Nestorianism, Nestorius景教,聶斯脫

General Information 一般信息

A 5th - century Christological heresy, Nestorianism takes its name from Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople (428 - 31), who argued against the Alexandrian use of the title Theotokos, meaning "God bearer," or "Mother of God," for the Virgin Mary; for Nestorius, Mary was the mother of Christ only in his humanity. Theologians of the Antiochene school emphasized the humanity of Jesus Christ, the Alexandrian his deity.阿五-世紀基督異端,景教需要它的名字從聶斯脫裡,主教君士坦丁堡(428 - 31),誰主張反對亞歷山大使用標題聖母,意思是“上帝的旗手”,或“母神”的處女瑪麗的聶斯脫裡, 瑪麗的母親基督只在他的人性。神學家學校的安提阿學派強調人類的耶穌基督,他的神的亞歷山大 Theodore of Mopsuestia held that Christ's human nature was complete but was conjoined with the Word by an external union.西奧多的Mopsuestia認為,基督是人類的本性是連體完成,但與Word由外部聯盟。 Nestorius, Theodore's pupil, took up his teacher's position after his death.聶斯脫裡,西奧多的學生,拿起他的老師的立場,在他死後。

Nestorius was condemned by the Council of Ephesus (431), which was convened specifically to settle the dispute.聶斯脫裡是譴責安理會的以弗所(431),這是召開專門解決這一爭端。 There the Theotokos was officially affirmed and orthodox doctrine on the nature of Jesus Christ clarified: Christ was pronounced true God and true man, as having two distinct natures in one person - a position that was reaffirmed by the Council of Chalcedon (451). Nestorius was deposed as bishop and sent to Antioch, although the debate continues as to whether Nestorius himself was actually a Nestorian and a heretic. A Nestorian church nevertheless survives in the East and has since taught, in opposition to the orthodox doctrine, that there are two persons in the incarnate Christ, human and divine.在那裡,聖母被正式確認並正統學說的性質耶穌基督澄清:基督是真正的上帝和真正突出的人,因為有兩個不同性質的集中在一個人-一個立場,重申了安理會的卡爾西(451)。聶斯脫被廢黜的主教,被送往安提,雖然辯論的繼續,是否聶斯脫裡自己其實是一個景教和異教徒。 景教教堂但生存在東方,此後任教,在反對正統學說,即有兩個人的肉身的基督,人力和神聖。

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Bibliography 書目
A Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (1975); R Loofs, Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine (1914); J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition 100 - 600 (1971).阿格里爾邁爾,基督在基督教傳統(1975)與r盧夫斯,nestorius和他的位置在歷史的基督教教義(1914); J伯利坎,基督教傳統,產生了天主教的傳統100 - 600(1971)。


Nestorius, Nestorianism聶斯脫裡,景教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A native of Germanicia in Syria, Nestorius became Patriarch of Constantinople in 428.一個天生Germanicia敘利亞,君士坦丁堡大主教聶斯脫利成為428。 Having studied in a monastery in Antioch, probably under Theodore of Mopsuesta, he became a fierce opponent of heterodoxy, his first official act as patriarch being the burning of an Arian chapel.在研究中的一個修道院在安提阿,可能西奧多Mopsuesta下,他成為對手的激烈異端,他的第一次正式作為元老正在燃燒的阿里安教堂。

In 428 Nestorius preached a series of sermons in which he attacked the devotionally popular attribution of the title Theotokos ("God - bearing") to the Virgin Mary.在428聶斯脫裡宣揚的一系列講道中,他虔誠地攻擊流行歸屬的稱號聖母(“上帝-軸承”)向聖母瑪利亞。 As a representative of the Antiochene school of Christology, he demurred at what he understood to be in that title a mixing of the human and divine natures in Christ.作為一個有代表性的安提阿學派學校的基督,他表示反對在他理解為在該標題的混合了人類和神性的基督。 This seemed to him Apollinarian.這似乎給他Apollinarian。 He is reported to have affirmed that "the creature hath not given birth to the uncreatable," "the Word came forth, but was not born of her," and "I do not say God is two or three months old."據報導,他肯定說,“生物未曾生出uncreatable”,“字就出來了,但她不是天生的,”和“我不說上帝是2或3個月大。” In place of Theotokos, Nestorius offered the term Christotokos ("Christ - bearing").在地方的聖母,聶斯脫裡的投資條件Christotokos(“基督-軸承”)。 He preferred to attribute human characteristics to the one Christ.他寧願屬性人類特徵的一個基督。

Nestorius's denunciation of Theotokos brought him under the suspicion of many orthodox theologians who had long used the term. His most articulate and vehement opponent was Cyril of Alexandria. Apparently a significant portion of the debate between them is traceable to the ecclesiastical rivalry between the two important Sees.聶斯脫裡的譴責的聖母給他下了懷疑許多正統神學家誰曾長期使用的術語。他的闡述和激烈的對手是西里爾亞歷山大。顯然一個重要部分的辯論它們之間是可追溯至教會爭奪兩個重要看到。 In any case, the two traded opinions, and when Cyril read of Nestorius's rejection of the term "hypostatic union" as an interpenetration and thus a reduction of both the divine and the human natures of Christ, he understood Nestorius to be affirming that Christ was two persons, one human, one divine.在任何情況下,兩個交易的意見,當西里爾閱讀聶斯脫裡的拒絕對“本質的聯盟”作為一個相互滲透,從而削減雙方的神和人的天性的基督,他理解聶斯脫裡要申明基督兩個人,一個人,一個神聖的。 "He rejects the union," stated Cyril. “他拒絕工會表示,”西里爾。

In August of 430 Pope Celestine condemned Nestorius, and Cyril pronounced twelve anathemas against him in November of the same year.今年8月的430教皇天青石譴責聶斯脫裡,並宣布12 anathemas西里爾對他在同年11月。 In 431 the General Council at Ephesus deposed Nestorius, sending him back to the monastery in Antioch.在431的總理事會在以弗所廢黜聶斯脫裡,送他回到了寺院在安提阿。 Five years later he was banished to Upper Egypt, where he died, probably in 451.五年後,他被放逐到上埃及,在那裡他死了,大概在451。

The dispute between Nestorius and Cyril centered in the relationship between the two natures in Christ and represents the divergence between the two major schools of ancient Christology, the Antiochene and the Alexandrian. The former emphasized the reality of Christ's humanity and was wary of any true communicatio idiomatum, or communication of the attributes from one nature to the other (hence Nestorius's aversion to the notion of the Logos's being born or suffering; later Reformed theologians have maintained the same kind of concerns). The latter emphasized Christ's essential diety, tended to affirm a real communicatio, and was equally wary of what sounded like division in Christ's person (Lutheran theologians have tended to follow the Alexandrian emphases).該爭端nestorius和西里爾集中在關係的兩個性質在基督和代表分歧兩大學校古基督的安提阿學派和亞歷山大。前者強調了現實的基督的人性,並時刻保持警惕,任何真正的交際idiomatum,或溝通的屬性從一個性質的其他 (因此聶斯脫裡的反感的觀念的理性的出生或痛苦,後來歸正神學家一直保持著同一種問題)。 後者強調基督的基本神性,往往肯定一個真正的交際,和同樣謹慎聽起來像什麼師在基督的人 (路德神學家往往跟隨亞歷山大重點)。

Cyril rejected Nestorius's notion of the unity of Christ's person consisting in a unity of wills rather than a unity of essence.西里爾拒絕聶斯脫裡的概念的統一基督的人組成的一個團結的意志,而不是一個統一的本質。 Both Cyril and Cassian understood this as a kind of adoptionism, wherein the Father adopted the human Jesus, making him his Son (a position similar to the modern so - called Christologies from below).西里爾和卡西安都理解這是一種adoptionism,其中,通過人的父親耶穌,使他的兒子(一個位置類似於現代如此-所謂Christologies從以下)。 They saw a link between Nestorius's understanding of Christ's person and Pelagius's understanding of Christ as a "mere moral example," and such a connection understandably was anathema to them.他們之間的聶斯脫裡看到了一個鏈接的認識基督的人,伯拉糾的認識基督為“僅僅是道德榜樣”,而這樣的連接可以理解的是詛咒他們。

Ironically, modern research has discovered a book written by Nestorius, known as the Book of Heracleides, in which he explicitly denies the heresy for which he was condemned. Rather, he affirms of Christ that "the same one is twofold," an expression not unlike the orthodox formulation of the Council of Chalcedon (451). 諷刺的是,現代研究發現了一個書上所寫的聶斯脫裡,被稱為書赫拉克利德斯,他在其中明確地否認了他為異端譴責。相反,他肯定基督說,“同一個是雙重的,”沒有一個表達式不像正統制定安理會的卡爾西(451)。 This points to the high degree of misunderstanding which characterized the entire controversy.這顯示了高度的誤解,整個爭議的特點。 After 433 a group of Nestorius's followers constituted themselves a separate Nestorian Church in Persia.經過433一群聶斯脫裡的自己的追隨者組成一個單獨的波斯景教教堂。

H Griffith Ĥ格里菲斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
K Baus, The Imperial Church from Constantine to the Early Middle Ages; JF Bethune Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching; A Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition, I; RV Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies. K表巴斯,帝國君士坦丁教會從早期到中世紀;櫻白求恩貝克,nestorius和他的教學,一個格里爾邁爾,基督在基督教傳統,我;房車賣家,兩部古代Christologies。


Nestorius and Nestorianism nestorius和景教

Catholic Information 天主教信息

I. THE HERESIARCH一,異教

Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, in Syria Euphoratensis (date unknown); died in the Thebaid, Egypt, c.聶斯脫裡,誰給了他的名字的景教異端,出生於Germanicia,在敘利亞Euphoratensis(日期不詳);死於Thebaid,埃及角 451. 451。 He was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, when he was chosen by the Emperor Theodosius II to be Patriarch of Constantinople in succession to Sisinnius.他是人民生活水平作為一名牧師和僧侶在寺院的牆壁附近的Euprepius,當他被選為皇帝狄奧多西二世將君士坦丁堡牧首在繼承Sisinnius。 He had a high reputation for eloquence, and the popularity of St. Chrysostom's memory among the people of the imperial city may have influenced the Emperor's choice of another priest from Antioch to be court bishop.他有很高的聲譽的口才和普及聖金口的內存在人民群眾中的皇城可能影響皇帝的另一個選擇是祭司從安提阿主教法庭。 He was consecrated in April, 428, and seems to have made an excellent impression.他奉獻在4月,428,而且似乎已經作出了良好的印象。 He lost no time in showing his zeal against heretics.他不失時機地在顯示他的熱情對異端。 Within a few days of his consecration Nestorius had an Arian chapel destroyed, and he persuaded Theodosius to issue a severe edict against heresy in the following month.在幾天之內他的奉獻聶斯脫裡有一個阿里安教堂被摧毀,他說服狄奧多西發出嚴厲打擊邪教的法令在隨後的一個月。 He had the churches of the Macedonians in the Hellespont seized, and took measures against the Qrartodecimans who remained in Asia Minor.他教會了馬其頓在赫勒斯扣押,並採取措施對Qrartodecimans誰留在小亞細亞。 He also attacked the Novatians, in spite of the good reputation of their bishop.他還攻擊了Novatians,儘管良好的聲譽,他們的主教。 Pelagian refugees from the West, however, he did not expel, not being well acquainted with their condemnation ten years earlier.遠洋的難民來自西方,但是,他並沒有驅逐,不熟悉他們的譴責10年前。 He twice wrote to Pope St. Celestine I for information on the subject.他曾兩次寫信給教皇聖天青石我關於這個問題的信息。 He received no reply, but Marius Mercator, a disciple of St. Augustine, published a memoir on the subject at Constantinople, and presented it to the emperor, who duly proscribed the heretics.他沒有收到任何答复,但馬呂斯墨卡托,弟子的聖奧古斯丁,出版了回憶錄,關於這個問題在君士坦丁堡,並提交給皇帝,誰正式禁止的異端。 At the end of 428, or at latest in the early part of 429, Nestorius preached the first of his famous sermons against the word Theotokos, and detailed his Antiochian doctrine of the Incarnation.在最後的428,或在年初最新429,聶斯脫裡鼓吹他的著名的第一個字的說教對聖母,和詳細的安蒂奧克主義的化身。 The first to raise his voice against it was Eusebius, a layman, afterwards Bishop of Dorylaeum and the accuser of Eutyches.首次提出了他的聲音是反對尤西比烏斯,一個門外漢,事後主教多里萊烏姆與原告的歐迪奇。 Two priests of the city, Philip and Proclus, who had both been unsuccessful candidates for the patriarchate, preached against Nestorius.兩名神父的城市,菲利普和普羅克洛,誰也都未獲成功的候選人為東正教,鼓吹反對聶斯脫裡。 Philip, known as Sidetes, from Side, his birthplace, author of a vast and discursive history now lost, accused the patriarch of heresy.菲利普,被稱為Sidetes,從側面,他的出生地,作者話語的一個幅員遼闊,歷史現在失去了,指責元老的異端。 Proclus (who was to succeed later in his candidature) preached a flowery, but perfectly orthodox, sermon, yet extant, to which Nestorius replied in an extempore discourse, which we also possess.普羅克洛(誰是接替他的候選人資格後)所宣揚的華麗,但完全正統的,說教,但現存的,哪些聶斯脫裡回答了一個臨時的話語,我們也具備。 All this naturally caused great excitement at Constantinople, especially among the clergy, who were clearly not well disposed towards the stranger from Antioch.這一切自然引起了很大的興奮在君士坦丁堡,尤其是神職人員,誰顯然沒有很好處理對陌生人從安提阿。

St. Celestine immediately condemned the doctrine.聖天青石立即譴責了這一學說。 Nestorius had arranged with the emperor in the summer of 430 for the assembling of a council.聶斯脫裡已安排與皇帝在夏天為430裝配一個議會。 He now hastened it on, and the summons had been issued to patriarchs and metropolitans on 19 Nov., before the pope's sentence, delivered though Cyril of Alexandria, had been served on Nestorius (6 Dec.).現在,他趕緊它,並已發出傳票,以元老和大城市的11月19日之前,教皇的一句話,雖然交付西里爾亞歷山大,已送達聶斯脫裡(12月6日)。 At the council Nestorius was condemned, and the emperor, after much delay and hesitation, ratified its finding.在安理會的譴責聶斯脫裡,皇帝,經過多次拖延和猶豫,批准其調查結果。 It was confirmed by Pope Sixtus III.它是由教皇西斯三世證實。

The lot of Nestorius was a hard one.該幅土地的聶斯脫裡是很難的。 He had been handed over by the pope to the tender mercies of his rival, Cyril; he had been summoned to accept within ten days under pain of deposition, not a papal definition, but a series of anathemas drawn up at Alexandria under the influence of Apollinarian forgeries.他被交給了教皇的投標憐憫他的對手,西里爾,他被傳喚到十天內接受沉積下的痛苦,而不是教皇的定義,但一系列的anathemas制定了在亞歷山大的影響下Apollinarian偽造。 The whole council had not condemned him, but only a portion, which had not awaited the arrival of the bishops from Antioch.整個安理會沒有譴責他,但只有一部分,而不是等待的到來從安提阿的主教。 He had refused to recognize the jurisdiction of this incomplete number, and had consequently refused to appear or put in any defence.他拒絕承認這個不完整的司法管轄區的數目,並因此拒絕出庭或提出任何辯護。 He was not thrust out of his see by a change of mind on the part of the feeble emperor.他沒有伸出他看到一個改變主意的一部分,軟弱的皇帝。 But Nestorius was proud: he showed no sign of yielding or of coming to terms; he put in no plea of appeal to Rome.但聶斯脫裡感到自豪:沒有跡象表明他的收益或即將方面,他提出的上訴請求在沒有到羅馬。 He retired to his monastery at Antioch with dignity and apparent relief.他退休,他在安提阿修道院有尊嚴和明顯的緩解。 His friends, John of Antioch, and his party, deserted him, and at the wish of the Emperor, at the beginning of 433, joined hands with Cyril, and Theodoret later did the same.他的朋友,約翰的安提阿,和他的黨拋棄了他,並在希望的皇帝,一開始的433,聯手與西里爾和Theodoret後來相同。 The bishops who were suspected of being favourable to Nestorius were deposed.主教們誰被懷疑是有利於以nestorius被廢黜。 An edict of Theodosius II, 30 July, 435, condemned his writings to be burnt.狄奧多西二世的一項法令,7月30日,435,譴責他的著作被燒毀。 A few years later Nestorius was dragged from his retirement and banished to the Oasis. He was at one time carried off by the Nubians (not the Blemmyes) in a raid, and was restored to the Thebaid with his hand and one rib broken.幾年後聶斯脫裡被拖從他的退休和被流放到綠洲。他是在同一時間內進行過的努比亞人(不是Blemmyes)在搜查,並恢復到Thebaid與他的手,一根肋骨折斷。 He gave himself up to the governor in order not to be accused of having fled.他給自己到總督為了不被指責有逃去。

The recent discovery of a Syriac version of the (lost) Greek apology for Nestorius by himself has awakened new interest in the question of his personal orthodoxy.最近發現一個敘利亞文版本(丟失)希臘道歉聶斯脫裡由他本人已經意識到這個問題的新興趣在他個人的正統。 The (mutilated) manuscript, about 800 years old, known as the "Bazaar of Heraclides", and recently edited as the "Liber Heraclidis" by P. Bedjan (Paris, 1910), reveals the persistent odium attached to the name of Nestorius, since at the end of his life he was obliged to substitute for it a pseudonym.該(肢解)手稿,約800年的歷史,被稱為“市場的赫拉克利特”,最近編輯的“書Heraclidis”由P. Bedjan(巴黎,1910),揭示了持續憎恨重視的名稱聶斯脫裡,因為在結束他的生命,他不得不改換筆名。 In this work he claims that his faith is that of the celebrated "Tome", or letter of Leo the Great to Flavian, and excuses his failure to appeal to Rome by the general prejudice of which he was the victim.在這項工作中,他聲稱,他的信念是,在著名的“湯姆”,或信利奧向弗拉維安大,和他沒有理由上訴到羅馬的一般損害,他是受害者。 A fine passage on the Eucharistic Sacrifice which occurs in the "Bazaar" may be cited here: "There is something amiss with you which I want to put before you in a few words, in order to induce you to amend it, for you are quick to see what is seemly. What then is this fault? Presently the mysteries are set before the faithful like the mess granted to his soldiers by the king. Yet the army of the faithful is nowhere to be seen, but they are blown away together with the catechumems like chaff by the wind of indifference. And Christ is crucified in the symbol [kata ton tupon], sacrificed by the sword of the prayer of the Priest; but, as when He was upon the Cross, He finds His disciples have already fled. Terrible is this fault,--a betrayal of Christ when there is no persecution, a desertion by the faithful of their Master's Body when there is no war" (Loofs, "Nestoriana", Halls, 1905, p. 341). The writings of Nestorius were originally very numerous.阿細通過對聖祭是發生在“集市”可引在這裡:“有什麼不對勁,我要與你向你的幾句話,以促使你修改它,因為你是很快就看到什麼是合適的。那麼,這是錯呢?目前的奧秘,是擺在混亂的忠實像他的士兵被授予國王。然而,軍隊的忠誠是無處可看,但他們一起吹走與catechumems像糠由風冷漠。釘在十字架上的基督是在符號[卡塔噸tupon],犧牲的劍祈禱的牧師的,但是,因為當他在十字架上,他發現他的弟子已經逃走。可怕的是這種故障, -一種背叛基督在沒有迫害,一個遺棄的忠實的碩士機構在沒有戰爭“(盧夫斯,”Nestoriana“,會堂,1905年,第341頁) 。該著作的聶斯脫裡原本非常多。 As stated above, the "Bazaar" has newly been published (Paris, 1910) in the Syriac translation in which alone it survives.如上所述,在“市場”的新出版(巴黎,1910年)在敘利亞文翻譯,因為只有在它生存。 The rest of the fragments of Nestorius have been most minutely examined, pieced together and edited by Loofs.其餘的聶斯脫裡的片段,細細檢查了大多數,拼湊起來的,編輯的盧夫斯。 His sermons show a real eloquence, but very little remains in the original Greek.他講道顯示一個真正的口才,但很少保留在原來的希臘。 The Latin translations by Marius Mercator are very poor in style and the text is ill preserved.拉丁譯本由馬呂斯麥卡托是極差的風格和文字生病保存。

Batiffol has attributed to Nestorius many sermons which have come down to us under the names of other authors; three of Athanasius, one of Hippolytus, three of Amphilochius, thirty-eight of Basil of Selleucia, seven of St. Chrysostom; but Loofs and Baker do not accept the ascription. Batiffol有許多說教歸功於以nestorius已回落到我們在其他作者的姓名;三個亞他那修,一西波呂,三Amphilochius,38的羅勒的Selleucia,七聖金口,但盧夫斯和貝克不接受歸屬。 Mercati has pointed out four fragments in a writing of Innocent, Bishop of Maronia (ed. Amelli in "Spicil. Cassin.", I, 1887), and Armenian fragments have been published by Ludtke.梅爾卡蒂提出了4個片段在書面無辜,主教馬羅尼亞(編Amelli在“Spicil。卡辛。”我,1887年),和亞美尼亞的碎片已出版呂特克。

II.二。 THE HERESY異端

Nestorius was a disciple of the school of Antioch, and his Christology was essentially that of Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both Cilician bishops and great opponents of Arianism.聶斯脫裡是門徒學校的安提阿,他基本上是基督的狄奧多羅斯的跗關節和西奧多的Mopsuestia,奇裡乞亞都主教和偉大的對手的阿里烏教派。 Both died in the Catholic Church. Diodorus was a holy man, much venerated by St. John Chrysostom.這兩個死在天主教會。狄奧多羅斯是一個神聖的人,更崇敬,由聖約翰金口。 Theodore, however, was condemned in person as well as in his writings by the Fifth General Council, in 553.西奧多,然而,在人的譴責,以及在他的著作由第五總理事會,553年。 In opposition to many of the Arians, who taught that in the Incarnation the Son of God assumed a human body in which His Divine Nature took the place of soul, and to the followers of Apollinarius of Laodicea, who held that the Divine Nature supplied the functions of the higher or intellectual soul, the Antiochenes insisted upon the completeness of the humanity which the Word assumed.在許多反對的白羊座,誰教的化身,在神的兒子,承擔了人體中了他的神性取代了靈魂,向信徒Apollinarius的老底嘉,誰認為,神性提供的職能或智力較高的靈魂,Antiochenes堅持要對人類的完整性的Word承擔。 Unfortunately, they represented this human nature as a complete man, and represented the Incarnation as the assumption of a man by the Word.不幸的是,它們代表這個人的本質作為一個完整的人,並代表化身為假設一個人的話。 The same way of speaking was common enough in Latin writers (assumere hominem, homo assumptus) and was meant by them in an orthodox sense; we still sing in the Te Deum: "Tu ad liberandum suscepturus hominem", where we must understand "ad liberandum hominem, humanam naturam suscepisti".以同樣的方式講是常見足夠的拉丁美洲作家(assumere人身攻擊,同性戀assumptus),並叫他們在一個正統意義上,我們仍然在謝恩讚美頌唱:“塗廣告liberandum suscepturus人身攻擊”,在這裡我們必須了解“廣告liberandum人身攻擊,humanam naturam suscepisti“。 But the Antiochene writers did not mean that the "man assumed" (ho lephtheis anthropos) was taken up into one hypostasis with the Second Person of the Holy Trinity.但安提阿學派作家並不意味著“人假設”(合lephtheis anthropos)採取了成一hypostasis與第二人稱的聖三位一體。 They preferred to speak of synapheia, "junction", rather than enosis, "unification", and said that the two were one person in dignity and power, and must be worshipped together.他們更願意談論synapheia,“結”,而不是希塞統一,“統一”,並說,兩人一人的尊嚴和權力,而且必須合祀。 The word person in its Greek form prosopon might stand for a juridical or fictitious unity; it does not necessarily imply what the word person implies to us, that is, the unity of the subject of consciousness and of all the internal and external activities.這個詞人在希臘的形式prosopon可能代表一個法人或虛構的統一,它並不一定意味著這個詞是什麼人向我們暗示,即統一的主體意識和所有內部和外部的活動。 Hence we are not surprised to find that Diodorus admitted two Sons, and that Theodore practically made two Christs, and yet that they cannot be proved to have really made two subjects in Christ.因此,我們並不感到驚訝地發現,狄奧多羅斯承認的兩個兒子,而西奧多幾乎兩次基督,但它們不能被證明為是作了兩個主題在基督。 Two things are certain: first, that, whether or no they believed in the unity of the subject in the Incarnate Word, at least they explained that unity wrongly; secondly, that they used most unfortunate and misleading language when they spoke of the union of the manhood with the Godhead -- language which is objectively heretical, even were the intention of its authors good.有兩點是肯定的:第一,無論是否相信他們在沒有統一的主題在聖道,至少他們解釋說,團結錯誤;其次,他們用最不幸和誤導性的語言時,他們談到了聯盟與神性的男子氣概-邪教的語言,是客觀,甚至是其作者的意圖良好。

Nestorius, as well as Theodore, repeatedly insisted that he did not admit two Christs or two Sons, and he frequently asserted the unity of the prosopon.聶斯脫裡,以及西奧多,一再堅持說,他不承認兩個或兩個兒子基督,他經常宣稱的統一的prosopon。 On arriving at constantinople he came to the conclusion that the very different theology which he found rife there was a form of Arian or Apollinarian error.對到達君士坦丁堡他得出的結論是非常不同的神學,他發現有一個充滿形式的阿里安或Apollinarian錯誤。 In this he was not wholly wrong, as the outbreak of Eutychianism twenty years later may be held to prove.在這一點,他並沒有完全錯誤的,因為爆發Eutychianism 20年後可能會舉行了證明。 In the first months of his pontificate he was implored by the Pelagian Julian of Eclanum and other expelled bishops of his party to recognize their orthodoxy and obtain their restoration He wrote at least three letters to the pope, St. Celestine I, to inquire whether these petitioners had been duly condemned or not, but he received no reply, not (as has been too often repeated) because the pope imagined he did not respect the condemnation of the Pelagians by himself and by the Western emperor, but because he added in his letters, which are extant, denunciations of the supposed Arians and Apollinarians of Constantinople, and in so doing gave clear signs of the Antiochene errors soon to be known as Nestorian.在他任職的頭幾個月,他懇求的伯拉糾朱利安Eclanum和其他被驅逐的主教團一行承認他們的正統,並取得他們的恢復,他至少寫了三封信給教宗,聖天青石我,詢問是否請願者已被正式譴責或沒有,但他沒有收到任何答复,而不是(已常常重複),因為教皇想像他不尊重譴責的pelagians由他本人,與西方的皇帝,而是因為他說在他的信,這是現存的,譴責的應該阿里安斯和Apollinarians君士坦丁堡,並在這樣做了明確的跡象的安提阿學派的錯誤很快被稱為景教。 In particular he denounced those who employed the word Theotokos, though he was ready to admit the use of it in a certain sense: "Ferri tamen potest hoc vocabulum proper ipsum considerationem, quod solum nominetur de virgine hoc verbum hoc propter inseparable templum Dei Verbi ex ipsa, non quia mater sit Dei Verbi; nemo enim antiquiorem se parit."他特別譴責那些誰僱用的字聖母,雖然他願意承認它的使用在一定意義上:“費裡塔門potest責vocabulum適當存有considerationem,狴索盧姆nominetur德virgine責verbum責propter不可分割templum棣Verbi前IPSA指數,非奎亞母校參加棣Verbi;尼莫enim antiquiorem本身巴力。“ Such an admission is worse than useless, for it involves the whole error that the Blessed Virgin is not the mother of the Second Person of the Holy Trinity.這樣一入學不如無用的,因為它涉及到整個錯誤的聖母是不是母親的第二人的三位一體。 It is therefore unfortunate that Loofs and others who defend Nestorius should appeal to the frequency with which he repeated that he should accept the Theotokos if only it was properly understood.因此,不幸的是,盧夫斯和其他保衛聶斯脫裡誰應該呼籲的頻率,他重申,他應該接受聖母只要它是正確理解。 In the same letter he speaks quite correctly of the "two Natures which are adored in the one Person of the Only-begotten by a perfect and unconfused conjunction", but this could not palliate his mistake that the blessed Virgin is mother of one nature, not of the person (a son is necessarily a person not a nature), nor the fallacy: "No one can bring forth a son older than herself."在同一封信中,他非常正確地談到了“兩個性質是在一個人崇拜的是唯一的造物主的完美和unconfused結合”,但這不能掩飾他的錯誤,聖母是母親的一性質,不是人(一個兒子必然是一個人不是一個性質),也不是謬論:“沒有人能帶出一個年紀比自己的兒子。” The deacon Leo, who was twenty years later as pope to define the whole doctrine, gave these letters to John Cassian of Marseilles, who at once wrote against Nestorius his seven books, "De incarnatione Christi".執事利奧,誰是20年後作為教宗確定整個學說,給了這些信件,約翰卡西安馬賽,誰在反對聶斯脫裡,他曾寫過七本書,“德incarnatione基督”。 Before he had completed the work he had further obtained some sermons of Nestorius, from which he quotes in the later books.之前,他已完成他的工作進一步得到了一些說教的聶斯脫裡,從他引用了後來的書籍。 He misunderstands and exaggerates the teaching of his opponent, but his treatise is important because it stereotyped once for all a doctrine which the Western world was to accept as Nestorianism.他誤解和誇大了他的教學對手,但他的論文是重要的,因為它一旦定型為所有人學說是西方世界接受景教。 After explaining that the new heresy was a renewal of Pelagianism and Ebionitism, Cassian represents the Constantinoplitan patriarch as teaching that Christ is a mere man (homo solitarius) who merited union with the Divinity as the reward of His Passion.在解釋新異端是一個重建的佩拉糾和Ebionitism,卡西安代表Constantinoplitan元老作為教學,基督是一個單純的人(同性戀孤)誰值得工會與神為獎勵他的激情。 Cassian himself brings out quite clearly both the unity of person and the distinction of the two natures, yet the formula "Two Natures and one Person" is less plainly enunciated by him than by Nestorius himself, and the discussion is wanting in clear-cut distinctions and definitions.卡西安自己帶出了相當清楚的人都團結和區分這兩個性質,但公式“兩個性質,一個人”,是赤裸裸地闡述了由他少比聶斯脫自己,討論是想在明確區分和定義。

Meanwhile Nestorius was being attacked by his own clergy and simultaneously by St.同時聶斯脫裡被襲擊,同時他自己的神職人員聖 Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, who first denounced him, though without giving a name, in an epistle to all the monks of Egypt, then remonstrated with him personally by letter, and finally wrote to the pope.西里爾,主教亞歷山德里亞,誰首先譴責他,但沒有給予一個名稱,在書信的所有僧侶埃及,然後他親自規勸信,終於寫信給教宗。 Loofs is of the opinion that Nestorius would never have been disturbed but for St. Cyril.盧夫斯是認為,聶斯脫裡就不會受到干擾,但對聖濟利祿。 But there is no reason to connect St. Cyril with the opposition to the heresiarch at Constantinople and at Rome.但是,沒有理由連聖西里爾與反對異教在君士坦丁堡和羅馬。 His rivals Philip of Side and Proclus and the layman Eusebius (afterwards Bishop of Dorylaeum), as well as the Roman Leo, seem to have acted without any impulse from Alexandria.他的競爭對手菲利普側普羅克洛和門外漢尤西比烏斯(事後主教多里萊烏姆),以及羅馬利奧,似乎沒有任何衝動行為的亞歷山大。 It might have been expected that Pope Celestine would specify certain heresies of Nestorius and condemn them, or issue a definition of the traditional faith which was being endangered.它可能已經預料教宗天青石會指定某些異端的nestorius和譴責他們,或發出一個定義的傳統信仰是受到威脅。

Unfortunately he did nothing of the kind.可惜他沒有做任何的那種。 St. Cyril had sent to Rome his correspondence with Nestorius, a collection of that Patriarch's sermons, and a work of his own which he had just composed, consisting of five books "Contra Nestorium".聖西里爾了他的信件發送到羅馬與聶斯脫裡,集合該宗主教的布道,和他自己的工作,他剛剛組成,其中包括五本書“魂斗羅Nestorium”。 The pope had them translated into Latin, and then, after assembling the customary council, contented himself with giving a general condemnation of Nestouris and a general approval of St. Cyril's conduct, whilst he delivered the execution of this vague decree to Cyril, who as Patriarch of Alexandria was the hereditary enemy both of the Antiochene theologian and the Constantinoplitan bishop.教宗在他們翻譯成拉丁文,然後,組裝後的習慣會,滿足自己與一般給予譴責Nestouris和普遍的認可聖西里爾的行為,而他發表了執行這一法令,西里爾含糊,因為誰主教亞歷山大是世襲的敵人都神學家的安提阿學派和Constantinoplitan主教。 Nestorius was to be summoned to recant within ten days.聶斯脫裡是公開認錯就能被傳喚到10天之內。 The sentence was as harsh as can well be imagined.這句話是苛刻的是可想而知的。 St. Cyril saw himself obliged to draw up a form for the recantation.聖西里爾看見自己有責任制定一個表格的變節。 With the help of an Egyptian council he formulated a set of twelve anathematisms which simply epitomize the errors he had pointed out in his five books "Against Nestorius", for the pope appeared to have agreed with the doctrine of that work.隨著埃及議會幫助他制定了一套12 anathematisms它只是概括了他所指出的錯誤在他的五本書“反對聶斯脫”,為教宗似乎已與學說的這項工作。 It is most important to notice that up to this point St.最重要的是要注意這一點,截至聖 Cyril had not rested his case upon Apollinarian documents and had not adopted the Apollinarian formula mia physis sesarkomene from Pseudo-Anathasius. He does not teach in so many words "two natures after the union", but his work against Nestorius, with the depth and precision of St. Leo, is an admirable exposition of Catholic doctrine, worthy of a Doctor of the church, and far surpassing the treatise of Cassian.西里爾沒有休息他的案件時Apollinarian文件,並沒有採用Apollinarian公式physis之sesarkomene米婭從偽Anathasius。他不教這麼多字的“兩個性質後,聯盟”,但他的工作對聶斯脫裡,隨深度和聖利奧精度,是令人欽佩的論述,天主教教義,值得一博士的教堂,遠遠超過了論文的卡西安。 The twelve anathematisms are less happy, for St.這12個anathematisms不太高興,因為聖 Cyril was always a diffuse writer, and his solitary attempt at brevity needs to be read in connection with the work which it summarizes.西里爾總是瀰漫作家,他的孤獨企圖在簡潔需要在閱讀方面的工作,它總結。

The Anathematisms were at once attacked, on behalf of John, Patriarch of Antioch, in defence of the Antiochene School, by Andrew of Samosata and the great Theodoret of Cyrus.該Anathematisms了一次襲擊,代表約翰,牧安提,在防禦的安提阿學派學校,由安德魯薩莫薩塔和偉大Theodoret古列。 The former wrote at Antioch; his objections were adopted by a synod held there, and were sent to Cyril as the official view of all the Oriental bishops.前者說在安提阿,他反對通過了一個主教在那裡舉行,並送往西里爾作為官方查看所有東方主教。 St. Cyril published separate replies to these two antagonists, treating Andrew with more respect than Theodoret, to whom he is contemptuous and sarcastic.聖西里爾發表單獨的答复這兩個對手,更多的尊重與對待安德魯比Theodoret,向誰,他是蔑視和諷刺。 The latter was doubtless the superior of the Alexandrian in talent and learning, but at this time he was no match for him as a theologian.後者無疑是上級的亞歷山大在人才和學習,但在這個時候,他是不是他的對手作為一個神學家。 Both Andrew and Theodoret show themselves captious and unfair; at best they sometimes prove that St. Cyril's wording is ambiguous and ill-chosen. They uphold the objectionable Antiochene phraseology, and they respect the hypostatic union (enosis kath hypostasin) as well as the physike enosis as unorthodox and unscriptural.安德魯和Theodoret都展現自我挑剔和不公平的,充其量他們有時證明聖西里爾的措辭含糊不清,缺乏選擇。他們堅持反對安提阿學派用語,並尊重他們的本質的工會(希塞統一凱思hypostasin)以及physike希塞統一為非正統和unscriptural。 The latter expression is indeed unsuitable, and may be misleading.後者表現的確是不合適的,而且可能會產生誤導。 Cyril had to explain that he was not summarizing or defining the faith about the Incarnation, but simply putting together the principal errors of Nestorius in the heretic's own words.西里爾只好解釋說,他沒有總結或定義的信仰有關的化身,而只是把共同的主要誤差的聶斯脫裡的邪教自己的話。 In his books against Nestorius he had occasionally misrepresented him, but in the twelve anathematisms he gave a perfectly faithful picture of Nestorius's view, for in fact Nestorius did not disown the propositions, nor did Andrew of Samosata or Theodoret refuse to patronize any of them.在他的書對聶斯脫裡,他偶爾會曲解他,但在12 anathematisms他給了一個完美的忠實圖片的聶斯脫裡的觀點,因為事實上聶斯脫裡沒有斷絕關係的主張,也沒有安德魯薩莫薩塔或Theodoret拒絕光顧其中任何。 The anathematisms were certainly in a general way approved by the Council of Ephesus, but they have never been formally adopted by the Church.有一定的anathematisms在一般的方式批准了安理會的以弗所,但它們從未正式通過了教會。 Nestorius for his part replied by a set of twelve contra-anathematisms.聶斯脫裡為他的回答部分由一組12個禁忌anathematisms。 Some of them are directed against St. Cyril's teaching, others attack errors which St. Cyril did not dream of teaching, for example that Christ's Human Nature became through the union uncreated and without beginning, a silly conclusion which was later ascribed to the sect of Monophysites called Actistetae.其中一些是針對聖西里爾的教學,攻擊他人的錯誤而聖西里爾沒有夢想的教學,例如,基督的人性成為通過工會非受造,沒有開始,一個愚蠢的結論,後來被歸因於該教派的基督一叫Actistetae。 On the whole, Nestorius's new programme emphasized his old position, as also did the violent sermons which he preached against St. Cyril on Saturday and Sunday, 13 and 14 December, 430.整體而言,聶斯脫裡的新方案強調了他原來的位置,這也是沒有暴力的說教,他鼓吹對聖西里爾週六和週日,13日和12月14日,430。 We have no difficulty in defining the doctrine of Nestorius so far as words are concerned: Mary did not bring forth the Godhead as such (true) nor the Word of God (false), but the organ, the temple of the Godhead.我們沒有任何困難,在確定原則的聶斯脫裡只要話來說:瑪麗並沒有帶來這樣的神性(真),也不是上帝的話(假),但機關,寺廟的神性。 The man Jesus Christ is this temple, "the animated purple of the King", as he expresses it in a passage of sustained eloquence.該名男子耶穌基督是這個寺廟,“紫色的動畫之王”,他表示這在通過持續的口才。 The Incarnate God did not suffer nor die, but raised up from the dead him in whom He was incarnate.肉身的神並沒有遭受也不死,但提出了從死他的人,他的化身。 The Word and the Man are to be worshipped together, and he adds: dia ton phorounta ton phoroumenon sebo (Through Him that bears I worship Him Who is borne).在Word和人要崇拜在一起,他補充道:直徑噸phorounta噸phoroumenon塞博(透過他,我崇拜他熊是誰承擔)。 If St. Paul speaks of the Lord of Glory being crucified, he means the man by "the Lord of Glory".如果聖保羅談到了上帝的榮耀被釘在十字架上,他指該名男子以“上帝的榮耀”。 There are two natures, he says, and one person; but the two natures are regularly spoken of as though they were two persons, and the sayings of Scripture about Christ are to be appropriated some of the Man, some to the Word.有兩種性質,他說,一個人,但是這兩個性質是經常談到的,雖然他們兩個人,和熟語約聖經基督要撥一些人,一些到Word。 If Mary is called the Mother of God, she will be made into a goddess, and the Gentiles will be scandalized.如果瑪麗被稱為上帝之母,她將成為一個女神,和外邦人會反感。

This is all bad enough as far as words go.這是所有壞足夠的話盡量去。 But did not Nestorius mean better than his words?聶斯脫裡的意思,但並不比他的話? The Oriental bishops were certainly not all disbelievers in the unity of subject in the Incarnate Christ, and in fact St. Cyril made peace with them in 433.東方主教們當然並不是所有的異教徒在統一的主題在基督的化身,其實聖西里爾和平與他們433。 One may point to the fact that Nestorius emphatically declared that there is one Christ and one Son, and St. Cyril himself has preserved for us some passages from his sermons which the saint admits to be perfectly orthodox, and therefore wholly inconsistent with the rest.有人可能會指出這樣一個事實是聶斯脫裡強調宣稱有一個兒子和一個基督和聖西里爾自己也保存了我們一些段落從他的布道的聖也承認是完全正統的,因此完全不符合的休息。 For example: "Great is the mystery of the gifts! For this visible infant, who seems so young, who needs swaddling clothes for His body, who in the substance which we see is newly born, is the Eternal Son, as it is written, the Son who is the Maker of all, the Son who binds together in the swathing-bands of His assisting power the whole creation which would otherwise be dissolved."例如:“偉大的是神秘的禮品!對於這個明顯的嬰兒,誰似乎很年輕,誰需要襁褓為他的身體,誰在物質,我們看到的是新生的,是永恆的兒子,因為它是寫,兒子誰是製造商的是,誰的兒子一起在swathing結合,帶他的整個創作力量的協助,以免被解散。“ And again: "Even the infant is the all-powerful God, so far, O Arius, is God the Word from being subject to God." And: "We recognize the humanity of the infant, and His Divinity; the unity of His Sonship we guard in the nature of humanity and divinity."並重申:“即使是嬰兒,是全能的上帝,到目前為止,澳阿里烏斯,是神的話語從受到上帝。”並說:“我們認識到人類的嬰兒,和他的神,他的統一兒子名分,我們守衛在人性和神性的性質。“ It will probably be only just to Nestorius to admit that he fully intended to safeguard the unity of subject in Christ.這將可能才剛剛以nestorius承認,他完全旨在維護團結在基督的主體。 But he gave wrong explanations as to the unity, and his teaching logically led to two Christs, though he would not have admitted the fact.但他給了錯誤的解釋,以團結,和他的教學邏輯,導致兩名基督,但他不會承認這個事實。 Not only his words are misleading, but the doctrine which underlies his words is misleading, and tends to destroy the whole meaning of the Incarnation. It is impossible to deny that teaching as well as wording which leads to such consequences as heresy.不僅他的話是誤導,但他的話學說的基礎是誤導,並趨向於摧毀整個含義的化身。這是不可能否認,教學和措辭,導致這種後果的異端邪說。 He was therefore unavoidably condemned.因此,他不可避免地受到譴責。 He reiterated the same view twenty years later in the "Bazaar of Heraclides", which shows no real change of opinion, although he declares his adherence to the Tome of St. Leo.他重申了同樣的觀點20年後的“集市的赫拉克利特”,這表明沒有真正改變的意見,儘管他宣稱他的堅持聖多美和普林西比聖利奧。

After the council of 431 had been made into law by the emperor, the Antiochene party would not at once give way.會後,431已經成為法律的皇帝,安提阿學派黨不會馬上讓路。 But the council was confirmed by Pope Sixtus III, who had succeeded St. Celestine, and it was received by the whole West. Antioch was thus isolated, and at the same time St. Cyril showed himself ready to make explanations.但是,安理會確認了西斯三世,誰成功了聖天青石,它是受到了整個西方。安提阿因此孤立,並在同一時間,聖西里爾表明自己準備做出解釋。 The Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria agreed upon a "creed of union" in 433 (see EUTYCHIANISM).始祖的安提阿和亞歷山大商定了“信條的聯盟”在433(見EUTYCHIANISM)。 Andrew of Samosata, and some others would not accept it, but declared the word "Theotokos" to be heretical.安德魯薩莫薩塔,有些人不會接受它,但表示將“聖母”是邪教。

Theodoret held a council at Zeuguma which refused to anathematize Nestorius. Theodoret召開理事會 Zeuguma的拒絕詛咒聶斯脫裡。 But the prudent bishop of Cyrus after a time perceived that in the "creed of union" Antioch gained more than did Alexandria; so he accepted the somewhat hollow compromise.但審慎的主教居魯士一段時間後認為,在“信仰工會”安提漲幅超過當時亞歷山大,因此,他接受了有點空洞的妥協。 He says himself that he commended the person of Nestorius whilst he anathematized his doctrine.他說,他稱讚自己的人,而他的聶斯脫裡詛咒他的學說。 A new state of things arose when the death of St. Cyril, in 444, took away his restraining hand from his intemperate followers. The friend of Nestorius, Count Irenaeus had become Bishop of Tyre, and he was persecuted by the Cyrillian party, as was Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, who had been a great teacher in that city.一個新國家的事情時,就出現了死亡聖西里爾,在444,拿走了他的手從他的過激限制追隨者。聶斯脫裡的朋友,伯爵已成為主教愛任紐的輪胎,他迫害的Cyrillian締約國,是律師協會,主教埃德薩,誰曾是偉大的導師在該城市。 These bishops, together with Theodoret and Domnus, the nephew and successor of John of Antioch, were deposed by Dioscorus of Alexandria in the Robber Council of Ephesus (449).這些主教,連同Theodoret和Domnus,侄子和繼承人約翰的安提阿,被廢黜的Dioscorus亞歷山大在強盜理事會以弗所(449)。 Ibas was full of Antiochene theology, but in his famous letter to Maris the Persian he disapproves of Nestorius as well as of Cyril, and at the Council of Chalcedon he was willing to cry a thousand anathemas to Nestorius. IBAS的是充滿了安提阿學派神學,但在他的著名的信馬里波斯他不贊成聶斯脫裡以及西里爾,並在安理會的chalcedon他願意哭千anathemas以nestorius。 He and Theodoret were both restored by that council, and both seem to have taken the view that St. Leo's Tome was a rehabilitation of the Antiochene theology.他和Theodoret都恢復了該理事會,雙方似乎已認為,聖里奧的湯姆是一個康復的安提阿學派神學。 The same view was taken by the Monophysites, who looked upon St. Leo as the opponent of St. Cyril's teaching. Nestorius in his exile rejoiced at this reversal of Roman policy, as he thought it.同樣的看法是由該monophysites,誰又將作為對手聖利奧聖西里爾的教學。涅斯多留在他的流亡高興在這個逆轉的羅馬政策,他認為。 Loofs, followed by many writers even among Catholics, is of the same opinion.盧夫斯,其次是許多作家,即使是天主教徒,是同樣的觀點。 But St. Leo himself believed that he was completing and not undoing the work of the Council of Ephesus, and as a fact his teaching is but a clearer form of St. Cyril's earlier doctrine as exposed in the five books against Nestorius. But it is true that St. Cyril's later phraseology, of which the two letters to Succensus are the type, is based upon the formula which he felt himself bound to adopt from an Apollinarian treatise believed to be by his great predecessor Athanasius: mia physis ton Theou Logou sesarkomene.但是,聖里奧自己認為,他正在完成的工作,而不是撤消了安理會的以弗所,並作為一個事實是他的教學形式,而是一個更清晰的聖濟利祿的學說作為較早暴露了五本書對聶斯脫裡。但是,的確,聖西里爾後來用語,其中有兩封信Succensus的類型,是根據公式,他覺得自己一定會採取從Apollinarian論文相信是由他的偉大前任亞他那修:米婭physis之噸Theou洛古sesarkomene 。 St. Cyril found this formula an awkward one, as his treatment of it shows, and it became in fact the watchword of heresy.聖西里爾發現這個公式尷尬之一,因為它顯示了他的治療,成為事實上的口號的異端。 But St. Cyril does his best to understand it in a right sense, and goes out of his way to admit two natures even after the union en theoria, an admission which was to save Severus himself from a good part of this heresy.但他最好的聖濟利祿並不了解它的權利意識,並超出他的方式承認兩個性質,即使工會恩theoria,入學塞維魯是拯救自己從一本相當一部分異端。

That Loofs or Harnack should fail to perceive the vital difference between the Antiochenes and St. Leo, is easily explicable by their not believing the Catholic doctrine of the two natures, and therefore not catching the perfectly simple explanation given by St. Leo.這盧夫斯或哈納克應該沒有看到的重要差異Antiochenes和聖獅子座,很容易可解釋他們不相信天主教教義的兩個性質,因此沒有抓住非常簡單交代聖利奧。 Just as some writers declare that the Monophysites always took physis in the sense of hypostasis, so Loofs and others hold that Nestorius took hypostasis always in the sense of physis, and meant no more by two hypostases than he meant by two natures.正如一些作家宣布該monophysites總是發生在physis之感本質,特性,所以盧夫斯和其他人認為,聶斯脫了hypostasis總是在physis之感,並意味著沒有更多的由兩個hypostases比他的意思是兩個性質。 But the words seem to have had perfectly definite meanings with all the theologians of the period.但似乎也有一定的意義完全與所有的神學家的時期。 That the Monophysites distinguished them, is probable (see MONOPHYSITES AND MONOPHYSITISM), and all admit they unquestionably meant by hypostasis a subsistent nature.這該monophysites尊敬他們,很可能(見monophysites和東正教基督一),並都承認,他們無疑意思hypostasis溫飽的性質。 That Nestorius cannot, on the contrary, have taken nature to mean the same as hypostasis and both to mean essence is obvious enough, for three plain reasons: first, he cannot have meant anything so absolutely opposed to the meaning given to the word hypostasis by the Monophysites; secondly, if he meant nature by hypostasis he had no word at all left for "subsistence" (for he certainly used ousia to mean "essence" rather than "subsistence"); thirdly, the whole doctrine of Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Nestorius's own refusal to admit almost any form of the communicatio idiomatum, force us to take his "two natures" in the sense of subsistent natures.這聶斯脫裡可以沒有,相反,採取nature是表示同樣as hypostasis和both指essence是顯而易見enough,為3 plain原因:第一,他不能有meant什麼這麼絕對反對的含義給予這個詞hypostasis by該monophysites;第二,如果他的意思性質由hypostasis他不語離開“生活”(他當然是指用ousia“本質”而不是“生活”);第三,整個學說的西奧多的Mopsuestia,和聶斯脫裡的自己拒絕承認幾乎任何形式的交際idiomatum,迫使我們採取了“兩個性質”的意義上的溫飽性質。

The modern critics also consider that the orthodox doctrine of the Greeks against Monophysitism -- in fact the Chalcedonian doctrine as defended for many years -- was practically the Antiochene or Nestorian doctrine, until Leontius modified it in the direction of conciliation.現代的批評者還認為,正統學說的希臘人反對基督一性-事實上的迦克學說作為辯護多年來-實際上是在安提阿學派或景教教義,直到Leontius修改它的方向的調解。 This theory is wholly gratuitous, for from Chalcedon onwards there is no orthodox controversialist who has left us any considerable remains in Greek by which we might be enabled to judge how far Leontius was an innovator.這一理論是完全無償的,從開始沒有卡爾西正統controversialist誰離開了我們仍然有相當大的希臘,使我們能夠判斷可能是多遠Leontius是一個創新。 At all events we know, from the attacks made by the Monophysites themselves, that, though they professed to regard their Catholic opponents as Crypto-Nestorians, in so doing they distinguished them from the true Nestorians who openly professed two hypostases and condemned the word Theotokos.在所有的事件,我們知道,從襲擊由該monophysites本身,儘管他們聲稱把自己的天主教對手的Crypto -景教,他們這麼做,他們從傑出的真正景教誰公開宣稱2 hypostases,譴責字聖母。 In fact we may say that, after John of Antioch and Theodoret had made peace with St. Cyril, no more was heard in the Greek world of the Antiochene theology.事實上,我們可以說,經過約翰安提阿和Theodoret作出了和平與聖濟利祿,沒有聽到更多的是在希臘世界的安提阿學派神學。 The school had been distinguished, but small.學校已被尊敬,但小。 In Antioch itself, in Syria, and in Palestine, the monks, who were exceedingly influential, were Cyrillians, and a large proportion of them were to become Monophysites.在安提阿本身,敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,僧侶們,誰是非常有影響力,但Cyrillians,和一個大的比例,他們要成為基督一性。 It was beyond the Greek world that Nestorianism was to have its development.這是希臘以外的世界,景教是有其發展。 There was at Edess a famous school for Persians, which had probably been founded in the days of St. Ephrem, when Nisibis had ceased to belong to the Roman Empire in 363.有一個著名的學校在Edess為波斯人,這很可能是建於天聖埃夫雷姆塞,當尼西比斯已不再屬於羅馬帝國363。 The Christians in Persia had suffered terrible persecution, and Roman Edessa had attracted Persians for peaceful study.波斯的基督徒在遭受了可怕的迫害,羅馬埃德薩吸引了波斯人的和平研究。 Under the direction of Ibas the Persian school of Edessa imbibed the Antiochene theology.根據方向IBAS的波斯學校的edessa吸脹的安提阿學派神學。 But the famous Bishop of Edessa, Rabbûla, though he had stood apart from St. Cyril's council at Ephesus together with the bishops of the Antiochene patriarchate, became after the council a convinced, and even a violent, Cyrillian, and he did his best against the school of the Persians.但著名的主教埃德薩,Rabbûla,雖然他站在除了聖西里爾理事會在以弗所一起在安提阿學派東正教主教,成為後會相信,甚至暴力,Cyrillian,他極力反對學校的波斯人。 Ibas himself became his successor. IBAS的自己成了他的繼任者。 But at the death of his protector, in 457, the Persians were driven out of Edessa by the Monophysites, who made themselves all-powerful.但在他去世的保護者,在457,波斯人被逐出埃德薩由該monophysites,誰作出了自己無所不能。 Syria then becomes Monophysite and produces its Philoxenus and many another writer.敘利亞則成為其Philoxenus基督一性和生產和許多其他作家。 Persia simultaneously becomes Nestorian.同時成為波斯景教。 Of the exiles from Edessa into their own country nine became bishops, including Barsumas, or Barsaûma, of Nisibis and Acacius of Beit Aramage.流亡者從埃德薩到他們自己的國家九成為主教,包括Barsumas,或Barsaûma,a cacius的b的nisibis和貝特哈Aramage。 The school at Edessa was finally closed in 489.學校在埃德薩終於關閉 489。

At this time the Church in Persia was autonomous, having renounced all subjection to Antioch and the "Western" bishops at the Council of Seleucia in 410.這時教會在波斯是自主,有放棄一切服從安提阿和“西方”主教在安理會的塞琉西亞410。 The ecclesiastical superior of the whole was the Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, who had assumed the rank of catholicos.教會優於全是主教的塞琉西亞,泰西封,誰承擔了該級別的大主教。 This prelate was Babaeus or Babowai (457-84) at the time of the arrival of the Nestorian professors from Edessa.這是Babaeus主教或Babowai(457-84)在時間的到來,景教教授從埃德薩。 He appears to have received them with open arms.他似乎已收到他們張開雙臂。 But Barsaûma, having become Bishop of Nisibis, the nearest great city to Edessa, broke with the weak catholicos, and, at a council which he held at Beit Lapat in April, 484, pronounced his deposition.但Barsaûma,已成為主教尼西比斯,最近的偉大的城市,以埃德薩,打破了弱大主教,並在他舉行的議會的拜特哈Lapat 4月,484,宣布了他沉積。 In the same year Babowai was accused before the king of conspiring with Constantinople and cruelly put to death, being hung up by his ring-finger and also, it is said, crucified and scourged. There is not sufficient evidence for the story which makes Barsaûma his accuser. The Bishop of Nisibis was at all events in high favour with King Peroz (457-84) and had been able to persuade him that it would be a good thing for the Persian kingdom if the Christians in it were all of a different complexion from those of the Empire, and had no tendency to gravitate towards Antioch and Constantinople, which were not officially under the sway of the "Henoticon" of Zeno.同年Babowai被指控陰謀前國王與君士坦丁堡和殘酷處死,被掛了他的戒指,手指也有人說,釘在十字架上鞭打。沒有足夠證據的故事,這使得Barsaûma他的指控。主教是在所有的nisibis事件的青睞與國王Peroz(457-84),並能夠說服他,這將是一件好事,如果對波斯王國的基督徒也都具有不同的從這些膚色的帝國,並沒有傾向人傾向於安提阿和君士坦丁堡,其中沒有正式的支配下的“Henoticon”的芝諾。

Consequently all Christians who were not Nestorians were driven from Persia.因此,所有基督徒誰沒有被趕出波斯景教。 But the story of this persecution as told in the letter of Simeon of Beit Arsam is not generally considered trustworthy, and the alleged number of 7700 Monophysite martyrs is quite incredible.但這個故事告訴迫害在信西緬拜特哈Arsam不是一般認為值得信賴,被指控的人數7700烈士是相當驚人的基督一性。 The town of Tagrit alone remained Monophysite.僅這個鎮的Tagrit仍然基督一。 But the Armenians were not gained over, and in 491 they condemned at Valarsapat the Council of Chalcedon, St. Leo, and Barsaûma.但亞美尼亞人並沒有獲得過,在491他們譴責在Valarsapat安理會的chalcedon,聖里奧和Barsaûma。 Peroz died in 484, soon after having murdered Babowai, and the energetic Bishop of Nisibis had evidently less to hope from his successor, Balash. Peroz死在484後不久,因謀殺Babowai,以及充滿活力的主教尼西比斯明顯少了希望從他的繼任者,巴拉什。 Though Barsaûma at first opposed the new catholicos, Acacius in August, 485, he had an interview with him, and made his submission, acknowledging the necessity for subjection to Seleucia.雖然Barsaûma起初反對新的大主教,Acacius 8月,485,他有一個採訪他,使他的意見,承認有必要為服從塞琉西亞。 However, he excused himself from being present at Acacius's council in 484 at Seleucia, where twelve bishops were present.不過,他原諒自己被出席Acacius理事會在484在塞琉西亞,其中12主教出席了會議。 At this assembly, the Antiochene Christology was affirmed and a canon of Beit Lapat permitting the marriage of the clergy was repeated.在此集會,安提阿學派基督是教會的肯定和拜特哈Lapat允許神職人員結婚的重複。 The synod declared that they despised vainglory, and felt bound to humble themselves in order to put an end to the horrible clerical scandals which disedified the Persian Magians as well as the faithful; they therefore enacted that the clergy should make a vow of chastity; deacons may marry, and for the future no one is to be ordained priest except a deacon who has a lawful wife and children.主教會議宣布,他們鄙視虛榮,覺得自己一定要謙虛,以制止這可怕的文書醜聞波斯襖教徒disedified以及忠心,因此他們頒布的神職人員應許願的貞操;執事可以結婚,對未來沒有一個是被祝聖司鐸執事除外誰擁有合法的妻子和孩子。 Though no permission is given to priests or bishops to marry (for this was contrary to the canons of the Eastern Church), yet the practice appears to have been winked at, possibly for the regularization of illicit unions.雖然沒有獲得特別允許,神父或主教結婚(因為這是違反教規的東方教會),但這種做法似乎已被拋媚眼,可能為正規化非法工會。 Barsaûma himself is said to have married a nun named Mamoé; but according to Mare, this was at the inspiration of King Peroz, and was only a nominal marriage, intended to ensure the preservation of the lady's fortune from confiscation. Barsaûma本人據說嫁給了一個名為Mamoé尼姑,但根據母馬,這是在國王Peroz的靈感,並只象徵式的婚姻,為了確保保存了夫人的財富從沒收。

The Persian Church was now organized, if not thoroughly united, and was formally committed to the theology of Antioch.現在的波斯教會組織,如果不徹底統一,並正式承諾在神學的安提阿。 But Acacius, when sent by the king as envoy to Constantinople, was obliged to accept the anathema against Nestorius in order to be received to Communion there.但是Acacius,當國王派來的特使,以作為君士坦丁堡,不得不接受詛咒反對聶斯脫裡,才能收到聖餐那裡。 After his return he bitterly complained of being called a Nestorian by the Monopohysite Philoxenus, declaring that he "knew nothing" of Nestorius.他返回後,他痛苦地抱怨被稱為景教由Monopohysite Philoxenus,宣稱他“毫不知情”的聶斯脫裡。 Nevertheless Nestorius has always been venerated as a saint by the Persian Church.不過聶斯脫裡一直尊崇為聖人的波斯教會。 One thing more was needed for the Nestorian Church; it wanted theological schools of its own, in order that its clergy might be able to hold their own in theological argument, without being tempted to study in the orthodox centres of the East or in the numerous and brilliant schools which the monophysites were now establishing.有一點需要更多的景教教堂,它希望自己的神學學校,以便其神職人員也許能夠有自己的神學論點,而不被誘惑,研究中心在正統的東方還是在眾多和燦爛的學校,該monophysites正在制定。 Barsaûma opened a school at Nisibis, which was to become more famous than its parent at Edessa. Barsaûma開設的一所學校尼西比斯,這是成為更著名的比其母公司在edessa。 The rector was Narses the Leprous, a most prolific writer, of whom little has been preserved.校長是Narses的麻風,最多產作家,其中幾乎沒有保存下來。 This university consisted of a single college, with the regular life of a monastery.這所大學組成的一個學院,與正常生活的一個修道院。 Its rules are still preserved (see NISIBIS).它的規則仍然保留(見尼西比斯)。 At one time we hear of 800 students.有一次,我們聽到的800名學生。 Their great doctor was Theodore of Mopsuestia.他們的偉大醫生西奧多的Mopsuestia。 His commentaries were studied in the translation made by Ibas and were treated almost as infallible.他的評論,翻譯研究了由律師協會和治療幾乎不會犯錯誤的。 Theodore's Canon of Scripture was adopted, as we learn from "De Partibus Divinae Legis" of Junilius, (PL, LXVIII, and ed. By Kihn), a work which is a translation and adaptation of the published lectures of a certain Paul, professor at Nisbis.西奧多佳能的經文被通過,因為我們從“德Partibus Divinae立法理由”的Junilius,(特等,LXVIII,和ED。通過Kihn),一個作品的翻譯和改編的發表演講,某保羅教授在Nisbis。 The method is Aristotelean, and must be connected with the Aristotelean revival which in the Greek world is associated chiefly with the name of Philoponus, and in the West with that of Boethius.該方法是亞里士多德,而且必須與案件有關,亞里士多德復甦這在希臘世界的關聯,主要是與約翰菲洛波努斯的名稱,並在與西方認為伯蒂烏斯。 The fame of this theological seminary was so great that Pope Agapetus and Cassiodorus wished to found one in Italy of a similar kind.這種神學的名聲是如此之大,神教皇阿加佩圖斯和Cassiodorus希望找到一個在意大利的一個類似。 the attempt was impossible in those troublous times; but Cassiodorus's monastery at Vivarium was inspired by the example of Nisibis.企圖是不可能在那些亂世,但Cassiodorus的修道院的靈感來自於座植物園的例子尼西比斯。 There were other less important schools at Seleucia and elsewhere, even in small towns.還有其他一些不太重要的學校和其他地方的塞琉西亞,甚至在小城鎮。

Barsaûma died between 492 and 495, Acacius in 496 or 497. Barsaûma死亡492和495之間,在496或497 Acacius。 Narses seems to have lived longer. Narses似乎長壽。 The Nestorian Church which they founded, though cut off from the Catholic Church by political exigencies, never intended to do more than practise an autonomy like that of the Eastern patriarchates.他們的景教教會成立,雖然切斷了天主教教會的政治危機,從來沒有打算做更多的自主權比這樣的做法在東區牧首轄區。 Its heresy consisted mainly in its refusal to accept the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon.它的異端主要包括在其拒絕接受安理會的以弗所和卡爾西。 It is interesting to note that neither Junilius nor Cassiodorus speaks of the school of Nisibis as heretical.有趣的是,要注意的是,無論Junilius也不Cassiodorus談到了學校的nisibis為異端邪說。 They were probably aware that it was not quite orthodox, but the Persians who appeared at the Holy Places as pilgrims or at Constantinople must have seemed like Catholics on account of their hatred to the Monophysites, who were the great enemy in the East.他們可能知道這是不是很正統,但波斯人誰出現在聖地的朝聖者,或在君士坦丁堡必須就好像天主教徒佔他們的仇恨,以該monophysites,誰是偉大的敵人在東方。 The official teaching of the Nestorian Church in the time of King Chosroes (Khusran) II (died 628) is well presented to us in the treatise "De unione" composed by the energetic monk Babai the Great, preserved in a manuscript From which Labourt has made extracts (pp. 280-87).官方教學的景教教會在時間國王Chosroes(Khusran)二(死於628)提交給我們很好的論文“德左翼聯盟”組成的充滿活力的和尚鮑鮑伊大,保存的手稿已經從哪個Labourt使提取物(頁280-87)。 Babai denies that hypostasis and person have the same meaning.鮑鮑伊否認 hypostasis和人具有相同的含義。 A hypostasis is a singular essence (ousia) subsisting in its independent being, numerically one, separate from others by its accidents.阿hypostasis是一個獨特的本質(ousia)在其存續的獨立存在,數值1,其他人分開,其發生意外。 A person is that property of a hypostasis which distinguishes it from others (this seems to be rather "personality" than "person") as being itself and no other, so that Peter is Peter and Paul is Paul.一個人是財產的hypostasis其中的區別是從別人(這似乎是“個性”而不是“人”),作為存在本身並沒有其他,所以,彼得是彼得和保羅是保羅。 As hypostases Peter and Paul are not distinguished, for they have the same specific qualities, but they are distinguished by their particular qualities, their wisdom or otherwise, their height or their temperament, etc. And, as the singular property which the hypostasis possesses is not the hypostasis itself, the singular property which distinguishes it is called "person".由於hypostases彼得和保羅不尊敬,因為他們具有相同的特定品質,但他們的特點是其特殊的素質,他們的智慧或以其他方式,他們的身高或氣質,等等此外,由於奇異的hypostasis擁有的財產是不是hypostasis本身,奇異財產區別它被稱為“人”。

It would seem that Babai means that "a man" (individuum vagum) is the hypostasis, but not the person, until we add the individual characteristics by which he is known to be Peter or Paul.看來,鮑鮑伊意味著“一個人”(individuum vagum)是本質,特性,而不是人,直到我們加入他個人的特色,其中,被稱為是彼得或保羅。 This is not by any means the same as the distinction between nature and hypostasis, nor can it be asserted that by hypostasis Babai meant what we should call specific nature, and by person what we should call hypostasis.這是不以任何方式之間的區別相同性質和本質,特性,也不能斷言,由hypostasis鮑鮑伊意味著什麼,我們應該呼籲的具體性質,以及什麼人,我們應該呼籲hypostasis。 The theory seems to be an unsuccessful attempt to justify the traditional Nestorian formula: two hypostases in one person.該理論似乎是一個不成功的嘗試,證明傳統的景教公式:2 hypostases在一個人。 As to the nature of the union, Babai falls on the Antiochene saying that it is ineffable, and prefers the usual metaphors -- assumption, inhabitation, temple, vesture, junction-to any definition of the union.至於工會的性質,鮑鮑伊落在安提阿學派說這是無法形容的,而寧願通常隱喻-假設,居住,寺廟,籠罩,結到任何定義了工會。 He rejects the communicatio idiomatum as involving confusion of the natures, but allows a certain "interchange of names", which he explains with great care.他拒絕交際idiomatum為涉及混亂的性質,但允許一定的“交換姓名”,他解釋非常小心。

The Persian Christians were called "Orientals", or "Nestorians", by their neighbours on the west.波斯的基督徒被稱為“東方人”,或“景教”,由他們的鄰居,西。 They gave to themselves the name Chaldeans; but this denomination is usually reserved at the present day for the large portion of the existing remnant which has been united to the Catholic Church.他們給自己的名字迦勒底人,但這個名稱通常是保留至今的大部分現有的殘餘已統一的天主教教會。 The present condition of these Uniats, as well as the branch in India known as "Malabar Christians", is described under CHALDEAN CHRISTIANS.目前這些Uniats條件,以及在印度的分支被稱為“馬拉巴爾基督徒”,是描述在迦勒底的基督徒。 The history of the Nestorian Church must be looked for under PERSIA.歷史的景教教會必須尋找下波斯。 The Nestorians also penetrated into China and Mongolia and left behind them an inscribed stone, set up in Feb., 781, which describes the introduction of Christianity into China from Persia in the reign of T'ai-tsong (627-49).的nestorians也滲透到中國和蒙古,還留下了他們一上的石頭,在2月成立,781,它描述了引入到中國基督教從波斯統治的前提下在聰(627-49)。 The stone is at Chou-Chih, fifty miles south-west of Sai-an Fu, which was in the seventh century the capital of China. It is known as "the Nestorian Monument".石頭是在週智,50英里西南世安富,這是在公元七世紀中國的資本。它被稱為“景教碑”。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息寫由約翰查普曼。 Transcribed by John Looby. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄由約翰盧比。天主教百科全書,卷十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography書目

For bibliography see CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA; EPHESUS, COUNCIL OF; DIOSCURUS, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.對於書目見西里爾亞歷山大;以弗所,理事會; DIOSCURUS,主教亞歷山德里亞。 Here may be added, on I: GARNIER, Opera Marii Mercatoris, II (Paris, 1673); PL, XLVII, 669; TILLEMONT, Memoires, XIV; ASSEMANI, Bibliotheca Orient., III, pt 2 (Rome, 1728); LOOFS in Realencyklopadie, sv Nestorius; FENDT, Die Christologie des Nestorius (Munich, 1910); BATIFFOL in Revue Biblique, IX (1900), 329-53; MERCATI in Theolog.在這裡可以補充,對我:卡尼爾,歌劇默里Mercatoris,二(巴黎,1673);特等,四十七,669;蒂耶蒙,回憶錄,第十四; ASSEMANI,藏書東方。,三,2角(羅馬,1728);盧夫斯在Realencyklopadie,希沃特聶斯脫裡,芬特,模具Christologie德聶斯脫裡(慕尼黑,1910); BATIFFOL在雜誌biblique,第九章(1900),329-53;梅爾卡蒂在Theolog。 Revue VI (1907), 63; LUDTKE in Zeitschr.第六雜誌(1907年),63;呂特克在Zeitschr。 Fur Kirchengesch.毛皮Kirchengesch。 XXIX (1909), 385.第29屆(1909年),385。

On the early struggle with Nestorianism: ASSEMANI, Bibliotheca Orentalis, III, parts 1 and 2 (Rome, 1728); DOUCIN, Histoire du Nestorianisme (1689). On the Persian Nestorians: the Monophysite historians MICHAEL SYRUS, ed.在早期的鬥爭與景教:ASSEMANI,藏書Orentalis,三,1和2部分(羅馬,1728);杜桑,歷史學杜Nestorianisme(1689)。論波斯景教:歷史學家的基督一麥錫斯,編輯。 CHABOT (Paris, 1899) and BARHEBRAEUS, edd.夏波(巴黎,1899年)和BARHEBRAEUS,教育博士。 ABBELOOS AND LAMY (Paris, 1872-77); the Mohammedan SAHRASTANI, ed. ABBELOOS和拉米(巴黎,1872年至1877年);的穆罕默德SAHRASTANI,教育署。 CURETON (London, 1842); and especially the rich information in the Nestorian texts themselves; GISMONDI, Maris Amri et Slibae de patriarchis Nestoranis commentaria, e codd.庫裡頓(倫敦,1842年)和豐富的信息,特別是在景教文本本身;吉斯蒙迪,馬里阿姆裡等Slibae德patriarchis Nestoranis commentaria,電子科德。 Vat.; the Liber Turris (Arabic and Latin, 4 parts, Rome, (1896-99); BEDJAN, Histoire de Mar Jab-Alaha (1317), patriarche, et de Raban Saumo (2nd ed., Paris, 1895); Synodicon of Ebedjesu in MAI, Scriptorum vett. Nova. Coll., X (1838); BRAUN, Das Buch der Synhados (Stuttgart and Vienna, 1900); CHABOT, Synodicon Orientale, ou recueil de Synodes Nestoriens in Notes of Extraits, Synhados (Stuttgart and Vienna, 1900); Chabot Synodicon Orentale, ou recueil de Synodes Nestoriens in Notes et Extraits, XXXVII (Paris, 1902); GUIDI, Ostsyrische bischofe und Bischofsitze in Zeitschrift der Morgen landl. Gesellsch., (1889), XLII, 388; IDEM, Gli statuti della scuola di Nisibi (Syriac text) in Giornaale della Soc. Asiatica Ital., IV; ADDAI SCHER, Chronique de Seert, histoire Nestorienne (Arabic and French), and Cause de la fondation des ecoles (Edessa and Nisibis) in Patrologia Orentalis, IV (Paris, 1908). -See also PETERMANN AND KESSLER in Realencyklop., sv Nestorianer; FUNK in Kirchenlex., sv Nestorius und die Nestorianer; DUCHESNE, Hist. Ancienne de l'eglise, III (Paris, 1910). -On the "Nestorian Monument", see PARKER in Dublin review, CXXXI (1902), 2, p. 3880; CARUS AND HOLM, The Nestorian Monument (London, 1910).增值稅。;的利貝Turris(阿拉伯語和拉丁語,4個部分,羅馬(1896年至1899年); BEDJAN,歷史學de Mar的山,Alaha(1317),Patriarche號,等代拉班Saumo(第二版。巴黎,1895年); Synodicon在米埔的Ebedjesu,Scriptorum vett。新星。科爾。,第十章(1838年);布勞恩達斯布赫明鏡Synhados(斯圖加特和維也納,1900);塞波特,Synodicon東方,歐recueil德Synodes Nestoriens在注意到Extraits,Synhados(斯圖加特和維也納,1900年);塞波特Synodicon Orentale,歐recueil德Synodes Nestoriens票據等Extraits,三十七(巴黎,1902年);圭迪,Ostsyrische bischofe北達科Bischofsitze在史雜誌晨報蘭德爾。Gesellsch。,(1889年),四十二,388 ;同上,格利斯塔圖蒂德拉scuola迪Nisibi(敘利亞文文本)Giornaale德拉的SoC。草需求面實證。,第四; ADDAI謝爾,德Seert紀事,歷史學Nestorienne(阿拉伯語和法語),並導致德拉基金會德主管的高等(埃德薩和尼西比斯)在Patrologia Orentalis,第四章(巴黎,1908年)。-又見彼得曼和Kessler在Realencyklop。,希沃特Nestorianer;方克在Kirchenlex。,希沃特聶斯脫北達科他死Nestorianer;德雷珀,組織胺。安西安娜德l'利斯,三(巴黎, 1910年)。-在“景教碑”,見帕克在都柏林的審查,CXXXI(1902),第2,第3880;卡斯和聖,景教碑(倫敦,1910年)。




Also, see:此外,見:
Monophysitism 基督一性

Antiochene Theology Antiochene神學

Alexandrian Theology 亞歷山大神學

Apollinarianism 亞波里拿留派

Adoptionism Adoptionism


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