Panentheism Panentheism

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Panentheism is a doctrine of God which attempts to combine the strengths of classical theism with those of classical pantheism. Panentheism是上帝的學說的長處結合起來的嘗試古典有神論與古典泛神論者。 The term is particularly associated with the work of Charles Hartshorne. Hartshorne contends, however, that other philosophers and theologians have elaborated panentheistic doctrines of God, especially Alfred North Whitehead but also Nikolai Berdyaev, Martin Buber, Gustaf T Fechner, Mohammad Iqbal, Charles S Peirce, Otto Pfleiderer, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Friedrich WJ von Schelling, Allan Watts, and Paul Weiss.特別是一詞與工作相關的查爾斯哈特。哈茨霍恩爭辯,不過,其他的哲學家和神學家的理論闡述神論的上帝,特別是懷特海而且尼古拉別爾佳耶夫,馬丁布伯,古斯塔夫Ť費希納,穆罕默德伊克巴爾,查爾斯S皮爾斯,奧托弗萊德爾,Sarvepalli拉達克里希南,弗里德里希馮謝林WJ通訊,阿倫瓦,保羅韋斯。

According to Hartshorne, God, while including an element which may be described as simple, is a complex reality.據哈特,上帝,而其中一個因素可能會被形容為簡單,是一個複雜的現實。 God knows the world, a world in which change, process, and freedom are real elements.上帝知道的世界,一個世界中,變化,過程和自由是真實的內容。 For this freedom and change to be real, and for God's knowledge of this freedom and change to be perfect, Hartshorne reasons that God's knowledge must itself grow and change.對於這種自由和變化是真實的,上帝的知識,這種自由和變化是完美的,哈茨霍恩原因,上帝的知識必須自己成長和變化。 That is, as new facts come into being, God comes to know those new facts (some of which are the result of genuinely free will), and thus God's knowledge grows.也就是說,作為新的事實出現,上帝來知道這些新的事實(其中有些是真正的自由意志的結果),因此上帝的知識的增長。 A perfect knower includes within himself the object which is known. Through perfectly knowing the world, God therefore includes the world (as it comes to be) within himself.一個完美的認識者包括在自己的對象是眾所周知的。通過完全認識世界,因此,包括上帝的世界(因為它涉及到定)在他自己。 As the world grows, God grows.作為世界的增長,神成長。 God becomes.神而成。 Through perfectly knowing and including the world, God is the supreme effect.通過完美的認識和包括世界,上帝是至高無上的效果。

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That is, everything that happens affects God and changes God, eg, God's knowledge changes.也就是說,所發生的一切影響和改變的神神,如神的知識的變化。 Therefore, the concrete God, the complex God who is actual, is the God who knows, includes, and is changed by the world.因此,具體的神,神誰是複雜的實際,是上帝誰知道,包括,並改變了世界。 This, according to Hartshorne, is the God who loves the world and who shares the joys and sorrows of each creature in the world.為此,根據哈特,是上帝的世界,誰愛誰共享歡樂和悲傷的每個生物在世界上。

To be the supreme effect, God must not only be affected by each event in the world, he must also retain his own integrity and wholeness during this process.是至高無上的效果,神不僅要受到影響,在世界上每一個事件,他也必須保持自己的完整性和整體性在這個過程中。 If God's reality were destroyed or his purpose (for goodness) deflected by the events in the world, then God would not be the supreme effect, the perfect receptacle for the world.如果上帝的現實被摧毀或他的目的(善)規避了在世界上的事件,那麼上帝會不會是最高效果,完美的容器的世界。 Therefore, there must be some element in God which remains the same regardless of what happens in the world, ie, an element that is not affected by any particular event in the world. This element, since it is not changed by any event, is eternal.因此,必須有一些元素神,這仍然是相同的,不論發生什麼事在世界上,即一個因素,是不受到任何特定的事件在世界上。此元素,因為它沒有改變任何情況下,是永恆的。 It is also abstract.這也是抽象的。 (The fact that God's eternal, abstract, essential self - identity is compatible with any state of affairs in the world is the basis for Hartshorne's well - known revival of the ontological argument.) Since God's eternal, abstract self - identity is presupposed by any state of affairs whatsoever, it follows that God is the universal and supreme cause. (事實上,上帝的永恆的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份兼容任何國家的內政在世界上的基礎,哈茨霍恩的好-著名復興的本體論的論點。)由於上帝的永恆的,抽象的自我-身份的先決條件,任何任何國家的事務,因此,上帝是普遍的和最高的原因。

It should be noted that while God (as eternal, abstract, essential self - identity) is independent of any particular state of affairs in the world, he (even as abstract self - identity) still requires that a world (of some sort or the other) exist.應當指出,雖然神(如永恆的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份)是獨立於任何特定國家的事務,在世界上,他(即使是抽象的自我-身份),仍然需要一個世界(某種或其他)存在。 We may explain as follows.我們可以解釋如下。 God as supreme cause refers to God's eternal, abstract, essential self - identity which is presupposed by every event in the world.上帝作為最高事業是指上帝的永恆的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份的先決條件是由每一個事件在世界上。 But that which is eternal and abstract is deficient in actuality and can exist only as an element in a larger whole which is temporal and concrete.但是,這是永恆的,抽象的不足之處,可實際上只存在一個元素在一個更大的整體,是時間和具體。 Thus God's eternal, abstract, essential self - identity exists only as an element in the temporal, concrete, complex reality which is God in his completeness.因此,上帝的永恆的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份存在,只是作為一個元素在時間,具體的,複雜的現實,這是上帝在他的完整性。 But God can be temporal, concrete, and complex only if there are contingent states of affairs to which he is related.但是上帝可以時間,具體的,複雜的,如果有隊伍只有國家的事務,他是相關的。 These states of affairs are the world (which is included in God).這些國家的事務是世界上(其中包括在神)。 These states of affairs are accidental (as opposed to essential) qualifiers of God's character. Thus God even as eternal, abstract, essential self - identity requires some world to exist, without requiring any particular world to exist.這些國家的內政是偶然的(而不是必不可少的)預選賽神的性格。因此,上帝,甚至是永恆的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份要求一些世界上存在,而不需要任何特定的世界存在。

Some of the events in the world are evil.一些事件在世界上的邪惡。 God knows and includes those events within himself.上帝知道,包括他自己的活動範圍內。 Does it follow that God is evil? Hartshorne answers no.如果說是上帝是惡?哈茨霍恩沒有答案。 Consider this analogy.考慮這個比喻。 A certain event happens in my body.某事件發生在我身上。 I know and include that event within myself.我知道,包括我自己在這一事件。 And yet as a person, while including that event, I remain in an important sense distinct from that even.然而作為一個人,而包括這種情況下,我仍然在一個重要的意義不同,即使從。 Not only is my abstract and timeless essence as a man distinct from that event, but even my concrete and changing consciousness (while including that event) is distinct from it.不僅是抽象的和永恆的本質我作為一個男人不同於這一事件,但即使我具體和不斷變化的意識(同時包括事件)是有別於它。 Likewise, God, while including the evil event within himself, is yet distinct from that event.同樣,上帝,而包括在自己的罪惡事件,但不同的是從該事件。 God is distinct from the event not only in his abstract, eternal, essential self - identity but also in his concrete, temporal, and complex consciousness.上帝是有別於事件不僅在他的抽象的,永恆的,必不可少的自我-身份,而且在他的具體時間,以及複雜的意識。 That is, God's consciousness, while aware of and including the evil event, is more than and distinct from that event.也就是說,上帝的意識,同時意識到,包括邪惡的事件,是多了,有別於這一事件。

Is it possible for a panentheistic God to be perfect?是否有可能為一神論上帝是完美的? The problem is this.問題是這樣的。 If God changes, and if total perfection is not compatible with change, it would follow that the panentheistic God is not perfect. Hartshorne's response runs as follows.如果上帝的變化,如果總完善是不兼容的變化,它會跟隨的神論神是不完美的。哈茨霍恩的回應運行如下。 The challenge as stated assumes that there is one type of perfection, specifically, changeless perfection.正如假設的挑戰,有一種類型的完善,具體而言,不變的完美。 But in fact there are two types of perfection: changeless and changing perfection.但事實上有兩種類型的完善:不變的和不斷變化的完善。 God is perfect in both senses.上帝是完美的,都感覺。 God's abstract, essential, eternal self - identity is perfect.上帝的抽象,本質的,永恆的自我-身份是完美的。 His drive toward goodness in general does not waver.他對善良驅動一般不會動搖。 To this extent God's perfection is changeless, but this perfection is abstract.從這個意義上講上帝的完善是不變的,但這種完美,是抽象的。 As a concrete reality God changes, as does his perfection. That is, at any time, God infinitely surpasses the perfection of the world, regardless of whether we consider the perfection of the world at that same time, at some previous time, at some future time, or at any combination of these.作為一個具體的現實變化神一樣,他的完美。也就是說,在任何時候,上帝超越無限完美的世界,不管我們是否考慮了完美的世界的同一時間,在以前的一些時間,在一些今後一個時期,或在任何組合這些。 As time progresses, however, God does surpass his own previous states of perfection, eg, his knowledge grows, and he has more opportunities to love his creatures.隨著時間的進展,但是,上帝沒有超越自己以前的狀態完美,例如,他的知識的增長,他有更多的機會,愛他的生物。 God's perfection changes in that he perfectly surpasses his own previous states of perfection.上帝的完美變化,他完全超越了自己以前的狀態完美。

While Whitehead's doctrine of God is quite similar to Hartshorne's, Whitehead does have several distinctives worth nothing.雖然懷特海的學說的上帝是非常相似哈茨霍恩的,白石也有幾個distinctives化為烏有。 In Whitehead's metaphysics the basic building blocks of the universe are called actual entities.在懷特海的形而上學的基本構建塊宇宙是所謂的實際實體。 Actual entities are units of energy / experience.實際的實體單位的能源/經驗。 Electrons, rocks, stars, and people are composed of actual entities.電子,岩石,恆星,人們都用實際實體。 For Whitehead, God is a single, everlasting (but continually developing) actual entity.對於懷特黑德,上帝是一個單一的,永恆的(但不斷發展)的實際實體。 The contemporary theologian John B Cobb, argues that on his own principles Whitehead should have conceived God to be a series of actual entities.當代神學家約翰B科布,他認為,應該有自己的原則白石設想上帝是一系列的實際實體。 Cobb's proposal would make God more like a human person which, according to Whitehead, is a series of actual entities.科布的建議將使上帝更象一個人,而根據懷特黑德,是一系列的實際實體。 It should be further noted that in Whitehead's system it is the very nature of an actual entity to incorporate other (past) actual entities into its own identity.應該進一步指出,在懷特海的系統是很自然的一個實際的實體納入其他(過去的)實際實體納入自己的身份。 Therefore, whether on Whitehead's original definition of God as a single everlasting actual entity or on Cobb's revisionary understanding of God as a series of actual entities, it is the very nature of God to include the (past) world within himself as a part of his very identity.因此,無論是懷特海的原始定義的上帝作為一個單一永恆的實際實體或Cobb的revisionary理解上帝的一系列實際的實體,這是很自然的上帝,包括(過去)的世界內自己作為一個組成部分,他非常認同。

Perhaps the most striking aspect of Whitehead's doctrine of God is his distinction between God and creativity.也許最引人注目的方面懷特海的學說是他的上帝上帝之間的區別和創造力。 Creativity is, in Whitehead's metaphysics, the power of being / becoming.創意是,在懷特海的形而上學,權力被/成為。 Thus the fact that anything exists at all is ascribed not to God but to creativity (which in conjunction with the notions of the "one" and the "many" constitute Whitehead's category of the ultimate).因此,事實上,任何存在於一切應歸功於不是上帝,但創造力(這與聯的概念“一”和“許多”構成懷特海的類最終)。 In contrast, God's primary function is to help shape the character of the world.與此相反,上帝的主要職能是幫助塑造人物的世界。 Thus that a thing exists must be referred to creativity; what a thing is must be referred, in part, to God.因此,一個事物存在必須提交創造性的東西是什麼,必須提到,部分神。 As a consequence, in Whitehead's system God's own existence is explained by reference not to God but to creativity.因此,在懷特海的系統上帝的存在是解釋參照不是上帝,而是創造力。 To put it bluntly, we may say that both God and the world are creatures of creativity.說穿了,我們可以說這兩個上帝和世界的生物的創造力。

Whitehead's postulation of creativity (in conjunction with the "one" and the "many") as an ultimate that is more fundamental than God is, perhaps, the most problematic aspect of his doctrine of God, not only for evangelical theologians but for other Christian thinkers as well.懷特海的公設創意(聯同“一”和“許多”),作為最終是更根本不是神,也許是最棘手的方面他的學說的上帝,而不是只為福音派神學家,但對其他基督徒以及思想家。 While a few Christian scholars, such as John Cobb, affirm Whitehead's distinction between God and creativity, others, such as Langdon Gilkey, insist that creativity must be "put back" into God before the panentheistic doctrine of God can really be made available for Christian theology.雖然有少數基督教學者,如約恩科布,肯定懷特海的區分上帝和創造力,其他如蘭登吉爾基,堅持創新必須是“放回”到神前神論學說的上帝可以真正可供基督教神學。

ST Franklin意法半導體富蘭克林
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
JB Cobb, Jr., A Christian Natural Theology; JB Cobb and DR Griffin, Process Theology: An Introductory Exposition; BZ Cooper, The Idea of God: A Whiteheadian Critique of St.巴頓科布小,基督教的自然神學;巴頓科布和DR格里芬,過程神學:一個介紹博覽會; BZ庫珀,神的觀念:一個批判聖懷特海 Thomas Aquinas' Concept of God; L Gilkey, Naming the Whirlwind: The Renewal of God Language and Reaping the Whirlwind: A Christian Interpretation of History; C Hartshorne and WL Reese, eds., Philosophers Speak of God; RC Neville, Creativity and God: A Challenge to Process Theology; RE James, The Concrete God: A New Beginning for Theology.托馬斯阿奎那的上帝觀的L吉爾基,命名旋風:更新上帝的語言和收穫的旋風:基督徒解讀歷史; ç哈特和WL里斯合編。,哲學家講的上帝;鋼筋混凝土內維爾,創造力和上帝:一個挑戰過程神學;稀土詹姆斯,具體上帝:一個新的開端神學。



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