Old School Theology舊學校神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Old School Presbyterians maintained Calvinist orthodoxy from the 1830s to the 1860s.舊學校長老會保持正統加爾文主義從19世紀30年代到19世紀60年代。 Princeton theologians Archibald Alexander and Charles Hodge believed that their theology faithfully reflected Reformed beliefs and should be central in American Presbyterianism. They contended that their Calvinism was historically aligned with the Westminster Confession of Faith, John Calvin, Augustine, and the Bible itself.普林斯頓神學家亞歷山大和查爾斯霍奇阿奇博爾德認為,他們的神學忠實地反映了改革的信念,並應在美國長老會的中心。他們爭辯說,他們的加爾文主義在歷史上贊同該西敏寺招供的信仰,約翰加爾文,奧古斯丁,和聖經本身。 The very term "Old School theology" indicates that its adherents wanted to retain traditional Reformed doctrines. They wanted a "consistent Calvinism" and developed distinct views on confessionalism, revivalism, and church polity.來說,“老學校神學”表明,它的信徒要保留傳統的改革理論。他們想要一個“一貫的加爾文主義”和發達國家不同的意見,宗派主義,復古,教會政體。 Because of their stand on these issues, the Old School faction expelled the New School from the church in 1837 for having diverged from them.由於在這些問題上的立場,老學校派驅逐了新學校從1837年的教堂因偏離了他們。

Believing that doctrinal orthodoxy was of primary importance in Christian faith, Old School men desired a strict confessionalism or subscription to the Westminster Confession.正統教義認為是最重要的基督教信仰,老校友男人需要一個嚴格的自白或訂閱西敏寺供認。 Several New School leaders such as Albert Barnes and Lyman Beecher were accused of holding sub - Calvinist views related to the New Haven theology of Nathaniel W Taylor.幾種新的學校領導,阿爾伯特巴恩斯和萊曼比徹子被指控持有-加爾文的意見涉及到紐黑文神學納撒尼爾W泰勒。 Alexander and Hodge answered Taylor in seven articles in the Princeton Review (1830 - 31) by stressing Reformed doctrines such as the imputation of Adam's sin (Adam acted as a representative for all men and his sin was counted against them), Christ's substitutionary atonement, and the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit.亞歷山大和霍奇回答泰勒在七篇文章在普林斯頓評論(1830 - 31),強調改革的理論,如歸責亞當的罪(亞當擔任一個代表所有男子和他的罪是算對他們),基督的替代贖罪,和再生工作的聖靈。

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Many Old School men, including Alexander and Hodge, were greatly influenced by revivals in their younger days and acknowledged a continuing need for revival in the church.許多老學校男子,包括亞歷山大和霍奇,受到極大影響復興在他們年輕時,並承認需要持續的復甦在教堂。 But they sharply criticized contemporary revivalists for expressing Taylorite views in their preaching.但是,他們尖銳地批評當代復興主義來表達他們的意見Taylorite說教。 They condemned emotional excesses and demanded that true revivals be carried out within the church guided by its confessional stance on God's sovereignty and human inability. Charles G Finney's theology and Lectures on Revivals of Religion (1835) were thoroughly criticized.他們譴責情緒過激,要求真正的復興是在教堂內進行指導其教派的立場上帝的主權和人類無力。查爾斯G芬尼的神學和宗教講座恢復現象(1835年)的徹底批判。 Hodge preferred Horace Bushnell's concept of Christian nurture to revivalism as the primary means of bringing people to faith in Christ.霍奇首選霍勒斯布什內爾的概念,以復古的基督教培育作為主要手段,使人們信仰基督。

The Old School party also strongly supported Presbyterian polity as most consistent with a Reformed view of the church.黨的老學校也大力支持長老政體作為一個最符合改革的看法,教會。 Arguing that church order was a matter of faith, they opposed a plan of union with Congregationalists and claimed that Presbyterian polity provided discipline necessary to prevent errors in doctrine and practice which Congregationalism lacked.他們認為教會的命令是一個信仰問題,他們反對的計劃與公理和工會聲稱,長老政體提供了必要的紀律,防止在錯誤理論和實踐的公理所缺少的。 They also repudiated the social activism of voluntary societies, preferring that education and mission activities take place within the institutional church, where it also could be guided by the church's confession.他們還否定了社會運動的志願團體,希望把教育活動和任務發生的體制內教堂,在那裡還可以遵循教會的供詞。

In 1869 New and Old Schools reunited, primarily because during the schism New School theology had become more orthodox.在1869年新的和舊學校團聚,主要是因為在新學校的分裂已變得更為正統的神學。

WA Hoffecker西澳奧費克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
A Alexander, Evidences of the Authenticity, Inspiration and Authority of the Holy Scriptures; SJ Baird, A History of the New School; AA Hodge, The Life of Charles Hodge; C Hodge, Systematic Theology; Princeton Review, 1837 - 69.阿亞歷山大,證據的真實性,啟示與權威的聖經;律政司司長貝爾德,歷史的新學校;機管局霍奇,查爾斯霍奇的生命; c Hodge的,有系統的神學;普林斯頓評論,1837 - 69。


Lyman Beecher萊曼比徹

General Information 一般信息

Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) was an American Presbyterian clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut, and educated at Yale College (now Yale University).萊曼比徹(1775年至1863年),美國長老會牧師,出生在紐黑文,康涅狄格州,並就讀於耶魯大學(現耶魯大學)。 He became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at East Hampton, New York, in 1798.他成為長老教會的牧師在東漢普頓,紐約,於1798年。 At this church, in 1804, he attained national prominence through his brilliant sermon on the death of the American statesman Alexander Hamilton, who was killed in a duel with the American statesman Aaron Burr.在這個教堂,在1804年,他獲得國家突出通過他的光輝講道在死亡的美國政治家亞歷山大漢密爾頓,誰在決鬥中被打死的美國政治家阿龍伯爾。 Beecher held pastorates successively at Litchfield, Connecticut, and Boston between 1810 and 1832, and during this period he became known as one of the most eloquent preachers of his time.比徹在利奇菲爾德先後舉行pastorates,康涅狄格州和波士頓1810年和1832年之間,在此期間,他被稱為一個最雄辯的鼓吹者,他的時間。 He also was one of the leaders of a Presbyterian faction, called the New School, that opposed the strict doctrine and discipline of the conservative Presbyterians, called the Old School.他也是一個長老會的領導人一個派別,叫做新學校,即反對和紀律的嚴格教義的保守長老,稱為舊學校。

In 1832 Beecher was appointed first president of Lane Theological Seminary, near Cincinnati, Ohio, and pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati.比徹在1832年被任命為第一任總統的神學院巷,靠近辛辛那提,俄亥俄和牧師第二長老教會的辛辛那提。 His doctrinal liberalism soon brought him into conflict with his regional superiors.他的理論使他很快自由主義與他發生衝突地區的上司。 In 1835 he was tried by the presbytery on charges of heresy and hypocrisy, but was acquitted. 1835年他被審判的長老收費的異端和虛偽,但被無罪釋放。 The Presbyterian Synod, to which the verdict was appealed, sustained his acquittal in the same year.長老主教會議,對此判決提出上訴,維持了其無罪,同年。 When the schism foreshadowed by the Old School - New School controversy finally developed in 1838, Beecher adhered to the New School. He continued to preach at his Cincinnati church until 1842 and retained the titular presidency of Lane Theological Seminary for the remainder of his life.當分裂預示了舊學校-新學的爭論終於在1838年制定,比徹堅持新學校。他繼續鼓吹他的教會,直到1842年辛辛那提和保留名譽主席的巷神學院,其餘的為他的生命。 He was the father of 13 children, among them the noted American writer Harriet Beecher Stowe.他是父親的13個孩子,其中包括著名的美國作家著名作家。 All seven of his sons became clergymen.所有7個兒子成了他的牧師。 His writings include Collected Works (3 volumes, 1852) and Autobiography and Correspondence (1863).他的著作包括文集(3卷,1852年)和自傳和通訊(1863年)。



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