Novation Schism, Novatian更替分裂,諾瓦蒂安

General Information 一般信息

Novatian, c.200-c.258, a Roman theologian and the first writer of the Western church to use Latin, was an early antipope.諾瓦蒂安,c.200 - c.258,羅馬神學家和第一個作家對西方教會使用拉丁語,是早期的對立教皇。 He had himself consecrated bishop of Rome in 251 in opposition to Pope Cornelius.他自己在羅馬的主教祝聖251反對教皇哥尼流。 Novatian believed that Cornelius was too lenient toward those who had apostatized during the Decian persecution (249-50) and had then requested readmission to the church.諾瓦蒂安認為,哥尼流是過於寬鬆對那些誰也apostatized在Decian迫害(249-50),並隨後要求重新加入教會。 He felt that more rigorous standards of readmission should apply.他認為,更嚴格的標準,應重新接納申請。 Novatian was excommunicated, but his followers formed a schismatic sect that persisted for several centuries.諾瓦蒂安被逐出教會,但他的追隨者組成了一個分裂的邪教,它持續了幾個世紀。 Novatian himself was probably martyred in the persecution of Valerian.諾瓦蒂安自己可能是烈屬,在迫害的纈草。 Novatian's most important work is De Trinitate (c.250), an orthodox interpretation of early church doctrine on the Trinity.諾瓦蒂安的最重要的工作是代Trinitate(c.250),正統的解釋早期教會的教義的三位一體。

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Novation Schism更替教會分裂

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This began as a debate over the proper treatment which the church should accord to Christians who had denied their faith during times of persecution.這開始是一個爭論了適當的治療應給予該教會的基督徒誰曾否認他們的信仰迫害期間倍。 In the widespread persecution under Decius, Pope Fabian was martyred in January of 250, but the church was in such dire straits that his successor was not elected until spring of 251.在廣泛的迫害下德西烏斯,教皇費邊是烈屬,在1月的250,但教會是在如此悲慘的境地,他的繼任者是沒有當選,直到春季251。 The majority vote was cast for Cornelius, who favored full acceptance of those who had lapsed in the terrible peril.大多數人投票投哥尼流,誰主張誰完全接受了這些失效的可怕的危險。 The choice was repudiated by the clergy who had been most staunch during the persecution, and in opposition they consecrated Novatian, a Roman presbyter who was apparently already acclaimed for his important and orthodox theological work, On the Trinity.這個選擇是由神職人員誰否定了最堅定的在迫害,反對他們奉獻諾瓦蒂安,羅馬長老誰顯然已經為他的讚譽和正統神學的重要工作,在三位一體。 Christendom was thus faced with two rival popes, each seeking support of the wider church.基督教因此面對兩個對手教皇,各自尋求支持更廣泛的教堂。

As each pope defended the legitimacy of his own position, the demarcation became more pronounced.由於每個教宗捍衛自己的合法性地位,劃分更加明顯。 Questions arose as to how the church should deal with those who had purchased from a magistrate false certificates affirming that they had offered a pagan sacrifice as over against those who had actually performed the sacrifice, a practice in which even bishops had engaged.出現問題,如何教會應該處理那些誰購買了由裁判官虛假證明,他們肯定提供了一個異教徒的犧牲,對那些誰在實際上執行了犧牲,這種做法在連主教已聘請。 The Novatianists maintained that only God might accord forgiveness for such grievous sin, while the Cornelius party argued for a judicious use of "the power of the keys" in forgiving the lapsed after a proper period of penance.該Novatianists堅持認為,只有上帝可以給予寬恕這種嚴重的罪過,而科尼利厄斯黨主張一個明智使用“的權力的關鍵”在寬容的適當期間屆滿後的懺悔。 Cyprian of Carthage became the major spokesman for this Catholic position of clemency.塞浦路斯的迦太基成為主要發言人這個天主教的立場寬大處理。

He opined that salvation was impossible outside the communion of the church and that true penitents must be received back into the fold as expeditiously as possible, while Novatian and his supporters maintained that the church must be preserved in its purity without the defilement of those who had not proved steadfast.他認為,拯救是不可能的外教會的共融,真正的懺悔者和必須收到放回盡快倍,而諾瓦蒂安和他的支持者認為,教會必須保留其純度不污辱了那些誰沒有堅定的證明。 They were later to go so far as to deny forgiveness for any serious offense (such as fornication or idolatry) after baptism, though pardon might be offered to those deemed near death.他們後來竟然拒絕寬恕任何嚴重罪行(如私通或偶像崇拜)的洗禮後,雖然赦免可能提供給那些被認為瀕臨死亡。

When they were excommunicated by a synod of bishops at Rome, the Novatianists, wishing to avoid compromise and complacency with sin, established a separate church with its own discipline and clergy, including bishops.當他們被逐出教會的主教由主教在羅馬,Novatianists,希望避免與罪妥協和自滿,建立一個獨立的教會有自己的紀律和神職人員,包括主教。 Their emphasis on purity and rigorism as well as a vehement clash of personalities drew significant support throughout the church at large, and especially from a Carthaginian presbyter named Novatus, himself at odds with Cyprian.他們強調純度和rigorism以及激烈衝突的人物提請整個教會的大力支持在大,特別是從迦太基長老命名Novatus,自己在與塞浦路斯的賠率。 There was a strong following in Phrygia, especially among Montanist groups.下面有一個強大的弗里吉亞,尤其是Montanist群體。 The Novatian Church continued for several centuries and was received by the Council of Nicaea as an orthodox though schismatic group.該諾瓦蒂安教會持續了幾個世紀,並聽取了安理會尼西亞正統,但作為一個分裂的一群。 In particular its affirmation of Christ as being of one substance with the Father was applauded.特別是其被肯定的基督作為一個物質與父親讚賞。 Later the sect fell under imperial disfavor, was forbidden the right of public worship, and had its books destroyed.後來根據該教派帝國下跌失寵,被禁止在公共崇拜的權利,並已銷毀帳簿。 The majority of its members were reabsorbed into the mainstream of the Catholic Church, although the Novatian Church was an identifiable entity until the seventh century.在其成員的多數被重新吸收進入主流的天主教教會,雖然諾瓦蒂安教會是一個可識別的實體,直到公元7世紀。

RC Kroeger and CC Kroeger鋼筋混凝土克羅傑和CC克羅傑
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
ANF , V; Eusebius, History of the Church, VI, VII; A Harnack, SHERK , VIII.心鈉素,五;尤西比烏斯,歷史的教會,六,七;阿哈納克,謝爾克,第八。


Novatian and Novatianism諾瓦蒂安和Novatianism

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he was a Roman priest, and made himself antipope.諾瓦蒂安是一個分裂的第三個世紀,該教派創始人的Novatians,他是一個羅馬牧師,使自己對立教皇。 His name is given as Novatus (Noouatos, Eusebius; Nauatos, Socrates) by Greek writers, and also in the verses of Damasus and Prudentius, on account of the metre.他的名字,便以Novatus(Noouatos,尤西比烏斯; Nauatos,蘇格拉底)由希臘作家,並在詩的達瑪斯和普頓,對帳戶的米。

Biography傳記

We know little of his life.我們知道他的小生命。 St. Cornelius in his letter to Fabius of Antioch relates that Novatian was possessed by Satan for a season, aparently while a catechumen; for the exorcists attended him, and he fell into a sickness from which instant death was expected; he was, therefore, given baptism by affusion as he lay on his bed.聖科尼利厄斯在他信法比尤斯安提涉及的諾瓦蒂安被撒旦附體的一個賽季,aparently而初學者,為法師伺候他,他陷入了疾病的死亡是由預期的瞬間,他是,因此,鑑於由注水洗禮,他躺在床上。 The rest of the rites were not supplied on his recovery, nor was he confirmed by the bishop.其餘的儀式並沒有提供關於他的恢復,也不是他證實了主教。 "How then can he have received the Holy Ghost?" “他又如何能得到聖靈?” asks Cornelius.問科尼利厄斯。 Novatian was a man of learning and had been trained in literary composition.諾瓦蒂安一個人的學習和培訓已在文學的組成。 Cornelius speaks of him sarcastically as "that maker of dogmas, that champion of ecclesiastical learning".哥尼流談到他諷刺為“是製造商的教條,這些冠軍的教會學習”。 His eloquence is mentioned by Cyprian (Ep. lx, 3) and a pope (presumably Fabian) promoted him to the priesthood in spite of the protests (according to Cornelius) of all the clergy and many of the laity that it was uncanonical for one who had received only clinical baptism to be admitted among the clergy.他的口才是所提到的塞浦路斯(插曲lx的,3)和教皇(大概比安)晉升他為司鐸儘管抗議(根據哥尼流)所有的神職人員及平信徒很多,這是一個uncanonical誰只收到臨床洗禮被接納之間的神職人員。 The story told by Eulogius of Alexandria that Novatian was Archdeacon of Rome, and was made a priest by the pope in order to prevent his succeeding to the papacy, contradicts the evidence of Cornelius and supposes a later state of things when the Roman deacons were statesmen rather than ministers.這個故事告訴Eulogius亞歷山大說諾瓦蒂安是副主教的羅馬,是一名牧師由教宗,以防止他的繼承教皇,違背了證據科尼利厄斯並假設以後國家的事情時有政治家羅馬執事而不是部長。 The anonymous work "Ad Novatianum" (xiii) tells us that Novatian, "so long as he was in the one house, that is in Christ's Church, bewailed the sins of his neighbours as if they were his own, bore the burdens of the brethren, as the Apostle exhorts, and strengthened with consolation the backsliding in heavenly faith."這些匿名的工作“廣告Novatianum”(十三)告訴我們,諾瓦蒂安,“只要他是在一棟房子,就是在基督的教會,哀嘆的罪惡,他的鄰居,好像他們是他自己,承擔了負擔的弟兄們,正如使徒勸告,並加強與安慰的倒退在天上的信心。“

The Church had enjoyed a peace of thirty-eight years when Decius issued his edict of persecution early in 250.教會已享有和平的38年發行時德西烏斯法令的迫害,他早在250。 Pope St. Fabian was martyred on 20 January, and it was impossible to elect a successor.教宗聖費邊是烈屬,1月20日,它是不可能選出繼任人。 Cornelius, writing in the following year, says of Novatian that, through cowardice and love of his life, he denied that he was a priest in the time of persecution; for he was exhorted by the deacons to come out of the cell, in which he had shut himself up, to assist the brethren as a priest now that they were in danger.科尼利厄斯,寫在下面的一年,說,諾瓦蒂安,通過膽怯和熱愛他的生活,他否認他是一名牧師在時間的迫害,因為他是由執事告誡出來的細胞,其中他把自己關起來,協助兄弟作為一個牧師,現在他們處於危險之中。 But he was angry and departed, saying he no longer wished to be a priest, for he was in love with another philosophy.但是,他很生氣,並離開,他說他不再希望成為一名神父,因為他愛上了另一個理念。 The meaning of this story is not clear.這個故事的含義是不明確。 Did Novitian wish to eschew the active work of the priesthood and give himself to an ascetic life? At all events, during the persecution he certainly wrote letters in the name of the Roman clergy, which were sent by them to St. Cyprian (Epp. xxx and xxxvi). The letters are concerned with the question of the Lapsi, and with the exaggerated claim of the martyrs at Carthage to restore them all without penance.難道Novitian想避開的積極工作的神職人員,讓自己的苦行生活?在所有的事件,在一定迫害他寫信的名義,羅馬神職人員,他們是被送往聖塞浦路斯(Epp. xxx和三十六)。字母都關心的問題的Lapsi,並與誇大聲稱的烈士在迦太基恢復他們不約而同的懺悔。 The Roman clergy agree with Cyprian that the matter must be settled with moderation by councils to be held when this should be possible; the election of a new bishop must be awaited; proper severity of discipline must be preserved, such as had always digtinguished the Roman Church since the days when her faith was praised by St. Paul (Romans 1:8), but cruelty to the repentant must be avoided.羅馬的神職人員同意塞浦路斯,這個問題必須解決溫和由議會舉行時,這應該是可能的;選舉新主教必須等待;適當程度的紀律必須得到維護,如一直digtinguished羅馬教會的日子,因為當她的信仰稱讚聖保羅(羅馬書1:8),但殘酷的懺悔,必須避免。 There is evidently no idea in the minds of the Roman priests that restoration of the lapsed to communion is impossible or improper; but there are severe expressions in the letters.有沒有想法,顯然是心中的羅馬祭司的失效恢復共融是不可能或不妥當的,但也有嚴重的信中表達。 It seems that Novatian got into some trouble during the persecution, since Cornelius says that St. Moses, the martyr (d. 250), seeing the boldness of Novatian, separated him from communion, together with the five priests who had been associated with him.看來,諾瓦蒂安陷入一些麻煩,在迫害,因為科尼利厄斯說,聖摩西,烈士(草250),看到了大膽的諾瓦蒂安,他從共融分離,連同5祭司誰曾與他聯繫。

At the beginning of 251 the persecution relaxed, and St. Cornelius was elected pope in March, "when the chair of Fabian, that is the place of Peter, was vacant", with the consent of nearly all the clergy, of the people, and of the bishops present (Cyprian, Ep. lv, 8-9).在開始的251迫害放鬆,和聖哥尼流當選教宗3月,“當主持費邊,這是彼得的地方,是空的”,並同意對幾乎所有的神職人員,市民,與目前的主教(塞浦路斯,環保。呂,8-9)。 Some days later Novatian set himself up as a rival pope.幾天後諾瓦蒂安自己確定為一個對手教皇。 Cornelius tells us Novatian suffered an extraordinary and sudden change; for he had taken a tremendous oath that he would never attempt to become bishop.科尼利厄斯告訴我們諾瓦蒂安遭受了非凡的和突然改變,因為他已經採取了巨大的誓言,他將永遠不會試圖成為主教。 But now he sent two of his party to summon three bishops from a distant corner of Italy, telling them they must come to Rome in haste, in order that a division might be healed by their mediation and that of other bishops. These simple men were constrained to confer the episcopal order upon him at the tenth hour of the day.但現在他派他的兩個黨召喚3主教從一個遙遠的角落,意大利,告訴他們,他們要來羅馬匆忙,為了使表決可能治愈他們的調解,以及其他主教。這些簡單的男子限制命令,授予主教後,他在第十屆小時的一天。 One of these returned to the church bewailing and confessing his sin, "and we despatched" says Comelius, "successors of the other two bishops to the places whence they came, after ordaining them."其中一個返回教堂怨聲載道,並供認他的罪過,“我們派出”說Comelius,“接班人其他兩位主教迫使他們從那裡來的地方,後祝聖他們。” To ensure the loyalty of his supporters Novatian forced them, when receiving Holy Communion, to swear by the Blood and the Body of Christ that they would not go over to Cornelius.為了確保他的忠誠支持者諾瓦蒂安強迫他們接受聖餐時,宣誓的血液和身體的基督,他們不會去到哥尼流。

Cornelius and Novatian sent messengers to the different Churches to announce their respective claims. Cornelius和諾瓦蒂安打發到不同的教會宣布各自的索賠。 From St. Cyprian's correspondence we know of the careful investigation made by the Council of Carthage, with the result that Cornelius was supported by the whole African episcopate.從聖塞浦路斯的信件中,我們知道了細緻的調查委員會所作的迦太基,其結果是科尼利厄斯是支持整個非洲主教。 St. Dionysius of Alexandria also took his side, and these influential adhesions soon made his position secure.聖修斯的亞歷山大也參加了他的身邊,與這些有影響力的粘連,很快就他的地位穩固。 But for a time the whole Church was torn by the question of the rival popes.但在一段時間內整個教會被拆除的問題上的對手教皇。 We have few details.我們有幾個細節。 St. Cyprian writes that Novatian "assumed the primacy" (Ep. lxix, 8), and sent out his new apostles to many cities to set new foundations for his new establishment; and, though there were already in all provinces and cities bishops of venerable age, of pure faith, of tried virtue, who had been proscribed in the persecution, he dared to create other false bishops over their heads (Ep. lv, 24) thus claiming the right of substituting bishops by his own authority as Cornelius did in the case just mentioned.聖塞浦路斯寫道諾瓦蒂安“假設的首要”(插曲lxix,8),並發出了他的新使徒許多城市提出了新的基礎,為他的新編制,以及,雖然已在全國各省,市的主教高齡,純信仰,試圖美德,誰也已被禁止在迫害,他敢於創造其他虛假主教在他們頭上(插曲呂,24),從而聲稱有權替代主教他自己的權威作為科尼利厄斯沒有在剛才提到的情況。 There could be no more startling proof of the importance of the Roman See than this sudden revelation of an episode of the third century: the whole Church convulsed by the claim of an antipope; the recognized impossibility of a bishop being a Catholic and legitimate pastor if he is on the side of the wrong pope; the uncontested claim of both rivals to consecrate a new bishop in any place (at all events, in the West) where the existing bishop resisted their authority.不可能有更驚人的證據的重要性在羅馬看見比這突如其來的啟示一個小插曲,在第三個世紀:震撼了整個教會的對立教皇索賠;認可不可能作為一個天主教的主教和牧師是否合法他是在錯誤的一邊教宗;聲稱的無可爭議的競爭對手都奉獻一個新的主教,在任何地方(在所有的事件,在西方)如果現有主教抵制他們的權力。 Later, in the same way, in a letter to Pope Stephen, St. Cyprian urges him to appoint (so he seems to imply) a new bishop at Arles, where the bishop had become a Novatianist.後來,以同樣的方式,在信司提反,聖塞浦路斯敦促他任命(所以他似乎暗示)一個新的主教在阿爾勒,那裡的主教已成為novatianist的。 St. Dionysius of Alexandria wrote to Pope Stephen that all the Churches in the East and beyond, which had been split in two, were now united, and that all their prelates were now rejoicing exceedingly in this unexpected peace -- in Antioch, Caesarea of Palestine, Jerusalem, Tyre, Laodicea of Syria, Tarsus and all the Churches of Cilicia, Caesarea and all Cappadocia, the Syrias and Arabia (which depended for alms on the Roman Church), Mesopotamia, Pontus and Bithynia, "and all the Churches everywhere", so far did the Roman schism cause its effects to be felt.聖修斯的亞歷山大說,教皇斯蒂芬所有教會中和中東以外,已被一分為二,現在是團結,而現在所有的主教都非常慶幸在這意外的和平-在安提阿,愷撒的巴勒斯坦,耶路撒冷,輪胎,老底嘉敘利亞,跗關節和所有教會的基利家,撒利亞,所有卡帕多西亞,敘利亞和沙特阿拉伯的(這取決於施捨的羅馬教會),美索不達米亞,本都和庇推尼去,“和所有的地方教會“到目前為止,沒有羅馬分裂的原因及其影響都不容低估。 Meanwhile, before the end of 251, Cornelius had assembled a council of sixty bishops (probably all from Italy or the neighbouring islands), in which Novatian was excommunicated.同時,年底前251名,哥尼流已經召集了一個委員會60主教(可能都來自意大利或附近島嶼),其中諾瓦蒂安被逐出教會。 Other bishops who were not present added their signatures, and the entire list was sent to Antioch and doubtless to all the other principal Churches.其他主教說誰不在場的簽名,整個列表被送往安提阿,無疑給所有其他主要教會。

It is not surpr sing that a man of such talents as Novatian should have been, conscious of his superiority to Cornelius, or that he should have found priests to assist his ambitious views.這不是surpr唱,一個人對這樣的人才應該被作為諾瓦蒂安,意識到他的優勢,科尼利厄斯,或者說他應該找到牧師協助他雄心勃勃的意見。 His mainstay was in the confessors yet in prison, Maximus, Urbanus, Nicostratus, and others.他的主體是在仟悔但在監獄,鮃,烏爾巴努斯,Nicostratus等。 Dionysius and Cyprian wrote to remonstrate with them, and they returned to the Church.修斯和塞浦路斯說勸諫他們,他們回到了教會。 A prime mover on Novatian's side was the Carthaginian priest Novatus, who had favoured laxity at Carthage out of opposition to his bishop.阿原動機上諾瓦蒂安一邊是迦太基祭司Novatus,誰曾傾向於在迦太基鬆弛了反對他的主教。 In St. Cyprian's earlier letters about Novatian (xliv-xlviii, 1), there is not a word about any heresy, the whole question being as to the legitimate occupant of the place of Peter.在聖塞浦路斯先前封有關諾瓦蒂安(四十四,四十八,1),沒有任何一個字關於異端,整個問題作為乘客的合法的地方彼得。 In Ep.在內啡肽。 li, the words "schismatico immo haeretico furore" refer to the wickedness of opposing the true bishop.他說,新詞“schismatico immo haeretico風波”指的是反對邪惡的真正主教。 The same is true of "haereticae pravitatis nocens factio" with Ep.同樣是真正的“haereticae pravitatis nocens factio”按照EP。 liii.第53號。 In Ep.在內啡肽。 liv, Cyprian found it necessary to send his book "De lapsis" to Rome, so that the question of the lapsed was already prominent, but Ep.麗芙,塞浦路斯認為有必要派遣他的著作“德lapsis”到羅馬,使失效的問題已經突出,但內啡肽。 lv is the earliest in which the "Novatian heresy" as such is argued against. LV是最早在其中的“諾瓦蒂安異端邪說”等,是極力反對。 The letters of the Roman confessors (Ep. liii) and Cornelius (xlix, 1) to Cyprian do not mention it, though the latter speaks in general terms of Novatian as a schismatic or a heretic; nor does the pope mention heresy in his abuse of Novatian in the letter to Fabius of Antioch (Eusebius, VI, xliii), from which so much has been quoted above.這些信件的羅馬仟悔(插曲53號)和科尼利厄斯(第四十九章,1)塞浦路斯沒有提到它,儘管後者講的一般規則,諾瓦蒂安作為一個分裂或異端,也沒有提及教宗在他的異端濫用在信的諾瓦蒂安到法比尤斯的安提阿(尤西比烏斯,六,四十三),從它已經發生了許多被引用以上。 It is equally clear that the letters sent out by Novatian were not concerned with the lapsi, but were "letters full of calumnies and maledictions sent in large numbers, which threw nearly all the Churches into disorder"' (Cornelius, Ep. xlix).同樣清楚的是,該信件由諾瓦蒂安不關心lapsi,但“信件充滿誹謗和maledictions發送大量,其中幾乎所有的教堂投擲到亂”'(科尼利厄斯,環保。十九)。 The first of those sent to Carthage consisted apparently of "bitter accusations" against Cornelius, and St. Cyprian thought it so disgraceful that he did not read it to the council (Ep. xlv, 2)., The messengers from Rome to the Carthaginian Council broke out into similar attacks (Ep. xliv).第一次發送到迦太基人顯然包括“痛苦的指控”對科尼利厄斯和聖塞浦路斯認為這樣不光彩的,他不念給理事會(插曲第四十五,二)。,使者從羅馬到迦太基會發生類似的攻擊(插曲四十四)。 It is necessary to notice this point, because it is so frequently overlooked by historians, who represent the sudden but short-lived disturbance throughout the Catholic Church caused by Novatian's ordination to have been a division between bishops on the subject of his heresy.要注意這一點,因為它是如此經常被忽視的歷史學家,但誰代表突然短暫干擾整個天主教會造成諾瓦蒂安的協調,是一個分工主教對他的異端邪說的主題。 Yet it is obvious enough that the question could not present itself: "Which is preferable, the doctrine of Cornelius or that of Novatian?"然而,它是很明顯的,這個問題不能出示自己:“哪個是最好,這個學說的科尼利厄斯或那個諾瓦蒂安?” If Novatian were ever so orthodox, the first matter was to examine whether his ordination was legitimate or not, and whether his accusations against Cornelius were false or true.如果諾瓦蒂安曾有這樣正統的,第一個問題是要查看一下他是否是合法的協調與否,以及是否對他的指控是虛假或真實科尼利厄斯。 An admirable reply addressed to him by St. Dionysius of Alexandria has been preserved (Eusebius, VI, xlv): "Dionysius to his brother Novatian, greeting. If it was against your will, as you say, that you were led, you will prove it by retiring of your free will. For you ought to have suffered anything rather than divide the Church of God and to be martyred rather than cause a schism woul have been no less glorious than to be martyred rather than commit idolatry, nay in my opinion it would have been a yet greater act; for in the one case one is a martyr for one's own soul alone, in the other for the whole Church".一個令人欽佩的答复給他的聖修斯的亞歷山大一直保存(尤西比烏斯,六,第四十五):“修斯給他的弟弟諾瓦蒂安,問候。如果是對你的意志,正如你說,你是領導,你會它證明了你的自由意志退休。對於你應該遭受任何事情,而不是分裂神的教會,並為烈屬,而不是一個分裂的原因竟被已比同樣光榮犧牲,而不是承諾是偶像崇拜,不然我看來,這將是一個尚未更大的作為;在一個案件之一,是一個烈士為自己的靈魂,僅在其他為整個教會“。 Here again there is no question of heresy.在這方面同樣是毫無疑問的異端邪說。

But yet within a couple of months Novatian was called a heretic, not only by Cyprian but throughout the Church, for his severe views about the restoration of those who had lapsed in the persecution.但是,然而在一對夫婦月諾瓦蒂安被稱為邪教,不僅是塞浦路斯,但整個教會,因為他的意見,對嚴重的恢復那些誰已經失效的迫害。 He held that idolatry was an unpardonable sin, and that the Church had no right to restore to communion any who had fallen into it.他認為,偶像崇拜是一種不可饒恕的罪過,而且教會無權恢復共融任何誰已陷入了它。 They might repent and be admitted to a lifelong penance, but their forgiveness must be left to God; it could not be pronounced in this world.他們可能悔改,被接納為終身懺悔,但他們的寬恕,必須留給上帝,它不能在這個世界上宣布。 Such harsh sentiments were not altogether a novelty.這樣苛刻的情緒並沒有完全一個新事物。 Tertullian had resisted the forgiveness of adultery by Pope Callistus as an innovation.良抵抗了寬恕通姦教皇卡利斯圖斯作為創新。

Hippolytus was equally inclined to severity.希波呂托斯同樣傾向的嚴重程度。 In various places and at various times laws were made which punished certain sins either with the deferring of Communion till the hour of death, or even with refusal of Communion in the hour of death.在不同的地方,在不同時期的法律作了一定的處罰罪或者與共融推遲一小時,直到死亡,或什至拒絕的共融中的小時死亡。 Even St. Cyprian approved the latter course in the case of those who refused to do pennance and only repented on their death-bed; but this was because such a repentance seemed of doubtful sincerity.即使聖塞浦路斯批准了後者在案件的彭納恩斯誰拒絕這樣做,只有在他們的懺悔死亡床,但這是因為這樣的懺悔,似乎可疑的誠意。 But severity in itself was but cruelty or injustice; there was no heresy until it was denied that the Church has the power to grant absolution in certain cases.但是,在本身的嚴重程度,但殘酷或不公正,沒有任何異端,直到它被剝奪了,教會有權力在某些情況下給予赦免。 This was Novatian's heresy; and St. Cyprian says the Novatians held no longer the Catholic creed and baptismal interrogation, for when they said "Dost thou believe in the remission of sins, and everlasting life, through Holy Church?"這是諾瓦蒂安的異端;和聖塞浦路斯說,Novatians舉行不再是天主教信仰和洗禮的審訊,因為當他們說:“難道你認為在緩解的罪孽,和永恆的生命,通過聖教會?” they were liars.他們是騙子。

Writings文章

St. Jerome mentions a number of writings of Novatian, only two of which have come down to us, the "De Cibis Judaicis" and the "De Trinitate".圣杰羅姆提到一個數字的諾瓦蒂安的著作中,只有其中兩個已回落到我們,“德Cibis Judaicis”和“德Trinitate”。 The former is a letter written in retirement during a time of persecution, and was preceded by two other letters on Circumcision and the Sabbath, which are lost.前者是一個字母寫在退休時一次迫害,並於前兩個字母就割禮和其他的安息日,這都將丟失。 It interprets the unclean animals as signifying different classes of vicious men; and explains that the greater liberty allowed to Christians is not to be a motive for luxury. The book "De Trinitate" is a fine piece of writing.它解釋了不潔淨的動物,標誌著不同類別的惡性男子;並解釋說,允許更多的自由基督徒不是一個動機的奢侈品。書中“德Trinitate”是佳作。 The first eight chapters concern the transcendence and greatness of God, who is above all thought and can be described by no name.第一八章關注的超越和偉大的上帝,誰是最重要的思想和可以說就沒有名字。 Novatian goes on to prove the Divinity of the Son at great length, arguing from both the Old and the New Testaments, and adding that it is an insult to the Father to say that a Father who is God cannot beget a Son who is God.諾瓦蒂安接著證明神的兒子在大長,爭論從舊約和新約,並補充說,是一種侮辱的父親說,一個父親,誰是神不能生一個兒子,誰是神。 But Novatian falls into the error made by so many early writers of separating the Father from the Son, so that he makes the Father address to the Son the command to create, and the Son obeys; he identifies the Son with the angels who appeared in the Old Testament to Agar, Abraham, etc. "It pertains to the person of Christ that he should be God because He is the Son of God, and that He should be an Angel because He announces the Father's Will" (paternae dispositionis annuntiator est).但諾瓦蒂安落入錯誤作了這麼多的作家從分離的父親的兒子,讓他做父親的地址給兒子的命令來創建,服從和兒子,他兒子與標識出現在誰的天使舊約以瓊脂,亞伯拉罕,等“它涉及到人的基督,他應該是上帝,因為他是上帝的兒子,並認為他應該是一個天使,因為他宣布了父親的遺囑”(paternae dispositionis annuntiator預測)。 The Son is "the second Person after the Father", less than the Father in that He is originated by the Father; He is the imitator of all His works, and is always obedient to the Father, and is one with Him "by concord, by love, and by affection".兒子是“第二人後之父”,不如說他是在父親起源的父親,他是在模仿他的所有作品,總是服從於父,是一個與他“的和諧由愛,和感情。“

No wonder such a description should seem to opponents to make two Gods; and consequently, after a chapter on the Holy Ghost (xxix), Novatian returns to the subject in a kind of appendix (xxx-xxxi).難怪這樣的描述似乎應該讓對手兩神,並因此,後一章的聖靈(二十九),諾瓦蒂安返回到主體的一種附錄(三十,三十一)。 Two kinds of heretics, he explains, try to guard the unity of God, the one kind (Sabellians) by identifying the Father with the Son, the other (Ebionites, etc.) by denying that the Son is God; thus is Christ again crucified between two thieves, and is reviled by both. Novatian declares that there is indeed but one God, unbegotten, invisible, immense, immortal; the Word (Sermo), His Son, is a substance that proceeds from Him (substantia prolata), whose generation no apostle nor angel nor any creature can declare.兩種異端,他解釋說,嘗試後衛的統一的神,一類(薩姆奈特)通過確定父親與兒子,其他(以便尼派等),否認是上帝的兒子,因此又是基督釘在十字架上兩個盜賊,被謾罵都。諾瓦蒂安宣布,我們確實有一個上帝,但是,unbegotten,無形的,巨大的,不朽的;字(實莫河),他的兒子,是一種物質,收益由他(黑質prolata)其代使徒也沒有天使也沒有任何生物可以申報。 He is not a second God, because He is eternally in the Father, else the Father would not be eternally Father.他是不是第二上帝,因為他是永遠的父親,否則父親不會永遠的父親。 He proceeded from the Father, when the Father willed (this syncatabasis for the purpose of creation is evidently distinguished from the eternal begetting in the Father), and remained with the Father.他接著從父親,當父親意志(這syncatabasis創作為宗旨顯然是有別於永恆begetting在父),並保持與父親。 If He were also the unbegotten, invisible, incomprehensible, there might indeed be said to be two Gods; but in fact He has from the Father whatever He has, and there is but one origin (origo, principium), the Father.如果他還unbegotten,無形的,不可理解的,有可能確實可以說是兩個神,但其實他從父親不管他,和只有一個來源(奧里戈,原理),父。 "One God is demonstrated, the true and eternal Father, from whom alone this energy of the Godhead is sent forth, being handed on to the Son, and again by communion of substance it is returned to the Father." “上帝是一個證明,真正的和永恆的父親,而僅此能量發送出的神性,而傳之於子,再次共融的物質它返回到父面前。” In this doctrine there is much that is incorrect, yet much that seems meant to express the consubstantiality of the Son, or at least His generation out of the substance of the Father.在這種學說很多事情是不正確的,但仍有許多似乎為了表達同體的兒子,或者至少他這一代出該物質的父親。 But it is a very unsatisfactory unity which is attained, and it seems to be suggested that the Son is not immense or invisible, but the image of the Father capable of manifesting Him.但這是一個非常理想的團結是實現,這似乎是認為兒子是不是巨大的或無形的,但圖像的父親能夠體現他。 Hippolytus is in the same difficulty, and it appears that Novatian borrowed from him as well as from Tertullian and Justin.希波呂托斯是在同樣的困難,而且似乎諾瓦蒂安他借用以及從良和賈斯汀。 It would seem that Tertullian and Hippolytus understood somewhat better than did Novatian the traditional Roman doctrine of the consubstantiality of the Son, but that all three were led astray by their acquaintance with the Greek theology, which interpreted of the Son as God Scriptural expressions (especially those of St. Paul) which properly apply to Him as the God-Man.看來,良和希波呂托斯有所了解並諾瓦蒂安優於傳統的羅馬教義的同體的兒子,但他們三人都帶壞了自己的熟人與希臘神學,它解釋為上帝的兒子,聖經的表現形式(尤其是這些聖保羅),適當地適用於他的神人。 But at least Novatian has the merit of not identifying the Word with the Father, nor Sonship with the prolation of the Word for the purpose of Creation, for He plainly teaches the eternal generation.但至少諾瓦蒂安有確定的價值,不與父親的話語,也不sonship與該prolation的Word為目的的創作,因為他清楚地教導永恆的一代。 This is a notable advance on Tertullian.這是一個顯著的進展良。

On the Incarnation Novatian seems to have been orthodox, though he is not explicit.就化身諾瓦蒂安似乎已經正統,雖然他不明確。 He speaks correctly of the one Person having two substances, the Godhead and Humanity, in the way that is habitual to the most exact Western theologians.他講了一個正確的人有兩種物質,神性和人性,在慣常的方式是最確切的西方神學家。 But he very often speaks of "the man" assumed by the Divine Person, so that he has been suspected of Nestorianizing.但他常常說的是“人”所承擔的神聖的人,讓他一直懷疑Nestorianizing。 This is unfair, since he is equally liable to the opposite accusation of making "the man" so far from being a distinct personality that He is merely flesh assumed (caro, or substantia carnis et corporis).這是不公平的,因為他同樣被指控作出了相反的“人”至今,從一個獨特的人格,他只是肉體假設(卡洛,或黑質carnis等corporis)。 But there is no real ground for supposing that Novatian meant to deny an intellectual soul in Christ; he does not think of the point, and is only anxious to assert the reality of our Lord's flesh.但有沒有真正的理由假設諾瓦蒂安意味著否認一個知識分子的靈魂,在基督,他並不認為該點,並只急於斷言現實,我們的主的肉。 The Son of God, he says, joins to Himself the Son of Man, and by this connection and mingling he makes the Son of Man become Son of God, which He was not by nature.神的兒子,他說,加入到自己是人子,並就此與交融,使他的兒子成為人的神的兒子,他沒有從本質。 This last sentence has been described as Adoptionism.這最後一句已被描述為Adoptionism。 But the Spanish Adoptionists taught that the Human Nature of Christ as joined to the Godhead is the adopted Son of God.但是,西班牙Adoptionists告訴我們,人性的基督作為加入到神性是通過上帝的兒子。 Novatian only means that before its assumption it was not by nature the Son of God; the form of words is bad, but there is not necessarily any heresy in the thought.諾瓦蒂安只表示在其假設它是不是由自然神的兒子;文字的形式是壞的,但不一定在任何異端思想。 Newman, though he does not make the best of Novatian, says that he "approaches more nearly to doctrinal precision than any of the writers of the East and West" who preceded him (Tracts theological and ecclesiastical, p. 239).紐曼,儘管他不作出最好的諾瓦蒂安說,他“的辦法,以更接近理論上的精確度比任何作家東方與西方”誰之前他(大港神學和教會,第239頁)。

The two pseudo-Cyprianic works, both by one author, "De Spectaculis" and "De bono pudicitiae", are attributed to Novatian by Weyman, followed by Demmler, Bardenhewer, Harnack, and others.這兩個偽Cyprianic作品,都是由一位作者,“德Spectaculis”和“德公益pudicitiae”,是由於諾瓦蒂安由韋曼,其次是德姆勒,巴登黑韋爾,哈納克,等等。 The pseudo-Cyprianic "De laude martyrii" has been ascribed to Novatian by Harnack, but with less probability.偽Cyprianic“德優秀畢業生martyrii”已被歸因於諾瓦蒂安由哈納克,但概率較低。 The pseudo-Cyprianic sermon, "Adversus Judaeos", is by a close friend or follower of Novatian if not by himself, according to Landgraf, followed by Harnack and Jordan.偽Cyprianic講道,“Adversus Judaeos”,是由一個親密的朋友或跟隨者的諾瓦蒂安如果不是由他本人,根據蘭格拉夫,其次是哈納克和約旦。 In 1900 Mgr Batiffol with the help of Dom A. Wilmart published, under the title of "Tractatus Origenis de libris SS. Scripturarum", twenty sermons which he had discovered in two manuscripts at Orléans and St. Omer. 1900年經理Batiffol與幫助大教堂答Wilmart發表的標題下的“邏輯哲學論Origenis去藏書的SS。Scripturarum”,20講道,他發現了兩個手稿在新奧爾良和聖奧馬爾。 Weyman, Haussleiter, and Zahn perceived that these curious homilies on the Old Testament were written in Latin and are not translations from the Greek.韋曼,豪斯萊特和贊恩認為,這些奇怪的頌歌在舊約寫在拉丁語和英語是不是翻譯從希臘。 They attributed them to Novatian with so much confidence that a disciple of Zahn's, H. Jordan, has written a book on the theology of Novatian, grounded principally on these sermons.他們歸咎於他們諾瓦蒂安這麼多的信心,一個弟子贊恩的,閣下約旦,寫了一本書對神學諾瓦蒂安,紮根主要對這些說教。 It was, however, pointed out that the theology is of a more developed and later character than that of Novatian.但也有人指出,神學是一個比較發達,後來性格比諾瓦蒂安。 Funk showed that the mention of competentes (candidates for baptism) implies the fourth century.芬克發現,遑論competentes(候選人洗禮)意味著第四世紀。 Dom Morin suggested Gregorius Baeticus of Illiberis (Elvira), but withdrew this when it seemed clear that the author had used Gaudentius of Brescia and Rufinus' translation of Origen on Genesis.大教堂莫蘭建議格里戈里厄Baeticus的Illiberis(埃爾維拉),但撤回了這一點似乎很清楚,提交使用了Gaudentius布雷西亞和rufinus'翻譯奧利創世記。 But these resemblances must be resolved in the sense that the "Tractatus" are the originals, for finally Dom Wilgory showed that Gregory of Elvira is their true author, by a comparison especially with the five homilies of Gregory on the Canticle of Canticles (in Heine's "Bibliotheca Anecdotorum" Leipzig, 1848).但這些相似之處,必須加以解決的意義上說,“邏輯哲學論”是原件,為最終大教堂Wilgory表明,格雷戈里Elvira是他們真正的作家,通過比較,尤其是與5頌歌的格雷戈里的頌歌canticle的(在海涅的“藏書Anecdotorum”萊比錫,1848年)。

The Novationist Sect教派的Novationist

The followers of Novatian named themselves katharoi, or Puritans, and affected to call the Catholic Church Apostaticum, Synedrium, or Capitolinum.信徒諾瓦蒂安命名自己katharoi,或清教徒,影響致電天主教教會Apostaticum,Synedrium,或Capitolinum。 They were found in every province, and in some places were very numerous.他們被發現在每一個省,在一些地方非常多。 Our chief information about them is from the "History" of Socrates, who is very favourable to them, and tells us much about their bishops, especially those of Constantinople.我們的首席信息對他們是從“史”的蘇格拉底,誰是非常有利於他們,並告訴我們很多關於他們的主教,特別是那些君士坦丁堡。 The chief works written against them are those of St. Cyprian, the anonymous "Ad Novatianum" (attributed by Harnack to Sixtus II, 257-8), writings of St. Pacian of Barcelona and St. Ambrose (De paenitentia), "Contra Novatianum", a work of the fourth century among the works of St. Augustine, the "Heresies" of Epiphanius and Philastrius, and the "Quaestiones" of Ambrosiaster. In the East they are mentioned especially by Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostom.工程的主要是那些對他們的書面聖塞浦路斯,匿名“廣告Novatianum”(歸因於哈納克到西斯二世,257-8),著述聖Pacian巴塞羅那和聖劉漢銓(德paenitentia),“魂斗羅Novatianum“,工作中的第四個世紀的作品聖奧古斯丁,”異端“的埃皮法尼烏斯和Philastrius和”Quaestiones“的Ambrosiaster。在東部,他們都提到,特別是由亞他那修,羅勒,格雷戈里的nazianzus,金口。 Eulogius of Alexandria, not long before 600, wrote six books against them. Eulogius的亞歷山德里亞,沒過多久,600人,對他們說六書。 Refutations by Reticius of Autun and Eusebius of Emesa are lost.駁斥了Reticius的歐坦和尤西比烏斯的Emesa都將丟失。

Novatian had refused absolution to idolaters; his followers extended this doctrine to all "mortal sins" (idolatry, murder, and adultery, or fornication). Most of them forbade second marriage, and they made much use of Tertullian's works; indeed, in Phrygia they combined with the Montanists.諾瓦蒂安拒絕赦免,拜偶像的,他的追隨者擴大這一學說的所有“致命的罪過”(偶像崇拜,謀殺和通姦或私通)。大部分,其中禁止第二次婚姻,他們大量使用良的作品,事實上,在弗里吉亞他們結合了Montanists。 A few of them did not rebaptize converts from other persuasions.其中有幾個沒有rebaptize轉換其他派別。 Theodoret says that they did not use confirmation (which Novatian himself hadnever received). Theodoret說,他們不使用確認(這諾瓦蒂安自己hadnever收到)。 Eulogius complained that they would not venerate martyrs, but he probably refers to Catholic martyrs. Eulogius抱怨說,他們不會崇敬烈士,但他可能是指天主教的烈士。 They always had a successor of Novatian at Rome, and everywhere they were governed by bishops.他們總是有一個接班人的諾瓦蒂安在羅馬,到處受他們的主教。 Their bishops at Constantinople were most estimable persons, according to Socrates, who has much to relate about them.他們的主教在君士坦丁堡最難能可貴的人,按照蘇格拉底,誰有很大的涉及他們。 The conformed to the Church in almost everything, including monasticism in the fourth century. Their bishop at Constantinople was invited by Constantine to the Council of Nicaea.這符合中的教會幾乎一切,包括修道在第四世紀。主教在君士坦丁堡被邀請君士坦丁向安理會尼西亞。 He approved the decrees, though he would not consent to union.他批准的法令,但他不會同意工會。 On account of the homoousion the Novatians were persecuted like the Catholics by Constantius.對帳戶的homoousion的Novatians遭到迫害,如教友康斯坦丘斯。 In Paphlagonia the Novatianist peasants attacked and slew the soldiers sent by the emperor to enforce conformity to the official semi-Arianism.在帕夫拉戈尼亞的novatianist的農民士兵襲擊並殺死了皇帝派來的執行符合官方半阿里烏教派。 Constantine the Great, who at first treated them as schismatics, not heretics, later ordered the closing of their churches and cemeteries.君士坦丁大帝,誰首先將其視為schismatics與羅馬,而不是異端,後來下令關閉他們的教堂和墓地。 After the death of Constantius they were protected by Julian, but the Arian Valens persecuted them once more.後死亡士坦提烏斯他們受朱利安,但阿里安瓦倫斯迫害他們一次。 Honorius included them in a law against heretics in 412, and St. Innocent I closed some of their churches in Rome.何諾,包括他們的法律在打擊異教徒412,和聖無辜的,我關閉了一些他們的教堂在羅馬舉行。 St. Celestine expelled them from Rome, as St. Cyril had from Alexandria.聖天青石驅逐他們從羅馬,因為錢是從聖亞歷山大。 Earlier St. Chrysostom had shut up their churches at Ephesus, but at Constantinople they were tolerated, and their bishops there are said by Socrates to have been highly respected.此前聖金口已關閉了他們在以弗所教會,但他們在君士坦丁堡耐受,有說他們的主教由蘇格拉底已高度尊重。 The work of Eulogius shows that there were still Novatians in Alexandria about 600.這項工作的Eulogius顯示,目前尚有約600 Novatians在亞歷山德里亞。 In Phrygia (about 374) some of them became Quartodecimans, and were called Protopaschitoe; they included some converted Jews.在弗里吉亞(約374),其中一些成為Quartodecimans,和被稱為Protopaschitoe,他們包括一些轉換猶太人。 Theodosius made a stringent law against this sect, which was imported to Constantinople about 391 by a certain Sabbatius, whose adherents were called Sabbatiani.狄奧多西作出了嚴格的法律對這一節,這是進口到君士坦丁堡約391某Sabbatius,其信徒被稱為Sabbatiani。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息寫由約翰查普曼。 Transcribed by Christopher R. Huber. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄由克里斯托弗貝爾。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰 farley樞機主教,大主教紐約



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