New Haven Theology紐黑文神學

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New Haven Theology was a late stage of the New England theology that had originated in efforts of Jonathan Edwards to defend the spiritual reality of the first Great Awakening (c. 1740).紐黑文神學是一個後期新英格蘭神學起源了喬納森愛德華茲在努力捍衛的精神現實的第一次大覺醒(公元前1740年)。 It was also a theology developed for the needs of the Second Great Awakening (c. 1795 - 1830).這也是一個神學發展的需要的第二次大覺醒(公元前1795年至1830年)。 It thus served as a bridge between the Calvinism that dominated American Christianity in the 1700s and the more Arminian theology that came to prevail in the nineteenth century.因此,它充當一個橋樑之間的主宰美國基督教加爾文在1700年和更arminian神學,轉變成了在19世紀。

Timothy Dwight, grandson of Jonathan Edwards and president of Yale College from 1795 to 1817, laid the groundwork for the New Haven theology.蒂莫西德懷特,孫子的喬納森愛德華茲和總裁,耶魯大學1795年至1817年,奠定了基礎的紐黑文神學。 Dwight's concern for revival led him to place more emphasis on the natural abilities of individuals to respond to the gospel than had Edwards.德懷特的關注,使他復甦應更加重視對自然的能力的個人回應福音超過了愛德華茲。 His efforts to provide a rational defense of Christianity led him to stress its reasonable character over the sense of wonder that had been so important for Edwards.他的努力提供一個合理的防衛基督教導致他強調其在合理的性質感,難怪有如此重要的愛德華茲。

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Dwight's best pupil, Nathaniel William Taylor, carried the New Haven theology to its maturity.德懷特最好的學生,納撒尼爾威廉泰勒,攜帶的紐黑文神學的成熟。 Taylor was the first professor at the new Yale Divinity School, where he came in 1822 after a successful pastorate in New Haven.泰勒是第一個教授在耶魯大學神學院新,在1822年後,他來到一個成功的牧師在紐黑文。 Taylor regarded himself as the heir of the tradition of Jonathan Edwards, particularly as he combated the rising tide of Unitarianism in New England.泰勒認為自己作為繼承人的傳統,喬納森愛德華茲,特別是他打擊日益猖獗的單一制下的新英格蘭。 His theology, however, departed from Edwards's, especially in its beliefs about human nature.他的神學,但是,離開愛德華茲的,尤其是在對人性的信念。 Most importantly, he argued in a famous phrase that people always had a "power to the contrary" when faced with the choice for God.最重要的是,他認為在一個著名的詞組,人們始終有一個“權力與此相反的”當面臨選擇的神。 He also contended, as Edwards's son, Jonathan Edwards, Jr., had suggested, that human sinfulness arose from sinful acts, not from a sinful nature inherited from Adam.他還爭辯,正如愛德華茲的兒子,喬納森愛德華茲,小曾建議,人類的罪惡源於罪惡的行為,而不是從一個罪孽深重的性質,繼承了亞當。 Everyone did in fact sin, Taylor believed, but this was not a result of God's action in predetermining human nature.其實每個人都沒有罪,泰勒認為,但是這不是一個結果上帝的行動事先決定人類的天性。 More than other heirs of Edwards, Taylor also accepted the Scottish philosophy of common sense which also made much of innate human freedom and the power of individuals to shape their own destinies.較其他繼承人愛德華茲,泰勒還接受了蘇格蘭哲學常識也取得了很大的先天人類自由和個人的力量來塑造自己的命運。

The New Haven theology was a powerful engine for revival and reform in the first half of the nineteenth century, particularly through the work of Taylor's fellow Yale graduate, Lyman Beecher.紐黑文神學是一個強有力的引擎,為復興和改革在上半年的19世紀,特別是通過工作泰勒的研究員畢業於耶魯大學,萊曼比徹。 Beecher and like - minded colleagues employed the principles of the New Haven theology to promote moral reform, to establish missions and educational institutions, and to win the frontier for Christianity. The New Haven theology arose out of the distinctive Calvinism of New England, but it came to represent, with Methodists, Disciples, and some Baptists, a contribution to the generally Arminian theology which dominated American Christian thought in the nineteenth century.比徹和喜歡-志同道合的同事採用的原則是紐黑文神學推動德育改革,建立特派團和教育機構,並贏得了邊疆基督教。紐黑文神學的產生出獨特的加爾文主義的新英格蘭,但它來到代表,與衛,弟子,和一些浸信會,一個貢獻,一般的arminian神學,其中佔主導地位的美國基督教思想在19世紀。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
SE Mead, Nathaniel William Taylor, 1786 - 1858; FH Foster, A Genetic History of the New England Theology; J Haroutunian, Piety Versus Moralism: The Passing of the New England Theology.東南米德,納撒尼爾威廉泰勒,1786年至1858年;跳頻福斯特的遺傳史的新英格蘭神學; J Haroutunian,虔誠對戰德性:考試合格的新英格蘭神學。



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