New Light Schism新的光教會分裂

General Information 一般信息

Early New Englanders generally practiced congregationalism, though by the 18th century they seldom thought of themselves as the spearhead of the Reformation.早期新英格蘭普遍實行的公理,但在18世紀,他們很少想到自己的銳意改革。 A wave of revivals known as the Great Awakening swept New England beginning in the 1720s, dividing churchgoers into New Light (evangelical Calvinists) and Old Light (more moderate) wings.甲波復興被稱為大覺醒橫掃新英格蘭在1720年代開始,劃分為教堂 (福音加爾文教派)和舊燈 (較溫和)的翅膀。 An increasing minority were calling themselves Baptists.越來越少數人自稱浸信會。

Nearly all Europeans in these colonies were Protestants, but individual denominations were very different.幾乎所有的歐洲人在這些殖民地是新教徒,但個別面額有很大不同。 There were Presbyterians, Lutherans, Baptists, Anglicans, Dutch Reformed, Mennonites and Quakers. While the Church of England was the established church (the official, government-supported church) in the Chesapeake colonies, German and Scottish non-Anglicans were migrating south from the middle colonies, and Baptists were making their first southern converts.有長老會,路德會,浸信會,聖公會,荷蘭歸正,門諾和誼。儘管英格蘭教會是建立教會(官方,政府支持的教會)在切薩皮克殖民地,德國和蘇格蘭的非聖公會是從南方遷移中部殖民地,使他們的第一浸信會被轉換南部。 Although most Chesapeake slaves were American-born by the late 18th century, they practiced what they remembered of African religions, while some became Christians in 18th-century revivals.雖然大多數的奴隸是美國切薩皮克出生在18世紀末期,他們實行什麼他們想起非洲的宗教,而一些人成為基督徒在18世紀復興。

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New Light Schism新的光教會分裂

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The New Light Schism was a division in the Presbyterian and Congregational denominations in the mid - eighteenth century primarily over practical matters of Christian experience.新燈的分裂是一個師的長老會和公理教派中期- 18世紀主要的基督教對實際問題的經驗。 Presbyterian schism occurred in 1741 when the Old Lights, who were predominantly of Scotch - Irish heritage, ejected the New Light faction and formed the Old Side synod of Philadelphia.長老會的分裂發生在1741年時的舊燈,誰是主要的蘇格蘭-愛爾蘭人的遺產,彈出了新亮點,形成了老派主教側費城。 The New Light party, with their English Puritan background, grew out of the Great Awakening and revived a more experiential interpretation of the Christian life.光新黨,與他們的英語清教徒背景,前身是大覺醒和復興更加體驗解釋基督徒生活。 They organized the New Side presbyteries of New Brunswick and Londonderry.他們組織新的一面presbyteries新不倫瑞克和倫敦德里。

Both parties professed traditional Calvinist and Puritan doctrine, but they differed substantially on its practical implications. Old Light ministers, interpreting Calvinism in a rationalistic manner, claimed that holding orthodox theology was more important than Christian living.雙方都宣稱加爾文派和清教徒的傳統學說,但它們之間的差別就其實際影響很大。舊輕部長,詮釋加爾文在一個理性的態度,聲稱持有正統神學是基督徒生活更加重要。 For them God's sovereign decree determined who was elect, and correct theological belief, not manner of life, was the only major practical sign of salvation.對他們來說,上帝的主權法令,決定誰是選舉,正確的神學信仰,而不是生活的方式,是唯一的重大現實簽署的拯救。 Moral laxity often resulted from such deemphasis on religious experience, leading to several Old Light pastors being tried by presbyteries for persistent immoral living and drunkenness.道德鬆弛往往是由於對宗教經驗等去加重,導致一些老光牧師正在試圖通過presbyteries持久性不道德的生活和酗酒。

In contrast, New Lights William and Gilbert Tennent stressed Puritan piety as indispensable to Calvinist theology.相比之下,新燈威廉和吉爾伯特坦南特強調清教徒的虔誠作為必不可少的加爾文神學。 They preached conviction of sin, teaching their hearers that true faith in Christ required a vital conversion experience leading to moral obedience and personal holiness.他們宣揚的罪定罪,教學的聽眾,真正的信仰在基督需要一個重要的經驗轉化為道德服從領導和個人聖潔。 Gilbert Tennent, in "The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry," contended that some Old Light clergy were actually unregenerate, and he encouraged believers to seek spiritual nurture elsewhere.吉爾伯特坦南特,在“危險的歸正部,”爭辯說,一些舊輕神職人員實際上頑固不化,他鼓勵信徒追求精神上培育別處。 Old Light members countered that New Lights were guilty of "enthusiasm" and defamatory accusations.舊光委員反駁說,新的燈都犯有“熱情”和誹謗的指控。 Their itinerant preaching and their encouragement of layment to pressure fellow church members into New Light experience violated Presbyterian polity.他們的巡迴宣講和他們的鼓勵,layment壓力同胞教會的成員,新亮點經驗違反長老政體。

During the schism New Siders experienced dramatic growth and founded the College of New Jersey (Princeton) to educate their ministers. Meanwhile the Old Side generally failed in its educational efforts and actually declined in number.在分裂的新賽德斯出現了戲劇性的增長,並成立了新澤西學院(普林斯頓)教育的部長。與此同時,老邊普遍失敗的教育的努力和實際數量下降。 In 1758 New Side initiatives produced reunion on conditions favorable to that group.在1758年新方倡議產生團聚的條件有利於該組。

Congregationalists also experienced schism over the Great Awakening. After George Whitefield's and Gilbert Tennent's evangelistic tours in 1740 - 41 brought a general revival to New England, James Davenport's incendiary preaching and incitement of emotional excesses brought sharp Old Light reprisals.公理也經歷了分裂的大覺醒。後喬治Whitefield的和吉爾伯特坦南特的布道之旅在1740至1741年整體經濟復甦帶來的新英格蘭,詹姆斯達文波特的煽動性說教和煽動情緒過激行為帶來的尖銳舊輕報復。 Charles Chauncey argued that revivals were not the work of God because emotional outbursts were not produced by God's Spirit.查爾斯昌認為,復興不是神的工作,因為感情用事,不產生神的精神。 Charging New Lights with antinomianism and enthusiasm, he claimed that religion, rather than pertaining to man's emotions, primarily appeals to the understanding and judgment.新充電燈與律法主義和熱情,他聲稱,宗教,而不是關於人的情緒,主要呼籲的理解和判斷。

Jonathan Edwards defended revivalism.喬納森愛德華茲辯護復興。 He admitted that instances of doctrinal and ecclesiastical disorder existed.他承認,事件的教義和教會的障礙存在。 But he argued that believers could distinguish between genuine and counterfeit awakenings by examining whether they brought love for Christ, Scripture, and truth and opposition to evil.但他認為,信徒可分辨出真正和假冒覺醒通過檢查是否為他們帶來愛基督,聖經和真理,反對邪惡。 Edwards defined the essence of true religion as "holy affections."愛德華茲定義的本質真正的宗教是“神聖的感情。” Religious experience is not limited to the mind.宗教經驗不限於心。 When regenerated by the Holy Spirit, man's whole being, heart, mind, will, and affections, is engaged.當再生由聖靈,人的整個人,心,頭腦,意志和情感,是一家從事。

This schism helped Edwards and his followers revive a balanced, vital Calvinism.這分裂幫助愛德華茲和他的追隨者恢復平衡,重要的加爾文主義。 Chauncey and other Old Lights, on the other hand, broke from Calvinism and began to advocate Arminianism and eventually Unitarianism.比盧普斯和其他舊燈,另一方面,打破了由加爾文主義,並開始倡導亞米紐斯主義並最終單一制。

WA Hoffecker西澳奧費克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
C Chauncey, Enthusiasm Described and Cautioned Against and Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England; J Davenport, The Rev. Mr. Davenport's Confessions and Retractions; J Edwards, The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God, Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England, and A Treatise Concerning the religious Affections; ES Gaustad, The Great Awakening in New England; G Tennent, The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry; LJ Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition. ç昌,熱情描述和告誡,季節性思考國家宗教在新英格蘭; J達文波特,達文波特先生牧師的自白和撤消; J愛德華茲識別標誌的工作的精神神的,幾點思考關於當前的復興宗教在新英格蘭,和A傷寒關於宗教情緣;胚胎幹蓋於斯塔,大覺醒,在新英格蘭; Ğ坦南特,其危險性1歸正部;洛伊Trinterud,美國的形成傳統。



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