Orthodox Church東正教教會

Orthodox Catholic Church, Greek Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Church東正教天主教,希臘東正教,東正教

General Information 一般信息

One of the three branches of world Christianity and the major Christian church in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, the Orthodox church, also sometimes called the Eastern church, or the Greek Orthodox, or Orthodox Catholic church, claims to have preserved the original and apostolic Christian faith. Figures for its worldwide membership range from 100 to 200 million, depending on the method of accounting. 其中三個分支世界基督教和基督教教堂主要在中東和東歐,東正教堂,也有時被稱為東歐教堂,或希臘東正教,東正教或天主教,聲稱已保存的原始和使徒信仰基督教。數字在全球範圍內的成員從100至200萬美元,根據會計法。

Structure and Organization結構與組織

The Orthodox church is a fellowship of administratively independent, or autocephalous (self - governing) local churches, united in faith, sacraments, and canonical discipline, each enjoying the right to elect its own head and its bishops. Traditionally, the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul) is recognized as the "first among equal" Orthodox bishops.東正教教堂是金的行政獨立,或獨立的(自我-理事)地方教會,團結的信念,聖禮,並規範紀律,各自享有的權利,選出自己的頭部和它的主教。傳統,君士坦丁堡宗主教(伊斯坦布爾)是公認的“第一之間的平等的”東正教會主教。 He possesses privileges of chairmanship and initiative but no direct doctrinal or administrative authority.他擁有特權的主持和倡議,但沒有直接的理論或行政當局。

The other heads of autocephalous churches, in order of precedence, are: the patriarch of Alexandria , Egypt, with jurisdiction over Africa; the patriarch of Antioch , now residing in Damascus, Syria, and heading Arab - speaking Orthodox Christians in Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq; the patriarch of Jerusalem , with jurisdiction over Palestine; the patriarch of Moscow and all Russia ; the patriarch - catholicos of Georgia ( USSR ); the patriarch of Serbia (Yugoslavia); the patriarch of Romania ; the patriarch of Bulgaria ; the archbishop of Cyprus ; the archbishop of Athens and all Greece ; the metropolitan of Warsaw and all Poland ; the archbishop of Albania (presently suppressed); the metropolitan of Prague and all Czechoslovakia ; and the archbishop of New York and North America.其他元首獨立的教會,在優先順序是:家長亞歷山大,埃及,有管轄權的非洲;家長的安提阿 ,目前居住在大馬士革,敘利亞和阿拉伯標題-講東正教基督徒在敘利亞,黎巴嫩,和伊拉克;家長的耶路撒冷,巴勒斯坦管轄權;家長莫斯科俄羅斯所有的家長-c atholicos格魯吉亞(蘇聯) ;家長塞爾維亞(南斯拉夫) ;家長的羅馬尼亞,保加利亞主教的塞浦路斯大主教;大主教雅典和所有希臘首都華沙和波蘭的大主教阿爾巴尼亞 (目前壓制) ;首都布拉格和捷克斯洛伐克;和大主教紐約和北美。

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Three autonomous churches also enjoy a large degree of independence, although the election of their primate is subject to nominal approval by a mother church.三自主教會也享有很大程度的獨立性,儘管選舉的靈長類動物是受名義批准的母親教堂。 These are the churches of Crete and Finland, under Constantinople, and the church of Japan, under Moscow.這些都是教會的克里特島和芬蘭,在君士坦丁堡,和教會的日本,在莫斯科。 The autocephalous and autonomous churches differ greatly in size and membership.在獨立的和自主的教會很大的不同規模和成員。 The churches of Russia (50 - 90 million) and Romania (21 million) are by far the largest, whereas some of the ancient patriarchates of the Middle East, including Constantinople, are reduced to a few thousand members.教會的俄羅斯( 50 -9 0萬美元)和羅馬尼亞( 2 1萬美元)是最大的,而有些古老的牧首轄區的中東局勢,包括君士坦丁堡,減少到幾千成員。

The patriarch of Constantinople, however, also exercises jurisdiction over Greek - speaking churches outside Greece and controls, for example, the Greek archdiocese of America, which is distinct from the Orthodox church in America, listed among the autocephalous churches.家長君士坦丁堡不過,也行使管轄權希臘-教堂外面講希臘和控制,例如,希臘大主教美利堅合眾國,這是有別於東正教教堂,美國列為獨立的教會。 In Greece the Orthodox church is the established religion.在希臘東正教教堂是既定的宗教。 Long repressed in the USSR and the Communist countries of Eastern Europe, it experienced renewed freedom with the removal of restrictions on religion during the Gorbachev era.長期壓抑在蘇聯和共產主義的東歐國家,它經歷了新的自由與取消限制宗教在戈爾巴喬夫時代。

History歷史

Historically, the contemporary Orthodox church stands in direct continuity with the earliest Christian communities founded in regions of the Eastern Mediterranean by the apostles of Jesus. The subsequent destinies of Christianity in those areas were shaped by the transfer (320) of the imperial capital from Rome to Constantinople by Constantine I. As a consequence, during the first 8 centuries of Christian history most major intellectual, cultural, and social developments in the Christian church also took place in that region; for example, all ecumenical councils of that period met either in Constantinople or in its vicinity. Missionaries, coming from Constantinople, converted the Slavs and other peoples of Eastern Europe to Christianity (Bulgaria, 864; Russia, 988) and translated Scripture and liturgical texts into the vernacular languages used in the various regions.從歷史上看,當代東正教教堂停留在直接的連續性最早的基督教社區成立於地區的地中海東部的耶穌的使徒。後來的命運基督教在這些領域所形成的轉移( 320 )帝國的首都從羅馬君士坦丁堡的君士坦丁一,因此,在第一八世紀的基督教歷史上最重大的智力,文化和社會發展中的基督教教堂也發生在這一地區,例如,所有基督教理事會的這一時期無論是在會晤君士坦丁堡或在其附近。傳教士,來自君士坦丁堡,轉換的斯拉夫人和其他人民東歐基督教(保加利亞, 864 ;俄羅斯, 988 )和翻譯聖經和禮儀文本到本地語言中使用的各個地區。 Thus, the liturgy, traditions, and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all and still provide the basic patterns and ethos of contemporary Orthodoxy.因此,禮儀,傳統和做法的君士坦丁堡教會通過了所有仍然提供了基本的模式和精神的當代東正教。

These developments, however, were not always consistent with the evolution of Western Christianity, where the bishop of Rome, or pope, came to be considered the successor of the apostle Peter and head of the universal church by divine appointment.這些事態發展,但並非總是一致的演變,西方基督教,而羅馬主教或教皇,來到被認為是繼任者的使徒彼得和頭部的普遍教堂神聖的任命。 Eastern Christians were willing to accept the pope only as first among patriarchs.東部基督徒願意接受教皇不僅是第一個始祖。 This difference in approach explains the various incidents that grew into a serious estrangement.這種差異的辦法解釋的各種事件,成長為一個嚴重的隔閡。 One of the most vehement disputes concerned the filioque clause of the Nicene Creed, which the Western church added unilaterally to the original text.其中最激烈的爭端filioque有關條款的尼西亞信經,而西方教會說單方面的原始文字。

The schism developed gradually.在分裂逐步發展。 The first major breach came in the 9th century when the pope refused to recognize the election of Photius as patriarch of Constantinople.第一次重大違約是在9世紀時,教皇拒絕承認選舉Photius作為家長君士坦丁堡。 Photius in turn challenged the right of the papacy to rule on the matter and denounced the filioque clause as a Western innovation. Photius反過來質疑的權利教皇就此事作出裁決,並譴責filioque條款,作為一個西方的創新。 The mounting disputes between East and West reached another climax in 1054, when mutual anathemas were exchanged (Great Schism).安裝爭端東方與西方之間達成的另一高潮在1054年時,相互交換了anathemas (大分裂) 。 The sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade (1204) intensified Eastern hostility toward the West.在被解職君士坦丁堡的第四次十字軍東征( 1204 )加強東部敵視西方。 Attempts at reconciliation at the councils of Lyon (1274) and Florence (1438 - 39) were unsuccessful. When the papacy defined itself as infallible (First Vatican Council, 1870), the gulf between East and West grew wider. Only since the Second Vatican Council (1962 - 65) has the movement reversed, bringing serious attempts at mutual understanding.企圖和解委員會在里昂( 1274 )和佛羅倫薩( 1438年至1439年) ,但沒有成功。 當教皇定義本身萬無一失(第一梵蒂岡委員會, 1870年) ,海灣東方與西方之間更廣泛的增長。只有以來第二次梵蒂岡理事會( 1962年至1965年)的運動扭轉,從而使嚴重的嘗試相互了解。

Doctrines and Practices理論與實踐

The Orthodox church recognizes as authoritative the decisions of the seven ecumenical councils that met between 325 and 787 and defined the basic doctrines on the Trinity and the Incarnation. In later centuries Orthodox councils also made doctrinal definitions on Grace (1341, 1351) and took a stand in reference to Western teachings. 東正教教堂承認的權威性的決定七個基督教理事會,以滿足之間的325和787 ,並確定了基本教義的三一和化身。在以後的幾個世紀東正教會也作了理論上的定義格雷斯( 1341 , 1351 ) ,並採取了站在參照西方的教義。 The Orthodox church accepts the early traditions of Christianity, including the same sacraments as the Roman Catholic church - although in the Orthodox church infants receive the Eucharist and confirmation - and the episcopate and the priesthood, understood in the light of Apostolic Succession.東正教教堂接受了早期基督教的傳統,包括同一聖禮的羅馬天主教會-雖然在東正教教堂嬰兒接受聖體和確認-和主教和神父的理解,根據使徒繼承。 Married men may become priests, but bishops and monks may not marry. The veneration of Mary, as Mother of God is central to Orthodox worship, and the intercession of saints is emphasized in the Orthodox liturgical tradition.已婚男子可能成為神父,但主教和僧侶可能不會結婚。 崇拜的瑪麗,因為天主之母是東正教教堂,以及調解的聖人是強調東正教禮儀傳統。

After an early controversy on the subject, the images, or Icons, of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints are now seen as visible witnesses to the fact that God has taken human flesh in the person of Jesus. The Liturgy used by the Orthodox church is known as the Byzantine rite. It has been translated from Greek into many languages, including the Old Church Slavonic used by the Russian Orthodox church. The liturgy is always sung, and communion is distributed to the congregation in both kinds (bread and wine).經過年初爭議議題,圖片或圖標,基督,聖母瑪利亞和聖人現在被視為證人看見一個事實,即上帝採取了人肉的人耶穌。 的聖禮所用東正教教堂被稱為拜占庭儀式。它已被翻譯從希臘到許多語言,包括舊教會斯拉夫所使用的俄羅斯東正教教堂。 的禮儀始終是星,與共融分配給教會在這兩種(麵包和酒) 。

Monasticism, which had its origins in the Christian East (Egypt, Syria, Cappadocia), has since been considered in the Orthodox church as a prophetic ministry of men and women, showing through their mode of life the action of the Holy Spirit.修,它起源於基督教東(埃及,敘利亞,卡帕多西亞) ,一直考慮在東正教教堂作為一個預言部男子和婦女,通過其顯示的方式生活的行動,聖靈。 The monastic republic of Mount Athos, Greece, is still viewed among Orthodox Christians as a center of spiritual vitality.該寺院共和國的聖山,希臘,至今仍被視為東正教徒之間為中心的精神活力。

The Orthodox church has been generally quite open to the contemporary Ecumenical Movement.東正教教堂已相當普遍開放給當代基督教運動。 One by one, the autocephalous churches have all joined the Protestant - initiated World Council Of Churches, without modifying their own view on Christian unity, but considering the council as an acceptable forum for dialogue and cooperation with other Christians.一個接一個的獨立的教會都加入了新教-發起的世界基督教協進會,而不需要修改自己的看法基督教團結,但考慮到安理會作為一個可接受的論壇,對話與合作,與其他基督徒。 The recent steps taken by the Roman Catholic church and the decrees of the Second Vatican Council were seen by the Orthodox as promising groundwork for the future, and this positive reaction was witnessed by several meetings between Orthodox and Catholic leaders, including participation by Vatican representatives in ceremonies marking the thousandth anniversary of Russian Christianity in 1988.最近採取的步驟,由羅馬天主教會和法令的第二次梵蒂岡會議被視為由東正教的前途,為未來,這種積極的反應,目睹了幾次會議之間的東正教和天主教的領導人,包括參與梵蒂岡代表慶祝000週年,俄羅斯基督教在1988年。

John Meyendorff約翰Meyendorff

Bibliography 目錄
D Attwater, The Christian Churches of the East (1962) and Saints of the East (1962); D Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church (1982); D Drillock and J Erickson, eds., The Divine Liturgy (1982); J Ellis, The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History (1986); J Forest, Pilgrim to the Russian Church (1988); JM Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (1986); N Lernor, Eastern Christendom (1961); J Macha, Ecclesiastical Unification: A Theoretical Framework (1974); J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (1987), and The Orthodox Church, Its Past and Its Role in the World Today (1962); J Paraskevas, and F Reinstein, The Eastern Orthodox Church (1969); LJ Rogier, ed., The Christian Centuries (1962 - 78); S Runciman, Byzantine Style and Civilization (1975) and The Great Church in Captivity (1968); S Salaville, An Introduction to the Study of Eastern Liturgies (1938); T Ware, The Orthodox Church (1963); N Zernov, Eastern Christendom (1961). D Attwater ,基督教東( 1962年)和聖東( 1962年) ; D Constantelos ,了解希臘東正教教會( 1982年) ; D Drillock和J埃里克森合編。 ,神聖禮( 1982年) ; J埃利斯,俄羅斯東正教會:一個當代史( 1986年) ; J森林,朝聖者向俄羅斯教會( 1988年) ; JM赫西,東正教拜占庭帝國( 1986年) ; ñ Lernor ,東方基督教( 1961年) ; J馬查,教會統一:一個理論框架( 1974年) ; J Meyendorff ,拜占庭神學:歷史趨勢和理論的主題( 1987年) ,和東正教,它的過去和在世界上的作用今天( 1962年) ; J Paraskevas和F不務正業,東正教( 1969年) ;軍Rogier ,編輯。 ,基督教世紀( 1962年至1978年) ;語朗西曼,拜占庭風格與文明( 1975年)和大教會在籠養( 1968年) ;語Salaville ,簡介在研究東歐Liturgies ( 1938 ) ; Ť件,東正教會( 1963年) ; ñ Zernov ,東方基督教( 1961年) 。


The Orthodox Church東正教教堂

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

The Orthodox Church is one of the three major branches of Christianity, which stands in historical continuity with the communities created by the apostles of Jesus in the region of the eastern Mediterranean, and which spread by missionary activity throughout Eastern Europe. The word orthodox (from Greek, "right-believing") implies the claim of doctrinal consistency with apostolic truth.東正教會是三個主要部門的基督教,它的歷史連續性與社區創建的耶穌使徒在該地區的地中海東部,並散佈的傳教活動整個東歐。一詞正統(從希臘, “右相信” )意味著索賠的理論符合使徒的真理。 The Orthodox church has also established communities in Western Europe, the western hemisphere, and, more recently, Africa and Asia, and it currently has more than 174 million adherents throughout the world. Other designations, such as Orthodox Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Eastern Orthodox, are also used in reference to the Orthodox church.東正教教堂還建立了社區在西歐,西半球,最近,非洲和亞洲,它目前有超過1.74億美元的信徒在世界各地。其他名稱,如東正教天主教,希臘東正教,和東歐東正教,也被用來參照的東正教教堂。

Structure and Organization結構與組織

The Orthodox church is a fellowship of independent churches.東正教教堂是一個獨立的金教堂。 Each is autocephalous, that is, governed by its own head bishop.每一個獨立的,也就是說,由它自己的主教頭。 These autocephalous churches share a common faith, common principles of church policy and organization, and a common liturgical tradition. Only the languages used in worship and minor aspects of tradition differ from country to country.這些獨立的教會的共同信仰,共同的原則教堂的政策和組織,一個共同的禮儀傳統。只有所用的語言,在崇拜和未成年人方面的傳統,因國而異。 The head bishops of the autocephalous churches may be called patriarch, metropolitan, or archbishop.主教團負責人的獨立的教會可稱為元老,都市,或大主教。 These prelates are presidents of episcopal synods, which, in each church, constitute the highest canonical, doctrinal, and administrative authority.這些主教是總統祝synods ,在每個教堂,構成了最高的典型,理論,和行政權力。 Among the various Orthodox churches there is an order of precedence, which is determined by history rather than by present-day numerical strength.在各種不同的東正教教堂有一個優先順序,這是確定的歷史,而不是由目前的數值力量。

The Patriarch of Constantinople在君士坦丁堡牧首

A "primacy of honor" belongs to the patriarch of Constantinople (now Ýstanbul, Turkey), because the city was the seat of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire, which between AD320 and 1453 was the center of Eastern Christendom.一個“至高無上的榮譽”屬於元老君士坦丁堡(現在的Ýstanbul ,土耳其) ,因為該城的所在地東羅馬,或拜占庭帝國,這之間的AD320和1453年是中心的東基督教。 The canonical rights of the patriarch of Constantinople were defined by the councils of Constantinople (381) and Chalcedon (451).規範權利的君士坦丁堡宗主教確定了由理事會君士坦丁堡( 381 )和迦克墩( 451 ) 。 In the 6th century he also assumed the title ecumenical patriarch.在6世紀,他還擔任了標題基督教主教。 Neither in the past, nor in modern times, however, has his authority been comparable to that exercised in the West by the Roman pope: The patriarch does not possess administrative powers beyond his own territory, or patriarchate, and he does not claim infallibility.無論在過去,也不在現代社會,然而,他的權威受到相若的行使在西方的羅馬教皇:該家長不擁有行政權力超越自己的領土,或主教,他不要求犯錯誤。 His position is simply a primacy among equals.他的立場是一種至高無上的平等。 The other churches recognize his role in convening and preparing Pan-Orthodox consultations and councils.其他教會承認他的作用和編制召開泛東正教協商和議會。 His authority extends over the small (and rapidly vanishing) Greek communities in Turkey; over dioceses situated in the Greek islands and in northern Greece; over the numerous Greek-speaking communities in the United States, Australia, and Western Europe; and over the autonomous church of Finland.他的權力延伸到小(和迅速消失)希臘在土耳其的社區;超過教區坐落在希臘島嶼和希臘北部;了許多希臘社區在美國,澳大利亞和西歐;和自治區芬蘭教堂。

Other Ancient Patriarchates其他古代牧首轄區

Three other ancient Orthodox patriarchates owe their positions to their distinguished pasts: those in Alexandria, Egypt; Damascus, Syria (although the incumbent carries the ancient title patriarch of Antioch); and Jerusalem.其他三個古老的東正教牧首轄區欠他們的立場,以他們傑出的歷史:那些在埃及亞歷山大;敘利亞大馬士革(雖然現任帶有古老的標題元老安提阿的) ;和耶路撒冷。 The patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem are Greek speaking; the patriarch of Antioch heads a significant Arab Christian community in Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq.在始祖的亞歷山大和耶路撒冷的希臘發言;家長安提阿的元首一個重要的阿拉伯基督教社區在敘利亞,黎巴嫩和伊拉克。

Russian and Other Orthodox Churches俄羅斯和其他東正教教堂

The patriarchate of Moscow and all Russia is the largest Orthodox church today by far, having survived a difficult period of persecution after the Russian Revolution of 1917.莫斯科宗主教區和所有俄羅斯是最大的東正教教堂今天為止,有存活的一個艱難時期的迫害後,俄國革命的1917年。 It occupies the fifth place in the hierarchy of autocephalous churches, followed by the patriarchates of the Republic of Georgia, Serbia (part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), Romania, and Bulgaria.它佔據了第五位的等級獨立的教會,其次是牧首轄區格魯吉亞共和國,塞爾維亞(的一部分,南斯拉夫聯邦共和國) ,羅馬尼亞和保加利亞。 The nonpatriarchal churches are, in order of precedence, the archbishoprics of Cyprus, Athens (Greece), and Tirana (Albania; established 1937, this see was suppressed during Communist rule), as well as the metropolitanates of Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and America.該nonpatriarchal教堂,在優先順序的archbishoprics塞浦路斯,雅典(希臘) ,地拉那(阿爾巴尼亞; 1937年成立,這是壓制看到在共產黨的統治) ,以及metropolitanates波蘭,捷克共和國,斯洛伐克和美國。

The autocephalous Orthodox Church in America, officially established in 1970, has as its stated goal the unification of all Orthodox Christians in the US and Canada on a territorial basis. Nonetheless, large ethnic jurisdictions, particularly the Greek Archdiocese of America, are administratively connected with mother churches abroad.在獨立的東正教教會在美國,正式成立於1970年,其目標的統一,所有的東正教徒在美國和加拿大的領土基礎。儘管如此,大型民族管轄範圍內,特別是希臘大主教美國,是行政與母親教會國外。

Doctrine中庸

In its doctrinal statements and liturgical texts, the Orthodox church strongly affirms that it holds the original Christian faith, which was common to East and West during the first millennium of Christian history.在其教義和禮儀的聲明文本,東正教教堂強烈申明,它擁有原來的基督教信仰,這是共同的東方和西方在第一個千年的基督教歷史。 More particularly, it recognizes the authority of the ecumenical councils at which East and West were represented together.尤其是,它承認的權威,基督教會在東方和西方共同派代表出席了會議。 These were the councils of Nicaea I (325), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (680), and Nicaea II (787). Later doctrinal affirmations by the Orthodox church - for instance, the important 14th-century definitions concerning communion with God - are seen as developments of the same original faith of the early church.這是理事會的尼西亞口( 325 ) ,君士坦丁堡口( 381 ) ,以弗所( 431 ) ,卡爾西( 451 ) ,君士坦丁堡第二( 553 ) ,君士坦丁堡三( 680 ) ,以及尼西亞二( 787 ) 。後來的理論主張東正教教堂-例如,最重要的1 4世紀定義,關於與上帝-被看作是發展的原始信仰相同的早期教堂。

Tradition傳統

The concern for continuity and tradition, which is characteristic of Orthodoxy, does not imply worship of the past as such, but rather a sense of identity and consistency with the original apostolic witness, as realized through the sacramental community of each local church. The Holy Spirit, bestowed on the church at Pentecost, is seen as guiding the whole church "in all truth" (John 16:13). The power of teaching and guiding the community is bestowed on certain ministries (particularly that of the bishop of each diocese) or is manifested through certain institutions (such as councils). Nevertheless, because the church is composed not only of bishops, or of clergy, but of the whole laity as well, the Orthodox church strongly affirms that the guardian of truth is the entire "people of God."關切的連續性和傳統,這是東正教的特點,但並不意味著禮拜過去這樣,而是一種認同感和歷史感的一致性與原來的使徒的見證,作為實現社會的聖事的每一個地方教會。 羅馬的精神,賦予教會在聖靈降臨節,被看作是指導整個教會“在所有的真相” (約16:13 ) 。權力的教學和指導社會賦予某些部委(特別是每一個主教教區)或表現是通過某些機構(如議會) 。然而,由於教堂的組成不僅主教或神職人員,而且是整個俗人也東正教教堂強烈申明,監護人的真相是整個“人民的上帝。 ”

This belief that truth is inseparable from the life of the sacramental community provides the basis for the Orthodox understanding of the apostolic succession of bishops: Consecrated by their peers and occupying the "place of Christ" at the Eucharistic meal, where the church gathers, they are the guardians and witnesses of a tradition that goes back, uninterrupted, to the apostles and that unites the local churches in the community of faith.這個信念,真理是分不開的生活聖禮社會提供了基礎東正教了解使徒繼承主教:神聖的同行和佔領的“基督的地方”在聖吃飯,那裡的教堂聚集,他們是監護人和證人的傳統,可追溯到,不間斷地向使徒和團結的地方教會在國際社會中的信仰。

Christ and Mary耶穌和瑪麗

The ecumenical councils of the first millennium defined the basic Christian doctrines on the Trinity, on the unique Person and the two natures of Christ and on his two wills, expressing fully the authenticity and fullness of his divinity and his humanity (see Christology).議會的基督教的第一個千年界定的基本理論基督教的三位一體,獨特的人與這兩個性質,基督和他的兩個遺囑,表示完全的真實性和豐滿,他和他的神人類(見基督) 。 These doctrines are forcefully expressed in all Orthodox statements of faith and in liturgical hymns.這些都有力地學說中表示所有發言東正教的信仰和禮儀讚美詩。 Also, in light of this traditional doctrine on the Person of Christ, the Virgin Mary is venerated as Mother of God Mary.此外,鑑於這一傳統學說的人是耶穌,聖母瑪利亞崇拜的是天主之母瑪麗。 Further Mariological developments, however, such as the more recent Western doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary, are foreign to Orthodoxy.進一步Mariological的發展,但是,如最近的西方理論的完美概念的瑪麗,是外國對正統。 Mary's intercession is invoked because she was closer to the Savior than anyone else and is, therefore, the representative of fallen humanity and the most prominent and holiest member of the church.瑪麗的調解援引因為她是接近救主比任何人,因此是代表的下降和人類最重要的成員和神聖的教堂。

Sacraments聖禮

The doctrine of seven sacraments is generally accepted in the Orthodox church, although no ultimate authority has ever limited the sacraments to that number. 該學說的七個聖禮被普遍接受的東正教教堂,雖然沒有最終的權力都有限的聖禮這一數字的。 The central sacrament is the Eucharist ; the others are baptism, normally by immersion; confirmation, which follows baptism immediately in the form of anointment with chrism; penance; Holy Orders ; marriage; and anointment of the sick. Some medieval authors list other sacraments, such as monastic tonsure, burial, and the blessing of water.中央聖是 ;其他人的洗禮,通常浸泡; 確認,這立即如下洗禮的形式,塗油與chrism ; 懺悔;羅馬訂單 ; 婚姻;塗油的病人。一些中世紀的作者列表中其他聖禮,如寺院剃度,喪葬,以及祝福的水。

Celibacy獨身

Orthodox canonical legislation admits married men to the priesthood. Bishops, however, are elected from among celibate or widowed clergy.東正教規範立法承認已婚男性的神職人員。主教,但是,選出獨身或喪偶的神職人員。

Practices實踐

According to a medieval chronicle, when representatives of the Russian prince Vladimir visited the Hagia Sophia (Church of the Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople in 988, they did not know "whether they were in heaven, or on earth."據紀事中世紀時,代表俄羅斯王子弗拉基米爾參觀了聖索菲亞(教會羅馬智慧)在君士坦丁堡的988 ,他們並不知道“他們是否在天上,或在地球上。 ” Most effective as a missionary tool, the Orthodox liturgy has also been, throughout the centuries of Muslim rule in the Middle East, an instrument of religious survival. Created primarily in Byzantium and translated into many languages, it preserves texts and forms dating from the earliest Christian church.最有效的傳教工具,東正教禮儀也已在整個世紀的穆斯林統治在中東,一個工具的宗教生存。創建主要是在拜占庭和譯成多種文字,它保存的文本和表格可追溯到最早的基督教教堂。

Liturgy禮儀

The most frequently used Eucharistic rite is traditionally attributed to St.最常使用的聖儀式歷來是由於 John Chrysostom. Another Eucharistic liturgy, celebrated only ten times during the year, was created by St. 金口。另一個聖體禮儀,慶祝只有10倍在這一年中,已建立了 Basil of Caesarea. In both cases, the Eucharistic prayer of consecration culminates with an invocation of the Holy Spirit (epiclesis) upon the bread and wine. Thus, the central mystery of Christianity is seen as being performed by the prayer of the church and the action of the Holy Spirit, rather than by "words of institution," pronounced by Christ and repeated vicariously by the priest, as is the case in Western Christendom. 巴茲爾的愷撒。在兩種情況下,聖體祈禱的神聖達到最高潮的調用聖靈( epiclesis )的麵包和葡萄酒。 因此,中央神秘的基督教是被視為執行的祈禱的教堂和行動聖靈,而不是“機構的話, ”宣告耶穌和重複間接的牧師,如在西方基督教。

One of the major characteristics of Orthodox worship is a great wealth of hymns, which mark the various liturgical cycles.其中一個主要特點,東正教禮拜是一個偉大的財富的讚美詩,這標誌著各種禮儀週期。 These cycles, used in sometimes complicated combinations, are the daily cycle, with hymns for vespers, compline, the midnight prayer, matins, and the four canonical hours; the paschal cycle, which includes the period of Lent before Easter and the 50 days separating Easter and Pentecost and which is continued throughout the Sundays of the year; and the yearly, or sanctoral, cycle, which provides hymns for immovable feasts and the daily celebration of saints.這些週期,有時會使用複雜的組合,是每天週期,與讚美詩的晚禱, compline ,午夜的祈禱, matins ,四個典型小時;的復活節週期,其中包括四旬期期間復活節前的50天內分離復活節和聖靈降臨節,並繼續在週日的一年; 每年,或sanctoral ,週期,其中規定讚美詩的不動產節日和日常慶祝聖人。 Created during the Byzantine Middle Ages, this liturgical system is still being developed through the addition of hymns honoring new saints. Thus, two early missionaries to Alaska, St. Herman and St. Innocent, were recently added to the catalog of Orthodox saints.建立在中世紀拜占庭,這禮儀制度尚處於發展階段通過增加新的讚美詩紀念聖人。因此,兩個早期傳教士到阿拉斯加,聖赫爾曼和聖無辜的,最近被添加到目錄東正教的聖人。

Icons圖標

Inseparable from the liturgical tradition, religious art is seen by Orthodox Christians as a form of pictorial confession of faith and a channel of religious experience.分不開的禮儀傳統,宗教藝術看作是東正教徒是一種形式的圖案招供的信念和渠道的宗教經驗。 This central function of religious images (icons) - unparalleled in any other Christian tradition - received its full definition following the end of the iconoclastic movement in Byzantium (843).這個中心職能的宗教圖像(圖標) -無與倫比的任何其他基督教傳統-收到了完整定義結束後打破運動的拜占庭(8 4 3)。 The iconoclasts invoked the Old Testamental prohibition of graven images and rejected icons as idols. The Orthodox theologians, on the other hand, based their arguments on the specifically Christian doctrine of the incarnation: God is indeed invisible and indescribable in his essence, but when the Son of God became man, he voluntarily assumed all the characteristics of created nature, including describability. iconoclasts援引的老Testamental禁止刻圖像和拒絕的圖標作為偶像。 東正教神學家,另一方面,根據他們的論點的具體基督教教義的化身:上帝確實是無形的,在他的難以形容的本質,但是當上帝之子成為人,他自願承擔的所有特點創造的性質,包括describability 。 Consequently, images of Christ, as man, affirm the truth of God's real incarnation. Because divine life shines through Christ's risen and glorified humanity, the function of the artist consists in conveying the very mystery of the Christian faith through art. 因此,基督的形象,作為男人,申明真相上帝的真正化身。由於神聖的生命閃耀通過基督的上升和美化人類功能的藝術家組成,在轉達了非常神秘的基督教藝術。 Furthermore, because the icons of Christ and the saints provide direct personal contact with the holy persons represented on them, these images should be objects of "veneration" ( proskynesis), even though "worship" (latreia) is addressed to God alone. The victory of this theology over iconoclasm led to the widespread use of iconography in the Christian East and also inspired great painters - most of whom remain anonymous - in producing works of art that possess spiritual as well as artistic value.此外,由於圖標基督和聖人提供直接接觸的人的神聖代表他們, 這些圖片應該是物體的“崇拜” ( proskynesis ) ,即使“崇拜” ( latreia )是給上帝。的這一勝利的神學超過iconoclasm導致廣泛使用的意象在基督教地區,也啟發很大畫家-其中大部分保持匿名-在生產的藝術作品擁有精神以及藝術價值。

Monasticism

The liturgical and, to a certain degree, the artistic developments in Orthodoxy are connected with the history of monasticism. Christian monasticism first began in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor and, for centuries, attracted the elite of Eastern Christians into its ranks.的禮儀,並在一定程度上,藝術的發展,東正教是與歷史上的修道。基督教修道首先在埃及,巴勒斯坦,敘利亞和小亞細亞,並為百年來,吸引了精英東歐基督教徒納入其行列。 Based on the traditional vows of celibacy, obedience, and poverty, it took different forms, ranging from the disciplined community life of monasteries such as the Stoudios, in Constantinople, to the eremitic and individual asceticism of the Hesychasts (from Greek hesychia,"quietude").基於傳統發誓禁慾,服從和貧困,採取不同形式,從紀律社會生活的寺廟,如Stoudios ,在君士坦丁堡,向eremitic和個人禁慾主義的Hesychasts (從希臘hesychia , “寂靜“ ) 。 Today, the monastic republic of Mount Athos, in northern Greece, where more than 1000 monks live in 20 large communities as well as in isolated hermitages, bears witness to the permanence of the monastic ideal in the Orthodox church.今天,僧侶共和國聖山,在希臘北部,在1000個以上的僧侶生活在20個大社區,以及在孤立的祕境,見證了永恆的修道院理想的東正教教堂。

History歷史

Because a majority of non-Greek-speaking Christians of the Middle East rejected the Council of Chalcedon, and because, after the 8th century, most of the area where Christianity was born remained under the rule of Muslims, the Orthodox patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem kept only a shadow of their former glory. Constantinople, however, remained, during most of the Middle Ages, by far the most important center of Christendom.由於大多數非希臘講基督徒中東拒絕了安理會的迦克墩,因為,在八世紀,大多數的基督教地區仍然是誕生的統治下的穆斯林,東正教牧首轄區的亞歷山大,安提,並保持耶路撒冷的只是一個影子前的輝煌。君士坦丁堡,然而,依然存在,在大多數的中世紀,它是迄今為止最重要的基督教中心。 The famous Byzantine missionaries, St. Cyril and St. Methodius, translated (circa 864) Scripture and the liturgy into Slavonic, and many Slavic nations were converted to Byzantine Orthodox Christianity.著名的拜占庭的傳教士,聖西里爾和聖迪烏斯,翻譯(大約864 )聖經和禮儀到斯拉夫,斯拉夫和許多國家都轉換為拜占庭式的東正教。 The Bulgarians, people of Turkic stock, embraced it in 864 and gradually became Slavicized.在保加利亞人,突厥人的股票,擁抱它在864和逐漸成為Slavicized 。 The Russians, baptized in 988, remained in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Constantinople until 1448.俄羅斯,在988的洗禮,留在教會管轄的東正教君士坦丁堡,直到1448年。 The Serbs received ecclesiastical independence in 1219.塞族收到教會在1219年獨立。

Schism Between Constantinople and Rome君士坦丁堡之間的鴻溝和羅馬

Tensions periodically arose after the 4th century.定期出現的緊張局勢後, 4世紀。 After the fall of Rome (476) to Germanic invaders, the Roman pope was the only guardian of Christian universalism in the West.淪陷後羅馬( 476 )以日耳曼入侵者,羅馬教皇是唯一的監護人的基督教普世主義在西方。 He began more explicitly to attribute his primacy to Rome's being the burial place of St. Peter, whom Jesus had called the "rock" on which the church was to be built (see Matthew 16:18).他開始更明確地向他的首要屬性羅馬被埋葬地點的聖彼得,其中耶穌被稱為“岩石”在該教堂是建(見馬太16:18 ) 。 The Eastern Christians respected that tradition and attributed to the Roman bishop a measure of moral and doctrinal authority.東部基督徒尊重這一傳統,並歸因於羅馬主教一定程度的道德和法理的權威。 They believed, however, that the canonical and primatial rights of individual churches were determined above all by historical considerations.他們認為,然而,規範和primatial權利的個人教堂被確定上述所有的歷史因素。 Thus, the patriarchate of Constantinople understood its own position to be determined exclusively by the fact that Constantinople, the "new Rome," was the seat of the emperor and the Senate.因此,東正教君士坦丁堡理解自己的立場來確定完全由一個事實,即君士坦丁堡, “新羅馬” ,是所在地的皇帝和參議院。

The two interpretations of primacy - "apostolic" in the West, "pragmatic" in the East - coexisted for centuries, and tensions were resolved in a conciliar way.這兩個解釋的至高無上-“使徒”在西方, “務實”在東-共存的世紀,和緊張局勢得到解決,在c o nciliar方式。 Eventually, however, conflicts led to permanent schism. In the 7th century the universally accepted creed was interpolated in Spain with the Latin word filioque, meaning "and from the Son," thus rendering the creed as "I believe ... in the Holy Spirit ... who proceeds from the Father and the Son." The interpolation, initially opposed by the popes, was promoted in Europe by Charlemagne (crowned emperor in 800) and his successors.最後,然而,衝突導致永久性的分裂。 於公元七世紀公認的信條是插在西班牙與拉丁美洲filioque詞,意思是“從子” ,從而使作為信條: “我相信...在羅馬精神...誰收益的父親和兒子。 “插值,最初反對由教皇,是促進歐洲的查理曼(皇帝加冕800 )和他的繼任者。 Eventually, it was also accepted (circa 1014) in Rome.最後,它也接受(大約1014 )在羅馬舉行。 The Eastern church, however, considered the interpolation heretical.東方教會,但是,考慮插邪教。 Moreover, other issues became controversial: For instance, the ordination of married men to the priesthood and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.此外,其他問題成為爭議的:例如,祝已婚男性的神職人員和使用酵餅在聖。 Secondary in themselves, these conflicts could not be resolved because the two sides followed different criteria of judgment: The papacy considered itself the ultimate judge in matters of faith and discipline, whereas the East invoked the authority of councils, where the local churches spoke as equals.二次本身,這些衝突無法得到解決,因為雙方採取了不同的評判標準:在教皇認為自己的最終判斷在信仰方面和紀律,而東援引權威的理事會,在當地教堂以平等。

It is often assumed that the anathemas exchanged in Constantinople in 1054 between the patriarch Michael Cerularius and papal legates marked the final schism. 人們常常想當然地認為anathemas交換了在1054年君士坦丁堡之間的主教邁克爾瑟如拉留,並梵蒂岡legates的最後分裂。 The schism, however, actually took the form of a gradual estrangement, beginning well before 1054 and culminating in the sack of Constantinople by Western Crusaders in 1204. 的分裂,但實際上採取的形式是一個漸進的隔閡,從1054年前和最終一袋君士坦丁堡西方十字軍在1204年。

In the late medieval period, several attempts made at reunion, particularly in Lyons (1274) and in Florence (1438-39), ended in failure.在中世紀時期晚期,幾次試圖取得團聚,尤其是在里昂( 1274 )和佛羅倫薩( 1438年至1439年) ,以失敗而告終。 The papal claims to ultimate supremacy could not be reconciled with the conciliar principle of Orthodoxy, and the religious differences were aggravated by cultural and political misunderstandings.教皇自稱至高無上最終無法調和的conciliar原則,東正教,和宗教上的分歧加劇文化和政治的誤解。

After the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453, they recognized the ecumenical patriarch of that city as both the religious and the political spokesman for the entire Christian population of the Turkish empire.在奧斯曼土耳其人征服君士坦丁堡在1453年,他們認識到基督教主教的這個城市既是宗教和政治的發言人對整個基督教人口的土耳其帝國。 The patriarchate of Constantinople, although still retaining its honorary primacy in the Orthodox church, ended as an ecumenical institution in the 19th century when, with the liberation of the Orthodox peoples from Turkish rule, a succession of autocephalous churches was set up: Greece (1833), Romania (1864), Bulgaria (1871), and Serbia (1879).在東正教君士坦丁堡,但仍保持其榮譽至上的東正教教堂,結束作為一個基督教機構在19世紀時,以解放人民的東正教從土耳其統治,繼承獨立的教會成立:希臘( 1833年人) ,羅馬尼亞( 1864年) ,保加利亞( 1871年) ,塞爾維亞( 1879年) 。

The Orthodox church in Russia declared its independence from Constantinople in 1448.東正教教堂在俄羅斯宣布其獨立於君士坦丁堡在1448年。 In 1589 the patriarchate of Moscow was established and formally recognized by Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople.在1589年莫斯科宗主教區成立,並正式承認的主教Jeremias二君士坦丁堡。 For the Russian church and the tsars, Moscow had become the "third Rome," the heir to the imperial supremacy of ancient Rome and Byzantium.俄羅斯教會和沙皇,莫斯科已成為“第三羅馬” ,繼承人的帝國至高無上的古羅馬和拜占庭。 The patriarchate of Moscow never had even the sporadic autonomy of the patriarchate of Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire.莫斯科宗主教區從未有過零星的甚至自主權的東正教君士坦丁堡的拜占庭帝國。 Except for the brief reign of Patriarch Nikon in the mid-17th century, the patriarchs of Moscow and the Russian church were entirely subordinate to the tsars.除了簡短的統治主教尼康中端十七世紀的始祖在莫斯科和俄羅斯教堂是完全從屬於沙皇。 In 1721, Tsar Peter the Great abolished the patriarchate altogether, and thereafter the church was governed through the imperial administration. The patriarchate was reestablished in 1917, at the time of the Russian Revolution, but the church was violently persecuted by the Communist government.在1721年,沙皇彼得大帝廢除了東正教完全,並在其後的教堂管轄通過朝廷。主教是在1917年重建時,俄國革命,但教堂被暴力迫害的共產黨政府。 As the Soviet regime became less repressive and, in 1991, broke up, the church showed signs ofrenewed vitality.隨著蘇維埃政權變得不那麼壓迫,並在1991年,爆發了,教會跡象顯示ofrenewed的生命力。 (The Orthodox church in Eastern Europe had a similar but foreshortened history, restricted by Communist governments after World War II but gaining freedoms in the late 1980s.) (東正教教堂在東歐也有類似的,但foreshortened歷史,受共產黨政府第二次世界大戰後獲得自由,但在80年代後期。 )

Relations with Other Churches與其他教堂

The Orthodox church has always seen itself as the organic continuation of the original apostolic community and as holding a faith fully consistent with the apostolic message.東正教教堂一直認為,自己作為有機延續原來的使徒社會和持有一種信仰完全符合使徒的訊息。 Orthodox Christians have, however, adopted different attitudes through the centuries toward other churches and denominations.東正教徒然而,通過不同的態度通過對其他幾個世紀的教堂和面額。 In areas of confrontation, such as the Greek islands in the 17th century, or the Ukraine during the same period, defensive Orthodox authorities, reacting against active proselytism by Westerners, declared Western sacraments invalid and demanded rebaptism of converts from the Roman or Protestant communities. The same rigid attitude prevails, even today, in some circles in Greece.在對抗方面,如希臘島嶼在17世紀,烏克蘭或在同一期間,防守東正教當局,對積極反應宗教信仰的西方人,西方聖禮宣布無效,並要求rebaptism的轉換從羅馬或新教社區。同樣的僵硬態度普遍存在,即使在今天,在某些圈子在希臘舉行。 Nevertheless, the mainstream of Orthodox thought has adopted a positive attitude toward the modern ecumenical movement.然而,主流的正統思想採取了積極態度的現代基督教運動。 Always rejecting doctrinal relativism and affirming that the goal of ecumenism is the full unity of the faith, Orthodox churches have been members of the World Council of Churches since 1948.總是拒絕相對論理論,並申明的目標合一是全面統一的誠意,東正教教堂已經成員的世界基督教協進會自1948年以來。 They generally recognize that, before the establishment of full unity, a theological dialogue leading in that direction is necessary and that divided Christian communities can cooperate and provide each other with mutual help and experience, even if sacramental intercommunion, requiring unity in faith, appears to be distant.他們普遍認識到,在建立全面的統一,神學對話,這個方向是必要的,分為基督教社區可以合作和互相提供互相幫助和經驗,即使聖事的交流,需要統一的信念,似乎是遙遠。

The Protestant majority in the World Council of Churches has occasionally made Orthodox participation in that body awkward, and the ecumenical attitude adopted during the reign of Pope John XXIII by the Roman Catholic church (which does not belong to the council) has been welcomed by Orthodox officials and has led to new and friendlier relations between the churches. Orthodox observers were present at the sessions of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), and several meetings took place between popes Paul VI and John Paul II on the one side, and patriarchs Athenagoras and Demetrios on the other. In another symbolic gesture, the mutual anathemas of 1054 were lifted (1965) by both sides. The two churches have established a joint commission for dialogue between them.新教多數世界基督教協進會,有時也參加了東正教在該機構尷尬,並通過基督教的態度統治期間的教皇約翰二十三世的羅馬天主教會(其中不屬於安理會)已對此表示歡迎東正教官員,並導致新的和友好關係的教堂。東正教的觀察員出席了會議的第二次梵蒂岡會議( 1962至1965年) ,並幾次會議之間發生了教皇保羅六世和約翰保羅二世為一方,和始祖亞山那哥拉和德米特里的問題。 在另一個象徵性的姿態,相互anathemas的1054年被取消( 1965年)由雙方。兩個教堂設立了一個聯合委員會,他們之間的對話。 Representatives met on at least 11 occasions between 1966 and 1981 to discuss differences in doctrine and practice.代表會見了至少11次從1966年到1981年,討論不同的理論和實踐。 The claim to authority and infallibility made by the pope is generally seen as the primary obstacle to full reconciliation.索賠的權威和犯錯誤所作的教宗通常被視為主要障礙全面和解。

Rev. John Meyendorff牧師約翰Meyendorff


The Orthodox Tradition東正教的傳統

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Orthodox Tradition is the theological tradition, generally associated with the national churches of the eastern Mediterranean and eastern Europe and principally with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, whose distinguishing characteristic consists in preservation of the integrity of the doctrines taught by the fathers of the seven ecumenical councils of the fourth through eighth centuries.東正教的傳統是神學的傳統,通常與國家教會的地中海東部,東歐和主要的基督教東正教君士坦丁堡,其與眾不同的特徵是在保存完整的理論講授了父親的七個基督教理事會第四次通過第八屆世紀。 Through medieval times the churches of the Orthodox tradition were mainly Greek - speaking; in modern times they have been predominantly Slavic.通過中世紀時期的教堂東正教的傳統,主要是希臘-發言;在現代他們主要是斯拉夫人。

Nature of Orthodox Theology大自然的東正教神學

The first two councils, Nicaea I (325) and Constantinople I (381) , laid the foundation of Orthodox theology by adoption of the statement known commonly as the Nicene Creed. This formula established the primary principle of Trinitarianism, declaring the substantial equality of God the Son with God the Father, specifically in refutation of Arianism.前兩個委員會, 尼西亞口( 325 )君士坦丁堡口( 381 ) ,奠定了基礎東正教神學所通過的共同聲明中已知的尼西亞信經。此公式成立的首要原則,三位一體,宣布實質性平等的上帝子與聖父,特別是在駁斥Arianism 。

The third council, Ephesus (431) , rejected Nestorianism by affirming that in Christ divinity and humanity united in a single person, the Word made flesh.第三次理事會, 以弗所( 431 ) ,拒絕景教申明,在基督的神性和人性的統一在一個單一的人,在Word中取得的肉體。 In its primary thrust this affirmation set the premise of Orthodox Christology; it also set the premise for the development of doctrine concerning Mary.在其主要推力這一套肯定的前提下,東正教基督,還設置前提,發展理論的瑪麗。 In that the Christ was God incarnate, the Virgin was "Mother of God" (Theotokos, "god - bearer"); she was not simply mother of an ordinary human.在這基督是上帝的化身,維爾京是“上帝之母” (子, “神-無記名” ) ;她的母親不只是一個普通的人。 In consequence of this declaration Orthodoxy expressed high regard for Mary, positing her perpetual virginity and sinless life while remaining skeptical of the later Catholic dogmas of the immaculate conception and assumption.因此本宣言東正教表示崇高的敬意,對瑪麗,她永遠定位貞潔和清白的生活,而其餘的懷疑後來天主教教條的完美無暇的概念和假設。

The next three councils, Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553) , and Constantinople III (680) , confronted the heresy of monophysitism in its evolving forms, further defining for Orthodoxy its Christology, which states that in the one person of Christ there are two entire natures, the human and divine, including two wills.接下來的三個委員會, 卡爾西( 451 ) ,君士坦丁堡第二( 553 ) ,和君士坦丁堡三( 680 ) ,面對異端的基督一性在不斷變化的形式,進一步界定為正統的基督,其中規定,在一個人有基督有兩個整個天性,人類和神聖的,包括兩個遺囑。

The seventh council, Nicaea II (787) , in the midst of the struggle over iconoclasm, defined the doctrine of images representing Christ and the saints, requiring that the faithful venerate, but not worship, them.第七屆理事會, 尼西亞第二( 787 ) ,在各種艱難的鬥爭iconoclasm ,確定了理論的圖像代表基督和聖人,要求信徒拜拜,但不崇拜他們。 In the aftermath of this council, whose decrees were not approved by the Roman papacy (although they did not conflict with Catholic teaching), the divergence of Orthodoxy from Western Christian theology became increasingly pronounced.在此之後,安理會的法令不批准的羅馬教皇(雖然他們沒有衝突,天主教教學) ,分歧東正教來自西方基督教神學,越來越突出。 In a special way painted icons became symbols of Orthodoxy, inasmuch as they united correct doctrine and correct worship, the twin meanings of the word, and this perception led to the designation of the final restoration of icons in Byzantine churches on the first Sunday of Lent in 843 as the "triumph of Orthodoxy."以特殊的方式畫像成為正統的象徵,因為它們統一正確的理論和正確的崇拜,雙重含義的字,這種看法導致了指定的最後恢復圖標的拜占庭教堂的第一個星期日的大齋期在843的“正統的勝利。 ”

For Orthodoxy, the artistic image reiterated the truth that the invisible God had become visible in the incarnate Son of God who was the perfect image of God; the image channeled the presence of the person depicted to the one contemplating it, as the incarnate Word had brought God to man.對於正統的藝術形象重申了的真理,即無形的上帝已成為明顯的體現上帝之子誰是完美的形象,上帝的形象引導在場的人描繪一個考慮,因為Word中的體現了把上帝的人。

Since Nicaea II no genuinely ecumenical council has been possible, owing to the defection (in Orthodoxy's view) of the Roman See, and thus no new absolutely definitive declaration of Orthodox dogma has been possible.自尼西亞二沒有真正的基督教理事會有可能,由於叛逃(在正統的觀點)羅馬教廷,因此,絕對沒有任何新的申報確定東正教的教條已經是不可能的。 From this fact derives Orthodoxy's self - conscious identity as the church of the seven councils and its sense of mission in preserving the faith of the ancient fathers of the church.從這一事實源於東正教的自我-有意識的身份教堂的7個委員會和使命感,在維護信仰古老的父親教會。 But Orthodox theology did not stagnate in subsequent centuries, as changing circumstances and developments in others' theologies challenged Orthodox thinkers to refine and restate their conceptions of the faith presupposed by the patristic decrees.但是,東正教神學沒有停滯在其後的數百年,因為情況的變化和發展他人theologies挑戰東正教的思想家,完善和重申其概念的信仰先決條件的教父法令。

Such formulations have acquired considerable authority by approvals enunciated in local councils or by long - term common consent within Orthodoxy, although they do not have the canonical authority of the ecumenical decrees which Orthodoxy views to have been divinely inspired and therefore infallible.這種提法已經獲得了相當權威的闡述批准在地方議會或長期-短期內共同同意東正教,雖然他們沒有規範權力的法令基督教東正教意見已被神聖的,因此,萬無一失。 When a statement receives widespread acceptance among Orthodox churches, it acquires the status of "symbolic book."當一份聲明中得到普遍接受的東正教教堂,它獲得的地位“象徵性的書。 ”

The theological dimension of the schism with Western Catholicism rested primarily in Orthodoxy's rejection of Rome's claim that its bishop was the unique successor of Peter with the consequent prerogative to define dogma.在神學方面的分裂與西方天主教主要在於在東正教拒絕羅馬的說法,它的主教是獨特的繼任者彼得由此特權界定教條。 While granting a certain primacy of honor to the papacy, Orthodoxy saw all right - teaching bishops as equally successors of Peter, from which derived the requirement that only genuinely ecumenical, episcopal councils possessed the power of binding the conscience of the faithful.雖然給予了一定至高無上的榮譽給教皇,東正教看到所有權利-教學同樣主教彼得的繼任者,從所得的要求,只有真正的基督教,主教議會擁有的權力具有約束力的良知忠誠。 Therefore Orthodoxy has resisted those doctrines which it views as Roman innovations.因此,東正教一直抵制這些理論,它認為羅馬創新。

The most celebrated point of controversy between Orthodoxy and Western theology arose over the insertion of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed sometime after the eight century.最著名點之間的爭議東正教和西方神學出現了插入的filioque條款納入尼西亞信經一段時間的8世紀。 Besides rejecting this nonconciliar tampering with the decrees of the fathers, Orthodoxy saw in the assertion that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and the Son" the presupposition of two originating principles within the Godhead, negating the integrity of the Trinity.除了拒絕這一nonconciliar篡改法令的父親,看到正統的斷言,即聖靈“收益父子”的前提兩個原產地原則的神體,否定了完整的三位一體。 Most Orthodox thinkers could accept a formulation whereby the Spirit proceeds "from the Father through, or with, the Son," following the chief medieval Orthodox teacher, John of Damascus.大多數東正教的思想家可以接受的表述,即精神收益“的父親通過,或與子” ,下面的首席中世紀東正教教師,約翰大馬士革。 But until an ecumenical council acted, this would remain merely "theological teaching" (theologoumena).但是,直到基督教理事會採取行動,這將仍然只是“神學教育” ( theologoumena ) 。

On the other doctrinal questions where Catholic innovations might be identified, Orthodoxy has been less firm in its denunciations than in the filioque issue.對其他問題,在理論創新天主教可能查明,東正教一直不太堅定的譴責比filioque問題。 Regarding the state of persons after death, Orthodoxy rejects the notion of purgatory as a place distinct from heaven and hell.關於國家的人亡故後,東正教拒絕概念的煉獄作為一個地方有別於天堂與地獄。 At the same time it concedes that there is an intermediate period of temporal pain in which penance for sins is carried out by those destined for heaven; moreover, full blessedness, even for saints, is not achieved until after Christ's final judgment. Prayers for the dead, therefore, can have efficacy. Following the Western resolution of the dogma of the real presence in the Eucharist, Orthodox writers adopted the literal translation of "transubstantiation" into Greek (metousiosis).同時,它也承認,有一個中間一段時間的痛苦中懺悔的罪過是由那些目的地為天堂;此外,充分blessedness ,即使是聖人,是不是取得了基督之後的最後判決。 祈禱的死了,因此,可以有療效。繼西方決議教條的真正存在的聖體,東正教作家通過了直譯的“ transubstantiation ”到希臘( metousiosis ) 。 But in a distinction that had both theological and liturgical significance, Orthodoxy insisted that the miracle of transformation did not occur through the celebrant's enunciation of the words, "This is my body," but by the invocation of the Holy Spirit in the epiclesis: "Send thy Holy Spirit so as to make the bread to be the body of thy Christ." This difference signifies Orthodoxy's greater sensitivity of the Spirit than has generally been evident in the West.但是,在區分了這兩個神學和禮儀的意義,堅持正統的奇蹟轉變並沒有出現通過禮的闡述的話來說, “這是我的身體” ,但援引聖靈在epiclesis : “發送你的聖靈,從而使麵包是你身體的基督。 “ 這種差異意味著正統的更大的敏感性精神比一般是顯而易見的西方國家。

Orthodoxy agreed with Catholicism in acknowledging seven sacraments while not insisting upon the absolute significance of the number. The two sacraments which were clearly evangelical, baptism and Communion, along with confirmation (called chrismation by Orthodoxy and administered immediately after baptism), occupied a higher place than the rest. 東正教與天主教同意在承認七個聖禮,而不是堅持的絕對意義的號碼。兩個聖禮這顯然是福音,洗禮和聖餐,同時確認(稱為chrismation的東正教和管理的洗禮後立即) ,佔領了更高的地方比其他。 Orthodox writers regularly criticized the West's failure to use immersion as the proper mode of baptism, although most acknowledged the validity of aspersion in the Trine name. The Orthodox baptize by triple immersion, baptizing both adults and infants. Orthodoxy's use of leavened bread in the Eucharist, instead of the unleavened wafers of the West, was mostly a liturgical matter, although it was given theological meaning by the explanation that the leaven signified evangelical joy in contrast to the "Mosaic" regime of Catholic practice.東正教作家經常批評西方國家未使用浸泡的適當方式的洗禮,雖然大多數承認的有效性中傷在特麗的名稱。 東正教洗禮的三重保暖,洗禮成人和嬰幼兒。東正教使用的麵包,還有在聖,而不是味淡晶圓西,是主要是禮儀問題,但它是神學意義的解釋,即曲標誌著福音喜悅,相反, “馬賽克”制度的天主教的做法。

Its doctrine of the church distinguishes Orthodoxy most clearly from all other theologies. According to this doctrine the visible church is the body of Christ, a communion of believers, headed by a bishop and united by the Eucharist, in which God dwells. 其理論的東正教教堂區別最明顯的來自所有其他theologies 。根據這一學說可見教會是基督的奧體,一個共融的信徒,由一名主教和統一的體中,上帝居住。 As such, although individual members are fallible sinners, the church is held to be infallible. This true church by definition is the Orthodox Church, which is "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic," from which other churches are separated.因此,雖然個別成員犯錯誤的罪人,教會舉行的萬無一失。 這種真正的教會的定義是東正教教堂,這是 “一,神聖的,天主教和使徒” ,從其他教會分離。 That is, the church consists of those believers who remain in fellowship with, and submission to, the concert of historic patriachates, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, and Rome.這就是,教會組成,這些信徒誰留在金,並提交,音樂會的歷史patriachates ,耶路撒冷,安提阿,亞歷山大,君士坦丁堡和羅馬。 (When Rome separated from the concert, Moscow assumed membership in the pentarchy, although Rome's place remains reserved for it to resume if it will renounce its obstinacy.) (當羅馬脫離音樂會,莫斯科擔任成員的pentarchy ,雖然羅馬的地方仍然保留它恢復是否會放棄自己的固執。 )

The infallibility of the church validates the authority of tradition on a par with that of Scripture. 對犯錯誤的教堂驗證的權威,傳統上桿與聖經。 Moreover, tradition established both canon and interpretation of that Scripture and thus takes logical precedence over it. How to determine precisely what tradition teaches, however, remains a partially open question for Orthodoxy, since no single office is acknowledged to have definitive authority for the whole church, such as the papacy has for Roman Catholicism. 此外,雙方建立了傳統經典與解釋的聖經,因此需要邏輯凌駕於它。如何準確地確定什麼教的傳統,但仍然是一個局部開放的問題東正教,因為沒有一個單一的辦公室承認有明確的授權對整個教堂,如教皇一直信奉羅馬天主教。 In principle the church speaks authoritatively through episcopal councils; but this claim only moves the issue back one step because it raises the question of what validates which meetings of bishops as genuine rather than "robber" councils (as the Council of Constantinople of 754 is regularly designated).在教會原則講權威性主教議會通過,但這種說法只是問題的行動回到一個步驟,因為它提出了一個問題:如何驗證這些會議的主教,而不是真正的“強盜”理事會(理事會君士坦丁堡的754個定期指定的) 。 In the end, Orthodoxy trusts that the Holy Spirit abides in the church and in his own mysterious way leads and preserves his people in all truth.最後,東正教相信,聖靈恪守在教會和在自己的神秘方式引線和維護自己的人民的一切事實真相。

This trust produces, in practice, a measure of freedom within what could otherwise be a stifling traditionalism.這種信任產生,在實踐中,衡量的範圍內自由本來是一個令人窒息的傳統。

History of Orthodox東正教史

Theology of Orthodoxy may be divided into two periods: Byzantine and modern.東正教神學可分為兩個時期:拜占庭和現代。 During the millennium of the Empire of Byzantium, to 1453, Orthodox theology matured in close association with it.在千年的拜占庭帝國,到1453年,東正教神學的成熟密切相關的。 Emperors convoked councils, after the example of Constantine I and the Nicene Council, and pronounced on theological matters, providing some weak basis for speaking of "caesaropapism" in the Byzantine age. In this period three distinctive emphases of Orthodoxy emerged: theology as apophacticism, knowledge as illumination, and salvation as deification.皇帝召集議會,之後的例子君士坦丁一世和尼西亞理事會,並宣布對神學的事項,提供一些薄弱的基礎說“ caesaropapism ”在拜占庭時代。 在此期間三個不同的側重點東正教出現:神學作為apophacticism ,知識作為照明,與救亡的神化。

Relying principally on the sixth century writer Dionysius the Pseudo - Areopagite, Orthodox writers insisted that God in his nature is beyond any understanding. Humans can know nothing about the being of God, and therefore all theological statements must be of a negative, or apophactic, form: God is unchanging, immovable, infinite, etc. Even a seemingly positive affirmation has only negative significance; for example, to say, "God is Spirit," is actually to affirm his noncorporeality. Theology, then, is not a science of God, which is impossible, but of his revelation. That which is known is not necessarily true of God but is what God chooses to disclose, although in that sense it is indeed true knowledge.主要依托六世紀作家偽狄奧尼修斯-A reopagite, 正教作家堅持認為,上帝在他的本質是超越任何諒解。人類可以什麼都不知道的是上帝, 此所有的神學報表必須是負面的,或a pophactic,形式:上帝是不變的,不動產,無限的,等等即使是看似積極肯定只有負面意義,例如,說, “上帝是精神, ”實際上是申明他noncorporeality 。 神學,那麼,是不是科學的上帝,這是不可能的,但他的啟示。這是已知的不一定是真正的上帝,但上帝是選擇披露,儘管在這種意義上來看,確實是真正的知識。

Such a theology of negation led to the elevation of spiritual experience to at least an equal role with rationality as an epistemological principle in theology.這種否定神學導致海拔精神的經驗,至少有一個平等的作用,作為一個理性的認識論原則,神學。 Maximus Confessor, orthodoxy's chief twelfth century teacher, affirmed: "A perfect mind is one which, by true faith, in supreme ignorance knows the supremely unknowable one." Knowledge of God comes from illumination, the inner vision of true light, for "God is light." From this perception derived Orthodoxy's characteristic fascination with the transfiguration of Jesus, when the light of his deity was supremely revealed to the apostles.馬克西穆斯懺悔,正統的主要十二分之一世紀的教師,申明: “一個完美的心靈是一個由真正的信仰,在最高無知知道超級不可知的一個。 ” 上帝的知識來自於照明,內遠見真光,為“上帝輕。 “從這種看法源自正統的特點著迷的變形的耶穌時,根據他的神是超級透露給使徒。 It also fostered Heyschasm, in which the mystic's vision of divinity became a theologically significant enterprise. It is for this reason that what is called Orthodox theology is also designated with equal validity "Orthodox spirituality." The chief synthesizer of this aspect of Orthodoxy was Gregory Palamas in the fourteenth century.它還促進Heyschasm ,其中神秘的設想,神成為神學顯著的企業。 正是由於這一原因,所謂的東正教神學也是指定的平等有效性“東正教的精神。 ”首席合成這方面的東正教是格雷戈里帕拉馬斯在14世紀。

The Orthodox concept of salvation as deification undergirded the contemplative methodology implied in the illumination view. Only the "pure in heart" see God, and purity comes only by divine grace in the economy of redemption. 東正教救贖的概念作為神化undergirded的沉思方法隱含在照明的看法。只有“純心”見上帝,和純潔性是只有神恩典的經濟補償。 Those who are redeemed through the incarnation, whom the NT designates "sons of God" and "partakers of the divine nature," are deified; that is, they become created, in contrast to uncreated, gods. "God became man that we might be made God," said Athanasius of Alexandria; and Maximus Confessor declared: "All that God is, except for an identity in nature, one becomes when one is deified by grace." With this personalistic view of salvation, Orthodoxy diverged from the juridical emphasis which the West inherited through Augustine of Hippo, whom Orthodoxy could not comfortably accept as a Doctor of the Church. Orthodox theology viewed man as called to know God and share his life, to be saved, not by God's external activity or by one's understanding of propositional truths, but by being himself deified.誰是這些通過贖回的化身,其中新台幣指定的“上帝的兒子”和“ partakers神聖的性質, ”是神化,這就是他們成為創建的,而相比之下, uncreated ,神。 “上帝成為人,我們可能作上帝說, “亞他那修的亞歷山大和馬克西穆斯懺悔宣布 : ” 所有這一切是上帝,除了身份的性質,當一個成為一個神化的寬限期。 “有了這個 personalistic鑑於救星,東正教偏離了法律強調繼承了西方通過奧古斯丁的河馬,其中東正教無法接受舒適作為一個醫生的教會。 東正教神學認為人的要求,知道上帝和分享他的生命,挽救,而不是由上帝的對外活動,或由一個人的理解命題的真理,而是被自己神化。

In sum, the Byzantine period established Orthodoxy's greater mysticism, intuition, and corporatism in contrast to the West's philosophical, scholastic, and forensic orientation. 總之,拜占庭時期設立的正統的更大的神秘主義,直覺,社團主義相反,西方的哲學,學術,和法醫的方向。

In the period after 1453 the two events which most influenced the evolution of Orthodoxy were the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the division of Western Christianity.在1453年以後的兩個事件的影響,大多數的演變正統的下降,拜占庭帝國和分工的西方基督教。 Termination of imperial patronage increased the autonomy of the episcopacy and promoted the Russian contribution to the Orthodox heritage; Reformation theology made it possible for Orthodoxy to select from several alternative expressions of Christian doctrine.帝國的終止贊助增加的自主權主教,並促進俄羅斯的貢獻,東正教遺產;改革神學使得東正教選擇一些替代性的表達基督教教義。 To be sure, these developments tended to place Orthodoxy on the defensive and cast it in the role of respondent rather than actor, in which it frequently appeared to be the reactionary wing of Christendom.可以肯定的是,這些事態發展傾向於正統的防守和投它的作用,答辯,而不是演員,其中經常看來是反動的右翼基督教。 Nevertheless, that Orthodoxy's vigor remained was evidenced in the writings of several theologians, and the ecumenism of the twentieth century has opened new possibilities for an Orthodox contribution to theology.然而,這種正統的活力仍然是體現在作品的幾個神學家,和合一二十世紀開闢了新的可能性東正教神學的貢獻。

Melanchthon made the initial Protestant overture to Orthodoxy when he sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Patriarch Joasaph of Constantinople, requesting that the latter find it a faithful rendition of Christian truth.梅蘭希通了最初的新教東正教序曲時,他發出了希臘翻譯的奧格斯堡信條,以牧首Joasaph君士坦丁堡,要求後者找到它忠實地移交逃犯的基督教真理。 His successor, Jeremiah, responded over twenty years later, condemning numerous Protestant "errors," including justification by faith alone, sola Scriptura, rejection of icons and invocation of saints, Augustinian predestination, and filioque.他的繼任者,耶利米,回答二十多年後,許多新教譴責“錯誤” ,其中包括由信仰的理由,僅唯獨聖經,拒絕圖標和援引聖人,奧古斯丁命,並filioque 。

A quite different response to the Reformation came from the patriarch elected in 1620, Cyril Lucaris, who composed a confession which articulated an essentially Calvinist system.了一種完全不同的反應,以改革來自家長選出的1620年,西里爾Lucaris ,誰組成的供詞其中闡述基本上是加爾文主義制度。 Cyril's work proved to be an aberration in the history of Orthodoxy; it was formally condemned after his death in 1638 by a synod in Jerusalem thirty - four years later. But it elicited two important statements of Orthodox doctrine. In the first, Russian leadership appeared when Metropolitan Peter Mogila of Kiev composed his confession, a thorough refutation of Cyril's, in affirmation of the received body of Orthodoxy.西里爾的工作證明,這是一種反常的歷史正統,這是正式譴責他去世後,在1638年由主教在耶路撒冷三四年以後。 但它引起兩個重要的報表東正教教義。首先,俄羅斯領導層出現當都市彼得莫吉拉基輔組成他的供詞,徹底駁斥了西里爾的,在確認收到機構的正統。 Mogila's work was approved, with amendments, by the Eastern patriarchs in 1643.莫吉拉的工作是批准,修改,由東始祖在1643年。 The second was the confession of Patriarch Dositheos of Jerusalem, approved by the synod of 1672.第二是懺悔的主教Dositheos耶路撒冷,批准了1672年主教的。

These two documents remained the standard definition of Orthodoxy in the modern period. 這兩個文件仍然是標準清晰度東正教在現代時期。 They aligned Orthodoxy with the Catholic side in most of its chief doctrinal disputes with Reformed theology, eg, the relation of tradition to Scripture, veneration of saints and images, number and meaning of sacraments, faith and works in salvation. On only two questions did they sympathize with Protestants: papal authority and canon of Scripture. 他們一致東正教與天主教方在大多數主要的理論與改革的爭端神學,例如,傳統的關係,以聖經,聖人崇拜,圖片數量和意義的聖禮,信仰和救贖工程中。試論只有兩個問題沒有他們同情新教徒:教皇的權威和教會的聖經。 Orthodoxy continued to resist both Protestants and Catholics in their mutual agreement on filioque and the Augustinian understanding of original sin. Orthodoxy rejects original sin; man is born mortal and therefore sins, instead of the other way around, as the West commonly states the matter.正統繼續抵制這兩個新教徒和天主教徒在其相互協議filioque和理解奧古斯丁原罪。 東正教拒絕原罪;出生的人是致命的,因此,罪過,而不是其他方式,如西方國家普遍的問題。

But the significance of Orthodoxy's agreements with either Catholicism or Protestantism was more apparent than real inasmuch as the respective principles of authority differed fundamentally. For Orthodoxy, dogmatic authority remained rooted in the community of the church, represented by the episcopal succession from the apostles, not in the supremacy of the papacy nor in evangelical exegesis of Scripture, both of which to the Orthodox mind represented the domination of rationalism, legalism, and individualism over the true believing and worshipping fellowship of the faithful.但是,東正教意義的協議,要么天主教或新教是更加明顯多於實際,因為各自的原則,從根本上不同的權力。為東正教,教條式的權力仍然植根於社區的教堂,代表的繼承主教的使徒,而不是在至高無上的教皇也不福音註釋聖經,這兩個東正教派銘記的統治理性,法制,和個人主義的真正相信和崇拜金的忠誠。 To designate this community principle modern Russian theologians provided the definitive, but untranslatable, word sobornost' (approximately, "communion").指定這個現代社會的原則俄羅斯神學提供了明確的,但不可譯,文字sobornost ' (約, “共融” ) 。 "Sobornost' is the soul of Orthodoxy," declared the nineteenth century lay theologian Alexis Khomiakov. “ Sobornost '是靈魂,是正統” ,宣布19世紀奠定神學亞歷克Khomiakov 。

After the middle of the nineteenth century the most creative developments within Orthodoxy came from Russian writers, such as Vladimir Solovyev, Nikolai Berdyaev, Sergei Bulgakov, Georges Florvosky, and from professors of the Russian seminaries in Paris and New York, notably Alexander Schmemann and John Meyendorff.在十九世紀中葉的最有創造性的發展,東正教來自俄國作家,如弗拉基米爾Solovyev ,尼古拉別爾佳耶夫,謝爾蓋布爾加科夫,喬治Florvosky ,教授和來自俄羅斯學院在巴黎和紐約,尤其是亞歷山大舒梅曼和約翰Meyendorff 。 Their work is too recent for it to be incorporated into the essence of Orthodoxy, but it testifies to the continuing vitality of the tradition.他們的工作也為它最近將納入本質的正統,但它證明了持續生命力的傳統。 These men have, each in his own way, worked actively for the reunification of Christendom.這些男人,每一個在他自己的方式,積極工作,為統一的基督教。 The burden of their ecumenical testimony has been that genuine unity can be achieved not on the basis of the least common denominator among Christian churches but in agreement upon the totality of the common tradition contained in the ecumenical councils and authentically preserved only by Orthodoxy.負擔他們的基督教的證詞已經真正的團結,才能實現沒有的基礎上至少有共同點基督教教堂,但協議的全部共同的傳統中所載的基督教會和真正的維護只能由東正教。

PD Steeves帕金森病Steeves
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
John of Damascus, Writings; G Maloney, A History of Orthodox Theology Since 1453; V Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church; J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology; J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition III, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom; The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, NPNF , XIV; P Schaff, ed., The Creeds of Christendom, II, 445 - 542; A Schmemann, The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy; N Zernov, Eastern Christendom; K Ware, The Orthodox Way.約翰大馬士革,寫作; G馬洛尼史東正教神學自1453年; V Lossky ,神秘神學東歐教會; J Meyendorff ,拜占庭神學; J伯利坎,在基督教傳統第三,本著東基督教;七基督教議會不可分割的教會, NPNF ,第十四條; P沙夫,編輯。 ,在信仰的基督教,二, 445 -5 42;阿舒梅曼,歷史之路東正教; ñ Z ernov,東方基督教; K件,東正教之路。


Orthodox Church東正教教會

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages and are in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople but in schism with the Pope of Rome.該技術的名稱機構的基督徒誰使用拜占庭禮儀在不同的語言,並正在與工會君士坦丁堡牧首,但在分裂與羅馬教皇。 The epithet Orthodox (orthodoxos), meaning "right believer", is, naturally, claimed by people of every religion.東正教的形容詞( orthodoxos ) ,意思是“正確的信仰” ,是自然,聲稱人的每一種宗教。 It is almost exactly a Greek form of the official title of the chief enemies of the Greeks, ie the Moslems (mu'min, fidelis).這是幾乎整整一個希臘的形式正式名稱的主要敵人的希臘人,即穆斯林( mu'min ,忠誠) 。 The Monophysite Armenians called themselves ughapar, meaning exactly the same thing.亞美尼亞的Monophysite自稱ughapar ,意思完全相同的事情。

How "Orthodox" became the proper name of the Eastern Church it is difficult to say.如何“正統” ,成為適當的名稱東正教會很難說。 It was used at first, long before the schism of Photius, especially in the East, not with any idea of opposition against the West, but rather as the antithesis to the Eastern heretics - Nestorians and Monophysites.這是第一次使用,早在分裂的Photius ,尤其是在東,沒有任何想法,反對西方國家,而是作為對立面東部異端-N estorians和M onophysites。 Gradually, although of course, both East and West always claimed both names, "Catholic" became the most common name for the original Church in the West, "Orthodox" in the East.漸漸地,當然,無論東方和西方一直聲稱這兩個名字, “天主教”成為最常見的名稱,原來的教會在西方, “正統”的地區。

It would be very difficult to find the right name for this Church.這將是很難找到合適的名稱,這個教會。 "Eastern" is too vague, the Nestorians and Monophysites are Eastern Churches; "Schismatic" has the same disadvantage. “東方”的說法太含糊,該Nestorians和Monophysites是東方教會; “分裂”具有相同的劣勢。 "Greek" is really the least expressive of all. “希臘文”真的是最不發達國家的所有表現。 The Greek Church is only one, and a very small one, of the sixteen Churches that make up this vast communion.希臘教會只有一個,和一個非常小的一個,在基督教協進會16構成這個龐大的共融。 The millions of Russians, Bulgars, Rumanians, Arabs, and so on who belong to it are Greek in no sense at all.數以百萬計的俄羅斯人,保加利亞人,羅馬尼亞人,阿拉伯人,因此對誰屬於它是希臘在毫無意義的。 According to their common custom one may add the word "Eastern" to the title and speak of the Orthodox Eastern Church (he orthodoxos anatolike ekklesia).根據他們的共同客戶可以加上“東方”的標題和談論東歐東正教教會(他orthodoxos anatolike ekklesia ) 。

The Orthodox, then, are the Christians in the East of Europe, in Egypt and Asia, who accept the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon (are therefore neither Nestorians nor Monophysites), but who, as the result of the schisms of Photius (ninth cent.) and Cerularius (eleventh cent.), are not in communion with the Catholic Church.東正教,那麼,是基督教徒在東方的歐洲,在埃及和亞洲,誰接受安理會的以弗所和卡爾西(因此,既不Nestorians也不Monophysites ) ,但誰,由於在分裂的Photius (第九屆以上。 )和瑟如拉留(第十一屆以上。 ) ,不屬於交流與天主教會。 There is no common authority obeyed by all, or rather it is only the authority of "Christ and the seven Ecumenical Synods" (from Nicæa I in 325, to Nicæa II in 787).沒有共同的權力服從所有,或相反,它是唯一的權威, “耶穌和基督教的七個Synods ” (來自尼西亞一325 ,以尼西亞二787 ) 。

These sixteen Churches are: (1) The four Eastern patriarchates - Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem - and the Church of Cyprus, independent since the Council of Ephesus.這些16教會是: ( 1 )這四個東歐牧首轄區-君士坦丁堡,亞歷山大,安提阿,耶路撒冷-教會和塞浦路斯的獨立,因為安理會的以弗所。 (2) Since the great schism eleven new Churches have been added, all but one formed at the expense of the one vast Patriarchate of Constantinople. ( 2 )由於巨大的分裂基督教協進會11新增加了,但是一個建制犧牲了一個巨大的東正教君士坦丁堡。 They are the six national churches of Russia, Greece, Servia, Montenegro, Rumania, and Bulgaria, four independent Churches in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, namely Carlovitz, Hermannstadt, Czernovitz, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and lastly the Church of Mount Sinai, consisting of one monastery separated from Jerusalem.他們是六個國家的教堂,俄羅斯,希臘,塞爾維亞,黑山,羅馬尼亞和保加利亞, 4個獨立的教會在奧匈君主立憲制,即Carlovitz , Hermannstadt , Czernovitz ,波斯尼亞和黑塞哥維那,最後教會的西奈山,組成一個修道院脫離耶路撒冷。 One of these Churches, that of Bulgaria, is in schism with Constantinople since 1872.其中的一個教會,保加利亞,是在分裂與1872年以來君士坦丁堡。 The total number of Orthodox Christians in the world is estimated variously as 95 to 100 millions.總數東正教基督徒在世界上是不同的估計為95到100百萬。 (See EASTERN CHURCHES; GREEK CHURCH; CONSTANTINOPLE, Heresy and Schism; RUSSIA.) (見東方教會;希臘教會君士坦丁堡,異端和分裂;俄羅斯。 )

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息撰稿阿德里安斯丘。 Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello, Ph.D.. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄的杰弗裡光蒙德羅,博士。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat二月一日1911 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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