與世界。 Such doctrines have been viewed as a mediating position between atheism and classical theism by some, while others have concluded that pantheism is really a polite form of atheism because God is identified with everything.這種理論已被視為調解的立場之間的無神論和有神論古典一些,而另一些則認為,泛神論的形式確實是一個有禮貌的無神論,因為上帝是確定了一切。

Pantheism may be contrasted with biblical theism from a number of perspectives.泛神論可能與聖經有神論的觀點從一個數字。 Pantheism either mutes or rejects the biblical teaching of the transcendence of God in favor of his radical immanence.泛神論要么靜音或拒絕聖經教學的超越的上帝,贊成他的激進的內在性。 It is typically monistic about reality, whereas biblical theism distinguishes between God and the world.它通常是一元左右的現實,而聖經有神論區分上帝和世界。 Because of pantheism's tendency to identify God with nature, there is a minimizing of time, often making it illusory.由於泛神論的傾向,神與自然,有一個最小的時間,往往使虛幻的。 The biblical understanding of God and the world is that God is eternal and the world finite, although God acts in time and knows what takes place in it.聖經了解上帝和世界,上帝是永恆的和有限的世界,雖然在時間和神的行為發生在知道它。 In forms of pantheism where God literally encompasses the world, man is an utterly fated part of the universe which is necessarily as it is.在形式的泛神論上帝在字面上涵蓋了世界,人類注定是一個完全的宇宙的一部分,因為它是必然。 In such a world freedom is an illusion. Biblical theism, on the other hand, holds to the freedom of man, insisting that this freedom is compatible with God's omniscience.在這樣一個世界的自由是一種幻想。聖經有神論,另一方面,堅持以人的自由,這種自由是堅持兼容與上帝的無所不知。

It would be erroneous to conclude, however, that pantheism is a monolithic position.這將是錯誤的結論,然而,泛神論是單片的立場。 The more important forms are as follows:更重要的形式如下:

Hylozoistic pantheism Hylozoistic泛神論

The divine is immanent in, and characteristically regarded as the basic element of, the world, giving movement and change to the whole.神聖的是內在的,並且被視為典型的基本要素,面向世界,讓運動和變化的整體。 The universe, however, remains a plurality of separate elements.宇宙,但是,仍然是一個多元化的獨立元素。 This view was popular among some of the early Greek philosophers.這種觀點是流行在一些早期的希臘哲學家。

Immanentistic pantheism Immanentistic泛神論

God is a part of the world and immanent in it, although his power is exercised throughout its entirety.上帝是世界的一部分,並在它內在的,儘管他在其行使權力的全部內容。

Absolutistic monistic pantheism絕對主義一元論的泛神論

The world is real and changing.世界是真實的,不斷變化的。 It is, however, within God as, for example, his body.它是,但是,在上帝的,例如,他的身體。 God is nevertheless changeless and unaffected by the world.但上帝是不變的,沒有受到世界。

Acosmic pantheism Acosmic泛神論

God is absolute and makes up the totality of reality.上帝是絕對的,構成了整體的現實。 The world is an appearance and ultimately unreal.世界是一個虛幻的外觀和最終。

Identity of opposites pantheism身份對立泛神論

Discourse about God must of necessity resort to opposites.對上帝的話語,必須採取必要的對立面。 That is, God and his relationship to the world must be described in formally contradictory terms. Reality is not capable of rational description.也就是說,上帝和他的關係,世界必須被描述在正式對立的條款。事實不能夠合理的說明。 One must go beyond reason to an intuitive grasp of the ultimate.我們必須超越一個直觀的理由,最終掌握。

Neoplatonic or emanationistic pantheism柏拉圖或emanationistic泛神論

In this form of pantheism God is absolute in all aspects, removed from and transcendent over the world.在這種形式的泛神論上帝是絕對的各個方面,撤銷和超越世界各地。 It differs from biblical theism in denying that God is the cause of the world, holding rather that the universe is an emanation of God.它不同於聖經有神論否認上帝是導致世界,而持有,宇宙是神的化身。 The world is the result of intermediaries.世界是結果的中介機構。 These intermediaries are for a Neoplatonist like Plotinus ideals or forms. He also sought to maintain the emphasis on immanence by positing a world soul that contains and animates the universe.這些中介機構是一個柏拉圖像普羅提諾理想或形式。他還要求保持內在強調通過設定一個世界的靈魂,它包含動畫和宇宙。

From a biblical standpoint pantheism is deficient to a greater or lesser degree on two points.從聖經的觀點是缺乏一個泛神論或多或少兩點。 First, pantheism generally denies the transcendence of God, advocating his radical immanence.首先,泛神論普遍否認神的超越,他主張激進的內在性。 The Bible presents a balance.聖經提出了一種平衡。 God is active in history and in his creation, but he is not identical with it to either a lesser or a greater degree.上帝是活躍在歷史和他的創作,但他並沒有與它相同或更低或更高的學位。 Second, because of the tendency to identify God with the material world, there is again a lesser or greater denial of the personal character of God.其次,由於神的傾向,以確定與物質世界,這又是一個或多或少的剝奪的個人品格的神。 In Scripture, God not only possesses the attributes of personality, in the incarnation he takes on a body and becomes the God - man.聖經中,上帝不僅具有屬性的個性,在他的化身呈現一個機構,並成為上帝-男子。 God is pictured supremely as a person.上帝是作為一個人合照千鈞。

PD Feinberg帕金森范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
CE Plumptre, History of Pantheism; WS Urquart, Pantheism and the Value of Life; J Royce, The Conception of God.行政長官普拉普特雷,歷史的泛神論,是厄克特,泛神論和人生價值; J勞斯萊斯,神的觀念。


Pantheism泛神論

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(From Greek pan, all; theos, god). (從希臘泛,所有;西奧斯,神)。

The view according to which God and the world are one.據認為根據上帝和世界是一體的。 The name pantheist was introduced by John Toland (1670-1722) in his "Socinianism truly Stated" (1705), while pantheism was first used by his opponent Fay in "Defensio Religionis" (1709).這個名字泛神論介紹了約翰托蘭(1670年至1722年)在他的“Socinianism真正指出,”(1705),而泛神論最早是由他的對手費伊在“Defensio Religionis”(1709)。 Toland published his "Pantheisticon" in 1732.托蘭出版了他的“Pantheisticon”在1732年。 The doctrine itself goes back to the early Indian philosophy; it appears during the course of history in a great variety of forms, and it enters into or draws support from so many other systems that, as Professor Flint says ("Antitheistic Theories", 334), "there is probably no pure pantheism".該學說本身可追溯到早期印度哲學,它似乎在歷史過程中的一個偉大的各種形式,以及訂立或提請支持,這麼多的其他系統,如教授說弗林特(“無神論理論”,334 ),“有可能是沒有純粹的泛神論”。 Taken in the strictest sense, ie as identifying God and the world, Pantheism is simply Atheism.採取最嚴格的意義上,即作為確定上帝和世界,泛神論僅僅是無神論。 In any of its forms it involves Monism, but the latter is not necessarily pantheistic.在任何形式的涉及一元,但後者不一定是泛神論。 Emanationism may easily take on a pantheistic meaning and as pointed out in the Encyclical "Pascendi dominici gregis", the same is true of the modern doctrine of immanence. Emanationism可以很容易地就一個泛神論的意義,正如在通諭“Pascendi多米尼奇gregis”,同樣是真正的現代主義的內在性。

VARIETIES品種

These agree in the fundamental doctrine that beneath the apparent diversity and multiplicity of things in the universe there is one only being absolutely necessary, eternal, and infinite.這些同意的基本理論,下方明顯的多樣性和多重性的東西在宇宙中有一只是被絕對必要的,永恆的,無限的。 Two questions then arise: What is the nature of this being?然後出現兩個問題:什麼是大自然這一福利? How are the manifold appearances to be explained?多方面的表現是如何被解釋? The principal answers are incorporated in such different earlier systems as Brahminism, Stoicism, Neo-Platonism, and Gnosticism, and in the later systems of Scotus Eriugena and Giordano Bruno.主要的答案是納入早期系統等不同的婆羅門教,斯多亞學派,新柏拉圖主義,和諾斯替主義,並在後來的系統的司各脫Eriugena和布魯諾。

Spinoza's pantheism was realistic: the one being of the world had an objective character.斯賓諾莎的泛神論是現實的:一個是世界上有一個客觀的性質。 But the systems that developed during the nineteenth century went to the extreme of idealism.但是,系統在19世紀發展到極端的理想主義。 They are properly grouped under the designation of "transcendental pantheism", as their starting-point is found in Kant's critical philosophy.他們得到妥善歸入指定的“先驗泛神論”,因為他們的出發點是發現在康德的批判哲學。 Kant had distinguished in knowledge the matter which comes through sensation from the outer world, and the forms, which are purely subjective and yet are the more important factors.康德區分了知識的事項是通過從外部世界的感覺,和形式,這純粹是主觀的,但也更重要的因素。 Furthermore, he had declared that we know the appearances (phenomena) of things but not the things-in-themselves (noumena).此外,他還宣稱,我們知道露面(現象)的事,但事情並非自體(本體)。 And he had made the ideas of the soul, the world, and God merely immanent, so that any attempt to demonstrate their objective value must end in contradiction.而他的思想的靈魂,世界,上帝只是內在的,因此,任何企圖證明其客觀的價值必須結束矛盾。 This subjectivism paved the way for the pantheistic theories of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel.這主觀主義鋪平了道路理論的泛神論的費希特,謝林和黑格爾。

Fichte set back into the mind all the elements of knowledge, ie matter as well as form; phenomena and indeed the whole of reality are products of the thinking Ego-not the individual mind but the absolute or universal self-consciousness. Through the three-fold process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, the Ego posits the non-Ego not only theoretically but also for practical purposes, ie for effort and struggle which are necessary in order to attain the highest good. In the same way the Ego, free in itself, posits other free agents by whose existence its own freedom is limited.費希特倒退到the心頭的知識要素,即事項well的形式和現象乃至整個of reality是產品的自我的思想,not個人心靈,但絕對或普遍的自我意識。是以三折疊過程論文,對立面,並合成,自我假定非自我不僅在理論上而且在實際情況下,即對努力和鬥爭是必要的,以達到最高的善。同樣的自我,自由本身,假定其他自由球員的,其存在本身的自由是有限的。 Hence the law of right and all morality; but hence also the Divine being.因此,所有的法律權利與道德,但也因此被神。 The living, active moral order of the world, says Fichte, is itself God, we need no other God, and can conceive of no other. The idea of God as a distinct substance is impossible and contradictory.的生活,主動道德秩序的世界,費希特說,本身就是神,我們不需要其他的神,可以想像,在沒有其他。上帝的想法作為一個獨特的內容是不可能的,自相矛盾。 Such, at any rate, is the earlier form of his doctrine, though in his later theorizing he emphasizes more and more the concepts of the Absolute as embracing all individuals within itself.這樣,無論如何,是較早形成他的學說,雖然在他後來的理論,他強調更多的概念絕對是擁抱所有個人自身內部。

According to Schelling, the Absolute is the "identity of all differences"-object and subject, nature and mind, the real order and the ideal; and the knowledge of this identity is obtained by an intellectual intuition which, abstracting from every individual thinker and every possible object of thought, contemplates the absolute reason.據謝林,絕對是“身份的所有分歧”對象和主體,性質和心靈,真正的秩序和理想;和知識的身份獲得這項由智的直覺的,抽象的思想家,從每一個人每一個可能的對象的思想,思索著絕對的理由。 Out of this original unity all things evolve in opposite directions: nature as the negative pole, mind or spirit as the positive pole of a vast magnet, the universe.出於這種原始團結一切事物發展方向相反:性質作為負極,心靈或精神作為正極的巨大磁石,宇宙。 Within this totality each thing, like the particle of a magnet, has its nature or form determined according as it manifests subjectivity or objectivity in greater degree.在這個總體每一件事情,就像磁鐵粒子,已確定其性質或形式,因為它根據主觀或客觀表現在更大的程度。 History is but the gradual self-revelation of the Absolute; when its final period will come to pass we know not; but when it does come, then God will be.但歷史是逐漸自我揭露的絕對,當其最後期限將成為過去,我們不知道,但是當它來,那麼上帝會。

The system of Hegel has been called "logical pantheism", as it is constructed on the "dialectical" method; and "panlogismus", since it describes the entire world-process as the evolution of the Idea.該系統被稱為黑格爾“邏輯泛神論”,因為它是建立在“辯證”方法和“panlogismus”,因為它描述了整個世界進程的演化思想。 Starting from the most abstract of notions, ie pure being, the Absolute developes first the various categories; then it externalizes itself, and Nature is the result; finally it returns upon itself, regains unity and self-consciousness, becomes the individual spirit of man.從最抽象的概念,即純粹的存在,首先是絕對又發展各種類別;那麼它本身外化,與自然的是結果,最後返回後本身,恢復團結和自我意識,成為個別人的精神。 The Absolute, therefore, is Mind; but it attains its fulness only by a process of evolution or "becoming", the stages of which form the history of the universe.絕對的,因此,是心靈,但它達到其豐滿只有一個進程的演變或“成為”的階段,構成了宇宙的歷史。

These idealistic constructions were followed by a reaction due largely to the development of the natural sciences.這些理想化的結構之後進行了反應主要由於自然科學的發展。 But these in turn offer, apparently, new support to the central positions of pantheism, or at any rate they point, it is claimed, to that very unity and that gradual unfolding which pantheism has all along asserted.但是,這反過來又提供,顯然,新的支持中心位置的泛神論,或無論如何他們指出,這是聲稱,這一非常團結,並逐步展開的泛神論一向主張。 The principle of the conservation of energy through ceaseless transformations, and the doctrine of evolution applied to all things and all phenomena, are readily interpreted by the pantheist in favour of his own system. Even where the ultimate reality is said to be unknowable as in Herbert Spencer's "Synthetic Philosophy", it is still one and the same being that manifests itself alike in evolving matter and in the consciousness that evolves out of lower material forms.保護的原則,通過不斷變換的能源,而且這一學說的演進適用於所有的東西和所有的現象,很容易解釋的泛神論贊成他自己的系統。即使在最終的現實是不可知的說是在赫伯特斯賓塞的“綜合哲學”,它仍然是同一個本身都被認為體現在發展問題和意識,演變出較低的物質形式。 Nor is it surprising that some writers should see in pantheism the final outcome of all speculation and the definitive expression which the human mind has found for the totality of things.它也不是令人驚訝,有些作家應該看到在泛神論的最後結果的所有猜測和明確的表達,人的心靈找到了全部的事情。

This statement, in fact, may well serve as a summary of the pantheistic doctrine:這一聲明,實際上,很可能成為一個簡易的泛神論學說:

Reality is a unitary being; individual things have no absolute independence- they have existence in the All-One, the ens realissimum et et perfectissimum of which they are the more or less independent members;現實是一個統一的福利;個別事物都沒有絕對的獨立,他們的存在,全一,護士等perfectissimum realissimum等對它們是或多或少獨立的成員;

The All-One manifests itself to us, so far as it has any manifestations, in the two sides of reality-nature and history;全給我們一個表現自己,只要有任何表現,在雙方的現實,自然和歷史;

The universal interaction that goes on in the physical world is the showing forth of the inner æsthetic teleological necessity with which the All-One unfolds his essential being in a multitude of harmonious modifications, a cosmos of concrete ideas (monads, entelechies).這種通用的互動,接著在物質世界中是顯示出了內在的必然性æsthetic目的論與該所有,他必須是一個展現在眾多的一個和諧的修改,一個宇宙的具體想法(單子,entelechies)。 This internal necessity is at the same time absolute freedom or self-realization.這種內部的必要性,同時絕對的自由或自我實現。

CATHOLIC DOCTRINE天主教教義

The Church has repeatedly condemned the errors of pantheism.教會一再譴責錯誤的泛神論。 Among the propositions censured in the Syllabus of Pius IX is that which declares: "There is no supreme, all-wise and all-provident Divine Being distinct from the universe; God is one with nature and therefore subject to change; He becomes God in man and the world; all things are God and have His substance; God is identical with the world, spirit with matter, necessity with freedom, truth with falsity, good with evil, justice with injustice" (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Ench.", 1701).其中主張譴責在教學大綱的庇護九是其中宣稱:“沒有最高,全智,全公積金神靈不同於宇宙,上帝是一個與大自然,因此受到改變,他變得神人與世界,所有的東西是上帝,並且他的物質,上帝是相同的世界,精神與物質,必要性與自由,真理與謬誤,善與邪惡,正義與非正義“(登青格,Bannwart,”恩奇。“ ,1701)。 And the Vatican Council anathematizes those who assert that the substance or essence of God and of all things is one and the same, or that all things evolve from God's essence (ibid., 1803 sqq.).而梵蒂岡理事會anathematizes那些誰主張該種物質或本質的上帝和所有的東西是同一個,或者說一切事物發展從上帝的本質(同上,1803年時12 sqq。)。

CRITICISM批評

To our perception the world presents a multitude of beings each of which has qualities activities, and existence of its own, each is an individual thing. Radical differences mark off living things from those that are lifeless; the conscious from the unconscious human thought and volition from the activities of lower animals.為了我們的看法提出了眾多的世界的人各自有素質的活動,其自身的存在,每個個人的事情。自由基分歧劃萬物由那些沒有生命的,有意識地從潛意識中人類思想和意志從低等動物的活動。 And among human beings each personality appears as a self, which cannot by any effort become completely one with other selves.而在每個人的人格表現為一個自我,不能由任何努力成為一個完全與其他的自我。 On the other hand, any adequate account of the world other than downright materialism includes the concept of some original Being which, whether it be called First Cause, or Absolute, or God, is in its nature and existence really distinct from the world. Only such a Being can satisfy the demands of human thought, either as the source of the moral order or as the object of religious worship.另一方面,任何充分考慮到世界其他較徹頭徹尾的唯物主義的思想,包括一些原來存在的,無論是所謂的第一原因,或絕對的,或上帝,是它的性質和存在的真正有別於世界。只有作為這樣一個能滿足人類思想的要求,無論是作為源頭的道德秩序或宗教崇拜的對象。 If, then, pantheism not only merges the separate existences of the world in one existence, but also identifies this one with the Divine Being, some cogent reason or motive must be alleged in justification of such a procedure.如果,那麼,泛神論不僅融合了不同的存在的世界的一個存在,而且還確定了與這一個神聖的存在,一些有說服力的理由或動機必須據稱在這種程序的理由。 Pantheists indeed bring forward various arguments in support of their several positions, and in reply to criticism aimed at the details of their system; but what lies back of their reasoning and what has prompted the construction of all pantheistic theories, both old and new, is the craving for unity.泛神論確實提出各種論據支持他們的幾個陣地,並在回答的批評是針對他們的系統的詳細資料,但什麼是回他們的論點,是什麼促使所有泛神論的理論建設,無論新與舊,是團結的渴望。 The mind, they insist, cannot accept dualism or pluralism as the final account of reality.心,他們堅持認為,不能接受二元論或多元論作為最後的帳戶現實。 By an irresistible tendency, it seeks to substitute for the apparent multiplicity and diversity of things a unitary ground or source, and, once this is determined, to explain all things as somehow derived though not really separated from it.通過一個不可阻擋的趨勢,它旨在替代明顯多重性和多樣性的東西是單一地或來源,而且,一旦這是確定的,以解釋所有事物的某種派生though not really separated從它。

That such is in fact the ideal of many philosophers cannot be denied; nor is it needful to challenge the statement that reason does aim at unification on some basis or other.這樣其實是許多哲學家的理想不能否認,也不是需要的,以挑戰的發言因此並不著眼於統一的一些基礎或其他。 But this very aim and all endeavours in view of it must likewise be kept within reasonable bounds: a theoretical unity obtained at too great a sacrifice is no unity at all, but merely an abstraction that quickly falls to pieces.但這個目標,所有的努力鑑於它必須同樣保持在合理的範圍:理論團結索取過大的犧牲是不團結的根本,而只是一個抽象的迅速下降到件。 Hence for an estimate of pantheism two questions must be considered:因此,為估計泛神論必須考慮兩個問題:

at what cost does it identify God and the world; and它在什麼樣的代價確定上帝和世界,

is the identification really accomplished or only attempted?是確定真正完成或只企圖?

The answer to the first is furnished by a review of the leading concepts which enter into the pantheistic system.答案是第一個提供了一個審查的領導觀念,不過是進入泛神論體系。

God上帝

It has often been claimed that pantheism by teaching us to see God in everything gives us an exalted idea of His wisdom, goodness, and power, while it imparts to the visible world a deeper meaning.它常常被認為是泛神論教我們要去見上帝,一切為我們提供了一個崇高的思想,他的智慧,善良,和權力,而賦予它以有形世界的更深一層的意義。 In point of fact, however, it makes void the attributes which belong essentially to the Divine nature For the pantheist God is not a personal Being.在點,但是事實上,它使無效的屬性基本上是屬於神聖性,因此泛神論上帝是不是個人的存在。 He is not an intelligent Cause of the world, designing, creating and governing it in accordance with the free determination of His wisdom.他是不是一個聰明的原因,世界,設計,創建和管理它按照自由決定他的智慧。 If consciousness is ascribed to Him as the one Substance, extension is also said to be His attribute (Spinoza), or He attains to self-consciousness only through a process of evolution (Hegel).如果意識是歸因於他作為一個實體,推廣也說是他的屬性(斯賓諾莎),或者他達到自我意識只有通過進化過程(黑格爾)。 But this very process implies that God is not from eternity perfect: He is forever changing, advancing from one degree of perfection to another, and helpless to determine in what direction the advance shall take place.但這個過程意味著,上帝不是從永恆完美的:他是永遠改變,推進完善程度從1到另一個,和無助,以確定什麼方向前進會發生。 Indeed, there is no warrant for saying that He "advances" or becomes more "perfect"; at most we can say that He, or rather It, is constantly passing into other forms.事實上,沒有任何保證說,他對“進步”或變得更“完美”,至多可以說是他,或者更確切地說,它是不斷地傳遞到其他形式。 Thus God is not only impersonal, but also changeable and finite-which is equivalent to saying that He is not God. It is true that some pantheists, such as Paulsen, while frankly denying the personality of God, pretend to exalt His being by asserting that He is "supra-personal."因此,上帝不僅是客觀的,而且多變和有限這相當於說,他不是神。誠然,有些泛神論,如保爾森,而坦率地否認人格神,假裝發揚他的主張被他是“超個人”。 If this means that God in Himself is infinitely beyond any idea that we can form of Him, the statement is correct; but if it means that our idea of Him is radically false and not merely inadequate, that consequently we have no right to speak of infinite intelligence and will, the statement is simply a makeshift which pantheism borrows from agnosticism Even then the term "supra-personal" is not consistently applied to what Paulsen calls the All-One; for this, if at all related to personality, should be described as infra-personal.如果這意味著,上帝在自己無限超越任何想法,我們可以成為他的聲明是正確的,但如果它意味著我們對他的想法是根本false而不是僅僅還未足夠,因此我們沒有任何權利可言無限的智慧和意願,聲明,只是一個臨時的泛神論借用不可知論即使在所謂“超個人”是不是貫徹運用到什麼保爾森呼籲全的一個,因為這個,如果在所有有關的個性,應形容紅外個人。

Once the Divine personality is removed, it is evidently a misnomer to speak of God as just or holy, or in any sense a moral Being.當神聖的人格被刪除,它顯然是用詞不當發言的上帝公正或神聖,或在任何意義上的道德存在。 Since God, in the pantheistic view, acts out of sheer necessity--that is, cannot act otherwise--His action is no more good than it is evil.自從上帝,在泛神論的觀點,行為純粹出於必要性-也就是說,不能採取行動,否則-他的行動是沒有好處多於它是邪惡的。 To say, with Fichte, that God is the moral order, is an open contradiction; no such order exists where nothing is free, nor could God, a non-moral Being, have established a moral order either for Himself or for other beings.如果說,與費希特,上帝是道德秩序,是一個開放的矛盾,沒有這種秩序存在什麼都不是免費的,也不可能上帝,一個非道德存在,已經建立了道德秩序為其本人或其他人。 If, on the other hand, it be maintained that the moral order does exist, that it is postulated by our human judgments, the plight of pantheism is no better; for in that case all the actions of men, their crimes as well as their good deeds, must be imputed to God.如果,另一方面,它被認為是存在的道德秩序,它是假設我們的人的判斷,在困境泛神論沒有更好的,在這種情況下所有行動的男人,他們的罪行,以及他們好事,一定要歸罪於上帝。 Thus the Divine Being not only loses the attribute of absolute holiness, but even falls below the level of those men in whom moral goodness triumphs over evil.因此,神聖的存在,不僅失去了屬性的絕對聖潔,但即使低於該級別的男人在人的道德善良戰勝邪惡。

Man男子

No such claim, however, can be made in behalf of the moral order by a consistent pantheist.沒有這樣的要求,但是,可在代表道德秩序的一個一致的泛神論。 For him, human personality is a mere illusion: what we call the individual man is only one of the countless fragments that make up the Divine Being; and since the All is impersonal no single part of it can validly claim personality.在他看來,人的個性僅僅是一種錯覺:我們所說的只是個別人之一,無數碎片構成的神聖存在,而且由於所有這些都沒有一個客觀的一部分,它可以有效索賠的個性。 Futhermore, since each human action is inevitably determined, the consciousness of freedom is simply another illusion, due, as Spinoza says, to our ignorance of the causes that compel us to act.此外,由於每個人的行為是無可避免的決定的,意識是自由的只是另一種幻覺,因為,正如斯賓諾莎所說,我們的無知的原因,迫使我們採取行動。 Hence our ideas of what "ought to be" are purely subjective, and our concept of a moral order, with its distinctions of right and wrong, has no foundation in reality.因此,我們的想法是什麼“應該是”純粹是主觀的,我們的概念的道德秩序,其區別正確和錯誤的,沒有基礎,現實。 The so-called "dictates of conscience" are doubtless interesting phenomena of mind which the psychologist may investigate and explain, but they have no binding force whatever; they are just as illusory as the ideas of virtue and duty, of injustice to the fellow-man and of sin against God.所謂“支配的良心”無疑是有趣的現象是心理學家的心態可能會調查和解釋,但他們沒有任何約束力,他們也同樣虛幻的思想道德和責任的,不公正的同胞人,是得罪神。 But again, since these dictates, like all our ideas, are produced in us by God, it follows that He is the source of our illusions regarding morality-a consequence which certainly does not enhance His holiness or His knowledge.但同樣,由於這些支配,像所有的觀念,是產生在我們的上帝,因此他是我們的源關於道德的幻想,因此這當然不會提高他的聖潔或他的知識。

It is not, however, clear that the term illusion is justified; for this supposes a distinction between truth and error-a distinction which has no meaning for the genuine pantheist; all our judgments being the utterance of the One that thinks in us, it is impossible to discriminate the true from the false.它不是,但是,顯然,長期的幻覺是有道理的,因為這個假設一個區分真理和錯誤的區別,這是沒有意義的真正的泛神論,所有我們的判斷是對的話語之一就是認為在我們來說,這歧視是不可能真正從假。 He who rejects pantheism is no further from the truth than he who defends it; each but expresses a thought of the Absolute whose large tolerance harbours all contradictions.他是誰反對泛神論沒有進一步從真相誰比他的辯護,但對每一個想到的絕對性的大型港口的所有矛盾。 Logically, too, it would follow that no heed should be taken as to veracity of statement, since all statements are equally warranted.從邏輯上講,也將遵循這一不理,應採取以真實性的聲明,因為所有的陳述都同樣需要。 The pantheist who is careful to speak in accordance with his thought simply refrains from putting his philosophy into practice.誰是認真的泛神論發言按照他的思想從根本不敢把他的哲學實踐。 But it is none the less significant that Spinoza's chief work was his "Ethics", and that, according to one modern view, ethics has only to describe what men do, not to prescribe what they ought to do.但是,儘管如此重要的是斯賓諾莎的主要工作是他的“道德”,並說,根據一個現代的觀點,道德只形容男人,而不是規定他們應該做的。

Religion宗教

In forming its conception of God, pantheism eliminates every characteristic that religion presupposes.在形成其概念的上帝,泛神論消除一切特徵,宗教的先決條件。 An impersonal being, whatever attributes it may have, cannot be an object of worship.一個客觀存在,無論它可能屬性,不能是一個對象的崇拜。 An infinite substance or a self-evolving energy may excite fear but it repels faith and love.一個無限的物質或自我發展的能源,但它可能激發恐懼排斥信仰和愛。 Even the beneficent forms of its manifestation call forth no gratitude, since these result from it by a rigorous necessity.即使是有益的表現形式的召喚沒有表示感謝,因為這些結果從它通過嚴格的必要性。 For the same reason, prayer of any sort is useless, atonement is vain and merit impossible.出於同樣的理由,任何形式的祈禱是無用的,贖罪是徒勞的和值得不可能的。 The supernatural of course disappears entirely when God and the world are identified.超自然當然完全消失時,上帝和世界的鑑定。

Recent advocates of pantheism have sought to obviate these difficulties and to show that, apart from particular dogmas, the religious life and spirit are safeguarded in their theory.最近主張泛神論設法避免這些困難,並表明,除了特別教條的宗教生活和精神,保障了他們的理論。 But in this attempt they divest religion of its essentials, reducing it to mere feeling.但這種企圖剝奪他們的宗教的必需品,減少到只有感覺。 Not action, they allege, but humility and trustfulness constitute religion.不採取行動,他們聲稱,但謙卑和信賴構成宗教。 This, however is an arbitrary procedure; by the same method it could be shown that religion is nothing more than existing or breathing.然而這是一個任意的程序;採用相同的方法可以證明,宗教只不過是現有的或呼吸。 The pantheist quite overlooks the fact that religion means obedience to Divine law; and of this obedience there can be no question in a system which denies the freedom of man's will.該pantheist相當忽略了一個事實,宗教意味著服從神聖的法律,以及本服從就不會有問題,在一個系統,否認了自由人的意志。 According to pantheism there is just as little "rational service" in the so-called religious life as there is in the behaviour of any physical agent.據泛神論有一樣小“合理服務”在所謂的宗教生活中的行為有任何身體的代理人。 And if men still distinguish between actions that are religious and those that are not, the distinction is but another illusion.如果男子仍然區分宗教和行動,是那些沒有,但另一個區別是幻想。

Immortality不朽

Belief in a future life is not only an incentive to effort and a source of encouragement; for the Christian at least it implies a sanction of Divine law, a prospect of retribution.在未來的人生信仰不僅是一個激勵源的努力和鼓勵,對於基督徒,至少它意味著一個神聖的法律制裁,一個前景報應。 But this sanction is of no meaning or efficacy unless the soul survive as an individual.但這種制裁是沒有意義或效果,除非作為個人生存的靈魂。 If, as pantheism teaches, immortality is absorption into the being of God, it can matter little what sort of life one leads here.如果像泛神論任教,永生是吸收到目前的上帝,可無論什麼樣的小生命一個通向這裡。 There is no ground for discriminating between the lot of the righteous and that of the wicked, when all,alike are merged in the Absolute.沒有任何理由歧視地段之間的正義和邪惡的,當一切,都合併在絕對的。 And if by some further process of evolution such a discrimination should come to pass, it can signify nothing, either as reward or as punishment, once personal consciousness has ceased.如果一些深加工的發展such一個歧視應該成為過去,它可以意味著nothing,要么作為reward或懲罰,一旦個人的意識已經停止。 That perfect union with God which pantheism seems to promise, is no powerful inspiration to right living when one considers how far from holy must be a God who continually takes up into Himself the worst of humanity along with the best--if indeed one may continue to think in terms that involve a distinction between evil and good.這與神的完美結合泛神論似乎諾言,沒有強大的靈感生活的權利時,我們考慮如何遠從聖must是一個上帝誰continually成自己需要的人類一直在worst與優點-只要indeed一個可能continue認為在這方面涉及區分邪惡和好。

It is therefore quite plain that in endeavouring to unify all things, pantheism sacrifices too much.因此很清楚,在努力統一所有事情,泛神論犧牲太多。 If God, freedom, morality and religion must all be reduced to the One and its inevitable processes, there arises the question whether the craving for unity may not be the source of illusions more fatal than any of those which pantheism claims to dispel.如果上帝,自由,道德和宗教必須全部歸結為一個和its不可避免的過程,但是否出現了團結的渴望for未必是致命源的幻想more than those which任何的泛神論claims to消除。 But in fact no such unification is attained.但實際上沒有這樣的統一是實現。 The pantheist uses his power of abstraction to set aside all differences, and then declares that the differences are not really there.用他的權力的泛神論抽象擱置一切分歧,然後宣布的分歧其實並不存在。 Yet even for him they seem to be there, and so from the very outset he is dealing with appearance and reality; and these two he never fuses into one.然而,即使他似乎是在那裡,所以從一開始,他正在處理的外觀和現實,以及這兩個他從來沒有融進一個。 He simply hurries on to assert that the reality is Divine and that all the apparent things are manifestations of the infinite, but he does not explain why each manifestation should be finite or why the various manifestations should be interpreted in so many different and conflicting ways by human minds, each of which is a part of one and the same God.他只是趕著上斷言,現實是神聖的,所有的東西都表現明顯的是無限的,但他沒有解釋為什麼每個表現應該是有限的,為什麼不同的表現形式應解釋在許多不同的和相互衝突的方式由人類的頭腦,每個部分是同一個神。 He makes the Absolute pass onward from unconsciousness to consciousness but does not show why there should be these two stages in evolution, or why evolution, which certainly means becoming "other", should take place at all.他提出通過以後絕對從無意識與意識,但不說明為什麼要有這兩個階段的演變,或為什麼演變,這當然是指成為“其他”,應該如何進行的。

It might be noted, too, that pantheism fails to unify subject and object, and that in spite of its efforts the world of existence remains distinct from the world of thought.也許應該指出,也沒有統一的泛神論主體與客體,而且儘管其努力,世界仍然存在有別於世界思想。 But such objections have little weight with the thorough-going pantheist who follows Hegel, and is willing for the sake of "unity" to declare that Being and Nothing are identical.但是,這種反對意見的小重量與徹底的泛神論誰跟隨黑格爾,並願意為為了“團結”,宣布存在與任何事物一樣。

There is nevertheless a fundamental unity which Christian philosophy has always recognized, and which has God for its centre.但有一個基本統一的基督教哲學一貫承認,這一點已為中心的神。 Not as the universal being, nor as the formal constituent principle of things, but as their efficient cause operating in and through each, and as the final cause for which things exist, God in a very true sense is the source of all thought and reality (see St. Thomas, "Contra Gentes", I).不普遍福利,也不是正式的組成原則的事情,但由於其有效的事業經營,並通過每個,作為最終導致其中存在的東西,上帝在一個非常真實的感覺是一切思想的源泉和現實(見聖托馬斯,“魂斗羅金特斯”,我)。 His omnipresence and action, far from eliminating secondary causes, preserve each in the natural order of its efficiency-physical agents under the determination of physical law and human personality in the excercise of intelligence and freedom.他的無所不在和行動,遠離消除次要原因,維護自然秩序中的每個其效率的物理介質的決心下的物理規律和人類個性的鍛煉; Tibial情報和自由。 the foundation of the moral order.基礎的道德秩序。 The straining after unity in the pantheistic sense is without warrant, the only intelligible unity is that which God himself has established, a unity of purpose which is manifest alike in the processes of the material universe and in the free volition of man, and which moves on to its fulfilment in the union of the created spirit with the infinite Person, the author of the moral order and the object of religious worship.統一後的緊張感是在泛神論無需手令,唯一的理解團結就是上帝本人已建立一個團結的目的,即都體現在過程的物質宇宙和人類的自由意志,以及哪些舉措就其在履行工會的創建人的精神與無限,作者的道德秩序和宗教崇拜的對象。

Publication information Written by Edward A. Pace.出版信息撰稿愛德華佩斯。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄由托馬斯漢奇爾。天主教百科全書,體積十一。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰 farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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