Neo-Orthodoxy - History新正統 - 歷史

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Neo-orthodoxy is not a single system; it is not a unified movement; it does not have a commonly articulated set of essentials. At best it can be described as an approach or attitude that began in a common environment but soon expressed itself in diverse ways.新正統不是一個單一的系統,它不是一個統一的運動,它不具有普遍闡明一套必需品。充其量可以說是一種方法或態度,開始在一個共同的環境,但很快表示自己在不同的方法。 It began in the crisis associated with the disillusionment following World War I, with a rejection of Protestant scholasticism, and with a denial of the Protestant liberal movement which had stressed accommodation of Christianity to Western science and culture, the immanence of God, and the progressive improvement of mankind.它開始在危機有關的幻滅第一次世界大戰後,以拒絕新教士林,並否認了新教自由主義運動,強調住宿基督教對西方科學和文化,內在的神,進步改善人類。

The first important expression of the movement was Karl Barth's Romerbrief, published in 1919.第一個重要的表達了運動是卡爾巴特的Romerbrief,發表於1919年。 Soon a number of Swiss and German pastors were involved.不久,一個數字的瑞士和德國牧師參與。 In the two years 1921 - 22 Friedrich Gogarten published his Religious Decision, Emil Brunner his Experience, Knowledge and Faith, Eduard Thurneysen his Dostoievsky, and Barth the second edition of his Commentary on Romans.在兩年的1921至1922年出版了他的宗教弗里德里希戈加滕決策,埃米爾布倫納他的經驗,知識和信念,他的愛德華Thurneysen陀思妥耶夫斯基,巴特和他的第二版述評羅馬。 In the fall of 1922 they established Zwischen den Zeiten, a journal whose title characterized the crisis element in their thinking in that they felt they lived between the time when the Word was made flesh and the imminent appearance of the Word again.在1922年秋天,他們建立了Zwischen巢穴蔡滕,日記的標題為特徵的危機元素在他們的思想,他們認為他們生活之間的時候,這個詞是肉和即將出現的字了。 Although at this point most of the early members of the movement held to some common points of view, such as the absolute transcendence of God over all human knowledge and work, the sovereignty of the revelation in Jesus Christ, the authority of Scripture, and the sinfulness of mankind, it was not long before their dialectical approach led them to disagreements and a parting of the ways.雖然在這一點上最早期的成員舉行了運動的觀點有些共同點,如絕對超越上帝對所有人類的知識和工作中,主權的啟示在耶穌基督,聖經的權威,並人類的罪孽,但沒過多久,他們的辯證的方法使他們的分歧和分手的方式。

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However, the disagreements seemed to make the movement all the more vigorous and intriguing.然而,分歧似乎使運動更加充滿活力和有趣。 Soon it spread to England, where CH Dodd and Edwyn Hoskyns became involved; in Sweden Gustaf Aulen and Anders Nygren became followers; in America the Niebuhr brothers were identified as neo - orthodox; and others in other churches and lands began to read about the movement and watch what was happening.很快蔓延到英國,其中CH多德和愛德溫霍斯基成為參與;在瑞典古斯塔夫Aulen和安德斯尼格倫成為追隨者,在美國的尼布爾兄弟被確定為新-正統,以及其他在其他教會和土地開始閱讀有關運動看發生了什麼事情。 With the rise of the Nazi movement in Germany many of the leaders of the neo - orthodox movement met with other German Christians in Barmen in 1934 and issued a declaration against the evils of Nazism.隨著崛起的納粹運動在德國的許多領導人的新-正統運動會見了德國其他基督徒在巴門在1934年發表了一項聲明,反對邪惡的納粹主義。 The resulting crackdown by Hitler forced some into exile, as Paul Tillich; some back to their homeland, as Barth; some underground, as Dietrich Bonhoeffer; and some ultimately into concentration camps, as Martin Niemoeller.由此產生的一些打擊希特勒被迫流亡海外,如保羅蒂利希,有的回到自己的家園,為巴特,有的在地下,作為迪特里希朋霍費爾,有的最終進入集中營,作為馬丁尼默勒。 The movement continued throughout the period of World War II and into the postwar period, but with the death of the main leaders it tended to lose its cutting edge in theology.這個運動繼續在整個二戰期間和戰後時期進入,但與死亡的主要領導人也往往失去其尖端在神學。

The movement was called neo - orthodox for a number of reasons.這場運動被稱為新 - 正統的很多原因。 Some used the term in derision, claiming it had abandoned the traditional Protestant creedal formulations and was advocating a new "off" brand of orthodoxy.有些使用的術語在嘲笑,聲稱它已經放棄了傳統的新教教義的配方,並倡導新的“小康”牌的正統。 Others saw the movement as a narrowing of the traditional stance of Protestantism and thus to be avoided in favor of a more liberal stance.其他人看到了運動作為一個縮小的傳統立場的基督教,從而有利於避免在一個更加開放的姿態。 Those in sympathy with the movement saw in the word "orthodoxy" the effort to get back to the basic ideas of the Protestant Reformation and even the early church, as a means of proclaiming the truth of the gospel in the twentieth century; and in the prefix "neo" they saw the validity of new philological principles in helping to attain an accurate view of Scripture, which in turn and in combination with orthodoxy would provide a powerful witness to God's action in Christ for those of the new century.那些同情運動看到單詞“正統”的努力,重新回到基本思想的新教改革,甚至是早期教會,作為一種手段,宣告真理的福音在20世紀和前綴“新”,他們看到了新的語言學原則的有效性,從而幫助實現準確的觀點的經文,這反過來,結合正統將提供一個強有力的見證上帝的行動為那些在基督裡的新世紀。

Methodology方法論

The methodologial approach of the movement involved dialectical theology, theology of paradox, and crisis theology.該methodologial方法的辯證運動的神學,神學的矛盾和危機神學。 The use of dialectical thinking goes back to the Greek world and Socrates' use of questions and answers to derive insight and truth. It was used by Abelard in Sic et Non, and is the technique of posing opposites against each other in the search for truth.辯證思維的使用可追溯到希臘世界和蘇格拉底的使用問題和答案,以獲取洞察力和真理。阿貝拉爾它被用來在由非碳化矽等,是造成技術的相互對立中尋求真理。 Barth and the early leaders were probably attracted to the dialectic as the result of their study of Soren Kierkegaard's writing.巴特和早期領導人很可能吸引到的辯證法作為他們的研究結果索倫克爾凱郭爾的著作。 For Kierkegaard, propositional truths are not sufficient; assent to a series of religious formulations or creeds is not enough.對於克爾凱郭爾,命題真理是不夠的同意,以一系列的宗教或信仰的提法是不夠的。 Kierkegaard believed theological assertions of the faith to be paradoxical.克爾凱郭爾認為神學主張的信仰是矛盾的。 This requires the believer to hold opposite "truths" in tension.這就要求信徒持相反的“真理”的緊張局勢。 Their reconciliation comes in an existential act generated after anxiety, tension, and crisis, and which the mind takes to be a leap of faith.他們的和解進來後產生的行為存在焦慮,緊張和危機,而心靈需要是一個飛躍的信心。

The neo - orthodox took the position that traditional and liberal Protestantism had lost the insight and truth of the faith.在新-正統的立場是,傳統的和開放的基督教失去了洞察力和真理的信仰。 The nineteenth century theologians had taken the paradoxes of faith, dissolved their tension, used rational, logical, coherent explanations as a substitute, creating propositions, and thus had destroyed the living dynamic of the faith. 19世紀的神學家採取了自相矛盾的信仰,解散他們的緊張情緒,用理性,邏輯性,連貫的解釋,作為替代,創建主張,從而破壞了生活的充滿活力的信仰。 For the neo - orthodox, paradoxes of the faith must remain precisely that, and the dialectic method which seeks to find the truth in the opposites of the paradoxes leads to a true dynamic faith.對於新-正統的,似是而非的信念必須保持精確的和辯證方法,目的是要尋找真理的對立面的悖論導致了真正的動態的信心。 As an example of this consider the statement: "In the No found in God's righteous anger one finds the Yes of his compassion and mercy."作為一個例子,這個考慮的聲明:“在沒有發現在上帝的義憤人們發現是他的同情和憐憫。”

Some of the paradoxes identified by the neoorthodox movement are the absolute transcendence of God in contrast with the self - disclosure of God; Christ as the God - man; faith as a gift and yet an act; humans as sinful yet free; eternity entering time.一些似是而非確定了neoorthodox運動是絕對的超越神的對比與自我-披露神基督作為上帝-人;信仰作為一份禮物,但行為;人類的罪惡,但是自由;永恆進入時間。 How is it possible to have a wholly other God who reveals himself?怎麼可能有其他的神完全揭示了自己誰? How is it possible for the man Jesus of history to be the Son of God, the second person of the Trinity?怎麼可能為人類歷史的耶穌是上帝的兒子,第二人的三位一體? How can one speak of faith as God's gift and yet involve human action?怎麼能說是信仰上帝的禮物,但涉及到人的行為? How is it possible for humans to be simultaneously sinful and saved?怎麼可能對人類是有罪的同時並保存? How is it possible for eternity, which is apart from time, to break in on time?怎麼可能為永恆,這是除了時間,打破了? In struggling with these, the temptation is to rationalize answers and avoid the crisis of faith; but the neo - orthodox eschewed such a solution.在這些鬥爭中,誘惑是合理化的答案,避免危機的信念,但新-正統迴避這樣一個解決辦法。 It is only in crisis / struggling that one can rise above the paradox and be grasped by the truth in such a way as to defy rational explanation.只有在危機/掙扎的人可以超越的悖論,並掌握了真理such as to藐視的方式rational解釋。 Crisis is that point where yes and no meet.危機是肯定的地步,也沒有滿足。

It is that theological point where the human recognizes God's condemnation of all human endeavors in morals, religion, thought processes, scientific discoveries, and so on, and the only release is from God's word.正是在人類神學一點認識上帝的譴責一切人類努力在道德,宗教,思維過程,科學發現等,唯一的發布是從神的話語。 The neo - orthodox, in summarizing their methodology, used dialectics in relation to the paradoxes of the faith which precipitated crises which in turn became the situation for the revelation of truth.在新-正統,在總結他們的方法,用辯證的關係的矛盾沉澱的信仰危機,從而成為局勢的啟示真理。

Some Key Beliefs一些主要的信仰

Perhaps the fundamental theological concept of the movement is that of the totally free, sovereign God, the wholly other in relation to his creation as to how it is controlled, redeemed, and how he chooses to reveal himself to it.也許根本神學概念的運動是完全自由的,主權的上帝,完全其他有關他的創作,以它是如何控制,贖回,以及他如何選擇自己揭示它。 Next is God's self - revelation, a dynamic act of grace to which mankind's response is to listen.其次是上帝的自我-啟示,一個充滿活力的行為是人類的恩典的回應是聽。 This revelation is the Word of God in a threefold sense: Jesus as the word made flesh; Scripture which points to the word made flesh; and the sermon which is the vehicle for the proclamation of the Word made flesh.這啟示是上帝的話在三重意義:耶穌的一句話讓肉經文,其中指出的一句話讓肉和講道這是車輛的Word中宣布了肉。 In its first sense, the Word made flesh, it is not a concern for the historical Jesus as in Protestant liberalism, but a concern for the Christ of faith, the risen Christ testified to and proclaimed by the apostles.在第一次從某種意義上說,Word中取得的肉體,它不是一個關注的歷史耶穌在新教自由主義,而是關心的基督信仰,復活的基督作證,並宣布由使徒。 In the second sense, Word as Scripture, it is not intended that the two be seen as one.在第二個意義上講,Word作為聖經,它不打算在這兩個被視為1。 The Scripture contains the Word but is not the Word.聖經包含Word,但不是詞。

In the third sense, the Word is proclaimed and witnessed to, in and through the body of Christ through the work of the Holy Spirit.在第三個意義上說,Word是宣布和見證了,並通過身體基督通過聖靈的工作。

The movement also stressed the sinfulness of mankind.該運動還強調,人類的罪惡。 The sovereign, free God who reveals himself does so to a sinful fallen humanity and creation.主權,自由上帝誰揭示了自己這樣做有罪下降到人性和創造。 There is a vast chasm between the sovereign God and mankind, and there is no way that mankind can bridge that chasm.有一個巨大的鴻溝之間的主權和人類的上帝,也沒有辦法,人類可以彌合的鴻溝。 All of mankind's efforts to do so in his religious, moral, and ethical thoughts and actions are as nothing.所有人類的努力,這樣做他的宗教,道德,倫理思想和行動都化為烏有。 The only possible way for the chasm to be crossed is by God, and this he has done in Christ.唯一可能的途徑是跨越的鴻溝是神,他的所作所為,這在基督。 And now the paradox and the crisis: when the paradox of the word's No against mankind's sin is given along with the Yes of the Word of grace and mercy, the crisis mankind faces is to decide either yes or no.現在的矛盾和危機:當矛盾一詞的不反對人類的罪惡是由於隨著是在Word的恩典和憐憫,人類面臨的危機是決定是或否。 The turning point has been reached as the eternal God reveals himself in mankind's time and existence.轉折點已經達到作為永恆的上帝在人類揭示了自己的時間和生存。

Significance意義

The neo - orthodox movement has made a number of important contributions to twentieth century theology.在新-正統的運動作出了重要貢獻數至二十世紀的神學。 With its stress on Scripture as the container of the Word it emphasized the unity of Scripture and helped to precipitate a renewed interest in hermeneutics.憑藉其對聖經的壓力容器的Word中強調了團結的經文,並協助促成一個新的興趣在詮釋學。 With its rejection of nineteenth century Protestant liberalism and its return to the principles of the Reformation it helped to rejuvenate interest in the theology of the sixteenth century reformers and in the early church fathers.隨著19世紀的排斥新教自由主義及其返回的原則,它的改革有助於振興的興趣,在神學的改革者的16世紀,在早期教會的父親。 With its threefold view of the Word the doctrine of Christology has been more carefully examined, and the Word as proclamation has reemphasized the importance of preaching and the church as the fellowship of believers.憑藉其三倍查看Word的學說的基督已經更加仔細地審查和Word作為宣布已再次強調了重要性的說教和教會信徒的團契。 The use of dialectic, paradox, and crisis introduced an effort to preserve the absolutes of the faith from every dogmatic formulation and, by so doing, aided the cause of ecumenism.用辯證的,矛盾和危機,推出了以維護絕對的信念從每一個制定和教條式的,這樣,資助合一的事業。 Finally, the urgency found in the writings and in the title of its first journal has encouraged a renewed interest in eschatology.最後,緊迫性的著作中找到與題目第一期刊鼓勵了新的興趣在末世。

Neo - orthodoxy is tied to its own Zeitgeist and thus does not have the popularity it enjoyed earlier in the century.新-正統是依賴於自己的時代精神,因而沒有得到它的普及早在本世紀。 Certain inherent elements have precluded its continuing influence.某些固有的分子排除其持續性影響。 For example, its dialectic has presented confusing concepts such as "the impossible - possibility" and "the history beyond time"; its view of Scripture, "The Bible is God's Word so far as God lets it be his Word" (Barth, Church Dogmatics, I / 2, 123), has been seen as a rejection of the infallible sola Scriptura of conservative Protestantism.例如,它的辯證呈現混亂的概念,例如“不可能的-可能性”和“歷史超越時間”,其觀點的經文,“聖經是神的話語只要上帝允許這不是他的詞”(巴特,教會教義,我/ 2,123),已被視為拒絕犯錯的保守新教唯獨聖經。 The reliance of some of the neo - orthodox upon existentialism and other nineteenth and twentieth century concepts has meant that when those concepts became unfashionable, neo - orthodoxy became unfashionable.在自力更生的一些新-正統的存在主義和後19世紀和20世紀其他的概念,這意味著,當這些概念變得不合時宜,新-正統變得不合時宜。 Perhaps the greatest weakness within the movement has been its pessimism concerning the reliability and validity of human reason.也許最大的弱點在了這一運動已被其悲觀的可靠性和有效性有關的人類理性。

If human reason cannot be trusted, then it follows that since neo - orthodoxy relied on human reason, it could not be trusted. Finally, some have criticized neo - orthodoxy for lacking a plan for the reformation of society; most theologies, however, are susceptible to this charge.如果人的原因無法信任,那麼,既然新-正統依靠人力原因,它可能是不可信的。最後,一些人批評新- orthodoxy缺乏一項計劃,對改革of society; most神學,然而,容易受到這種指控。 Neo - orthodoxy's stance toward the conservatives and the liberals has satisfied neither group and the moderates have not embraced it.新-正統的立場,對保守派和自由派都已經滿意組和溫和派沒有接受它。 Thus although one cannot ignore the movement, its ultimate place in the history of theology is not yet clear.因此,雖然人們不能忽視的運動,其最終置於歷史神學,目前尚不清楚。

RV Schnucker風疹病毒Schnucker
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
J Pelikan, Twentieth Century Theology in the Making; J Macquarrie, Twentieth - Century Religious Thought; W Nicholls, Systematic and Philosophical Theology; JM Robinson, ed., The Beginnings of Dialectical Theology; W Hordern, The Case for a New Reformation Theology; HU von Balthasar, The Theology of Karl Barth; C Michalson, ed., Christianity and the Existentialists; E Brunner, The Theology of Crisis; O Weber, Foundations of Dogmatics; CW Kegley and RW Bretall, eds., Reinhold Niebuhr; AJ Klassen, ed., A Bonhoeffer Legacy; W Schmithals, An Introduction to the Theology of Rudolf Bultmann. J伯利坎,二十世紀神學,在決策; J麥誇裡,二十-世紀的宗教思想; W尼科爾斯,系統性和哲學神學; jm羅賓遜,編輯。,辯證神學的起源; W霍德恩,對案件進行新的改革神學;胡馮巴爾塔薩,卡爾巴特的神學;三Michalson,編輯。,基督教和存在主義,電子商務布倫納,在神學的危機; Ø韋伯,基金會的教義;連續凱格利和RW Bretall,合編。,尼布爾;歐塞爾克拉森,編輯。,阿朋霍費爾的遺產; W Schmithals,一個介紹神學魯道夫布特曼。



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