Mysticism神秘主義

General Information 一般信息

Mysticism in general refers to a direct and immediate experience of the sacred, or the knowledge derived from such an experience. In Christianity this experience usually takes the form of a vision of, or sense of union with, God; however, there are also nontheistic forms of mysticism, as in Buddhism.神秘主義的一般是指直接和現實的經驗神聖,或知識派生從這樣的體會。 在基督教this experience通常採取的形式一個理想,或感的union所用神,但也有nontheistic形式的神秘主義,如佛教。 Mysticism is usually accompanied by meditation, prayer, and ascetic discipline.神秘主義通常是伴隨著冥想,祈禱,苦行紀律。

It may also be accompanied by unusual experiences of ecstasy, levitation, visions, and power to read human hearts, to heal, and to perform other unusual acts.它也可能伴隨著不尋常的經歷狂喜,磁懸浮,願景,並有權閱讀人心,癒合,並執行其他不尋常的行為。 Mysticism occurs in most, if not all, the religions of the world, although its importance within each varies greatly.發生在最神秘主義,如果不是全部,宗教的世界,儘管它的重要性在每個差別很大。 The criteria and conditions for mystical experience vary depending on the tradition, but three attributes are found almost universally.的標準和條件,神秘的經驗取決於傳統,但發現有3個屬性幾乎普遍。 First, the experience is immediate and overwhelming, divorced from the common experience of reality.首先,經驗是立即和巨大的,脫離現實的共同經驗。 Second, the experience or the knowledge imparted by it is felt to be self - authenticating, without need of further evidence or justification.第二,經驗或知識傳授的是認為是自我-驗證,而不需要進一步的證據或理由。 Finally, it is held to be ineffable, its essence incapable of being expressed or understood outside the experience itself.最後,它是認為是無法形容的,其本質無法被表達或理解以外的經驗本身。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Many mystics have written of their experiences, and these writings are the best source for our knowledge of mysticism. Poetic language is frequently the vehicle of expression.許多神秘主義者寫的經驗,這些著作是最好的知識來源的神秘主義。詩意的語言往往是車輛的表達。 Fire, an interior journey, the dark night of the soul, a knowing that is an un - knowing - such are the images or descriptions used for communicating the mystical experience.消防,室內的征程中,黑夜的靈魂,一個知道這是一個聯合國-知道-例如是圖片或描述用於溝通的神秘經驗。 In the Christian tradition mysticism is understood as the result of God's action in persons, an unmerited grace they receive from union with God. Other religions allow for the human achievement of the mystical states through certain methods of contemplation, fasting, and breathing.在基督教傳統神秘主義的結果,是理解為上帝的行動者,一個不必要的恩典,他們收到來自工會與上帝。其他宗教允許人類成就的神秘的國家通過一定的方法沉思,齋戒,呼吸。 Only those whose lives are marked by penance and emotional purification achieve mystical states, however, and the experience itself is always of an Absolute that transcends the human efforts or methods of achieving it.只有那些生活的標誌是懺悔和情感淨化達到神秘的國家,但是,經驗本身總是一種絕對的,超越人類的努力或方法實現它。

Modern philosophers and psychologists have studied the occurrence of mysticism.現代哲學家和心理學家們研究了發生的神秘主義。 William James suggested that it may be an extension of the ordinary fields of human consciousness.威廉詹姆斯認為,它可能是一個普通延長人的意識領域。 The philosopher Henri Bergson considered intuition to be the highest state of human knowing and mysticism the perfection of intuition.哲學家亨利柏格森的直覺認為是最高境界的人認識和神秘主義的完美的直覺。 Today scientists are interested in the ways in which certain drugs seem to induce quasi - mystical states.今天,科學家們感興趣的是如何在某些藥物似乎引起準-神秘的國家。 Recent studies have added to the understanding of mysticism without fully explaining it in psychological terms.最近的研究增添了神秘主義的理解沒有充分解釋它在心理方面。

Among the many Christian mystics who have documented their experiences are Saint Francis of Assisi; Saint Teresa of Avila; Saint John of the Cross; Jacob Bohme; George Fox, founder of the Quakers; and Emanuel Swedenborg.在許多基督教神秘主義者誰記錄了他們的經驗是聖方濟各,聖德肋撒的阿維拉;聖約翰的十字架;雅各伯梅,喬治福克斯,創始人誼;和Emanuel斯韋登伯格。 For information on mysticism in Islam, see Sufism; in Judaism, Hasidism and Kabbalah; in the Eastern religions, Taoism, Upanishads, Vedanta, and Zen Buddhism.有關資料在伊斯蘭教的神秘主義,見蘇菲,在猶太教,和卡巴拉的Ḥasidism,而在東方宗教,道教,奧義書,韋丹塔,和禪宗。

Joan A Range瓊甲範圍

Bibliography 書目
H Bridges, American Mysticism: From William James to Zen (1970); EC Butler, Western Mysticism (1967); WH Capp and WM Wright, eds., Silent Fire: An Invitation to Western Mysticism (1978); JM Clark, The Great German Mystics (1949); W James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902); D Knowles, The English Mystical Tradition (1961); J Marquette, Introduction to Comparative Mysticism (1949); E O'Brien, Varieties of Mystical Experience (1964); G Parrinder, Mysticism in the World's Religions (1977); GG Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1959); E Stevens, An Introduction to Oriental Mysticism (1974); DT Suzuki, Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist (1957); RC Zaehner, Mysticism (1961). H橋,美國神秘主義:從威廉詹姆斯禪(1970年);歐共體巴特勒,西方神秘主義(1967年);硏卡普和WM賴特,合編。安靜消防:邀請西方神秘主義(1978年); JM克拉克,大德國神秘主義者(1949年); W詹姆斯,品種的宗教經驗(1902條),d諾爾斯,英語神秘的傳統(1961年); J馬凱特,比較神秘主義概論(1949),電子商務奧布萊恩,品種的神秘經驗( 1964年); Ğ Parrinder,神秘主義在世界宗教(1977年);千兆肖勒姆,主要發展趨勢在猶太神秘主義(1959年),電子商務史蒂文斯,一個介紹東方神秘主義(1974年); dt的鈴木,神秘主義:基督教和佛教(1957) ;鋼筋混凝土扎納,神秘主義(1961年)。


Mysticism神秘主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

As recognized by all writers on this subject, whether they claim direct personal mystical experience or not, both the definition and description of the mystical encounter are difficult.正如大家公認的作家對這個問題,無論是直接的個人索賠神秘的經驗或沒有,無論是定義和描述的神秘遇到的困難。 It is clear, however, that mysticism is not the same as magic, clairvoyance, parapsychology, or occultism, nor does it consist in a preoccupation with sensory images, visions, or special revelations.很明顯,然而,神秘主義是不一樣的魔術,千里眼,超心理學,或神秘,也不包括在忙於感官形象,願景,或特殊的啟示。 Nearly all Christian mystical writers relegate these phenomena to the periphery.幾乎所有的基督教神秘主義作家貶謫這些現象的邊緣。 Nearly all Christian mystics avoid the occult arts entirely.幾乎所有的基督教神秘主義的神秘藝術完全避免。 Briefly and generally stated, mystical theology or Christian mysticism seeks to describe an experienced, direct, nonabstract, unmediated, loving knowing of God, a knowing or seeing so direct as to be called union with God.簡言之,一般說,神秘神學或基督教神秘主義的目的,是一位經驗豐富的描述,直接,nonabstract,作中間人,愛上帝知道,一知道或看到那麼直接,以被稱為工會與上帝。

History歷史

A brief historical survey of Christian mysticism is essential to an understanding of the varied ways in which it is explained and defined.一個簡單的歷史調查的基督教神秘主義是極其重要的理解的不同,它是如何解釋和界定。 Although the terms "mystery" and "mystical" are related etymologically to ancient mystery cults, it is doubtful that NT and patristic writers were dependent theologically upon these sources.雖然術語“神秘”和“神秘”的有關詞源古代神秘邪教,這是值得懷疑的NT和教父的神學作家依賴對這些來源。 A distinct mystical or mystery theology emerged in the Alexandrian school of exegesis and spirituality with Clement of Alexandria and Origen and their search for the hidden meaning of Scripture and their exposition of the mystery of redemption.一個明顯的神秘神學或神秘出現在亞歷山大學校和靈性的註釋與克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞和奧利和尋找隱藏的含義的經文和他們的論述,神秘的贖回。

The Cappadocian fathers, especially Gregory of Nyssa; leading monastics, especially Evagrius of Pontus (346 - 99) and John Cassian (c. 360 - 435); Augustine of Hippo; and the obscure personage known as Dionysius the Pseudo - Areopagite created the formative legacy for medieval mysticism.在卡帕多細亞的父親,尤其是格雷戈里的nyssa;領導僧眾,特別是Evagrius本都(346 - 99)和約翰卡西安(公元前360 - 435);奧古斯丁的河馬,以及模糊的人士稱為偽狄奧尼修斯- Areopagite創造的形成對於中世紀的神秘主義傳統。 The term generally used until the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to describe the mystical experience was "contemplation."這個詞的普遍使用,直到第十四和第十五世紀來形容神秘經驗是“沉思”。 In its original philosophical meaning this word (Gr. theoria) described absorption in the loving viewing of an object or truth.在最初的哲學意義這個詞(Gr. theoria)在描述吸收愛觀賞對象或真理。

Only in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with the writings of Richard of Saint Victor and Thomas Aquinas, do systematic descriptive analyses of the contemplative life appear.只有在12世紀和13世紀,隨著作品的理查德托馬斯阿奎那和聖維克托,做有系統的描述分析了沉思生命中出現。 Late medieval concern with practical and methodical prayer contributed to a turning point in the sixteenth century Ignatian and Carmelite schools (Ignatius Loyola, Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross). Spiritual writers from these traditions were concerned primarily with empirical, psychological, and systematic descriptions of the soul's behavior in order to assist spiritual directors.中世紀後期關注實際和有條不紊祈禱促成了轉折點在16世紀的依納爵和加爾默羅學校(依納爵羅耀拉,修女的阿維拉,約翰的十字架)。精神從這些傳統作家而言,主要是經驗,心理和系統描述的靈魂的行為,以協助精神董事。

Protestants generally rejected mystical theology. Despite his acquaintance with medieval mystical writings, Martin Luther cannot be called a mystic, recent attempts to arrange his theology around a mystical center notwithstanding. 新教徒普遍拒絕了神秘的神學。儘管他的熟人與中世紀的神秘主義著作,馬丁路德不能被稱為神秘的,最近試圖安排他的神學圍繞一個中心儘管神秘。 Some Protestants in most periods retained an interest in the mystical tradition, although they should not necessarily be considered mystics.一些新教徒在大多數時期保留了興趣,神秘的傳統,雖然他們並不一定被視為神秘主義者。 But mainstream Protestantism has generally mistrusted or been openly hostile toward a mystical dimension of the spiritual life.但是,主流新教普遍不信任或已公開的敵對走向神秘的精神層面的生活。

In Catholic circles mystical theology was virtually submerged under a tide of enlightenment rationalism in the eighteenth century.在天主教界的神秘神學幾乎淹沒在一潮啟蒙理性主義在18世紀。 A mystical reaction to rationalism and naturalism, aided by the development of psychological science in the later nineteenth century, is still bearing fruit in the late twentieth century.一個神秘的反應,理性主義和自然主義,助長了心理科學的發展在19世紀後期,仍然結出果實在20世紀後期。 A controversy over the relation of mystical theology to "ordinary" prayer and the Christian striving for holiness or perfection dominated the early decades of the twentieth century.一個爭議的神秘神學的關係,以“普通”祈禱與基督教追求完美聖潔或佔主導地位的前幾十年的20世紀。

In general, whereas many Catholic theologians reacted to the challenge of rationalism, naturalism, and modernism with renewed attention to mystical and liturgical spiritual theology, many Protestant evagelicals have responded with a generally rational theology of the letter of Scripture.在一般情況下,而許多天主教神學家的挑戰作出反應的理性主義,自然主義,現代主義和神秘主義的再次重視神學和禮儀的精神,許多新教evagelicals回應與普遍理性神學的信聖經。 Others have given renewed attention to spirituality in the 1970s but still prefer a "Reformation faith piety" or "prophetic spirituality" to mystical contemplation, partly because of the rejection of mystery in liturgical and sacramental theology and practice.其他人重新開始關注精神在20世紀70年代,但仍然喜歡“改造信仰虔誠”或“先知靈性”神秘的沉思,這部分是因為拒絕在禮儀和聖事奧秘神學和實踐。 But contemporary evangelical antipathy toward mysticism is also partly the result of Barthian influence that reduces mysticism (and pietism) to a heretical subjectivity and anthropocentrism that denies the utterly transcendent reality of God.但是,當代福音派的反感,也對神秘主義的部分結果Barthian神秘主義的影響,可降低(和虔誠主義)到邪教的主觀性和人類中心主義,否認了完全超越現實的神。

The Nature of Mysticism大自然的神秘主義

Beyond a general descriptive definition as offered above, explanations of the nature and characteristics of the mystical experience vary widely.除了一般的描述性定義,提供上述解釋的性質和特點的神秘經驗有很大的不同。 Throughout Christian history and especially since the sixteenth century many Roman Catholic authors have distinguished ordinary or "acquired" prayer, even if occurring at a supraconceptual level of love, adoration, and desire for God, from the extraordinary or "infused" contemplation which is entirely the work of God's special grace.在整個基督教歷史,特別是自16世紀的許多傑出的羅馬天主教作家有普通或“後天”祈禱,即使發生在supraconceptual水平的愛,崇拜,和對上帝的願望,從特殊或“注入”的沉思,是完全神的工作的特殊恩典。 Only the latter is mystical in a strict sense, according to this view.後者是神秘的,只有在嚴格意義上說,根據這個觀點。 Other writers, both Catholic and Protestant, would apply the term "mystical" to all communion with God.其他作家,天主教和新教,將適用於對“神秘”的所有共融與上帝。 In the twentieth century some Catholic theologians (eg, L Bouyer, A Stolz), in conjunction with the movement for liturgical renewal, have sought to locate mystical theology in a scriptural and liturgical context, emphasizing the believer's participation in the mystery of God's reconciliation with his creatures in Christ, especially in the sacraments.在20世紀的一些天主教神學家(如升bouyer,一個斯托爾茲),聯同該運動的禮儀改革,力求找到神秘的神學在聖經和禮儀方面,強調信徒的參與神秘的上帝的和解他在基督裡的動物,尤其是在聖禮。

Many attempts have been made to describe the fundamental characteristics of mystical experience.已作出許多努力來描述基本特徵的神秘經驗。 Traditionally it has been asserted that the experiential union of creature and Creator is inexpressible and ineffable, although those who have experienced it seek imagery and metaphors to describe it, however imperfectly.傳統上它一直宣稱,工會的經驗和創造者,是難以形容的生物和無法形容的,雖然經歷過那些誰尋求圖像和比喻來形容它,但不完美。 As noted above, it is experienced union or vision, not abstract knowledge.如上所述,它是有經驗的工會或願景,而不是抽象的知識。 It is beyond the level of concepts, for reasoning, ideas, and sensory images have been transcended (but not rejected) in an intuitive union.這是毫無概念的水平,為推理,觀念和感覺的照片已經被超越(但不拒絕)在一個直觀的聯盟。

Thus it is suprarational and supraintellectual, not antirational or anti - intellectual.因此,它是suprarational和supraintellectual,而不是反理性或反-知識分子。 In one sense the sould is passive, because it experiences God's grace poured into itself.在某種意義上,可以是被動的,因為它經歷神的恩典倒入本身。 Yet the union is not quietistic, because the soul consents to and embraces the spiritual marriage.然而,工會不寂靜主義,因為靈魂的同意和包容的精神婚姻。 Although some authors also stress the transient and fleeting nature of mystical union, others describe it as lasting for a definite, even prolonged period of time.雖然有些作者還強調短暫,稍縱即逝的神秘聯盟的性質,其他人形容為一個持久明確的,即使長時間的時間。 More recent theological and liturgical understandings of mystical theology, unlike the systematic phenomenological and "empirical" manuals of the early twentieth century, define characteristics less precisely and seek to fit mystical theology more centrally into an ecclesial and soteriological framework.最近的神學和禮儀的神秘神學的理解,不同的是系統的現象學和“經驗”手冊,對20世紀初,定義特徵蝨,並尋求適合神秘神學更集中到一個教會和救世的框架。

The various stages of the mystical way have also been described in immensely varying manner.各階段的神秘方式也被描述的極為不同的方式。 Virtually all writers agree, however, that purification (purgation or cleaning) and discipline are prerequisites.幾乎所有作家的同意,但是,淨化(淨化或清潔)和紀律的先決條件。 Each of the three classic stages, the path of purification, the phase of illumination, and the mystical union itself (not necessarily occurring in a fixed sequence but rather in interaction with each other), may be described as consisting of various degrees or graduations.每三個典型階段,道路淨化,光照階段,而神秘聯盟本身(不一定發生在一個固定的順序,而是在相互交流),可以說是由不同程度的或畢業。 It should not be forgotten that the monastic life, the standard path of ascetic purification throughout much of Christian history, has served as the foundation for much Christian mysticism.它不應該忘記的是,寺院的生活,標準的道路,許多苦行淨化整個基督教的歷史,一直擔任許多基督教神秘主義的基礎。 Unfortunately, this foundation has been overlooked by some modern scholars who consider mystics to be individualistic seekers after noninstitutional, extrasacramental religious ecstasy.不幸的是,這個基金會一直忽略了一些現代學者認為神秘主義者誰是個人主義的求職者後,非機構,extrasacramental宗教狂喜。

Teachings about the mystical union have often brought charges of pantheism upon their exponents.教義有關的神秘聯盟提出的指控,往往在他們的泛神論指數。 Although most mystics seek to transcend the limits of the (false) self, they have been careful to insist on the preservation of the soul's identity in the union with God, choosing such imagery as that of iron glowing in the fire of unitive love, taking on fire in union with the fire, yet without loss of its properties as iron.雖然大多數的神秘主義者試圖超越界限(假)的自我,他們一直小心翼翼地堅持維護靈魂的身份在聯盟與神,選擇這樣的形象因為這鐵發光的消防統一的愛,同時在工會與火火,但沒有失去它的屬性如鐵。 Indeed, one should rather stress that, far from losing itself, the sould finds its true identity in the mystical union.事實上,一而應強調的是,遠離失去本身,可以發現其真實身份的神秘聯盟。 Many Protestants have found palatable only those mystical writers who are thought to have limited mystical union to a "conformity of human and divine wills," rather than those who teach an ontological union, a union of essence or being.許多新教徒發現可口只有那些神秘作家誰被認為是有限的神秘聯盟為“符合人類和神的意志”,而不是那些誰教一個本體論工會,工會的本質或福利。 This distinction is problematical, since the meaning of either "ontological union" or "conformity of will" depends on the presuppositions about human nature held by the author in question.這種區分是有問題的,因為意義不是“本體論工會”或“合格的將”取決於對人性的前提舉行的提交人的問題。

Those who stress a "prophetic faith piety" or "Reformation" alternative to supposed pantheistic or panentheistic mysticism (eg, Heiler, Bloesch, in part under the influence of Brunner and Barth) have circumscribed mysticism so narrowly and connected it so closely to Neoplatonism that few mystics would recognize it. They have also broadened the meaning of "prophetic religion" so much that most mystics would feel at home under its canopy.這些誰也強調“先知信仰虔誠”或“改造”應該替代或神論泛神論神秘主義(例如,海勒,Bloesch,這部分的影響下的布倫納和巴特)有限制的神秘主義狹隘和連接如此緊密合作,柏拉圖說一些神秘主義者會認識到這一點。他們還擴大了意義“先知的宗教”,以至於大多數的神秘主義者會覺得在家裡根據其樹冠。

Scriptural sources for Christian mysticism are found largely in the Logos - incarnation doctrine of John's Gospel, in imagery such as that of the vine and branches (John 15) or Christ's prayer for union (John 17), as well as in aspects of the Pauline corpus.聖經的來源基督教神秘主義的發現主要集中在標誌-化身學說約翰的福音,在圖像,例如葡萄樹和樹枝(約15)或基督的祈禱工會(約17),以及在方面的保利娜語料庫。 The latter include the description of Paul's rapture into the third heaven (II Cor. 12:1 - 4) or statements such as that referring to a life "hid with Christ in God" (Col. 3:3).後者包括說明保羅的狂喜進入第三天堂(二肺心病。12:1 - 4)或聲明,例如指的是生命“與基督一同藏在神”(西3:3)。 In all of these the essential theological presuppositions involve belief in a personal God and in the centrality of the incarnation.在所有這些涉及的基本神學前提是個人信仰的神,在中心的化身。 For medieval mystics Moses' "vision" of God (Exod. 33:12 - 34:9) and his reflection of God's glory upon leaving Mount Sinai (Exod. 34:29 - 35; cf. II Cor. 3:7) served as proof texts, and the allegorized spiritual marriage of the Song of Solomon, together with the other OT wisdom literature, provided unlimited scriptural resources until the shift from spiritual to literal - grammatical humanist and Reformation hermeneutics took place.對於中世紀的神秘主義者摩西的“願景”的神(出埃及記33:12 - 34:9)和他的反映神的榮耀在離開西奈山(出埃及記34:29 - 35;比照。二肺心病。3:7)擔任作為證明文本,婚姻和allegorized精神的雅歌,連同其他舊約智慧文學,聖經提供了無限的資源,直到從精神到文字轉變-語法人道主義者和改革詮釋學發生。

Anthropologically, Christian mystical theology presupposes a human capacity or fittedness for God, drawing especially upon the doctrine of human beings created in the image of God and on the doctrine of God become human in Christ.從人類學,基督教神秘主義神學的前提是人的能力或fittedness為上帝,繪畫特別是對人類的學說的形象創造的上帝和上帝的學說成為人類在基督。 Christian mystics have traditionally understood mystical union as a restoration of the image and likeness of God that was distorted or lost at the fall from innocence.基督教神秘主義傳統理解的神秘聯盟作為一個恢復的形象和相似的上帝,是歪曲或喪失在秋季從無罪。 The image of God, distorted but not destroyed, remains as the foundation for the journey from the land of unlikeness to restored likeness and union.神的形象,扭曲,但沒有被摧毀,仍然為基礎的旅程從土地不像,恢復肖像和工會。 Especially in the fourteenth century German Dominican school (Eckhart, Tauler) his teaching on the image of God in humans was expressed with terms such as the "basic will" or "ground" (Grund) of the soul or the "spark of divinity" in the human soul.特別是在14世紀德國多米尼加學校(艾克哈特,塔爾勒)他的教學的形象,上帝在人類的條款表示,如“基本將”或“理由”(Grund的)靈魂或“神性的火花”在人的靈魂。

In any case, although it stresses union with God who transcends all human limitations, mystical theology is incompatible with either an exclusively transcendent or an exclusively immanent doctrine of God, the God who transcends also became incarnate in Christ and he is immanent in his creatures created in his image.在任何情況下,儘管它強調工會與上帝誰超越了所有人類的局限,神秘的神學是一個完全不符合或超越或完全內在主義的神,上帝誰超越也成為在基督的化身,他是在他的內在創造的生物在他的形象。 For this reason many representatives of both the social gospel and neo - orthodox theology have been stridently antimystical.基於這個原因,許多代表都和新的社會福音-正統神學已慷慨陳辭antimystical。

Conclusion結論

Christian mysticism has often been portrayed as having modified and imported into Christianity the Platonic (Neoplatonic) doctrine of cosmological emanation in creation from the idea of the One and, in mystical union, a corresponding return to the One.基督教神秘主義往往被描繪為具有修改並導入到基督教的柏拉圖(柏拉圖)學說的宇宙流溢從構思創作的一個,在神秘的工會,一個相應的返回之一。 While a concern to relate the Creator to creation both immanently and transcendentally has from the earliest centuries led Christian mystics to make use of Neoplatonic philosophy, equally prominent are those (especially in the Franciscan school) whose theology is Christocentric, ecclesial, and liturgical.雖然關注與造物主創造的這兩個immanently和先驗已經從最早的幾個世紀的基督教神秘主義者領導的,以利用柏拉圖哲學,同樣突出的是那些(特別是在方濟各學校),其是Christocentric神學,教會,和禮儀。 One of the most cosmologically sophisticated medieval mystics, Nicolas of Cusa (1401 - 64), drew deeply from Neoplatonic and Eckhartian emanationism but was also profoundly Christocentric.其中最先進的中世紀的神秘主義者cosmologically,尼古拉斯的庫薩(1401至1464年),提請深深從柏拉圖和Eckhartian emanationism但也深刻Christocentric。 The issue cannot be resolved solely with broad brushstrokes of metahistorical categories such as Neoplatonism.這個問題不能完全解決的形而上歷史具有廣泛的筆觸類別,例如柏拉圖。

Of the other issues that have recurred in mystical writings and studies of mystical writings, one of the most enduring is the question of the relation between cognitive, intellectual, or speculative elements, on the one hand, and affective, loving, or supraconceptual and suprarational elements on the other.其他問題有復發神秘的著作和研究神秘的著作,其中最持久的問題是這種關係的認知,智力,或投機因素,一方面,和情感,有愛心,或supraconceptual和suprarational內容為另一方。 The negative way that "ascends" by stripping off all cognitions and images until one "sees" God in a "cloud of unknowing" darkness differs from the philosophical systems that claim mystical knowledge to be the human reason (including will, intellect, and feeling) exploring the sphere above that of limited rationalism (Inge), as well as the simple clinging to God in love alone posited by some mystics.的消極方式,“拾”的剝離了所有的認知和形象,直到一個“看到”神一“雲無知”黑暗不同於哲學系統唬人的知識是人類理性(包括意志,智慧和情感)研究領域以上的有限理性(英奇),以及簡單的執著,以上帝的愛僅假定一些神秘主義者。 Such distinctions, however, are not absolute, and most mystics stress the interrelatedness of love and cognition.這種區別,但是,不是絕對的,最神秘主義者強調相互關聯的愛情和認知。

The problem of the objective quality of mystical experience that so preoccupied the psychological - empirical writers of the early twentieth century has become less significant for Christians dealing with mysticism theologically in its scriptural, ecclesial, and liturgical contexts.這個問題的客觀質量的神秘經驗,以便專注的心理-經驗作家早期的20世紀已經變得不那麼重要的基督徒神學在處理與神秘主義的聖經,教會,和禮儀場合。 At the same time, for students of the philosophy of religion the question of objective content has gained renewed attention as nineteenth century naturalism wanes and Western interest in Eastern mysticism and religions grows.同時,學生的宗教哲學問題的客觀內容獲得了新的注意,因為19世紀西方自然退去,東方神秘主義的興趣和宗教的增長。

DD Martin房屋署副署長馬丁
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
MA Bowman, Western Mysticism; A Guide to the Basic Sources; L Bouyer, F Vandenbroucke, and J Leclercq, A History of Christian Spirituality; Dictionnaire de spiritualite ascetique et mystique, II; A Louth, The Origins of Christian Mystical Theology; TS Kepler, An Anthology of Devotional Literature; W James, The Varieties of Religious Experience; F von Hugel, The Mystical Element of Religion; E Underhill, Mysticism; RM Jones, Studies in Mystical Religion; R Otto, The Idea of the Holy; RC Zaehner, Mysticism, Sacred and Profane; G Harkness, Mysticism: Its Meaning and Message; HD Egan, What are They Saying about Mysticism?馬鮑曼,西方神秘主義;指南基本來源;升bouyer,女范登布魯克,和J勒克萊爾,歷史的基督教靈性;辭典德spiritualite ascetique等神秘性,二;阿勞斯,基督教的起源神秘神學;給付開普勒,一個虔誠的文學選集; W詹姆斯,品種的宗教經驗,女馮胡格爾,神秘的宗教元素,電子商務昂德希爾,神秘主義;馬幣瓊斯,研究神秘的宗教與r奧托,神聖的理念;鋼筋混凝土扎納,神秘,神聖與世俗; Ğ哈克尼斯,神秘主義:其意義和消息;高清伊根,什麼是他們講述神秘主義? ST Katz, ed., Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis; A Poulain, The Graces of Interior Prayer; C Butler, Western Mysticism; P Murray, The Mysticism Debate; T Merton, New Seeds of Contemplation; AW Tozer, The Knowledge of the Holy; A Nygren, Agape and Eros; F Heiler, Prayer; V Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church.意法半導體卡茨,教育署。,神秘主義和哲學分析;阿普蘭,內政部的女神祈禱;三巴特勒,西方神秘主義; P默里,神秘主義的辯論; Ť默頓,新種子的沉思;抗磨托澤,知識的聖地;甲尼格倫,愛和愛欲,女海勒,祈禱; V Lossky,神秘的東方教會的神學。



Mysticism神秘主義

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(From myein, to initiate). (從 myein,主動)。

Mysticism, according to its etymology, implies a relation to mystery.神秘主義,根據其詞源,就意味著一個謎。 In philosophy, Mysticism is either a religious tendency and desire of the human soul towards an intimate union with the Divinity, or a system growing out of such a tendency and desire.在哲學,宗教神秘主義或者是一個趨勢和慾望的人類靈魂朝著與神親密的聯盟,或一個系統中生長出來的這種傾向和願望。 As a philosophical system, Mysticism considers as the end of philosophy the direct union of the human soul with the Divinity through contemplation and love, and attempts to determine the processes and the means of realizing this end.作為一個哲學體系,認為神秘主義哲學作為最終的直接聯盟的人類靈魂與神通過沉思和愛,並試圖確定的程序和手段實現這一目標。 This contemplation, according to Mysticism, is not based on a merely analogical knowledge of the Infinite, but as a direct and immediate intuition of the Infinite.這沉思,根據神秘主義,不是基於純粹類比知識無限,但作為一個直接和立即直覺的無限。 According to its tendency, it may be either speculative or practical, as it limits itself to mere knowledge or traces duties for action and life; contemplative or affective, according as it emphasizes the part of intelligence or the part of the will; orthodox or heterodox, according as it agrees with or opposes the Catholic teaching.根據它的傾向,這可能是投機性的或實際的,因為它限制了自己的職責只是知識或痕跡的行動和生活;沉思或情感,根據它強調的部分情報或部分的意志;正統或異端,根據它同意或反對天主教的教學。 We shall give a brief historical sketch of Mysticism and its influence on philosophy, and present a criticism of it.我們將提供一個簡短的歷史素描的神秘主義和哲學的影響,並提出批評它。

HISTORICAL SKETCH歷史概述

In his "History of Philosophy", Cousin mentions four systems, between which, he says, philosophical thought has continually wavered, viz., Sensism, Idealism, Scepticism, and Mysticism.在他的“歷史哲學”,表姐提到四個系統,而兩者之間,他說,哲學思想,不斷動搖,即。,Sensism,理想主義,懷疑主義和神秘主義。 Whatever may be thought of this classification, it is true that Mysticism has exercised a large influence on philosophy, becoming at times the basis of whole systems, but more often entering as an element into their constitution.無論如何,可以認為這一分類,這是事實行使神秘主義哲學的影響較大,有時成為整個系統的基礎,但更經常地進入1元到他們的憲法。 Mysticism dominated in the symbolic philosophy of ancient Egypt.神秘主義哲學佔主導地位的象徵古埃及。 The Taoism of the Chinese philosopher Lao-tze is a system of metaphysics and ethics in which Mysticism is a fundamental element (cf. De Harlez, "Laotze, le premier philosophe chinois", in "Mémoires couronnés et autres de l'Académie", Brussels, January, 1886).道教的中國哲學家老子是一個系統的形而上學和倫理學中神秘主義的一個基本要素(見德Harlez,“老子報總理哲學家華報”,在“回憶錄couronnés等autres德l'科學院”新華社布魯塞爾 1月,1886年)。 The same may be said of Indian philosophy; the end of human reflection and effort in Brahmanism and Vedantism is to deliver the soul from its transmigrations and absorb it into Brahma forever.同樣可以說,印度的哲學,最後人類思考和努力,婆羅門教和Vedantism是提供從輪迴的靈魂和吸收它進入梵天永遠。 There is little of Mysticism in the first schools of Greek philosophy, but it already takes a large place in the system of Plato, eg, in his theory of the world of ideas, of the origin of the world soul and the human soul, in his doctrine of recollection and intuition.沒有什麼神秘主義在希臘哲學的第一所學校,但它需要一個大的地方已經在系統中的柏拉圖,例如,在他的理論對世界的想法,起源世界的靈魂,人的靈魂,在他的學說的記憶和直覺。 The Alexandrian Jew Philo (30 BC-AD 50) combined these Platonic elements with the data of the Old Testament, and taught that every man, by freeing himself from matter and receiving illumination from God, may reach the mystical, ecstatic, or prophetical state, where he is absorbed into the Divinity.在亞歷山大的猶太人斐洛(公元前30年至公元50)柏拉圖結合這些元素與數據的舊約,並告訴我們,每個人,通過釋放自己從物質和接收光照,從神,可到達神秘的,欣喜若狂,或預言的狀態,在那裡他被吸收進了神。 The most systematic attempt at a philosophical system of a mystical character was that of the Neoplatonic School of Alexandria, especially of Plotinus (AD 205-70) in his "Enneads".最有系統的嘗試在哲學體系的一個特點是,神秘的柏拉圖學院的亞歷山德里亞,特別是普羅提諾(公元205-70)在他的“Enneads”。 His system is a syncretism of the previous philosophies on the basis of Mysticism--an emanative and pantheistic Monism.他的系統是一個融合了以往哲學的基礎上的神秘主義-一個發散的一元論和泛神論。 Above all being, there is the One absolutely indetermined, the absolutely Good.最重要的是,有一個絕對indetermined,絕對好。 From it come forth through successive emanations intelligence (nous) with its ideas, the world-soul with its plastic forces (logoi spermatikoi), matter inactive, and the principle of imperfection.從它走出來通過連續的各種機構實體智能(常識)與它的想法,世界的靈魂,用其塑料部隊(洛格依spermatikoi),事不活躍,而原則的缺陷。 The human soul had its existence in the world-soul until it was united with matter.人的靈魂有它存在的世界的靈魂,直到它是團結的問題。 The end of human life and of philosophy is to realize the mystical return of the soul to God.最終人類生命和理念是實現神秘的靈魂回到上帝。 Freeing itself from the sensuous world by purification (katharsis), the human soul ascends by successive steps through the various degrees of the metaphysical order, until it unites itself in a confused and unconscious contemplation to the One, and sinks into it: it is the state of ecstasis. With Christianity, the history of Mysticism enters into a new period.釋放自己的感性世界的淨化(katharsis),人類1846年的歷屆步驟不同程度的形而上學的秩序,直到它本身團結在一個混亂的和無意識的思考之一,並匯到它:它是狀態ecstasis。與基督教的神秘主義的歷史進入到一個新的時期。 The Fathers recognized indeed the partial truth of the pagan system, but they pointed out also its fundamental errors.父親承認了部分事實確實的異教徒制度,但他們也指出,其根本錯誤。 They made a distinction between reason and faith, philosophy and theology; they acknowledged the aspirations of the soul, but, at the same time, they emphasized its essential inability to penetrate the mysteries of Divine life.他們作出了理性與信仰之間的區別,哲學和神學,他們承認的願望的靈魂,但同時,他們強調其根本無法穿透的神聖生命的奧秘。 They taught that the vision of God is the work of grace and the reward of eternal life; in the present life only a few souls, by a special grace, can reach it.他們教我們的理想是上帝的恩典和工作獎勵永恆的生命,而在現在的生活只有少數的靈魂,通過一個特殊的恩典,可以達到目標。 On these principles, the Christian school of Alexandria opposed the true gnosis based on grace and faith to the Gnostic heresies.在這些原則,反對基督教學校的亞歷山德里亞的真實感悟的基礎上的恩典和信心,以諾斯底異端邪說。 St. Augustine teaches indeed that we know the essences of things in rationibus aeternis, but this knowledge has its starting point in the data of sense (cf. Quæstiones, LXXXIII, c. xlvi).聖奧古斯丁教導的確,我們知道事物的本質在rationibus aeternis,但這些知識有其出發點,在數據的意義(參見Quæstiones,LXXXIII號角四十六)。 Pseudo-Dionysius, in his various works, gave a systematic treatment of Christian Mysticism, carefully distinguishing between rational and mystical knowledge.偽狄奧尼修斯,在他的各種作品,介紹了系統的治療基督教神秘主義,仔細區分理性和神秘的知識。 By the former, he says, we know God, not in His nature, but through the wonderful order of the universe, which is a participation of the Divine ideas ("De Divinis Nomin.", c, vii, §§ 2-3, in PG, III, 867 sq.).到了前者,他說,我們知道上帝,而不是他的性格,而是通過精彩的宇宙秩序,這是一個參與的神聖的想法(“德Divinis Nomin。”和c,七,§ § 2-3 ,在編號,第三,867平方米)。 There is, however, he adds, a more perfect knowledge of God possible in this life, beyond the attainments of reason even enlightened by faith, through which the soul contemplates directly the mysteries of Divine light.有,不過,他補充說,一個更完美的神的知識可能在此生活,超越理智的造詣更開明的信念,通過該設想的靈魂直接奧秘神聖的光。 The contemplation in the present life is possible only to a few privileged souls, through a very special grace of God: it is the theosis, mystike enosis.在目前的沉思生活是可能只有少數有特權的靈魂,通過一個非常特殊的恩典:它是theosis,mystike希塞統一。

The works of Pseudo-Dionysius exercised a great influence on the following ages. John Scotus Eriugena (ninth century), in his "De Divisione Naturæ", took them as his guide, but he neglected the distinction of his master, identifying philosophy and theology, God and creatures, and, instead of developing the doctrine of Dionysius, reproduced the pantheistic theories of Plotinus (see ERIUGENA, JOHN SCOTUS).工程偽狄奧尼修斯行使了很大的影響以下年齡。約翰司各脫Eriugena(第九世紀),在他的“德Divisione Naturæ”,把他們作為他的指導,但他忽視了他的主人的區別,確定哲學和神學神的棲息地,和,而不是發展的狄奧尼修斯的學說,理論,再現了泛神論的普羅提諾(見ERIUGENA,約翰司各脫)。 In the twelfth century, orthodox Mysticism was presented under a systematic form by the Victorines, Hugh, Walter, and Richard (cf. Mignon, "Les Origines de la Scolastique et Hugues de St. Victor", Paris, 1895), and there was also a restatement of Eriugena's principles with Amaury de Bène, Joachim de Floris, and David of Dinant.在12世紀,東正教的神秘主義,提出了根據系統的形式,Victorines,休,沃爾特和理查德(見米尼翁,“萊斯Origines德拉Scolastique等維克多雨果德聖”,巴黎,1895年),並有還重申了Eriugena的原則與阿默里德貝內,約阿希姆德弗洛里斯,和David迪南。 A legitimate element of Mysticism, more or less emphasized, is found in the works of the Schoolmen of the thirteenth century.一個合法的元素,神秘主義,或多或少強調,被發現在該工程的經院哲學的13世紀。 In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries there was, as a protest against a sterile dialecticism, a revival of mystical systems, some orthodox--J. Ruysbroek, Gerson, Peter d'Ailly, Denys the Carthusian--and others heterodox--John of Ghent, John of Mirecourt, the Beguines and Beghards, and various brotherhoods influenced by Averroism, and especially Meister Eckhart (1260-1327), who in his "Opus Tripartitum" teaches a deification of man and an assimilation of the creature into the Creator through contemplation (cf. Denifle in "Archiv für Literatur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters", 1886), the "Theologia Germanica", and, to a certain extent, Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64) with his theory of the coincidentia oppositorum.在第十四和第十五世紀有,作為抗議無菌的辯證論,一個復興的神秘系統,一些正統- J的。Ruysbroek,格爾森,彼得德阿伊,羅弼時的卡爾特-以及其他一些異端-約翰根特,約翰米爾古的伯格音運動和Beghards和各種兄弟會影響Averroism,特別是艾克哈(1260至1327年),誰在他的“主業Tripartitum”教一個人與一個神化的生物同化到造物主通過沉思(參見德尼夫勒在“檔案館獻給文學與Kirchengeschichte德Mittelalters”,1886年)的“神學德國小”,並在一定程度上,尼古拉斯的庫薩(1401年至1464年)與他的理論的coincidentia oppositorum。 Protestantism, by its negation of all ecclesiastical authority and by advocating a direct union of the soul with God, had its logical outcome in a Mysticism mostly pantheistic.基督教,其否定所有的教會權威,主張直接由工會與上帝的靈魂,有其合乎邏輯的結果大多在一個神秘主義泛神論。

Protestant Mysticism is represented by Sebastian Frank (1499-1542), by Valentine Weiler (1533-88), and especially by J. Böhme (1575-1624), who, in his "Aurora", conceived the nature of God as containing in itself the energies of good and evil, and identified the Divine nature with the human soul whose operation is to kindle, according to its free will, the fire of good or the fire of evil (cf. Deussen, "J. Böhme ueber sein Leben und seine Philosophie", Kiel, 1897). Reuchlin (1455-1522) developed a system of cabalistic Mysticism in his "De arte cabalistica" and his "De verbo mirifico".基督教神秘主義的代表是塞巴斯蒂安弗蘭克(1499年至1542年),由情人節韋勒(1533年至1588年),特別是由J.伯梅(1575年至1624年),誰在他的“極光”,構思的性質上帝含有自己的精力和良好的邪惡,並確定了神聖的性質與人的靈魂,其行動的目的是點燃,根據其自由意志,火火的好或邪惡(參見德森,“j的伯梅ueber盛Leben北達科他哲學的塞納河“,基爾,1897年)。羅伊希林(1455年)制定了一個系統的卡巴拉神秘主義在他的”德普藝cabalistica“和他的”德韋爾博mirifico“。 We may also assign to the influence of Mysticism the ontological systems of Malebranche and of the Ontologists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.我們也可以指定給神秘主義的本體論的影響系統的馬勒伯朗士和本體論在18世紀和19世紀。 The romantic Mysticism of Fichte (1762-1814), Novalis (1772-1801), and Schelling (1775-1854) was a reaction against the Rationalism of the eighteenth century.浪漫的神秘主義的費希特(1762年至1814年),諾瓦利斯(1772至1801年)和謝林(1775年至1854年)是一個理性的反應,對18世紀。 A pseudo-Mysticism is also the logical outcome of the Fideism and evolutionistic Subjectivism of modern Protestants, inaugurated by Lessing (1728-81), developed by Schleiermacher (1768-1834), A. Ritschl (1822-89; cf. Goyau, "L'Allemagne Religieuse, Le Protestantisme", 6th ed., Paris, 1906), Sabatier, etc., and accepted by the Modernists in their theories of vital immanence and religious experience (cf. Encyclical "Pascendi").偽神秘主義也是合乎邏輯的結果的主觀主義的信仰主義和evolutionistic現代新教,揭幕萊辛(1728年至1781年),開發施萊爾馬赫(1768年至1834年),甲後里奇爾(1822年至1889年;比照。Goyau“ L'阿勒馬涅Religieuse,樂Protestantisme“,第六版。,巴黎,1906年),撒巴帖等,並接受了現代主義在他們的理論具有重要的內在性和宗教經驗(參見諭”Pascendi“)。 (See MODERNISM.) (見現代主義。)

CRITICISM批評

A tendency so universal and so persistent as that of Mysticism, which appears among all peoples and influences philosophical thought more or less throughout all centuries, must have some real foundation in human nature.如此普遍的傾向,所以持久性的神秘主義,這似乎在所有人民和哲學思想的影響,或多或少在所有世紀中,必須有一些真正的基礎,人類的天性。 There is indeed in the human soul a natural desire for, an aspiration towards the highest truth, the absolute truth, and the highest, the infinite good.有的確是人類靈魂的自然願望,一個願望實現了最高的真理,絕對真理,最高,無限好。 We know by experience and reason that the knowledge and enjoyment of created things cannot give the fulness of truth and the perfection of beatitude which will completely satisfy our desires and aspirations.我們知道從經驗和理性的知識和享受創造的東西不能給充滿真理和完善的beatitude將完全滿足我們的慾望和願望。 There is in our soul a capacity for more truth and perfection than we can ever acquire through the knowledge of created things.在我們的靈魂有一個更真實的能力和完善的學習比以往任何時候都可以通過我們的知識創造的東西。 We realize that God alone is the end of man, that in the possession of God alone we can reach the satisfaction of our aspirations.我們認識到,只有上帝是最終的男人,那個在我們擁有的只有上帝能達到滿意我們的願望。 (Cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica I:2:1; I:12:1; I:44:4; I-II:3:8; "Contra Gentes", III, cc. i, xxv, l; "De Veritate", Q. xxii, a. 2; "Compend. Theologiæ", 104, etc.) But the rational effort of our intelligence and positive aspirations of our will find here their limits. (參見聖托馬斯阿奎那神學大全我:2:1;我:12:1,我:44:4,第一和第二:3:8;“魂斗羅金特斯”,三,抄送。我,二十五,升,“德Veritate”,問:22,答:2;“提要。Theologiæ”,104等),但理性的努力,我們的智慧和積極的願望,我們將在這裡找到自己的極限。 Is there truly possible a union of our reason and will with God more intimate than that which we possess through created things?是否有可能真正工會的原因,並會與神更親密比我們擁有通過創造的東西嗎? Can we expect more than a knowledge of God by analogical concepts and more than the beatitude proportionate to that knowledge?我們期望能多認識神的類比概念和beatitude的比例超過了這些知識? Here human reason cannot answer.這裡人的原因不能回答。 But where reason was powerless, philosophers gave way to feeling and imagination.但是,在理由是無能為力的,哲學家讓位於感覺和想像力。 They dreamt of an intuition of the Divinity, of a direct contemplation and immediate possession of God.他們夢想著一種直覺的神,一個直接的沉思,立即擁有神。 They imagined a notion of the universe and of human nature that would make possible such a union.他們設想了一個概念的宇宙和人類的本質,使我們能用這樣的聯盟。 They built systems in which the world and the human soul were considered as an emanation or part of the Divinity, or at least as containing something of the Divine essence and Divine ideas.他們構建的系統中,世界和人類靈魂的化身被視為或部分的神,或者至少載有本質的東西的神聖和神聖的思想。 The logical outcome was Pantheism.合乎邏輯的結果是泛神論。

This result was a clear evidence of error at the starting-point.這一結果是在錯誤的明確證據的出發點。 The Catholic Church, as guardian of Christian doctrine, through her teaching and theologians, gave the solution of the problem.天主教教堂,基督教教義作為監護人,通過她的教學和神學家,解決了這個問題。 She asserted the limits of human reason: the human soul has a natural capacity (potentia obedientialis), but no exigency and no positive ability to reach God otherwise than by analogical knowledge.她斷言人類理性的限制:人的靈魂有一種自然的能力(勢的obedientialis),但沒有緊急情況,也沒有明確的能力達到上帝以外的類比知識。 She condemned the immediate vision of the Beghards and Beguines (cf. Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", nn. 474-5), the pseudo-Mysticism of Eckhart (ibid., nn. 501-29), and Molinos (ibid., nn. 2121-88), the theories of the Ontologists (ibid., nn. 1659-65, 1891-1930), and Pantheism under all its forms (ibid., nn. 1801-5), as well as the vital Immanence and religious experience of the Modernists (ibid., nn. 2071-109).她的眼光,立即譴責了Beghards和伯格音運動(參見登青格,Bannwart,“便覽”,神經網絡。474-5),偽神秘主義的艾克哈特(同上,神經網絡。501-29)和諾斯(同上,神經網絡。2121-88),理論的本體論(同上,神經網絡。1659年至1665年,1991至30年),並在所有形式的泛神論(同上,神經網絡。1801-5),以及重要內在性和宗教體驗的現代主義(同上,神經網絡。2071-109)。 But she teaches that, what man cannot know by natural reason, he can know through revelation and faith; that what he cannot attain to by his natural power he can reach by the grace of God.但是她教導我們,不知道什麼人可以因自然原因,他可以知道通過啟示和信心,這是他所不能達到他的自然力量,他可以達到的恩典。 God has gratuitously elevated human nature to a supernatural state.上帝無償提升到一個超自然的人性狀態。 He has assigned as its ultimate end the direct vision of Himself, the Beatific Vision.他已指定為最終結束直視的自己,幸福的遠景。 But this end can be reached only in the next life; in the present life we can but prepare ourselves for it with the aid of revelation and grace.但這個目標可以達到只有在未來的生活,在目前的生活中,我們可以為自己做好準備,但它與援助的啟示和恩典。 To some souls, however, even in the present life, God gives a very special grace by which they are enabled to feel His sensible presence; this is true mystical contemplation.對於一些人的靈魂,然而,即使在目前的生活,上帝給了一個非常特殊的寬限期,讓他們感到他是明智的存在,這是真正的神秘的沉思。 In this act, there is no annihilation or absorption of the creature into God, but God becomes intimately present to the created mind and this, enlightened by special illuminations, contemplates with ineffable joy the Divine essence.在本法中,不存在消滅或吸收的生物成上帝,但上帝成為密切在場創建的初衷,這一點,開明的特殊燈飾,設想無法形容的喜悅與神聖的本質。

Publication information Written by George M. Sauvage.出版信息撰稿:喬治M索維奇。 Transcribed by Elizabeth T. Knuth.轉錄由伊麗莎白噸克努特。 Dedicated to Thomas S. Charters The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.獻給托馬斯S憲章天主教百科全書,體積十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography書目

PREGER, Gesch. PREGER,格希。 der deutschen Mystik im Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1881); SCHMID, Der Mysticismus in seiner Entstehungsperiode (Jena, 1824); GÖRRES, Die christl. Mystik (Ratisbon, 1836-42); COUSIN, Histoire générale de la philosophie (Paris, 1863); IDEM, Du Vrai, du Beau et du Bien (23rd ed., Paris, 1881), v; GENNARI, Del falso Misticismo (Rome, 1907); DELACROIX, Essai sur le mysticisme spéculatif en Allemagne au xive siècle (Paris, 1900); UEBERWEG, Hist.德deutschen Mystik的IM Mittelalter(萊比錫,1881年);施密德,德Mysticismus在圍網Entstehungsperiode(耶拿,1824年);約雷斯,模具christl。Mystik(拉蒂斯邦,1836年至1842年);表哥,歷史學哲學之興德(巴黎,1863年) ;同上,都為vrai,杜博等杜邊(第23版。,巴黎,1881年),五;熱納裡,德爾法爾索Misticismo(羅馬,1907年);德拉克洛瓦,Essai河畔樂mysticisme spéculatif恩阿勒馬涅金xive末世(巴黎,1900 ); UEBERWEG,組織胺。 of Philos., tr. MORRIS with additions by PORTER (New York, 1894); DE WULF, Hist.對菲洛斯。,文。增補莫禮與波特(紐約,1894年);署署長伍爾夫,組織胺。 de la Philos. médiévale (Louvain, 1900); TURNER, Hist.德拉菲洛斯。médiévale(魯汶,1900);特納,組織胺。 of Philos.對菲洛斯。 (Boston, 1903). (波士頓,1903年)。


Mystical Theology神秘神學

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul which cannot be produced by human effort or industry even with the ordinary aid of Divine grace.神秘神學是科學,行為和經驗對待或國家的靈魂,不能由人的努力生產或行業甚至是普通援助神聖的恩典。 It comprises among its subjects all extraordinary forms of prayer, the higher forms of contemplation in all their varieties or gradations, private revelations, visions, and the union growing out of these between God and the soul, known as the mystical union.它包括所有學科間的特殊形式的祈禱,更高形式的沉思在所有品種或等級,私人啟示,異象,並結合中生長出來的這些人與上帝的靈魂,被稱為神秘的聯盟。 As the science of all that is extraordinary in the relations between the Divinity and the human spirit, mystical theology is the complement of ascetical, which treats of Christian perfection and of its acquisition by the practice of virtue, particularly by the observance of the counsels.隨著科學的一切是非凡的神性之間的關係和人類精神,神秘神學是互補的ascetical,它把基督教完善和收購的實踐美德,尤其是遵守的律師。 The contents of mystical theology are doctrinal as well as experimental, as it not only records the experiences of souls mystically favoured, but also lays down rules for their guidance, which are based on the authority of the Scriptures, on the teachings of the Fathers of the Church, and on the explanations of theologians, many of them eminent as mystics.神秘神學的內容是理論和實驗性的,因為它不僅記錄了靈魂的神秘經驗的青睞,而且還規定了規則的指導,這是基於聖經的權威,在父親的教誨的教會,並在解釋的神學家,其中許多著名的神秘主義者。 Its rules and precepts are usually framed for the special use of those who have occasion to direct souls in the ways of mysticism, so as to preserve them from error while facilitating their advancement.它的規則和戒律通常擬定有關的特殊使用那些有機會直接誰的靈魂在神秘主義的方法,以維護他們的錯誤,同時促進他們的進步。 It must therefore take note of the erroneous systems of prayer, like Quietism or Semiquietism, and of the self-illusion or deception of souls that mistake the powers of darkness for those of light or the promptings of their own self-seeking for Divine communications.因此,必須注意的錯誤系統的祈禱,希望清靜無為或Semiquietism,以及自我幻想或欺騙的靈魂是錯誤的權力,對於那些黑暗的光或激勵了他們自身的尋求神的溝通。 It is this part of the science that necessitates inquiry into various phases of occultism, diabolism, etc., into which writers like Görres have gone so extensively.這是這部分的科學,就必須將調查各階段的神秘,魔法等,而這些作家像約雷斯已走了這麼廣泛。 Mystical theology has a nomenclature all its own, seeking to express acts or states that are for the most part purely spiritual in terms denoting analogous experiences in the material order.有一個神秘的神學術語都自行尋求表達的行為或狀態,這對於大部分純粹的精神在以下方面表明的類似經驗的材料秩序。 Usually it does not form part of the ordinary class-room studies, but is imparted by spiritual masters in their personal direction of souls, or inculcated, as in seminaries and novitiates, by special conferences and courses of spiritual reading.通常它並不構成部分普通班室的研究,但傳授的主人翁精神在他們的個人方向的靈魂,或灌輸,在神學院和novitiates,由特別會議和培訓班精神閱讀。 Preliminary to the study of mystical theology is a knowledge of the four ordinary forms of prayer: vocal, mental, affective, and the prayer of simplicity (see PRAYER).初步的研究神秘的神學是一個知識的四個普通形式的祈禱:聲樂,心理,情感,和簡單的祈禱(見祈禱)。 The last two, notably the prayer of simplicity, border on the mystical.最後兩個,特別是祈禱簡單,邊境上的神秘。 Prayer is often called active or acquired contemplation to distinguish it from passive or higher contemplation, in which mystical union really consists.祈禱是通常被稱為積極的或後天沉思來區分它從被動或更高沉思,其中確實含有神秘的工會。

Mystical theology begins by reviewing the various descriptions of extraordinary contemplation, contained in the works of mystics and of writers on mystical subjects, and the divisions which help to describe its various phases, indicating chiefly whether it consists of an enlargement or elevation of knowledge, or of absorption in the Divine vision, or, again, whether the cherubic, ie, intellectual, or seraphic, ie, affective, element predominates.神秘神學首先回顧了不平凡的沉思的各種描述,在作品中包含的神秘主義者和作家對神秘的課題,各司其描述,幫助各個階段,主要是表明它是否由一個擴大的知識或抬高,或吸收在神聖的理想,或者再次,無論是天真無邪,即智力,或撒拉弗,即情感,元素為主。 The objects of contemplation are set forth: God, His Attributes, the Incarnation, and all the Sacred Mysteries of the Life of Christ; His presence in the Eucharist; the supernatural order; every creature of God in the natural order, animate or inanimate, particularly the Blessed Virgin, the angels, the saints, Providence, the Church.對象沉思載:上帝,他的屬性,化身,和所有的神聖奧秘的生命基督在聖體內,他的存在,超自然的秩序,每個動物神在自然秩序,動畫或無生命的,特別是聖母,天使,聖人,普羅維登斯,教會。 In analyzing the causes of contemplation, what may be called its psychology next comes up for consideration, in so far as it necessitates the ordinary or exceptional use of any human faculty, of the senses of the body, or of the powers of the soul.在分析原因的沉思,可以稱之為其心理其次是為考慮,只要它勢必需要在普通或特殊用途的任何人類學部,感官,身體,或權力的靈魂。 On God's part, grace must be considered as a principle, or cause, of contemplation, the special or unusual graces (gratis datoe) as well as ordinary graces, the virtues, theological as well as moral, the gifts of the Holy Spirit.上帝的一部分,必須考慮寬限期作為一個原則,或安排,沉思,特別或不尋常的青睞(免費datoe)以及普通青睞,是一種美德,神學,以及道德的禮物聖靈。 The closing chapter in this part of the science dwells on the fruits of contemplation, especially the elevation of spirit, joy, charity, zeal; on the influences that may contribute to its duration, interruption, or cessation.在這章的最後部分提及了科學成果的沉思,尤其是海拔精神,喜悅,慈善,熱情,對武術的影響,可能有助於其持續時間,中斷或終止。 Here some theologians treat in detail of the preliminary or preparatory dispositions for contemplation, of natural or moral aptitude, solitude, prayer, mortification or self-denial, corporal and spiritual, as a means of soul-purification; these topics, however, belong more properly to the domain of ascetical theology. What strictly comes within the province of mystical theology is the study of the processes of active and passive purification through which a soul must pass to reach the mystical union.這裡是一些神學家對待,作出詳細的部署,初步或籌備的沉思,或道德的自然天賦,孤獨,祈禱,屈辱或自我否定,身體和精神,作為一種手段的靈魂淨化,這些話題,但是,更多的屬於到適當的域ascetical神學。嚴格什麼來全省範圍內神秘神學是研究過程的主動和被動的淨化靈魂必須通過它傳遞給一個到達神秘的聯盟。 Although the active processes are also treated to some extent in ascetical theology, they require special study inasmuch as they lead to contemplation.雖然活動的進程也有一定的治療ascetical神學,他們需要特別的研究,因為它們導致沉思。 They comprise: purity of conscience, or aversion even to the slightest sin; purity of heart, the heart being taken as the symbol of the affections, which to be pure must be free of attachments to anything that does not lead to God; purity of the spirit, ie of the imagination and memory; and purity of action.它們包括:純度的良心,或厭惡甚至絲毫罪;純潔的心,心被作為符號的感情,這是純粹的必須是自由的附件,以任何不導致神純度的精神,即想像和記憶;和純潔性的行動。 It is to these processes that the well-known term "night" is applied by St. John of the Cross, since they imply three things which are as night to the soul in so far as they are beyond or contrary to its own lights, viz., the privation of pleasure, faith as substituted for human knowledge, and God as incomprehensible, or darkness, to the unaided soul.這是對這些過程的著名詞“夜間”是適用於由聖約翰的十字架,因為它們意味著三件事情是因為晚上的靈魂,因為他們迄今已經超出或違背自己的燈,即。,在窮困的快樂,信念,代替人類知識,並以不可思議的神,或者黑暗,在無外援的靈魂。 Passive purifications are the trials encountered by souls in preparation for contemplation, known as desolation, or dryness, and weariness.是被動淨化靈魂的審判中遇到的籌備沉思,被稱為荒涼,或乾燥,和厭倦。 As they proceed sometimes from God and sometimes may be produced by the Evil Spirit, rules for the discernment of spirits are set down to enable directors to determine their source and to apply proper means of relief, especially should it happen that the action of the Evil One tends to possession or obsession.有時因為他們進行神和有時可能會產生邪惡的精神,rules為鬼神的洞察力而訂定的使董事可確定及其來源和對apply proper將救濟,特別要它發生的行動的惡人們往往擁有或痴迷。

These passive purifications affect the soul when every other object of contemplation is withdrawn from it, except its own sins, defects, frailties, which are revealed to it in all their enormity.這些被動淨化心靈的影響時,所有其他對象的沉思是退出它,除了它自己的罪,缺陷,弱點,這是發現它在所有的艱鉅性。 They put the soul in the "obscure night", as St. John of the Cross calls it, or in the "great desolation", to use the phrase of Father Baker.他們把靈魂的“模糊之夜”,為聖約翰的十字架的話來說,還是在“大荒涼”,用這句話貝克的父親。 In this state the soul experiences many trials and temptations, even to infidelity and despair, all of which are expressed in the peculiar terminology of writers on mystical theology, as well as the fruits derived from resisting them.在這種狀態下的靈魂經歷許多考驗和誘惑,甚至不忠和絕望,所有這些都表現在特有的術語對神秘神學作家,以及來自水果抵制他們。 Chief among these fruits is the purification of love, until the soul is so inflamed with love of God that it feels as if wounded and languishes with the desire to love Him still more intensely.其中主要的水果是淨化的愛,直到紅腫的靈魂是如此的愛的上帝,會覺得好像受傷和疲憊,愛他的願望更加強烈。 The first difficulty mystical writers encounter in their treatises on contemplation is the proper terminology for its degrees, or the classification of the experiences of the soul as it advances in the mystical union with God effected by this extraordinary form of prayer.第一個遇到困難的神秘作家在他們的論文在沉思,是適當的術語,其學位,或分類的經驗的靈魂,因為它的不斷進步,神秘聯盟與上帝這個非同尋常的作用下形成的祈禱。 Ribet in "La Mystique Divine" has a chapter (x) on this subject, and the present writer treats it in chapter xxix of his "Grace of Interior Prayer" (tr. of the sixth edition).里貝特在“香格里拉奧秘神聖”的一章(x)在這個問題上,與現在的作家對待它在第29屆章他的“格雷斯內政部祈禱”(編輯部的第六版)。 Scaramelli follows this order: the prayer of recollection; the prayer of spiritual silence; the prayer of quiet; the inebriation of love; the spiritual sleep; the anguish of love; the mystical union of love, and its degrees from simple to perfect union and spiritual marriage.斯卡拉梅利如下順序:祈禱的回憶;精神沉默的祈禱;祈禱的寧靜;的醉愛;精神睡覺的痛苦的愛的神秘聯盟的愛,其程度從簡單到完善工會和精神的結合。 In this union the soul experiences various spiritual impressions, which mystical writers try to describe in the terminology used to describe sense impressions, as if the soul could see, hear, touch, or enjoy the savour or odour of the Divinity.在這個聯盟的靈魂經歷不同的精神印象,這神秘的作家嘗試描述所使用的術語來描述感覺印象,好像靈魂可以看到,聽到,觸摸,或享受的品味或氣味的神。 Ecstatic union with God is a further degree of prayer.欣喜若狂的聯盟與上帝是進一步程度的祈禱。 This and the state of rapture require careful observation to be sure that the Evil One has no share in them.這和國家的狂喜需要仔細觀察,肯定他們的魔鬼沒有分享他們。 Here again mystical writers treat at length the deceits, snares, and other arts practised by the Evil One to lead souls astray in the quest for the mystical union.神秘的作家在這裡再次把詳細的欺騙伎倆,圈套,和其他藝術實踐的魔鬼帶領誤入歧途的靈魂在追求神秘的聯盟。 Finally, contemplation leads to a union so intimate and so strong that it can be expressed only by the terms "spiritual marriage".最後,沉思導致工會如此親密,如此強大,它可以表示的條款只有“精神結婚”。 The article on contemplation describes the characteristics of the mystical union effected by contemplation.文章介紹了在沉思的神秘特色工會影響的沉思。 No treatise of mystical theology is complete without chapters on miracles, prophecies, revelations, visions, all of which have been treated under their respective headings.沒有論文的神秘神學是不完整的章節奇蹟,預言,啟示,異象,所有這些都被視為根據各自的標題。

As for the history or development of mysticism, it is as difficult to record as a history of the experiences of the human soul.由於對歷史或發展的神秘主義,它是難以記錄為歷史經驗的人的靈魂。 The most that can be done is to follow its literature, mindful that the most extraordinary mystical experiences defy expression in human speech, and that God, the Author of mystical states, acts upon souls when and as He wills, so that there can be no question of what we could consider a logical or chronological development of mysticism as a science.最可以做的,是按照它的文學,銘記最不尋常的神秘經驗藐視人類語言的表達,並認為上帝,作者神秘的國家,在靈魂的行為時,作為他的意志,使不可能有問題是我們可以考慮一個邏輯或時間順序發展的神秘主義作為一門科學。 Still, it is possible to review what mystical writers have said at certain periods, and especially what St. Teresa did to treat for the first time mystical phenomena as a science.不過,它可以回顧一下神秘的作家說,在某些時期,尤其是沒有什麼聖德肋撒治療首次神秘現象的一門科學。 Before her, mystics were concerned principally with ecstasies, visions, and revelations; she was the first to attempt a scientific analysis of the process of mystical union brought about by contemplation.在她面前,神秘主義者主要關注與興奮過後,理想,和啟示,她是第一次嘗試了科學分析的過程中所帶來的神秘聯盟沉思。 As the contribution to the science and history of mystical theology by each of the writers in the following list has been sufficiently noted in the articles on them, it will suffice here to mention the titles of some of their characteristic works.由於對科學的貢獻和歷史的神秘神學的每個作家在以下名單已充分注意到在他們的文章,將足以在這裡提一提職稱的一些作品的特點。

Famous Mystics Prior to the Nineteenth Century著名的神秘主義者前19世紀

St. Gregory I the Great (b. at Rome, c. 540; d. there, 604): "Commentaries on Job"; this book is called the Ethics of St. Gregory.聖格雷戈里我大(出生於羅馬角540;四有,604):“評工作”,這本書是所謂的倫理聖格雷戈里。 The writings of Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite did not reach the West until about 824, when they were sent to Louis the Pious by Michael the Stammerer, Emperor of Constantinople: "Opera".狄奧尼修斯的著作的偽Areopagite沒有達到西方直到大約824人,當他們被送到路易虔誠由邁克爾結巴,君士坦丁堡皇帝:“歌劇”。 Hugh of St. Victor, canon regular at Paris (b. in Saxony, 1096; d. at Paris, 1141): passim, St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux (b. near Dijon, 1090; d. at Clairvaux, 1153): "On the Canticle of Canticles".休聖維克多,佳能經常在巴黎(b.在薩克森州,1096; 4,在巴黎,1141):各處,聖伯納德,住持克萊爾沃(生於第戎附近,1090; 4,在克萊爾沃,1153) :“在canticle的頌歌”。 Richard of St. Victor, canon regular at Paris (d. at Paris, 1173): "De contemplatione".理查德聖維克多,佳能經常在巴黎(四在巴黎,1173):“德contemplatione”。 St. Bonaventure, Minister General of the Friars Minor (b. at Bagnorea, 1221; d. at Lyons, 1274): "Journey of the Soul towards God".聖文德,總部長的天主教方濟會(出生於Bagnorea,1221; 4,在里昂,1274):“西遊記的靈魂向上帝”。 The "Seven Roads of Eternity", which has sometimes been attributed to him, is the work of a Friar Minor, Rudolph of Bibrach, of the fourteenth century. “七路上的永恆”,這有時被歸因於他,是工作的一小修士,魯道夫的Bibrach,在14世紀。 St. Gertrude, a Benedictine (b. at Eisleben, 1256; d. at Helfta, Saxony, 1302): Revelations.街格特魯德,本篤(出生在德國的艾斯勒本,1256; 4,在黑爾夫塔,薩克森州,1302):啟示。 Blessed Angela of Foligno (b. at Foligno, 1248; d. there, 1309): "Life and Revelations" in "Acta SS.", I, January, 186-234; this work is one of the masterpieces of mysticism. Tauler, a Dominican (b. at Strasburg, c. 1300; d. there, 1361): "Sermons" (Leipzig, 1498).安吉拉有福的福利尼奧(b.在福利尼奧,1248;四有,1309):“生活與啟示”中的“學報的SS。”我1月,186-234;這項工作是一個神秘主義的傑作。塔爾勒,多米尼加(出生在斯特拉斯堡角1300,四有,1361):“布道”(萊比錫,1498)。 Blessed Henry Suso, a Dominican (b. at Constance, c. 1295; d. at Ulm, 1366): "Exemplar" (Augsburg, 1482).有福亨利蘇索,多米尼加(出生於康斯坦茨角1295; 4,在烏爾姆,1366):“樣例”(奧格斯堡,1482)。 "The Book of the Nine Rocks" is not by him but by a merchant of Strasburg, the somewhat unorthodox Rulman Merswin. St. “聖經的九岩”不是他,而是由一個商人的斯特拉斯堡,在有些非正統Rulman Merswin。街 Bridget of Sweden (bc 1303; d. at Rome, 1373): "Revelations" (Nuremberg, 1500).瑞典布里奇特(公元前1303年;四在羅馬,1373):“啟示錄”(紐倫堡,1500)。 Blessed Ruysbroeck, surnamed the Admirable (b. at Ruysbroeck, 1293; d. at Groenendael, 1381): "Opera omnia", Latin tr.有福Ruysbroeck姓令人欽佩(出生於Ruysbroeck,1293; 4,在Groenendael,1381):“歌劇的Omnia”,拉丁文。 by the Carthusian Surius (Cologne, 1692).由卡爾特Surius(科隆,1692)。 François-Louis Blosius (de Blois), Benedictlne Abbot of Liessies (b. near Liège, 1506; d. at Liessies, 1566): "Opera" (Ingolstadt, 1631). St.弗朗索瓦路易布洛修斯(布盧瓦),Benedictlne住持Liessies(生於靠近列日,1506; 4,在Liessies,1566):“歌劇”(因戈爾施塔特,1631)。聖 Teresa (b. at Avila, 1515; d. at Aba de Tormes, 1582): "Opera" (Salamanca, 1588).特雷莎(b.在阿維拉,1515; 4,在阿壩德托爾梅斯,1582):“歌劇”(薩拉曼卡,1588)。 St. John of the Cross, founder of the Discalced Carmelites (b. at Hontiveros, 1542; d. at Ubeda, 1591): "Opera" (Seville, 1702).聖約翰的十字架,創始人的discalced carmelites(出生於Hontiveros,1542; 4,在烏韋達,1591):“歌劇”(塞維利亞,1702)。 Venerable Luis de Lapuente (b. at Valladolid, 1554; d. there, 1624): "Life of Father Baltasár Alvarez", confessor of St. Teresa (Madrid, 1615); "Spiritual Guide" (Valladolid, 1609); "Life of Marina de Escobar" (2 vols., Madrid, 1665-73).法師路易斯德普恩特(b.在巴利亞多利德,1554年;四有,1624):“生命之父巴爾塔薩阿爾瓦雷斯”懺悔聖德肋撒(馬德里,1615),“精神導師”(巴拉多利德,1609年),“生命匡代埃斯科瓦爾“(2卷。,馬德里,1665年至1673年)。 St. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva (b. at Thorens, near Annecy, 1567; d. at Lyons, 1622): "Treatise on the Love of God" (Lyons, 1616).聖弗朗西斯德銷售,主教日內瓦(b.在能士,近阿納西,1567; 4,在里昂,1622):“傷寒論上帝的愛”(里昂,1616)。 Alvarez de Paz, SJ (b. at Toledo 1560; d. at Potosi, 1620): "De inquisitione pacis" in "Opera", III (Lyons, 1647).阿爾瓦雷斯代帕斯,律政司司長(出生於托萊多1560; 4,在波托西,1620):“德inquisitione白家樂”的“戲”,第三章(里昂,1647)。 Philip of the Blessed Trinity, General of the Discalced Carmelites (b. at Malancène, near Avignon, 1603; d. at Naples, 1671): "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" (Lyons, 1656).菲利普的祝福三位一體,一般的discalced carmelites(出生於Malancène,阿維尼翁附近,1603; 4,在那不勒斯,1671年):“總結theologiæ mysticæ”(里昂,1656年)。 Jean-Joseph Surin.讓約瑟夫蘇林。 Venerable Marie de l'Incarnation (b. at Tours, 1599; d. at Quebec, 1672): "Life and Letters", published by her son Dom Claude Martin, OSB (Paris, 1677).法師瑪麗德l'化身(b.在旅遊,1599; 4,在魁北克,1672年):“生活與文學”,出版了她的兒子克洛德馬丁大教堂,定向結構刨花板(巴黎,1677)。 Bossuet called her the "Teresa of the New World".波舒哀稱她為“特雷莎的新世界”。 Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux (b. at Dijon, 1627; d. at Paris, 1704): "Instruction sur les états d'oraison" (Paris, 1697).波舒哀,主教莫城(出生於第戎,1627; 4,在巴黎,1704):“教學河畔各國以及德奧賴松”(巴黎,1697)。 Joseph of the Holy Ghost, Definitor General of the Discalced Carmelites (d. 1639): "Cursus theologiæ mystico-scholasticæ" (6 vols., Seville, 1710-40).約瑟夫的聖靈,definitor一般的discalced carmelites(草1639):“Cursus theologiæ mystico - scholasticæ”(6卷。,塞維利亞,1710年至1740年)。 Emmanuel de la Reguera, SJ (b. at Aguilàr del Campo, 1668; d. at Rome, 1747): "Praxis theologiæ mysticæ" (2 vols., Rome, 1740-45), a development of the mystical theology of Wadding (Father Godinez).埃馬紐埃爾德拉Reguera,律政司司長(出生於阿吉拉爾戴爾坎普,1668; 4,在羅馬,1747):“實踐theologiæ mysticæ”(2卷。,羅馬,1740至1745年),一個發展的神秘神學5601(父親戈迪內斯)。 Scaramelli, SJ (b. at Rome, 1687; d. at Macerata, 1752): "Direttorio mistico" (Venice, 1754).斯卡拉梅利,律政司司長(出生於羅馬,1687; 4,在馬切拉塔,1752年):“Direttorio米斯蒂科”(威尼斯,1754)。 As a description, this is the best treatise of the eighteenth century despite its too complicated classification; Voss has published a compendium of it, entitled "Directorium Mysticum" (Louvain, 1857). Schram, OSB (b. at Bamberg, 1722; d. at Bainz, 1797): "Institutiones theologiæ mysticæ (Augsburg, 1777), chiefly an abridgment of la Reguera. More complete lists (176 names) will be found in Poulain, "Graces d'Oraison" (7th ed., Paris, 1911); tr., "The Graces of Interior Prayer" (London, 1910); and in Underhill, "Mysticism" (New York, 1912).作為一個描述,這是最好的論文在18世紀,儘管它過於複雜的分類;佛斯發表了它的彙編,題為“Directorium Mysticum”(魯汶,1857)。施拉姆,定向刨花板(出生在班貝格,1722; Ð 。在Bainz,1797):的“institutiones theologiæ mysticæ(奧格斯堡,1777年),主要是刪節鑭Reguera。更完整的名單(176名)將被發現在普蘭,”格拉斯德奧雷松“(第7版。,巴黎, 1911年);文。說:“格拉斯內政部祈禱”(倫敦,1910年);和昂德希爾,“神秘主義”(紐約,1912)。

MARÉCHAUX, Le merveilleux divin et le merveilleux démoniaque (Paris, 1901); MIGNE, Dict.馬雷紹,樂merveilleux迪溫等樂merveilleux démoniaque(巴黎,1901年);米涅,快譯通。 de mystique chrétienne (Paris, 1858); LEJEUNE, Manuel de théologie mystique (Paris, 1897); VALLGORNERA, Mystica Theologia Divi Thomoe (Turin, 1891); BAKER, Holy Wisdom (London, 1908); CHANDLER, Ara Coeli Studies in Mystical Religion (London, 1908); DALGAIRNS, The German Mystics of the Fourteenth Century (London, 1858); DELACROIX, Essai sur le mysticisme spéculatif en Allemagne au XIX siècle (Paris, 1900); IDEM, Etudes d'histoire et de psychologie du mysticisme.德神秘基督教民主黨(巴黎,1858);勒瓊,神秘曼努埃爾德神學(巴黎,1897年); VALLGORNERA,Mystica神學迪維Thomoe(都靈,1891年);貝克,神聖智慧(倫敦,1908年);錢德勒,阿糖胞苷Coeli研究神秘宗教(倫敦,1908年); DALGAIRNS,德國神秘的14世紀(倫敦,1858),德拉克洛瓦,Essai河畔樂mysticisme spéculatif金恩阿勒馬涅第十九末世(巴黎,1900年);同上,練習曲德歷史學等應用心理學杜mysticisme。 Lee grands mystiques chrétiens (Paris, I908); DENIFLE, Das geistliche Leben: Blumenlese aus der deutschen Mystikern der 14. Jahrhunderts (Graz, 1895); DEVINE, A Manual of Mystical Theology (London, 1903): GARDNER, The Cell of Self-Knowledge (London, 1910); GÖRRES, Die Christliche Mystik (Ratisbon, 1836-42); POIRET, Theologioe Mysticoe idea generalis (Paris, 1702); RIBET, La Mystique Divine (Paris, 1879); IDEM, L'Ascétique Chrétienne (Paris, 1888); SAUDREAU, La vie d'union à Dieu (Paris, 1900); IDEM, L'état mystigue (Paris, 1903); IDEM, Les faits extraotdinaires de la vie spirituelle (Paris, 1908); IDEM, tr.李場mystiques chrétiens(巴黎,I908);德尼夫勒,達斯geistliche Leben:Blumenlese澳大利亞德deutschen Mystikern德14。Jahrhunderts(格拉茨,1895年);迪瓦恩,手冊的神秘神學(倫敦,1903年):加德納,細胞自我知識(倫敦,1910);約雷斯,模具Christliche Mystik(拉蒂斯邦,1836年至1842年); POIRET,Theologioe Mysticoe想法知通(巴黎,1702);里貝特,拉神的奧秘(巴黎,1879年),同上的L' Ascétique克雷蒂安娜(巴黎,1888年);索德羅,拉爭奪德工會à妙(巴黎,1900年);同上的L'政變mystigue(巴黎,1903年);同上,萊斯既成事實extraotdinaires德拉爭奪spirituelle(巴黎,1908年),同上,文。 CAMM, The Degrees of the Spiritual Life (London, 1907); IDEM, tr.卡姆,該學位的精神生活(倫敦,1907年);同上,文。 SMITH, The Way that Leads to God (London, 1910); THOROLD, An Essay in Aid of the Better Appreciation of Catholic Mysticism (London, 1900); VON HUGEL, The Mystical Element of Religion (London, 1908).史密斯,路,導致神(倫敦,1910);托羅爾德,一篇文章中的援助更好地了解天主教神秘主義(倫敦,1900年);馮胡格爾,神秘的宗教元素(倫敦,1908年)。

Publication information Written by Aug. Poulain.出版信息寫在8月普蘭。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.致力於耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約



This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在