Old Catholics舊的天主教徒

General Information 一般信息

Old Catholics include several small local churches that have separated from the Roman Catholic church.舊的天主教徒,包括幾個小地方教會已脫離羅馬天主教教堂。 The Church of Utrecht - which was established in 1724 in a dispute over papal charges of Jansenism in Holland - was the first of these churches to separate from Rome.教會的烏得勒支-成立於1724年在羅馬教皇的收費爭議在荷蘭的詹森主義-這是第一個獨立於羅馬教會。 In the 1870s other Old Catholic churches were formed in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria by those Catholics who rejected the dogma of papal infallibility promulgated by the First Vatican Council (1870).在19世紀70年代其他舊天主教教會成立於德國,瑞士和奧地利的那些天主教徒誰拒絕教條的教皇犯錯誤頒布的第一梵蒂岡會議(1870年)。 The first German bishop was consecrated (1874) by a bishop of the Church of Utrecht.第一個德國主教祝聖(1874)由主教教會的烏得勒支。

In the United States, Polish Roman Catholics, resentful of domination by non - Polish clergy, split in 1897 to form the National Polish church.在美國,波蘭的羅馬天主教徒,不滿的統治-非波蘭神職人員,在1897年分裂,形成了波蘭國家教會。 Other Slavic groups have also become Old Catholics, as has the Philippine Independent Church (established 1902).其他斯拉夫團體也成為舊的天主教徒,正如菲律賓獨立教會(1902年成立)。

Old Catholic churches are in communion with each other and with the Church of England and seek ecumenical relations.舊天主教教會的共融中彼此之間以及與英格蘭的教會,尋求合一的關係。 Bishops and priests may marry; services generally follow the Roman ritual and are in the vernacular; in some both bread and wine are distributed to the congregation in communion.主教和神父可以結婚;服務一般按照羅馬儀式,並在白話,在一些麵包和酒都分發到聚集在共融。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Bibliography 書目
R Aubert, The Christian Centuries: The Church in a Secularized Society (1978); CB Moss, The Old Catholic Movement (1964); K Pruter, A History of the Old Catholic Church (1985). ṛ奧伯特,基督教世紀:教會在世俗化的社會(1978年);會CB苔,舊天主教運動(1964年); K表Pruter,歷史的舊天主教教會(1985年)。


Old Catholics舊的天主教徒

General Information 一般信息

Old Catholics are a Christian denomination organized in Munich in 1871 by Roman Catholics who protested the dogma, proclaimed the previous year by Vatican Council I, of the personal infallibility of the pope in all ex cathedra pronouncements (see Infallibility). The Munich protest, by 44 professors under the leadership of the German theologians and historians Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger and Johannes Friedrich, was directed against the binding authority of the Vatican Council.舊天主教徒是一個基督教教派於1871年在慕尼黑舉辦的由羅馬天主教的教條誰抗議,宣布前一年梵蒂岡會我的個人犯錯誤的教皇在教堂前的所有聲明(見犯錯誤)。慕尼黑抗議,由44教授領導下的德國神學家和歷史學家約瑟夫Ignaz約翰馮多林格和Johannes弗里德里希,是針對有約束力的權威,梵蒂岡會。 To this protest a number of professors at Bonn, Breslau (now Wroc³aw, Poland), Freiburg, and Giessen declared their adherence.為了達到這個數目抗議教授在波恩,布雷斯勞(現Wroc ³胡,波蘭),弗賴堡和吉森宣布他們的堅持。 At Cologne in 1873 the German theologian Joseph Hubert Reinkens was elected bishop of the Old Catholics in the ancient fashion, by "clergy and people," that is, by all the Old Catholic priests and by representatives of the Old Catholic congregations. 1873年在科隆的德國神學家約瑟夫休賴因肯斯當選主教舊天主教徒在古老的方式,以“神職人員和人民”,即所有的舊天主教神職人員和代表的舊天主教教會。 He was consecrated at Rotterdam by the bishop of Deventer, the Netherlands, and acknowledged by the German states of Prussia, Baden, and Hessen.他在鹿特丹的聖主教芬特爾,荷蘭,並承認由德國各州的普魯士,巴登和黑森。 Döllinger refused to become involved in organized schism and eventually broke with the movement, but he never returned to the Roman Catholic church.多林格拒絕成為參與有組織的分裂,並最終打破了這一運動,但他再也沒有回到羅馬天主教教堂。

Old Catholics conduct church services in the vernacular.舊天主教教堂進行服務的白話。 Priests are allowed to marry.牧師被允許結婚。 Intercommunion with the Church of England was accomplished at a conference in Bonn in July 1931; the concordat was ratified later by the Vienna congress of the Old Catholic church and by the convocations of Canterbury and York of the Church of England.暹羅與英格蘭教會是完成在一次會議於1931年7月在波恩舉行;該契約被批准後由維也納代表大會的舊天主教教堂,由坎特伯雷和約克的英格蘭教會。 According to recent figures, the Old Catholics number fewer than 250,000, with fewer than 70,000 in the US根據最近的數字,舊的天主教徒人數不到25萬,少於70000美國


Declaration of Utrecht (1889)聲明烏得勒支(1889年)

General Information 一般信息

A policy statement made by the five Old Catholic bishops, which in 1897 was adopted as the doctrinal basis of the Old Catholic Churches. It affirmed loyalty to Catholicism rightly understood, that is, as found in the beliefs of the primitive church and the decrees of the ecumenical councils up to the Great Schism between Rome and Constantinople in 1054.一個政策聲明所作的五個舊天主教主教,而在1897年被採納為理論基礎的舊天主教教堂。申明忠於天主教正確地理解,就是因為發現了原始的信仰和教會的法令合一議會到大分裂之間的羅馬和君士坦丁堡在1054年。 Made at a time soon after Vatican Council I controversies had augmented the ranks of dissidents, the declaration condemned what it regarded as Roman deviations from orthodoxy. Prominent among these were the decrees on immaculate conception (1854) and papal infallibility (1870), and the Syllabus of Errors (1864), which had condemned liberal doctrines.時間是在梵蒂岡會議後不久,我曾爭論增強隊伍的持不同政見者,宣言譴責它視為羅馬偏離正統。其中最突出的法令上完美無暇的概念(1854年)和羅馬教皇犯錯誤(1870年),以及教學大綱的錯誤(1864年),其中譴責了自由主義的教條。 The Declaration of Utrecht was in large part the work of those who had earlier unsuccessfully tried to persuade Roman Catholicism to subject its history and traditions to modern criticism.該宣言是在烏得勒支的很大一部分工作的那些誰此前沒能說服羅馬天主教把其歷史和傳統向現代的批評。

JD DOUGLAS第納爾道格拉斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)


Old Catholics舊的天主教徒

Additional Information 附加信息

(We received the following two articles from Michael Nesmith, a priest in the Independent Old Catholic Church of America (IOCCA).) (我們收到了以下兩篇文章,從邁克爾內史密斯,一名牧師在獨立舊天主教教會的美國(約卡)。)

As you know there are many offshoots of the Old Catholic Church here in the US which makes it all but impossible to determine the actual number of OC and Independent Catholic parishes.正如你知道有很多分支的舊天主教教會在這裡的美國使這一切,但無法確定實際數量的業主立案法團和獨立天主教教區。 Our particular group has approximately 90 clergy involved in all types of ministry.我們的特別小組已約90神職人員涉及所有類型的事工。 I have pasted below some additional information about the Old Catholic Church I hope you will find it beneficial.我有以下一些額外的信息粘貼有關舊天主教教會我希望你會發現它有利的。


The Declaration of Utrecht,該宣言的烏得勒支,

1889 1889年
of the Old Catholic Bishops舊天主教主教團
of the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland在荷蘭,德國和瑞士

  1. We adhere faithfully to the Rule of Faith laid down by St. Vincent of Lerins in these terms: "Id teneamus, quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est; hoc est etenim vere proprieque catholicum."我們忠實地遵守規則的信仰所訂定的勒蘭聖文森特在這些方面:為“ID teneamus,狴比克,狴森佩爾,狴從頭綜合creditum預測;責預測etenim維爾proprieque catholicum。” For this reason we preserve in professing the faith of the primitive Church, as formulated in the ecumenical symbols and specified precisely by the unanimously accepted decisions of the Ecumenical Councils held in the undivided Church of the first thousand years.基於這個原因,我們保留在自稱信仰的原始教會,作為制定了基督教的符號和特定的正是通過了一致決定接受議會的基督教教堂舉行的不可分割的第一個千年。
  2. We therefore reject the decrees of the so-called Council of the Vatican, which were promulgated July 18th, 1870, concerning the infallibility and the universal Episcopate of the Bishop of Rome, decrees which are in contradiction with the faith of the ancient Church, and which destroy its ancient canonical constitution by attributing to the Pope the plentitude of ecclesiastical powers over all Dioceses and over all the faithful.因此,我們反對的法令對所謂的梵蒂岡理事會,已頒布1870年7月18日,關於犯錯誤和普遍主教團的主教羅馬,法令是在矛盾與信仰的古老教會,並其中銷毀其古代典型章程歸於教宗豐滿的教會教區和權力,對所有對所有的信徒。 By denial of this primatial jurisdiction we do not wish to deny the historical primacy which several Ecumenical Councils and Fathers of the ancient Church have attributed to the Bishop of Rome by recognizing him as the Primus inter pares.通過否定這個靈長類管轄權我們不想否認歷史的首要地位,其中有數合一議會和父親的古老教堂已經歸因於羅馬主教承認他的地位上居於首位。
  3. We also reject the dogma of the Immaculate Conception promulgated by Pius IX in 1854 in defiance of the Holy Scriptures and in contradiction to the tradition of the centuries.我們還反對教條的聖母無原罪頒布的庇護九於1854年在藐視聖經中的矛盾和傳統的世紀。
  4. As for other Encyclicals published by the Bishops of Rome in recent times for example, the Bulls Unigenitus and Auctorem fidei , and the Syllabus of 1864, we reject them on all such points as are in contradiction with the doctrine of the primitive Church, and we do not recognize them as binding on the consciences of the faithful.至於其他諭發表的羅馬主教在最近的日子,例如,公牛Unigenitus和Auctorem信德奧跡,以及1864年的課程,我們拒絕他們對所有這些點,因為是在矛盾與學說的原始教會,和我們不承認他們是具有約束力的良心的忠誠。 We also renew the ancient protests of the Catholic Church of Holland against the errors of the Roman Curia, and against its attacks upon the rights of national Churches.我們還重申了古老的天主教教會抗議荷蘭對錯誤的羅馬教廷,並針對其攻擊後所享有的權利的國家教會。
  5. We refuse to accept the decrees of the Council of Trent in matters of discipline, and as for the dogmatic decisions of that Council we accept them only so far as they are in harmony with the teaching of the primitive Church.我們拒絕接受該法令,安理會的遄達紀律的事項,和為教條的決定,我們接受他們說,安理會迄今只因為他們是在和諧的教學的原始教會。
  6. Considering that the Holy Eucharist has always been the true central point of Catholic worship, we consider it our right to declare that we maintain with perfect fidelity the ancient Catholic doctrine concerning the Sacrament of the Altar, by believing that we receive the Body and Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ under the species of bread and wine.考慮到聖體聖事始終是真正的天主教崇拜的中心點,我們認為這是我們的權利聲明,我們保持與完善富達古老天主教教義有關聖餐的祭壇,相信通過我們收到的軀殼和血根據我們的救主耶穌基督的種類的麵包和酒。 The Eucharistic celebration in the Church is neither a continual repetition nor a renewal of the expiatory sacrifice which Jesus offered once for all upon the Cross: but it is a sacrifice because it is the perpetual commemoration of the sacrifice offered upon the Cross, and it is the act by which we represent upon earth and appropriate to ourselves the one offering which Jesus Christ makes in Heaven, according to the Epistle to the Hebrews 9:11-12, for the salvation of redeemed humanity, by appearing for us in the presence of God (Heb. 9:24). The character of the Holy Eucharist being thus understood, it is, at the same time, a sacrificial feast, by means of which the faithful in receiving the Body and Blood of our Saviour, enter into communion with one another (I Cor. 10:17).慶祝聖體聖事在教會既不是一個不斷重複,也不是重建的贖罪犧牲耶穌提供了一次為所有的交叉:但它是一種犧牲,因為它是永久的紀念犧牲在十字架後提供,它是該法通過後,地球是我們代表和適當的對自己的一個產品是使耶穌基督在天上,根據書信向希伯來9:11-12,為拯救人類的贖回,以顯示我們的存在的神(希伯來書9:24)。字符的聖體聖事是這樣理解,它是在同一時間,一個祭祀節日,通過它的忠實接受身體和血液我們的救主,進入共融與另一個(我肺心病。10:17)。
  7. We hope that Catholic theologians, in maintaining the faith of the undivided Church, will succeed in establishing an agreement upon questions which have been controverted ever since the divisions which arose between the Churches.我們希望,天主教神學家,在維護信仰的不可分割的教會,將成功地建立一項協議後,已有爭議的問題以來出現的部門之間的教會。 We exhort the priests under our jurisdiction to teach, both by preaching and by the instruction of the young, especially the essential Christian truths professed by all the Christian confessions, to avoid, in discussing controverted doctrines, any violation of truth or charity, and in word and deed to set an example to the members.我們敦促我們管轄下的祭司,教導,都是由說教和指令的年輕人,尤其是essential基督教真理的信奉基督教的所有供述,對avoid,in discussing有爭議的理論,對任何違反真理或慈善機構,並在言語和行動來樹立一個榜樣的成員。
  8. By maintaining and professing faithfully the doctrine of Jesus Christ, by refusing to admit those errors which by the fault of men have crept into the Catholic Church, by laying aside the abuses in ecclesiastical matters, together with the worldly tendencies of the hierarchy, we believe that we shall be able to combat efficaciously the great evils of our day, which are unbelief and indifference in matters of religion.通過保持和學說的忠實信奉耶穌基督,那些拒絕承認錯誤,由有過錯的男子悄悄進入了天主教教會,擱置在教會的虐待問題,再加上世俗傾向的層次,我們相信我們應能行之有效地打擊邪惡的偉大的日子,這是不信和宗教的事務漠不關心。


Old Catholic or Old Roman Catholic舊天主教或舊羅馬天主教

Old Catholic and Old Roman Catholic are terms used to identify independent Catholics in the United States who are not necessarily affiliated with ethnic Old Catholic communities such as the Polish National Catholic Church.舊天主教和羅馬天主教的舊有使用的術語,以確定獨立的天主教徒在美國誰不一定隸屬於民族舊天主教社區,如波蘭國家天主教會。 The original diocese established by the late Archbishop Carfora in the 1920's in Chicago was called the Old Roman Catholic Diocese in the United States. Because of this, most independent Catholic communities are called Old Catholic or Old Roman Catholic.原來由已故教區成立於1920年大主教卡爾福拉在芝加哥被稱為舊羅馬天主教教區在美國。正因為如此,最獨立的天主教社區的所謂舊天主教或舊羅馬天主教。

What Old Catholics Believe舊天主教徒相信什麼

The faith of Old Catholics is simply that of the Catholic Church as taught by the Church from apostolic times to the present day.老天主教徒的信仰很簡單的天主教教會作為受教於教會從使徒時代到今天。 The ecumenical Councils clearly express what Old Catholics believe without the need for apology or excuse.合一議會明確表示舊的天主教徒認為沒有什麼需要道歉或藉口。 In 1823, Archbishop Willibrord van Os of Utrecht reiterated adherence to the unchanging doctrine of Catholicism in the following words:"We accept without any exception whatever, all the Articles of the Holy Catholic Faith. We will never hold nor teach, now or afterwards, any other opinions than those that have been decreed, determined and published by our Mother, Holy Church..." 1823年,大主教威利布羅德麵包車鋨烏得勒支重申堅持不變的學說天主教在下面的話:“我們接受任何沒有任何例外,所有的物品信仰天主教的聖地。我們絕對不會也沒有教,現在或以後,沒有其他意見,比那些已經頒布,確定並公佈我們的母親,聖教會...“ Thus, Old Catholics, tracing their Apostolic Succession through the Roman Catholic Church to the Apostles, participated in the full sacramental ministry of the Church.因此,舊的天主教徒,追查他們的使徒繼承通過羅馬天主教教會的使徒,參加了全教會的聖事部。 The Rule of Faith of Old Catholics is faithful adherence to Sacred Scripture and the Apostolic Tradition.規則舊天主教徒的信仰是忠於聖經和使徒的傳統。

How Do They Differ?它們有什麼不同?

In matters of discipline, administration and procedure, Old Catholics differ from the Roman Catholic Church.在事項的紀律,行政和程序,不同於舊天主教徒羅馬天主教會。 For example, clerical celibacy (which is a matter of discipline) is optional among Old Catholics.例如,文職獨身(這是一個問題的紀律)是可選的老天主教徒之間。 Married men may be ordained and in many of our dioceses clergy may, with prior episcopal consent, enter into Holy Matrimony after ordination.已婚男子可能是受戒,在許多教區神職人員的可能,事先主教的同意,進入神聖的婚姻後,協調。 Liturgical expression is also a matter of discipline determined by the local bishop.禮儀表現也是一個紀律取決於當地主教。 Consequently, many Old Catholic communities have adopted the liturgical renewal promulgated following the Second Vatican Council while still maintaining Tridentine liturgy, in Latin or direct translation into classical or modern English, in those parishes that desire it.因此,許多舊天主教社區都採用了禮儀重建頒布後,梵蒂岡第二次會議,同時仍然保持律但丁禮儀,在拉丁美洲,或直接翻譯成古典或現代英語,在這些教區的這一願望的。 Eastern rite Old Catholic parishes exist as well, which follow the ancient liturgies of that rich tradition.東方禮天主教教區舊存在,以及中,這些古老的禮儀傳統的富有。 Because Old Catholic communities are small, they are able to successfully implement the Ignatian model of the Church referred to earlier.由於舊天主教社區雖小,它們能夠成功地實施了依納爵模型前面提到的教會。 This concept views the faithful with their clergy and bishop as a community or family in loving concern for each other and each working together to live the Scriptural commands in their daily lives as Christians bringing the love of Christ to others.這一概念的看法與他們的忠實神職人員和主教作為一個社會或家庭的關愛對方,每一起生活的聖經的命令,在日常生活中為基督徒帶來基督的愛給他人。 Old Catholic communities utilize their size and lack of highly detailed structure to the very best advantage organizationally by their ability to expedite decisions affecting the sacramental and community life of the faithful, within the revelation and authority of Holy Scripture and Apostolic Tradition.舊天主教社區利用其規模和缺乏非常詳細的結構,以最好的優勢,組織他們的能力,以加快決策影響聖和社區生活的忠實,在啟示和權威的聖經和使徒的傳統。

Other Distinctions其他的區別

There are other distinctives by which Old Catholic communities are differentiated from Roman Catholic parishes.還有其他distinctives其中舊天主教社區是由羅馬天主教教區區別。 The matter of papal infallibility defined by Vatican Council I is a non-issue for Old Catholics, since we are independent of papal jurisdiction.該事項由梵蒂岡教皇犯錯誤的定義會我是一個非問題,舊的天主教徒,因為我們是獨立的教皇的管轄範圍。 All Old Catholic communities accord the Holy Father that respect due him as Successor of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles and Patriarch of the West.所有舊天主教社區給予聖父由於他作為這方面的聖彼得的繼承人,王子使徒和主教西。 Old Catholics adhere to the teaching from apostolic times that the Church in General Council is infallible.舊天主教徒堅持教學從使徒時代,教會在總理事會是萬無一失的。 Another difference, is that divorced people who remarry are treated in a pastoral manner and not excluded from the sacramental life of the Church.另一個區別是,離婚再婚的人誰是在一個田園的方式處理,而不是被排除在聖事生活的教會。 Further, the matter of contraception is treated as a matter of personal conscience between husband and wife.此外,該事項避孕被視為一個問題的個人良心的丈夫和妻子之間。 Old Catholic theology recognizes that the Church's teaching magisterium has no less than two objects: the formation of conscience, in which case authority has an instructive quality; and the nurturing of a formed conscience to full maturity, in which case authority is guiding but not directive.舊天主教神學認識到教會的教學訓導有不少於兩個對象:形成的良知,在這種情況下,當局有啟發性的素質,是培育一個組成良知完全成熟,在這種情況下,權威的指導,但不指令。


Old Catholics舊的天主教徒

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility.該教派在德國舉辦葡語國家打擊教條的教皇犯錯誤。

Filled with ideas of ecclesiastical Liberalism and rejecting the Christian spirit of submission to the teachings of the Church, nearly 1400 Germans issued, in September, 1870, a declaration in which they repudiated the dogma of Infallibility "as an innovation contrary to the traditional faith of the Church".充滿思想的教會反對自由主義和基督教精神提交的教導的教會,德國發行近1400,在9月,1870年,一項宣言,其中他們推翻教條一貫正確的“作為創新違背了傳統的信仰教會“。 They were encouraged by large numbers of scholars, politicians, and statesmen, and were acclaimed by the Liberal press of the whole world.他們鼓勵大批學者,政治家和政治家,並讚揚了自由媒體對整個世界。 The break with the Church began with this declaration, which was put forth notwithstanding the fact that the majority of the German bishops issued, at Fulda on 30 August, a common pastoral letter in support of the dogma.這打破了教會開始與本宣言,這是提出的事實,儘管大部分德國主教發出,在富爾達8月30日,一個普通的牧函中支持的教條。 It was not until 10 April, 1871, that Bishop Hefele of Rotterdam issued a letter concerning the dogma to his clergy.直到1871年4月10日,即主教黑弗勒鹿特丹發出函件,有關他的教義的神職人員。 By the end of 1870 all the Austrian and Swiss bishops had done the same.到1870年底所有的奧地利和瑞士的主教們所做的一樣。

The movement against the dogma was carried on with such energy that the first Old Catholic Congress was able to meet at Munich, 22-24 September, 1871.對教條的運動是進行這種能源的第一個舊天主教國會能夠滿足在慕尼黑,9月22-24日,1871年。 Before this, however, the Archbishop of Munich had excommunicated Döllinger on 17 April 1871, and later also Friedrich.在此之前,不過,慕尼黑大主教逐出教會多林格了4月17日1871年,後來又弗里德里希。 The congress was attended by over 300 delegates from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, besides friends from Holland, France, Spain, Brazil, Ireland, and the representatives of the Anglican Church, with German and American Protestants.出席大會的300多名代表來自德國,奧地利和瑞士,除了朋友從荷蘭,法國,西班牙,巴西,愛爾蘭和英國聖公會的代表,與德國和美國新教徒。 The moving spirit in this and all later assemblies for organization was Johann Friedrich von Schulte, the professor of dogma at Prague.該運動的精神在這方面和所有為組織集會後約翰弗里德里希馮舒爾特,教授的教條在布拉格。 Von Schulte summed up the results of the congress as follows:馮舒爾特總結了這次大會的結果如下:

Adherence to the ancient Catholic faith;堅持古老的天主教信仰;

maintenance of the rights of Catholics as such;維護權利的天主教徒等;

rejection of the new dogmas,拒絕新的教條,

adherence to the constitutions of the ancient Church with repudiation of every dogma of faith not in harmony with the actual consciousness of the Church;遵守憲法的古代教會與休妻每教條的信仰不和睦與實際意識的教會;

reform of the Church with constitutional participation of the laity;改革與憲法的教會參與的俗人;

preparation of the way for reunion of the Christian confessions;編寫的方式團聚的基督教供詞;

reform of the training and position of the clergy;改革的培訓和立場的神職人員;

adherence to the State against the attacks of Ultramontanism;堅持國家對襲擊至上主義;

rejection of the Society of Jesus;該協會拒絕耶穌;

solemn assertion of the claims of Catholics as such to the real property of the Church and to the title to it.莊嚴的斷言聲稱這樣的天主教徒對不動產的教會和它的所有權。

A resolution was also passed on the forming of the parish communities, which Döllinger vehemently opposed and voted against.還通過一項決議,對構成該教區的社區,這多林格強烈反對和反對。 The second congress, held at Cologne, 20-22 September, 1872, ws attended by 350 Old Catholic delegates, besides one Jansenist and three Anglican bishops, Russian clergy, and English and other Protestant ministers.第二次代表大會,在德國科隆舉行,9月20日至22日,1872年,出席會議的350名舊天主教代表,除了一簡森派聖公會主教,3,俄羅斯神職人員,英語及其他新教部長。 The election of a bishop was decided on, and among the most important resolutions passed were those pertaining to the organization of the pastorate and parishes.這次選舉的主教決定,當中最重要的決議通過時,那些涉及到組織的牧師和教區。 This was followed by steps to obtain recognition of the Old Catholics by various governments; the general feeling of that time made it easy to obtain this recognition from Prussia, Baden, and Hesse.其次是步驟獲得承認舊天主教徒各政府;一般的感覺,當時可以輕鬆獲得認識到這一點從普魯士,巴登和黑森。 Professor Reinkens of Bonn was elected bishop, 4 June, 1873, and was consecrated at Rotterdam by the Jansenist Bishop of Deventer, Heydekamp, 11 August, 1873.賴因肯斯波恩教授被選為主教,1873年6月4日,在鹿特丹,是神聖的簡森派主教芬特爾,Heydekamp,1873年8月11日。 Having been officially recognized as "Catholic Bishop" by Prussia, 19 September, and having taken the oath of allegiance, 7 October, 1873, he selected Bonn as his place of residence.在被正式承認為“天主教主教”的普魯士,9月19日,並具有所採取的宣誓效忠,1873年10月7日,他選擇了波恩作為他的居住地。 The bishop and his diocese were granted by Prussia an annual sum of 4800 Marks ($1200).教區的主教和他被授予由普魯士一年度的總和4800馬克(1200美元)。 Pius IX excommunicated Reinkens by name, 9 November, 1873; previous to which, in the spring of 1872, the archbishop of Cologne had been obliged to excommunicate Hilgers, Langen, Reusch, and Knoodt, professors of theology at Bonn.庇護九驅逐賴因肯斯的名字,1873年11月9日,前到其中,在1872年春天,科隆大主教不得不破門希爾格斯,蘭根,雷施,並Knoodt,教授神學在波恩舉行。 The same fate had also overtaken several professors at Braunsberg and Breslau.同樣的命運,也超越幾位教授在布勞恩斯貝格和布雷斯勞。 The fiction brought forward by Friedrich von Schulte that the Old Catholics are the true Catholics was accepted by several governments in Germany and Switzerland, and many Catholic churches were transferred to the sect.小說中提出了由弗里德里希馮舒爾特說,舊的天主教徒,是真正的天主教徒接受了幾個國家的政府在德國和瑞士,很多天主教教堂被轉移到該教派。 This was done notwithstanding the fact that a decree of the Inquisition, dated 17 September, 1871, and a Brief of 12 March, 1873, had again shown that the Old Catholics had no connection with the Catholic church; represented, therefore, a religious society entirely separate from the Church; and consequently could assert no legal claims whatever to the funds or buildings for worship of the Catholic Church.這樣做儘管事實上一項法令的宗教裁判所,日期1871年9月17日,以及簡短的3月12日,1873年,已再次表明,舊的天主教徒沒有連接與天主教教會;代表,因此,一個宗教社會完全獨立於教會,並因此可以斷言沒有任何法律索賠的資金或建築物為崇拜的天主教教會。

The development of the internal organization of the sect occupied the congresses held at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 1874; at Breslau, 1876; Baden-Baden, 1880; and Krefeld, 1884; as well as the ordinary synods.在發展的內部組織佔領了該教派在弗賴堡舉行的代表大會在布賴斯高,1874年,在布雷斯勞,1876年,巴登,1880年和克雷菲爾德,1884年,以及普通主教會議。 The synodal constitution, adopted at the urgency of von Schulte, seems likely to lead to the ruin of the sect.憲法的主教會議上通過的緊迫性馮舒爾特,似乎有可能導致破產的教派。 It has resulted in unlimited arbitrariness and a radical break with all the disciplinary ordinances of Catholicism.它導致了無限的隨意性和激進打破所有的紀律條例的天主教。 Especially far-reaching was the abolition of celibacy, called forth by the lack of priests.特別是影響深遠的是廢除獨身,缺乏提出的所謂的祭司。 After the repeal of this law a number of priests who were tired of celibacy, none of whom were of much intellectual importance, took refuge among the Old Catholics.後廢除這項法律的一個數字祭司誰是厭倦了獨身,沒有一個人是非常智慧的重要性,採取避難間舊天主教徒。 The statute of 14 June, 1878, for the maintenance of discipline among the Old Catholic clergy, has merely theoretical value.該章程1878年6月14日,為維護紀律之間的舊天主教神職人員,也只是理論值。 A bishop's fund, a pension fund, and a supplementary fund for the incomes of parish priests have been formed, thanks to the aid given by governments and private persons.一位主教的基金,養老基金,補充基金收入的教區神父已經形成,由於政府給予的援助和私人。 In the autumn of 1877, Bishop Reinkens founded a residential seminary for theological students, which, on 17 January, 1894, was recognized by royal cabinet order as a juridical person with an endowment of 110,000 Marks ($27,500).在1877年秋天,賴因肯斯主教神學院成立一個住宅為神學學生,其中,1月17日,1894年,是由英國皇家認可內閣秩序法人與捐贈11萬馬克(27 500美元)。 A house of studies for gymnasial students called the Paulinum was founded 20 April, 1898, and a residence for the bishop was bought.一屋子的研究為gymnasial學生稱為Paulinum成立於1898年4月20日,和居住的主教購買。 Besides other periodical publications there is an official church paper.除了其他定期出版物有一個官方教會文件。 These statements, which refer mainly to Germany, may also be applied in part to the few communities founded in Austria, which, however, have never reached any importance.這些聲明,這主要是指德國,也可應用在部分少數社區成立於奧地利,但是,從來沒有達成任何的重要性。 In Switzerland the clergy, notwithstanding the very pernicious agitation, acquitted themselves well, so that only three priests apostatized.在瑞士的神職人員,儘管非常有害的攪拌,無罪釋放自己很好,所以,只有3個祭司apostatized。 The Protestant cantons -- above all, Berne, Basle, and Geneva -- did everything possible to promote the movement.新教州-首先,伯爾尼,巴塞爾,日內瓦-千方百計促進運動。 An Old Catholic theological faculty, in which two radical Protestants lectured, was founded at the University of Berne.舊天主教神學系,其中兩個激進的新教徒講課,成立於伯爾尼大學。 At the same time all the Swiss Old Catholic communities organized themselves into a "Christian Catholic National Church" in 1875; in the next hear Dr. Herzog was elected bishop and consecrated by Dr. Reinkens.在同一時間,瑞士舊天主教社區組織起來成為一個“全國基督教天主教教會”於1875年,在未來聽到赫爾佐克博士被選為主教祝聖賴因肯斯博士。 Berne was chosen as his place of residence.伯爾尼被選定為他的居住地。 As in Germany so in Switzerland confession was done away with, celibacy abolished, and the use of the vernacular prescribed for the service of the altar.如德國等在瑞士的供詞掉的,獨身取消,使用白話規定的服務的祭壇。 Attempts to extend Old Catholicism to other countries failed completely.試圖延長舊天主教到其他國家完全失敗。 That lately an apostate English priest named Arnold Matthew, who for a time was a Unitarian, married, then united with another suspended London priest named O'Halloran, and was consecrated by the Jansenist Archbishop of Utrecht, is not a matter of any importance.這最近一叛教者英語牧師名為馬修阿諾德,誰的時間為一個統一,結婚,然後團結與另一名為奧哈洛倫暫停倫敦祭司,並consecrated由簡森派大主教烏得勒支,不是任何一個問題的重要性。 Matthew calls himself an Old Catholic bishop, but has practically no following.馬修自稱是舊天主教主教,但幾乎沒有以下。 Some of the few persons who attend his church in London do so ignorantly in the belief that the church is genuinely Catholic.一些少數人誰出席他的教會在倫敦這樣做無知的信仰,教會是真正的天主教徒。

The very radical liturgical, disciplinary, and constitutional ordinances adopted in the first fifteen years gradually convinced even the most friendly government officials that the fiction of the Catholicism of the Old Catholics was no longer tenable.非常激進的禮儀,紀律,條例和憲法通過的第一個15年逐漸相信即使是最友好的政府官員說,小說對天主教的舊天主教徒已站不住腳。 The damage, however, had been done, the legal recognition remained unchanged, and the grant from the budget could not easily be dropped.的損害,但是,已經完成,在法律上承認維持不變,並從預算中撥款不能輕易被丟棄。 In Germany, although there was no essential change in this particular, yet the political necessity which led to a modus vivendi in the Kulturkampf chilled the interest of statesmen in Old Catholics, particularly as the latter had not been able to fulfil their promise of nationalizing the Church in Germany.在德國,雖然沒有必要改變這一特定的,但政治上的需要,導致一個權宜之計的文化之冷藏政治家的利益在舊的天主教徒,特別是後者未能履行其承諾的國家化教會在德國。 The utter failure of this attempt was due to the solidarity of the violently persecuted Catholics.在這種企圖徹底失敗的原因是團結的暴力迫害的天主教徒。 In many cases entire families returned to the Church after the first excitement had passed, and the winning power of the Old Catholic movement declined throughout Germany in the same degree as that in which the Kulturkampf powerfully stimulated genuine Catholic feeling.在許多情況下全家回到了教會後第一個興奮已經過去了,贏得權力的舊天主教運動拒絕在整個德國,在相同的程度,而真正的文化之有力推動了天主教的感覺。 The number of Old Catholics sank rapidly and steadily; to conceal this the leaders of the movement made use of a singular device.老天主教徒的人數迅速沉沒,穩步,掩蓋這一運動的領導人運用了奇異裝置。 Up to then Old Catholics had called themselves such, both for the police registry and for the census.截至當時曾稱自己為老天主教徒等,都為警察登記和普查。 They were now directed by their leaders to cease this and to call themselves simply Catholics.他們現在指示他們的領導人,並呼籲停止這種僅僅把自己的天主教徒。 The rapid decline of the sect has thus been successfully concealed, so that it is not possible at the present day to give fairly exact statistics.在迅速減少該教派因此被成功所掩蓋,因此,它不可能在現今給予相當確切的統計數字。 The designation of themselves as Catholics by the Old Catholics is all the stranger as in essential doctrines and worship they hardly differ from a liberal form of Protestantism.在指定自己是天主教徒的老天主教徒都是陌生人在基本教義和崇拜,他們很難從一個開放的不同形式的新教。 However, the prescribed concealment of membership in the Old Catholic body had this much good in it, that many who had long been secretly estranged from the sect were able to return to the Church without attracting attention.然而,在規定隱瞞成員的舊天主教屍體這麼多好這一制度,有很多誰疏遠已久的秘密從該教派得以重返教會沒有引起注意。 On account of these circumstances only Old Catholic statistics of some years back can be given.論到這些情況的統計資料,只有舊天主教幾年前可以得到。 In 1878 there were in the German empire: 122 congregations, including 44 in Baden, 36 in Prussia, 34 in Bavaria, and about 52,000 members; in 1890 there were only about 30,000 Old Catholics on account of a decided decline in Bavaria. 1878年有在德意志帝國:122聚會,其中包括44巴登,36在普魯士,巴伐利亞州34,約5.2萬成員,在1890年只有大約30,000舊天主教徒佔一決定就在巴伐利亞下降。 In 1877 there were in Switzerland about 73,000; in 1890 only about 25,000. 1877年在瑞士有大約7.3萬,在1890年只有約25,000人。 In Austria at the most flourishing period there were perhaps at the most 10,000 adherents, today there are probably not more than 4000.在奧地利,在最繁榮的時期有可能在最萬信徒,今天有可能不超過4000。 It may be said that the total number of Old Catholics in the whole of Europe is not much above 40,000. It seems strange that a movement carried on with so much intellectual vigour and one receiving such large support from the State should from bad management have gone to pieces thus rapidly and completely, especially as it was aided to a large degree in Germany and Switzerland by a violent attack upon Catholics.這可以說是舊天主教徒總數在整個歐洲沒有多少以上40,000元。奇怪的運動進行了這麼多智慧的活力和一個接收如此龐大的支持,國家應該從管理不善已消失成碎片從而迅速和徹底,特別是因為它在很大程度上資助在德國和瑞士的暴力襲擊後,天主教徒。 The reason is mainly the predominant influence of the laity under whose control the ecclesiastics were placed by the synodal constitution.其原因主要是主要影響的俗人其控制下的教士被放置在主教會議的憲法。 The abrogation of compulsory celibacy showed the utter instability and lack of moral foundation of the sect.廢除強制性的獨身顯示完全不穩定,缺乏道德基礎,該教派。 Döllinger repeatedly but vainly uttered warnings against all these destructive measures.多林格多次徒勞地發出一聲警告,但對所有這些破壞性的措施。 In general he held back from any active participation in the congresses and synods.一般來說,他會從任何積極參與人大和主教會議。 This reserve frequently irritated the leaders of the movement, but Döllinger never let himself be persuaded to screen with his name things which he considered in the highest degree pernicious.這激怒了後備領導人經常運動,但從來沒有讓自己多林格說服屏幕與他的名字的東西,他認為在惡性程度最高。 He never, however, became reconciled to the Church, notwithstanding the many efforts made by the Archbishop of Munich.他從來沒有,不過,達成了和解的教會,儘管作了許多努力慕尼黑大主教。 All things considered, Old Catholicism has practically ceased to exist.所有的事情考慮,舊天主教實際上已經不復存在。 It is no longer of any public importance.它不再是任何公眾的重要性。

For accounts of the movements and tendencies that led up to Old Catholicism see DÖLLINGER; GUNTHER; HERMES; INFALLIBILITY; LAMENNAIS; SYLLABUS; VATICAN COUNCIL.對於賬戶的變動情況和趨勢,導致了舊天主教看到多林格;岡瑟,赫爾梅斯,犯錯誤; LAMENNAIS;課程;梵蒂岡會議。

Publication information Written by Paul Maria Baumgarten.出版信息寫保羅瑪麗亞鮑姆加滕。 Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄由赫爾曼樓霍爾布魯克。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰 farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography書目

FRIEDBERG, Aktenstucke die altkatholische Bewegung betreffend (Tubingen, 1876); VON SCHULTE, Der Altkatholizismus, Geschichte Deutchland (Giessen, 1887); IDEM, Lebenerinnerungen.弗里德貝格,Aktenstucke死altkatholische Bewegung betreffend(蒂賓根,1876年);馮舒爾特,德Altkatholizismus,歷史館Deutchland(吉森,1887年);同上,Lebenerinnerungen。 Mein Worken als Rechtsleher, mein Anteil and der Politik in Kirche und Staat (giessen, 1908); VERING, Kirchenrecht (3rd ed., 1893), gives a good summary based on the original authorities.拜見Worken阿爾斯Rechtsleher,撈麵Anteil和der政治報在教會與施塔特(吉森,1908年); VERING,Kirchenrecht(第3版。,1893年),給出了一個很好的總結的基礎上對原機關。 Besides the statements in the statistical year-books there is a good account of Old Catholicism in MACCAFFREY, History of the Catholic Church in the Nineteenth Century.除了在統計年報表的圖書有一個很好的帳戶舊天主教MACCAFFREY,歷史的天主教教會在19世紀。 1789-1909, I (Dublin and Waterford, 1909); MARSHALL, Döllinger and the Old Catholics in Amer. 1789至1909年,我(都柏林和沃特福德,1909年);馬歇爾,多林格和老天主教徒阿米爾。 Cath. Quart.蛋白酶。夸脫。 Review (Philadelphia, 1890), 267 sqq.; cf.評論(費城,1890年),267時 12 sqq。;比照。 Also files of the London Taablet and Dublin Review (1870-71); Bruck-Kissling, lGeschicte der katholischen Kirche im neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Munster, 1908); MAJUNKE, Geschicte des Kulturkampfes in Preussen-Deutchland (Paderborn, 1882); GRANDERATH-KIRCH, Geschicte des Vatikanischen Konzils (Freiburg, 1903-06); cf.文件還對倫敦和都柏林Taablet回顧(1870至1871年),布魯克,起士林,lGeschicte明鏡katholischen Kirche的IM neunzehnten Jahrhundert(明斯特,1908年);馬容克,Geschicte德Kulturkampfes在普魯士,Deutchland(帕德博恩,1882年);格蘭德拉特,基爾希,Geschicte德Vatikanischen Konzils(弗賴堡,1903年至06年);比照。 also Friedrich, Geschicte des Vatikanischen Konzils (Bonn, 1877-87); in addition, the very full polemical literature of 1868-72 concerning the council and the question of Infallibility should be examined.還弗里德里希,Geschicte德Vatikanischen Konzils(波恩,1877年至1887年),此外,非常充分論戰文學1868年至1872年關於安理會和問題犯錯誤應當審查。 The most important writings are briefly mentioned in the works just mentioned.最重要的著作進行了簡要提及剛才提到的作品。 The two biographies, from opposing points of view, of Dolllinger by FRIEDRICH (Munich, 1891-1901) and MICHAEL (Innsbruck, 1892) contain much valuable material.這兩個人物傳記,從反對意見的認為,Dolllinger弗里德里希(慕尼黑,1891年至〇一年)和邁克爾(因斯布魯克,1892)包含了許多寶貴的材料。



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