Naturalism自然主義

General Information 一般信息

Naturalism is a philosophical position which holds that all that exists is natural - in other words, is part of the spatio - temporal processes of nature - or, that if any sort of nonnatural object may exist, it is known only through its effects within nature.自然是一種哲學立場認為,所有存在是很自然的-換句話說,就是一部分時空-時空過程的本質-或者,如果任何形式的非自然對象可能存在,它是已知的只有通過內部性質的影響。 Everything that can be experienced is within the spatio - temporal order of nature.一切都可以經歷是在時空-時空秩序的性質。

As a system of natural processes, nature possesses a degree of orderliness that makes it intelligible, but it cannot be explained as a whole.作為一個系統的自然過程,自然擁有了某種程度的秩序,它使理解的,但它不能被解釋為一個整體。 Nor can it as a whole express moral value.也不能作為一個整體表現的道德價值。 Moral values, however, may emerge in the relation between human beings as one part of nature and the rest of nature.道德價值,但是,可能出現人與人之間的關係作為其中的一部分,其餘的性質和本質。 As part of nature, humans are subject to lawful natural processes; intelligence emerges from the active life of organisms within nature.作為大自然的一部分,人類受到合法的自然過程;情報出現從積極的生活範圍內的生物性質。

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Differing views are held within naturalism regarding the general character of nature. Reductionistic naturalism, which predominated during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, holds that all natural objects are reducible to objects as characterized by physical science.內舉行不同的意見自然就一般性質的性質。 還原論的自然主義,它在17為主,18世紀和19世紀,認為所有的對象都歸結為自然物體的物理特徵的科學。 Nature is a determined system and human beings, as part of nature, are determined. Values are not real.大自然是一個確定的系統,人類,大自然的一部分,有決心。價值是不是真的。

Contemporary naturalism, however, holds that all experienced objects and qualities are equally real within nature. 當代自然主義,但是,認為所有的經歷和素質具有同等的對象範圍內進行真正的性質。 The categories of science do not exhaust nature's reality. Richness, diversity, spontaneity, and value dimensions exist within nature that elude the categories of the physical scientist but that are immediately experienced in human interaction with nature.科學的分類,不排氣大自然的現實。豐富度,多樣性,自發性和價值方面存在的性質,逃避內的分類,物理科學家,但立即有經驗的人與自然的互動。 As part of nature, human beings manifest spontaneity and freedom.作為大自然的一部分,人類自發和自由的表現。 Scientific method, as the method of natural inquiry, is a way of dealing with any content that reveals itself within nature.科學的方法,這種方法自然調查,是處理方式與任何內容,揭示本身內部的性質。

Sandra B Rosenthal桑德拉乙羅森塔爾

Bibliography 書目
N Carver and P Hare, eds., Naturalism and Rationality (1986); SM Eames, Pragmatic Naturalism (1976); LR Furst and P Skrine, Naturalism (1971); FA Lange, The History of Naturalism, (1925); VC Punzo, Reflective Naturalism (1969); AJ Reck, The New American Philosophers (1968); RW Sellars, Neglected Alternatives (1973). ñ卡弗和P野兔,合編。,自然與理性(1986年);釤埃姆斯,語用自然主義(1976年);輕鐵弗斯特和P斯克林,自然主義(1971年);足總杯蘭格,歷史的自然主義,(1925年);創投龐佐,反思自然(1969年);歐塞爾雷克,新美國哲學家(1968年); RW光碟塞拉斯,被忽視的替代品(1973年)。


Naturalism自然主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Naturalism is the view that the "natural" universe, the universe of matter and energy, is all that there really is. This rules out God, so naturalism is atheistic. It rules out other spiritual beings as well as God, so naturalism is materialistic.自然是認為,“自然”宇宙,宇宙物質和能量,是一切,真的有。 這排除上帝,所以自然主義是無神論。它排除了其他人的精神,以及上帝,所以自然主義是唯物。 By ruling out a spiritual part of the human person which might survive death and a God who might resurrect the body, naturalism also rules out survival after death.通過排除精神的一部分人有可能生存死亡和上帝誰可能復活的身體,自然也排除了生存後死亡。 In addition, naturalism usually but not always denies human freedom on the grounds that every event must be explainable by deterministic natural laws.此外,自然通常但並不總是否認人類自由,理由是,每一個事件必須被解釋的確定性自然規律。 It usually but not always denies any absolute values because it can find no grounds for such values in a world made up only of matter and energy.它通常但並不總是否認任何絕對價值,因為它沒有任何理由可以找到這些價值觀在世界上只取得了物質和能量。 And finally, naturalism usually but not always denies that the universe has any meaning or purpose because there is no God to give it a meaning or purpose, and nothing else which can give it a meaning or purpose.最後, 自然通常但並不總是否認宇宙有什麼意義或目的,因為沒有上帝給它一個意義或目的,沒有別的可以給它一個意義或目的。

Anyone who accepts the first three denials, of God, spiritual beings, and immortality, might be called a naturalist in the broad sense, and anyone who adds to these the denial of freedom, values, and purpose might be labeled a naturalist in the strict sense, or a strict naturalist.誰接受任何前三否認,上帝,鬼神,和不朽,可稱為一個自然主義者在廣泛意義上,,誰增加了這些國家的剝奪自由,價值觀,目的可能是一個自然標記在嚴格感,或嚴格的自然主義。 Communists, for instance, are not strict naturalists, for their world view includes a purpose in history, at least in human history, and perhaps in the whole history of the universe.共產黨人,例如,不嚴格的大自然,為他們的世界觀,包括歷史的目的,至少在人類歷史上,也許在整個宇宙的歷史。 Some religious humanists are not strict naturalists, for they argue for free will and even for values which are independent of known wants and needs.一些宗教人文主義者沒有嚴格的大自然,因為他們主張自由意志和價值觀念甚至是獨立的已知需要和需求。 Some opponents of naturalism would argue that naturalists in the broad sense are at least somewhat inconsistent and that naturalism in the broad sense leads logically to strict naturalism.一些反對者的自然會認為大自然在廣泛意義上至少有些不一致,這自然會導致在廣泛意義上嚴格的自然邏輯。 Many strict naturalists would agree with this.許多嚴格的大自然會同意這一點。

Those who reject naturalism in both the strict and broad sense do so for a variety of reasons. They may have positive arguments for the existence of some of what naturalists deny, or they may have what seem to be decisive refutations of some or all of the arguments for naturalism. 誰反對自然主義者都嚴格和廣泛的意義上做了各種各樣的理由。他們可能有積極的論點存在的一些博物學家否認什麼,或者他們可能有什麼似乎是決定性的反駁部分或全部論據自然。 But, in addition to particular arguments against naturalist tenets or their grounds of belief, some opponents of naturalism believe that there is a general argument which holds against any form of naturalism.但是,除了特定的論據反對自然原理或理由的信仰,一些反對者認為,對自然有一種普遍持有的論點反對任何形式的自然主義。 These opponents hold that naturalism has a "fatal flaw" or, to put it more strongly, that naturalism is self - destroying.這些反對者認為,自然有一個“致命缺陷”,或把它更加強烈,這自然是不言而喻-摧毀。 If naturalism is true, then human reason must be the result of natural forces.如果自然是真的,那麼人類理性必須是自然力量的結果。

These natural forces, are not, on the naturalistic view, rational themselves, nor can they be the result of a rational cause.這些天然的力量,是不是,自然主義觀點,理性的自己,也不能成為一個理性的原因造成的。 So human reason would be the result of nonrational causes.因此,將是人類理性的非理性結果的原因。 This, it can be argued, gives us a strong reason to distrust human reason, especially in its less practical and more theoretical exercises.這一點,可以說,給了我們一個強有力的理由不信任的人的原因,特別是在其較實際和更理論的工作。 But the theory of naturalism is itself such an exercise of theoretical reason.但自然主義理論本身就是這種做法的理論原因。 If naturalism is true, we would have strong reasons to distrust theoretical reasoning.如果自然是真的,我們將有充分理由不信任的理論推理。 If we distrust theoretical reasoning, we distrust particular applications of it, such as the theory of naturalism. Thus, if naturalism is true, we have strong reasons to distrust naturalism.如果我們不信任的理論推理,我們不信任,尤其是它的應用,如理論的自然主義。 因此,如果自然是真的,我們有充分理由不信任自然。

MH MacDonald氫麥克唐納
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
CS Lewis, Miracles; A Flew, God and Philosophy and A Rational Animal; JN Jordan, Determinism's Dilemma; JR Lucas, The Freedom of the Will; R Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. CS劉易斯,奇蹟,一個飛越,上帝與哲學,理性的動物;若望約旦,決定論的困境,小盧卡斯的自由意志與r羅蒂,哲學和鏡子自然。


Naturalism自然主義

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of philosophical and religious systems; not so much a well-defined set of positive and negative doctrines as an attitude or spirit pervading and influencing many doctrines.自然是沒有這麼多的系統作為一個特殊的觀點或傾向共同為數字的哲學和宗教制度;與其說是一個良好定義的一套正面和負面的學說作為一種態度或精神瀰漫,影響許多學說。 As the name implies, this tendency consists essentially in looking upon nature as the one original and fundamental source of all that exists, and in attempting to explain everything in terms of nature. Either the limits of nature are also the limits of existing reality, or at least the first cause, if its existence is found necessary, has nothing to do with the working of natural agencies.顧名思義,這種趨勢主要包括在看著一個原本性質和基本來源的所有存在,並在試圖解釋所有的自然條件。要么限制的性質也存在現實的限制,或至少在第一個原因,如果發現它的存在是必要的,也沒有任何關係的自然機構的工作。 All events, therefore, find their adequate explanation within nature itself.所有活動,因此,在找到自己的適當的解釋自然本身。 But, as the terms nature and natural are themselves used in more than one sense, the term naturalism is also far from having one fixed meaning.但是,由於自然條件和自然本身是用在不止一個方面來講,這個詞自然也遠遠沒有一個固定的意義。

(I) If nature is understood in the restricted sense of physical, or material, nature, naturalism will be the tendency to look upon the material universe as the only reality, to reduce all laws to mechanical uniformities and to deny the dualism of spirit and matter. (一)如果自然的理解是狹義的身體,或材料,性質,自然將成為趨勢看待宇宙的物質作為唯一的現實,以減少對機械的所有法律的一致性和否定的二元論的精神,的問題。 Mental and moral processes will be but special manifestations of matter rigorously governed by its laws.精神和道德的進程將是物質的特殊表現,但受到嚴格的法律。

(II) The dualism of mind and matter may be admitted, but only as a dualism of modes or appearances of the same identical substance. (二)在精神和物質的二元論,可接納,但只作為一個二元論的方式或相同的外觀相同的物質。 Nature includes manifold phenomena and a common substratum of the phenomena, but for its actual course and for its ultimate explanation, it requires no principle distinct from itself.包括多種自然現象和共同的底層的現象,但其實際的過程和它的最終解釋,它不需要原則有別於本身。 In this supposition, naturalism denies the existence of a transcendent cause of the world and endeavours to give a full account of all processes by the unfolding of potencies essential to the universe under laws that are necessary and eternal.在這個假設,自然否認存在一個超越世界的事業和努力給予充分考慮到所有進程所開展的效價必須根據法律,宇宙是必要的和永恆的。

(III) Finally, if the existence of a transcendent First Cause, or personal God, is admitted as the only satisfactory explanation of the world, Naturalism claims that the laws governing the activity and development of irrational and of rational beings are never interfered with. (三)最後,如果存在一個超越第一原因,或個人的上帝,是承認的唯一令人滿意的解釋世界,自然聲稱,活動規律和發展的非理性和理性的人是從來不干預。 It denies the possibility, or at least the fact, of any transitory intervention of God in nature, and of any revelation and permanent supernatural order for man.它否認的可能性,或至少是事實,任何暫時的干預神的性質,以及任何超自然的啟示和永久為了人。

These three forms are not mutually exclusive; what the third denies the first and the second, a fortiori, also deny; all agree in rejecting every explanation which would have recourse to causes outside of nature.這三種形式並不是互相排斥的;什麼第三否認第一次和第二次,更何況,還否認,一切都解釋拒絕同意將訴諸原因以外的性質。 The reasons of this denial - ie, the philosophical views of nature on which it is based - and, in consequence, the extent to which explanations within nature itself are held to suffice, vary greatly and constitute essential differences between these three tendencies.這種否認的原因-即哲學觀點的本質,它是基於-並且,在後果,在何種程度上說明在自然本身是不夠的舉行,差別很大,構成之間有著本質的區別這三種傾向。

I. Materialistic Naturalism一,唯物主義自然

Materialistic Naturalism asserts that matter is the only reality, and that all the laws of the universe are reducible to mechanical laws.唯物主義自然說,問題是唯一的現實,所有的法律的規定還原為宇宙是機械的法律。 What theory may be held concerning the essence of matter makes little difference here.什麼理論可以召開有關事項,並沒有太多的本質區別。 Whether matter be considered as continuous or as composed of atoms distant from one another, as being exclusively extension or as also endowed with an internal principle of activity, or even as being only an aggregate of centres of energy without any real extension (see ATOMISM; DYNAMISM; MECHANISM), the attitude of Naturalism is the same.無論此事視為連續或原子組成,從遙遠的另一之一,作為被完全伸膝或內部也享有與一原則的activity,或者甚至是唯一的一個總的能源中心沒有任何真正的擴展名(see原子論;活力;機制),自然主義的態度是一樣的。 It claims that all realities in the world, including the processes of consciousness from the lowest to the highest, are but manifestations of what we call matter, and obey the same necessary laws.它宣稱,所有在現實的世界,包括進程的意識從最低到最高,但表現形式是我們所說的問題,,遵守同樣的必要的法律。 While some may limit their materialistic account to nature itself, and admit the existence of a Creator of the world, or at least leave this question open, the general tendency of Materialism is towards Atheism and exclusive Naturalism. Early Greek philosophers endeavoured to reduce nature to unity by pointing to a primordial element out of which all things were composed.雖然有些可能會限制他們的物質帳戶本身的性質,並承認存在一個創造者的世界,或至少離開這個問題公開,總的趨勢是走向唯物主義無神論和專屬的自然主義。早期希臘哲學家努力減少性質統一由一個指向原始元素而進行的一切事情組成。 Their views were, implicitly at least, Animistic or Hylozoistic rather than Materialistic, and the vague formative function attributed to the Nous, or rational principle, by Anaxagoras was but an exception to the prevailing naturalism.他們的意見,至少含蓄,泛靈或Hylozoistic而不是功利,形成功能的模糊歸因於理性,或合理的原則,由阿那克薩哥拉只不過是一個例外,當時的自然主義。 Pure mechanism was developed by the Atomists (Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius), and the soul itself was held to be composed of special, more subtile, atoms.純機制開發的原子論(德謨克利特,伊壁鳩魯,盧克萊修),和靈魂本身被認為是由特殊的,更微妙的,原子。 In the Christian era materialism in its exclusive form is represented especially by the French school of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the German school of the latter half of the nineteenth century.在公元唯物主義在其獨家的形式為代表,特別是法國學校後者的一半,在18世紀,德國學校的下半年到19世紀。 Since matter is the only reality, whatever takes place in the world is the result of material causes and must be explained by physical antecedents without any teleology.由於此事是唯一的現實,無論發生在世界是物質的原因和結果,必須解釋前因身體沒有任何目的論。 Life is but a complex problem of physics and chemistry; consciousness is a property of matter; rational thought is reduced to sensation, and will to instinct.生命是一個複雜的問題,但物理和化學,意識是物質的屬性,理性思維是減少到的感覺,本能和意志。 The mind is a powerless accompaniment or epiphenomenon of certain forms or groupings of matter, and, were it suppressed altogether, the whole world would still proceed in exactly the same way.心是一個無能為力的伴奏或偶然現象的某種形式或集團的問題,而且,它被完全抑制,整個世界將繼續進行在完全相同的方式。 Man is a conscious automaton whose whole activity, mental as well as physiological, is determined by material antecedents.人是有意識的自動機,其整個活動,心理以及生理,取決於材料的先例。 What we call the human person is but a transitory phase in the special arrangement of material elements giving rise to special mental results; and it goes without saying that in such a system there is no room for freedom, responsibility, or personal immortality.我們所說的人只不過是一個過渡階段的特殊安排,材料的分子產生的特殊精神的結果;及不言而喻,在這種制度中,沒有空間的自由,責任,或個人永生。

II.二。 Pantheism泛神論

Pantheism in its various forms asserts that God, the First Reality, World-Ground, or Absolute, is not transcendent and personal, but immanent in the world, and that the phenomena of nature are only manifestations of this one common substance.泛神論各種形式聲稱,上帝,第一現實,世界地面,或絕對的,是不是超越性和個人,而是內在的世界,而只是對自然現象的表現,這一個共同的實質內容。 For the Stoics, He is the immanent reason, the soul of the world, communicating everywhere activity and life.對於斯多噶,他是內在的原因,靈魂的世界,溝通世界各地的活動和生活。 According to Scotus Eriugena, "God is the essence of all things, for He alone truly is" (De divisione naturæ, III); nature includes the totality of beings and is divided into據司各脫Eriugena,“上帝是一切事物的本質,因為只有他真正是”(德divisione naturæ,三);性質包括了全部的生命,並分為

uncreated and creating nature, ie, God as the origin of all things, unknowable even to Himself;非受造和創造的性質,即上帝作為萬物的起源,甚至自己不可知的;

created and creating nature, ie, God as containing the types and exemplars of all things;創造和創造的性質,即上帝為包含的類型和範例所有的東西;

created and not-creating nature, ie, the world of phenomena in space and time, all of which are participations of the Divine being and also theophaniœ, or manifestations of God;創造,而不是創造的性質,即,世界現象在空間和時間,所有這些都是參股的神聖感與還theophaniœ,或表現形式的上帝;

neither created nor creating nature, ie, God as the end of all things to whom all things ultimately return.既不創造也不創造的性質,即上帝的結束,所有的東西誰所有的東西最終的回報。

Giordano Bruno also professes that God and nature are identical, and that the world of phenomena is but the manifestation of the Divine substance which works in nature and animates it.布魯諾還聲稱,上帝與自然是相同的,而且是世界的現象,但表現的神聖物質,工程性質和蓬勃生機。 According to Spinoza, God is the one substance which unfolds itself through attributes, two of which, extension and thought, are known to us.根據斯賓諾莎,上帝是一個物質,通過展現自身的屬性,其中兩個,推廣和思想,是我們所知的。 These attributes manifest themselves through a number of modes which are the finite determinations of the infinite substance.這些特質表現出來,通過一個數字的方式確定哪些是有限的無限物質。 As absolute substance, God is natura naturans; as manifesting himself through the various modes of phenomena, he is natura naturata.作為絕對的實質,是上帝的Natura naturans;作為體現自己通過各種方式的現象,他的Natura naturata。 To-day Monism reproduces essentially the same theories.的日常基本相同的一元論的理論再現。 Mind is not reduced to a property, or epiphenomenon, of matter, but both matter and mind are like parallels; they proceed together as phenomena or aspects of the same ultimate reality.心靈是沒有減少的財產,或偶然現象,物質,但兩者物質和精神是一樣的相似之處,他們開始一起作為現象或同一方面的最終的現實。 What is this reality?這一現實是什麼? By some, explicitly or implicitly, it is rather conceived as material, and we fall back into Materialism; by others it is claimed to be nearer to mind than to matter, and hence result various idealistic systems and tendencies; by others, finally, it is declared to be strictly unknown and unknowable, and thus Monistic Naturalism comes into close contact with Agnosticism.一些人,明示或暗示,它是相當設想為材料,我們重新陷入唯物史觀;它是由其他人自稱是接近心比物質,從而導致各種理想主義的制度和傾向;他人,最後,它被宣布為嚴格未知和不可知的,因此一元論自然生效密切接觸的不可知論。

Whatever it may be ultimately, nature is substantially one; it requires nothing outside of itself, but finds within itself its adequate explanation.不管它可能是最終,自然是大大之一,它本身以外的任何要求,但認為自己在其適當的解釋。 Either the human mind is incapable of any knowledge bearing on the question of origins, or this question itself is meaningless, since both nature and its processes of development are eternal.無論是人的心靈是無法承受的任何知識的來源的問題,或者這個問題本身是沒有意義的,因為兩者的性質及其過程的發展是永恆的。 The simultaneous or successive changes which occur in the world result necessarily from the essential laws of nature, for nature is infinitely rich in potencies whose progressive actualization constitutes the endless process of inorganic, organic, and mental evolution.在同時或連續發生改變,在世界上造成一定的基本法律的性質,自然是無限豐富的,其效價逐漸現實化進程構成了無窮無盡的無機,有機,和心理演變。 The evolution and differentiation of the one substance according to its own laws and without the guiding agency of a transcendent intelligence is one of the basic assumptions of Monistic and Agnostic Naturalism.的演變和分化的一種物質根據其自身的規律,沒有指導機構的超然的智慧,是一個基本假設之一的一元和不可知的自然主義。 Nor is it possible to see how this form of Naturalism can consistently escape the consequences of Materialistic Naturalism. The supernatural is impossible; at no stage can there be any freedom or responsibility; man is but a special manifestation or mode of the common substance, including in himself the twofold aspect of matter and consciousness. Moreover, since God, or rather "the divine", as some say, is to be found in nature, with which it is identified, religion can only be reduced to certain feelings of admiration, awe, reverence, fear, etc., caused in man by the consideration of nature its laws beauties, energies, and mysteries.它也不是可以看到這種形式的自然主義如何能始終擺脫後果唯物主義的自然主義。超自然是不可能的;在任何階段可以有任何自由或責任;人只不過是一種特殊表現形式或模式的共同內容,包括在自己的雙重方面的物質和意識。此外,由於神,或者說“神”,因為有人說,這將是存在於自然界,與它確定,宗教只能淪為某些感情的欽佩,敬畏,敬畏,恐懼等,造成了人的本質是考慮其法律美人,能源,和奧秘。 Thus, among the feelings belonging to "natural religion", Haeckel mentions "the astonishment with which we gaze upon the starry heavens and the microscopic life in a drop of water, the awe with which we trace the marvellous working of energy in the motion of matter, the reverence with which we grasp the universal dominance of the law of substance throughout the universe" ("Die Welträthsel", Bonn, 1899, V, xviii, 396-97; tr. McCabe, New York, 1900, 344).因此,在感情屬於“自然宗教”,海克爾提到“與我們的驚訝的目光後,天上繁星和微觀生活在一個下降的水,敬畏與我們追尋奇妙的工作能量的運動的問題,我們的崇敬與把握的普遍規律支配的物質整個宇宙“(”死Welträthsel“,波恩,1899年,五,18,396-97;文。麥凱布,紐約,1900年,344)。

III.三。 Transcendent First Cause of the Universe超越的第一個原因的宇宙

For those who admit the existence of a transcendent First Cause of the universe, naturalism consists essentially in an undue limitation of God's activity in the world.對於那些誰承認存在一個超越宇宙的第一原因,自然組成基本上是不必要的限制神的活動在世界上。 God is only Creator, not Providence; He cannot, or may not, interfere with the natural course of events, or He never did so, or, at least, the fact of His ever doing so cannot be established.上帝是唯一的造物主,而不是普羅維登斯,他不能,也可以不干擾自然的事件,或者他從來不這樣做,或者,至少,其實這樣做的,他永遠不能成立。 Even if the soul of man is regarded as spiritual and immortal, and if, among human activities, some are exempted from the determinism of physical agents and recognized to be free, all this is within nature, which includes the laws governing spirits as well as those governing matter.即使是人的靈魂被視為精神和不朽的,如果人類活動中,有些是豁免宿命論的物理代理商,並確認是免費的,所有這一切自然同在,其中包括執政的法律精神,以及這些理事的問題。 But these laws are sufficient to account for everything that happens in the world of matter or of mind.但這些法律是否足以解釋一切,發生在世界上的物質或精神。 This form of naturalism stands in close relation with Rationalism and Deism.這種形式的自然主義立場密切相關的理性和自然神論。 Once established by God, the order of nature is unchangeable, and man is endowed by nature with all that is required even for his religious and moral development.一旦建立了神,自然的順序是不可改變的,人是大自然賦予的一切所需,甚至為他的宗教和道德的發展。 The consequences are clear: miracles, that is, effects produced by God himself and transcending the forces of nature, must be rejected.其後果是顯而易見的:奇蹟,就是神所產生的效應和超越自己的力量的性質,必須予以拒絕。 Prophecies and so-called miraculous events either are explainable by the known, or hitherto unknown, laws of nature or, if they are not thus explainable, their happening itself must be denied, and the belief in their reality attributed to faulty observation.預言和所謂的奇蹟般的事件要么是可以解釋由已知或未知迄今為止,法律的性質,或者,如果他們不這樣解釋的,其發生本身必須被剝奪,並相信在其現實原因是錯誤的觀察。 Since, for religious and moral, as well as for scientific truths, human reason is the only source of knowledge, the fact of a Divine Revelation is rejected, and the contents of such supposed revelation can be accepted only in so far as they are rational; to believe in mysteries is absurd.因為宗教和道德,以及為科學真理,人類的理性是唯一的知識來源,但事實上一個神聖的啟示是拒絕,這樣的內容應該是可以接受的啟示只有只要它們是合理的;相信奧秘是荒謬的。 Having no supernatural destiny, man needs no supernatural means - neither sanctifying grace as a permanent principle to give his actions a supernatural value nor actual grace to enlighten his mind and strengthen his will.由於沒有超自然的命運,沒有人需要超自然的手段-既不神聖恩典作為永久性的原則,讓他的行動超自然的價值,也實際的寬限期,以啟發他心裡並加強他的意志。 The Fall of Man, the mysteries of the incarnation and the Redemption, with their implications and consequences, can find no place in a Naturalistic creed.秋季人的是,那些神秘的化身和贖回,其影響和後果,沒有地方可以找到在一個自然主義的信條。 Prayers and sacraments have only natural results explainable on psychological grounds by the confidence with which they inspire those who use them.祈禱和聖禮只有自然的結果解釋的心理所提出的理由與他們的信心鼓舞那些誰使用它們。 If man must have a religion at all, it is only that which his reason dictates.如果一個人必須有一個在所有的宗教,而只是說他的原因驅使。 Naturalism is directly opposed to the Christian Religion.自然是直接反對基督教。 But even within the fold of Christianity, among those who admit a Divine Revelation and a supernatural order, several naturalistic tendencies are found.但是,即使在基督教倍,其中誰承認一個神聖的啟示和超自然的秩序,一些自然的傾向被發現。 Such are those of the Pelagians and Semipelagians, who minimize the necessity and functions of Divine grace; of Baius, who asserts that the elevation of man was an exigency of his nature; of many sects, especially among Liberal Protestants, who fall into more or Less radical Rationalism; and of others who endeavour to restrict within too narrow limits the divine agency in the universe.這些是那些與Semipelagians的pelagians,誰最大限度地減少職能的必要性和神聖的寬限期;的Baius,誰聲稱,海拔人,他是一個緊急情況的性質,許多教派,尤其是在自由新教徒,落入誰更或較為溫和的理性主義和其他人誰努力限制過於狹窄範圍內的機構在神聖的宇宙。

IV.四。 General Considerations一般注意事項

From the fundamental principles of Naturalism are derived some important consequences in æsthetical, political, and ethical sciences.從自然主義的基本原則是根據一些重要的後果,美學,政治和道德科學。 In æsthetics Naturalism rests on the assumption that art must imitate nature without any idealization, and without any regard for the laws of morality.在自然主義美學的假設在於,藝術要模仿自然沒有任何理想化,沒有任何方面的法律,道德。 Social and political Naturalism teaches that "the best interests of public society and civil progress require that in the constitution and government of human society no more attention should be given to religion than if there were no religion at all, or at least that no distinction should be made between true and false religion" (Pius IX, Encycl., "Quanta cura", 8 Dec., 1864).社會和政治的自然主義教導我們,“最佳公共利益和公民社會的進步要求,在憲法和政府沒有更多地關注人類社會應給予宗教比如果沒有在所有宗教,或至少應沒有任何區別作出真假宗教“(比約九,Encycl。”廣達庫拉“,1864年12月8日)。 Leo XIII lays it down that "the integral profession of the Catholic Faith is in no way consistent with naturalistic and rationalistic opinions, the sum and the substance of which is to do away altogether with Christian institutions, and; disregarding the rights of God, to attribute to man the supreme authority in society" (Encycl., "Immortale Dei", 1 Nov., 1885).利奧十三規定下來的“整體行業的天主教信仰絕不是符合自然和理性的意見,總結和實質內容就是取消完全與基督教機構,以及;無視權利的神,屬性人類社會的最高權威“(Encycl.,”Immortale棣“,1885年11月1日)。 Moreover, like individual organisms, social organisms obey fatal laws of development; all events are the necessary results of complex antecedents, and the task of the historian is to record them and to trace the laws of their sequences, which are as strict as those of sequences in the physical world.而且,像生物個體,社會有機體致命服從法律的發展,所有的事件是必要的結果複雜的前因,任務的歷史學家是記錄並跟踪他們的法律對它們的DNA序列,這是為嚴格,那些序列在物理世界。

In ethics, the vague assumption that nature is the supreme guide of human actions may be applied in many different ways.在倫理,模糊假設的本質是最高指導人的行動可能被應用在許多不同的方式。 Already the principle of the Stoics, formulated first by Zeno, that we must live consistently or harmoniously (to homologoumenos zen), and stated more explicitly by Cleanthes as the obligation to live in conformity with nature (to homologoumenos te physei zen) gave rise to several interpretations, some understanding nature exclusively as human nature, others chiefly as the whole universe.已經原則的Stoics,制定芝諾首先,我們必須始終或生活和諧(以homologoumenos禪宗),並表示更明確克利安西生活的義務按照性質(以homologoumenos德physei禪宗)引起了有數種解釋,一些性質完全理解人類的本質,其他主要是因為整個宇宙。 Moreover as man has many natural tendencies, desires, and appetites, it may be asked whether it is moral to follow all indiscriminately; and when they are conflicting or mutually exclusive, so that a choice is to be made, on what ground must certain activities be given the preference over the others?此外,由於人有許多自然的傾向,慾望和胃口,它可能會問,是否是道德遵循所有亂,而當它們發生衝突或相互排斥,所以,一個是作出選擇,就什麼理由必須某些活動給予的優惠比其他人呢? Before the Stoics, the Cynics, both in theory and in practice, had based their rules of conduct on the principle that nothing natural can be morally wrong.之前的Stoics,憤世嫉俗的人,無論在理論上和在實踐中,已根據自己的規則進行的原則,可以在道義上什麼自然錯。 Opposing customs, conventions, refinement, and culture, they endeavoured to return to the pure state of nature.反對關稅,公約,改進和文化,他們努力返回到純自然狀態。 Rousseau, likewise, looks upon the social organization as a necessary evil which contributes towards developing conventional standards of morality.盧梭,同樣,看起來呼籲社會組織作為一個必要的惡,有利於對發展中國家的傳統道德標準。 Man, according to him, is naturally good, but becomes depraved by education and by contact with other men.男子,據他說,自然是好的,但成為墮落的教育和其他男人接觸。 This same theme of the opposition of nature and culture, and the superiority of the former, is a favourite one with Tolstoi.這同樣主題的反對自然和文化,以及優越的前者,是一個最喜歡的之一,托爾斯泰。 According to Nietzsche, the current standards of virtue are against nature, and, because they favour the poor, the weak, the suffering, the miserable, by commending such feelings as charity, compassion, pity, humility, etc., they are obstacles in the way of true progress.根據尼采,目前的標準是違反自然的美德,而且,因為它們有利於窮人,弱者的苦難,悲慘,讚揚這種感情的施捨,同情,憐憫,謙卑,等等,它們是障礙真正進步的方式。 For the progress of mankind and the development of the "Superman", it is essential to return to the primitive and natural standard of morality, which is energy activity, strength, and superiority; the most powerful are also the best.人類的進步和發展的“超人”,必須返回到原始和自然的道德標準,這是能源的活動,強度和優勢,最強大也是最好的。

If ethical naturalism is considered in its relation with the three philosophical views explained above, it sometimes means only the rejection of any duties based on a Divine Revelation, and the assumption that the only source of right and wrong is human reason.如果自然被認為是道德的關係與上述三種哲學觀點解釋,它有時僅僅意味著拒絕任何職責的基礎上神聖的啟示,以及假設的唯一來源的正確和錯誤是人的原因。 Generally, however, it means the more radical tendency to treat moral science in the same manner as natural science.但是,總的來說,它意味著更激進的傾向,在對待科學道德和自然科學同樣的方式。 There is freedom nowhere, but absolute necessity everywhere.有自由行不通的,但絕對必要的無處不在。 All human actions, as well as physical events, are necessary results of antecedents that are themselves necessary.人類的一切行動,以及身體活動,是必要的結果本身的前身是必要的。 The moral law, with its essential distinction of right and wrong conduct, is, not an objective norm, but a mere subjective result of associations and instincts evolved from the experience of the useful and agreeable, or of the harmful and painful, consequences of certain actions.道德法律,其本質區別是非的行為,是不是一個客觀的標準,但結果只有主觀協會和本能的發展的有益經驗和接受,或有害的和痛苦的,後果一定行動。 It is, nevertheless, a motive that prompts to act in certain directions, but the effectiveness of which is strictly determined by the degree of its intensity in a given individual compared with the resistance it encounters on the part of antagonistic ideas. Thus, the science of ethics is not normative: it does not deal with laws existing antecedently to human actions, and which these ought to obey.話雖如此,一個動機,提示採取行動,在某些方向,但成效是嚴格的程度取決於其強度在某一個人比它遇到的阻力就對立觀點的一部分。因此,科學道德是不規範性:它並不涉及現行法律先行,以人的行動,以及這些應該服從。 It is genetic, and endeavours to do for human actions what natural science does for physical phenomena, that is, to discover, through an inference from the facts of human conduct, the laws to which it happens to conform.這是遺傳,並努力做科學的人的行為,請問什麼自然物理現象,即發現,通過推理從事實的人的行為,法律,它恰好符合。

It is impossible to state in detail the attitude of the Catholic Church towards the assumptions, implications, and consequences of Naturalism.這是不可能的國家的態度,詳細的天主教教會對假設,影響,後果自然。 Naturalism is such a wide and far-reaching tendency, it touches upon so many points, its roots and ramifications extend in so many directions, that the reader must be referred to the cognate topics treated in other articles.自然是如此廣泛和深遠的趨勢,它觸及這麼多點,它的根源和影響擴大在這麼多的方向,即讀者必須交由同源主題對待其他物品。 In general it can only be said that Naturalism contradicts the most vital doctrines of the Church, which rest essentially on Supernaturalism.一般它只能說是最重要的自然矛盾學說的教會,這其餘基本上超自然。 The existence of a personal God and of Divine Providence, the spirituality and immortality of the soul, human freedom and responsibility, the fact of a Divine Revelation, the existence of a supernatural order for man, are so many fundamental teachings of the Church, which, while recognizing all the rights and exigencies of nature, rises higher, to the Author and Supreme Ruler of nature.個人的存在上帝和神聖的普羅維登斯,和不朽的精神的靈魂,人的自由和責任,事實上,一個神聖的啟示,一種超自然的存在對人類秩序,有如此多的基本教義的教會,這雖然承認的所有權利和緊急情況的性質,上升較高,對作者和最高統治者的性質。

Publication information Written by CA Dubray.出版信息書面由CA達布雷。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.致力於耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書,體積十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography書目

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