Montanism孟他努

General Information 一般信息

Montanism was a Christian apocalyptic movement that arose in the 2d century.孟他努是一個基督徒世界末日的運動,出現在二維世紀。 It took its name from Montanus, a Phrygian, who, shortly after his baptism as a Christian (156 or 172 AD), claimed to have received a revelation from the Holy Spirit to the effect that he, as representative prophet of the Spirit, would lead the Christian church into its final stage.它把它的名字從蒙塔努斯,一弗里吉亞,誰後不久,他作為基督教的洗禮(公元156或172),聲稱已經收到了來自聖靈的啟示,大意是他作為代表先知的精神,將帶領教會進入最後階段。

Aided by two women, Maximilla and Priscilla (or Prisca), Montanus founded a sect of enthusiasts who preached the imminent end of the world, austere morality, and severe penitential discipline. They forbade second marriages, denied the divine nature of the church, and refused forgiveness for sins that persons committed after baptism.資助兩名婦女,馬克西米拉和普里西拉(或普里斯卡馬),蒙塔努斯成立一個教派的愛好者誰鼓吹即將結束的世界,嚴峻的道德,紀律和嚴重悔罪。它們禁止第二次婚姻,剝奪了神性的教會,不肯原諒的人所犯的罪後的洗禮。 Montanus called for less church hierarchy and more charismatic prophecy.蒙塔努斯呼籲教會少層次和更魅力的預言。 He regarded a life of seclusion and contempt of the world as the only true Christian ideal.他把生命的隔離和蔑視世界的唯一真正的基督教的理想。

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The Montanists seem to have sought renewal of the church from within through a rebirth of the religious enthusiasm that had marked Christian beginnings.該montanists似乎尋求重建的教堂內,通過一個重生的宗教熱情,有顯著基督教的開端。 By the 3d century, however, they had established separate communities in which women and men were admitted to presbyterate and episcopacy. Tertullian became one of the movement's adherents.採用三維世紀,但是,它們已經建立了獨立的社區,婦女和男子被送往鐸和主教。良成為一個運動的追隨者。

As a spiritual and charismatic movement, Montanism posed a threat to the emerging church hierarchy.作為一種精神和魅力的運動,孟他努構成了威脅,新興教會的等級制度。 Despite a series of condemnations and continued opposition from orthodox Christian writers, however, Montanism did not disappear until about the 6th century.儘管一系列的譴責和反對繼續從正統基督教作家,但是,孟他努沒有消失,直到6世紀左右。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安

Bibliography 書目
J Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (1971); H Von Campenhausen, Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power (1969). J伯利坎,在傳統的天主教的興起(1971年); Ĥ馮坎彭豪森,教會權威和精神力量(1969年)。


Montanism孟他努

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Montanism was a prophetic movement that broke out in Phrygia in Roman Asia Minor (Turkey) around 172.孟他努是一個預言運動爆發弗里吉亞在羅馬小亞細亞(土耳其)約172。 It attracted a wide following, chiefly in the East, but won its most distinguished adherent in Tertullian.它吸引了一大批追隨者,主要是在東部地區,但贏得了最傑出的粘附於良。 After a period of uncertainty, especially at Rome, it was condemned by synods of bishops in Asia and elsewhere.經過一段時間的不確定性,特別是在羅馬,它是由主教會議的主教譴責在亞洲和其他地區。 A residual sect persisted in Phrygia for some centuries.阿殘餘教派堅持弗里吉亞的幾個世紀。

The main associates of Montanus, who was a recent convert and held no church office, were the prophetesses Prisca (Priscilla) and Maximilla.主要聯營公司蒙塔努斯,誰是最近的轉換並沒有教會辦公室舉行,是預言普里斯卡馬(梁美芬)和馬克西米拉。 What they called "the New Prophecy" was basically a summons to prepare for the return of Christ by heeding the voice of the Paraclete speaking, often in the first person, through his prophetic mouthpieces.他們所謂的“新預言”基本上是一個傳票,準備返回聽從基督的聖靈的聲音說話,經常以第一人稱,通過他的預言喉舌。 They claimed to stand in the line of Christian prophecy well attested in Asia, eg, by John of Revelation, but their ecstatic manner of utterance was (falsely) alleged to run counter to the tradition of Israelite and Christian prophecy.他們聲稱站在行預言證據確鑿的基督教在亞洲,例如,由約翰啟示錄的,但他們欣喜若狂的方式表達為(虛假)指稱違背傳統的以色列人和基督教的預言。 They also incurred the hostility of church leaders by the women's unusual prominence, a boldness that seemed to court martyrdom, their confident predictions of the imminent consummation (shown in time to be false by their nonfulfillment), the hallowing of obscure Phrygian villages like Pepuza as harbingers of the new Jerusalem, and their stern asceticism which disrupted marriages, protracted fasting, and allowed only a dry diet (xerophagy).他們還招致的敵意教會領袖由婦女的不尋常的重視,一個大膽似乎法庭殉道,他們有信心的預言即將圓滿(顯示的時間為虛假他們nonfulfillment)中,哈洛寧的模糊弗里吉亞村莊像Pepuza作為先驅新的耶路撒冷,他們嚴厲的禁慾主義的婚姻破裂,長期禁食,並只允許幹飲食(xerophagy)。 Nothing strictly heretical could be charged against Montanism.沒有什麼可以收取嚴格邪教對孟他努。 Any link with monarchianism was accidental.任何連接monarchianism是偶然的。

Although none of its catholic opponents doubted the continuance of prophecy in the church, Montanism erupted at a time when consolidation of catholic order and conformity to apostolic tradition preoccupied the bishops.雖然沒有一個對手質疑其天主教繼續在教會的預言,孟他努爆發,當時為了鞏固天主教使徒傳統和符合全神貫注的主教。 The prophet's extravagant pretensions, while not intended to displace the emergent NT of Christian Scripture, were felt to threaten both episcopal and scriptural authority.先知的奢侈的野心,而不是為了取代緊急新台幣基督教聖經,被認為威脅都主教和聖經權威。 Recognition of the Paraclete in the New Prophecy was their touchstone of authenticity.認識在新的聖靈是他們的試金石預言的真實性。

Tertullian, whose religious rigorism graduated naturally to the New Prophecy, neglected some of the more eccentric features of the Phrygian movement, stressing the development of ethics inculcated by the Spirit in fulfillment of Christ's promises in John 14 - 16. The "greater things" to come from the Paraclete were the more demanding standards of discipline required of spiritual Christians, such as the denial of remarriage to the widowed and of postbaptismal forgiveness for serious sins.良,其宗教rigorism畢業自然的新預言,忽視了一些更古怪特徵的弗里吉亞運動,強調發展的道德灌輸的精神履行基督的承諾,在約翰14 - 16。“更大的事”,以來自聖靈是更嚴格的標準要求的紀律精神的基督徒,如拒絕再婚的喪偶和postbaptismal寬恕嚴重的罪過。 The contemporary African Passion of Perpetua similarly exalted recent happenings, especially fearless martyrdoms, as evidence of the superabundant grace of the Spirit decreed for the last days.當代非洲的激情同樣崇高的佩爾佩圖阿最近發生的事情,尤其是無所畏懼的殉道,作為證據,過多的恩典的精神頒布的最後幾天。 As Tertullian put it, if the devil's ingenuity escalates daily, why should God's work have ceased advancing to new heights?由於良指出,若魔鬼的聰明才智每天升級,為什麼神的工作已經停止推進到新的高度? The New Prophecy seemed almost to claim for itself a special place in salvation history.新預言似乎幾乎要求一個特殊的地方為自己在救恩歷史。

DF Wright東風賴特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
H von Campenhausen, Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power in the Church of the First Three Centuries, and The Formation of the Christian Bible; D Powell, "Tertullianists and Cataphrygians," VC 29; DF Wright, "Why Were the Montanists Condemned?" Ĥ馮坎彭豪森,教會權威和精神力量,在教會的前三個世紀,而產生的基督教聖經; Ð鮑威爾,“Tertullianists和Cataphrygians,”創投29;東風賴特,“為什麼了Montanists死刑犯?” Them 2.其中有2個。


Montanists Montanists

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" (oi kata Phrygas), then as Montanists, Pepuzians, and (in the West) Cataphrygians. schismatics與羅馬的第二個世紀,第一次被稱為Phrygians,或“者之間的Phrygians”(433卡塔Phrygas),然後作為Montanists,Pepuzians,和(西方)Cataphrygians。 The sect was founded by a prophet, Montanus, and two prophetesses, Maximilla and Prisca, sometimes called Priscilla.該教派是由先知,蒙塔努斯,兩個預言,馬克西米拉和普里斯卡馬,有時也被稱為普麗西拉。

CHRONOLOGY年代學

An anonymous anti-Montanist writer, cited by Eusebius, addressed his work to Abercius Marcellus, Bishop of Hieropolis, who died about 200.一位不願透露姓名的反Montanist作家,引用尤西比烏斯,解決了他的工作Abercius馬塞勒斯,主教Hieropolis,誰死了約200人。 Maximilla had prophesied continual wars and troubles, but this writer declared that he wrote more than thirteen years after her death, yet no war, general or partial, had taken place, but on the contrary the Christians enjoyed permanent peace through the mercy of God (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, xvi, 19).馬克西米拉曾預言不斷的戰爭和苦難,但這個作家宣稱,他說超過13年後她去世,但沒有戰爭,一般的或局部的,已經發生了,但與此相反的基督徒享有永久和平通過憐憫的神(尤西比烏斯,“歷史。傳道書。”第五十六,19)。 These thirteen years can be identified only with the twelve and a half years of Commodus (17 March, 180--31 December, 192).這13年中能夠確定只有在12年半的科莫多(3月17日180 - 12月31日,192)。 The wars between rival emperors began early in 193, so that this anonymous author wrote not much later than January, 193, and Maximilla must have died about the end of 179, not long before Marcus Aurelius.皇帝之間的戰爭對手年初開始在193個,使這個匿名作者說沒有多大不遲於今年1月,193人死亡和馬克西米拉必須結束對179個,沒過多久,馬可奧勒留。 Montanus and Priscilla had died yet earlier.蒙塔努斯和普里西拉還早已經死亡。 Consequently the date given by Eusebius in his "Chronicle" -- eleventh (or twelfth) year of Marcus, ie about 172 -- for the first appearance of Montanus leaves insufficient time for the development of the sect, which we know further to have been of great importance in 177, when the Church of Lyons wrote to Pope Eleutherius on the subject.因此之日起給予尤西比烏斯在他的“紀事” -第11(或12)年的馬庫斯,即約172 -第一次出現的時間不足蒙塔努斯葉子該教派的發展,我們進一步了解了在177個非常重要的,當教會的里昂說,教皇Eleutherius關於這個問題的。 Again, the Montanists are co-ordinated with the martyr Thraseas, mentioned chronologically between Polycarp (155) and Sagaris (under Sergius Paulus, 166-7) in the letter of Polycrates to Pope Victor; the date of Thraseas is therefore about 160, and the origin of Montanism must be yet earlier.同樣,了Montanists是協調與烈士Thraseas提到按時間順序之間波利卡普(155)和Sagaris(根據謝爾蓋保盧斯,166-7)在信中,教皇維克多波利克拉特斯;的日期Thraseas因此約160,和作者:孟他努派的起源,必須還早。 Consequently, Zahn, Harnack, Duchesne, and others (against Völter and Voigt, who accept the late date given by Eusebius, regard St. Epiphanius (Hær., xlviii, 1) as giving the true date of the rise of the sect, "about the nineteenth year of Antoninus Pius" (that is, about the year 156 or 157).因此,贊恩,哈納克,德雷珀,和其他人(對Völter和沃伊特,誰接受過期給予尤西比烏斯,把聖埃皮法尼烏斯(Hær.,48,1)為讓真正的日期該教派的興起,“大約19年的安東尼皮烏斯“(即約156年或157)。

Bonwetsch, accepting Zahn's view that previously (Hær., xlvi, 1) Epiphanius had given the twelfth year of Antoninus Pius where he should have said M. Aurelius, wishes similarly to substitute that emperor here, so that we would get 179, the very date of the death of Maximilla. Bonwetsch,接受贊恩的看法,即以前(Hær.,四十六,1)埃皮法尼烏斯已經發出了12年的安東尼皮烏斯,他應該說米奧里利厄斯,希望同樣是代替皇帝在這裡,所以我們會得到179,非常日期的死亡馬克西米拉。 But the emendation is unnecessary in either case.但校正在兩種情況下是不必要的。 In "Hæreses", xlvi, 1, Epiphanius clearly meant the earlier date, whether right or wrong; and in xlviii, 1, he is not dating the death of Maximilla but the first appearance of the sect.在“Hæreses”,四十六,一,埃皮法尼烏斯顯然指的是較早的日期,無論對錯,並在第48,1,他沒有約會的死亡馬克西米拉但首次出現該教派。 From Eusebius, V, xvi, 7, we learn that this was in the proconsulship of Gratus.從尤西比烏斯,五,十六,七,我們知道這是在proconsulship的Gratus。 Such a proconsul of Asia is not known.這種駐伊亞洲不得而知。

Bonwetsch accepts Zahn's suggestion to read "Quadratus", and points out that there was a Quadratus in 155 (if that is the year of Polycarp's death, which was under Quadratus), and another in 166, so that one of these years was the real date of the birth of Montanism. Bonwetsch接受贊恩的建議改為“誇”,並指出,有一個卡德拉特斯在155(如果是這樣的年波利卡普的死亡,這是按照卡德拉特斯),另一個在166,這樣一這些年是真正的出生日期的孟他努。 But 166 for Quadratus merely depends on Schmid's chronology of Aristides, which has been rejected by Ramsay and others in favor of the earlier chronology worked out by Waddington, who obtained 155 for the Quadratus of Aristides as well as for the Quadratus of Polycarp.但166卡德拉特斯只是取決於施密德的年表的阿里斯蒂德,這已經拒絕了拉姆齊和其他贊成較早年代制定的沃丁頓,誰取得了155卡德拉特斯阿里斯蒂德以及為卡德拉特斯的波利卡普。 Now it is most probable that Epiphanius's authority counted the years of emperors from the September preceding their accession (as Hegesippus seems to have done), and therefore the nineteenth year of Pius would be Sept., 155-Sept., 156.現在是最可能的情況埃皮法尼烏斯的權威計算的年皇帝從9月之前的加入(如Hegesippus似乎已完成),因此19年將是9月的庇護,155 - 9月,156。 Even if the later and Western mode of reckoning from the January after accession is used, the year 157 can be reconciled with the proconsulship of Quadratus in 155, if we remember that Epiphanius merely says "about the nineteenth year of Pius", without vouching for strict accuracy.即使後來和西方模式推算從1月加入後使用,一年157可協調與proconsulship的卡德拉特斯在155,如果我們還記得埃皮法尼烏斯只是說:“在19年左右的庇護”,而不為金幣嚴格的準確性。 He tells us further on that Maximilla prophesied: "After me there shall be no prophetess, but the end", whereas he was writing after 290 years, more or less, in the year 375 or 376.他告訴我們說馬克西米拉進一步預言:“在我之後不得有先知,但最終的”,而他在寫290年後,或多或少,在今年375或376。 To correct the evident error Harnack would read 190, which brings us roughly to the death of Maximilla (385 for 379).若要更正的明顯錯誤的Harnack會讀190,這使我們大致的死亡馬克西米拉(385 379)。 But ekaton for diakosia is a big change.但ekaton為 diakosia是一個很大的轉變。 It is more likely that Epiphanius is calculating from the date he had himself given, 19th of Pius=156, as he did not know that of Maximilla's death; his "more or less" corresponds to his former "about".它更可能是埃皮法尼烏斯之日起計算,是他自己所說,19 = 156的庇護,因為他不知道馬克西米拉的死,他的“或多或少”對應於他以前的“關於”。 So we shall with Zahn adopt Scaliger's conjecture diakosia enneakaideka for diakosia enenekonta, which brings us from 156 to 375!9 years.因此,我們將與贊恩採取斯卡利傑爾猜想diakosia enneakaideka為diakosia enenekonta,這使我們從156到375!9年。 As Apollonius wrote forty years after the sect emerged, his work must be dated about 196.由於阿波羅紐斯說40年後出現的教派,他的工作必須註明日期約196。

MONTANISM IN ASIA MINOR孟他努小亞細亞

Montanus was a recent convert when he first began to prophesy in the village of Ardabau in Phrygia.蒙塔努斯是最近轉換當他第一次開始預言在村Ardabau在phrygia。 He is said by Jerome to have been previously a priest of Cybele; but this is perhaps a later invention intended to connect his ecstasies with the dervish-like behavior of the priests and devotees of the "great goddess".據說,他是由杰羅姆已經過去一個牧師錫貝爾勒,但這也許是後來發明旨在連接其狂喜與苦行僧般的行為祭司和信徒的“偉大的女神”。 The same prophetic gift was believed to have descended also upon his two companions, the prophetesses Maximilla and Prisca or Priscilla.同樣的禮物,相信先知的後裔也有他的兩個同伴後,該預言馬克西米拉和普里斯卡馬或普里西拉。 Their headquarters were in the village of Pepuza.他們的總部都在村里的Pepuza。 The anonymous opponent of the sect describes the method of prophecy (Eusebius, V, xvii, 2-3): first the prophet appears distraught with terror (en parekstasei), then follows quiet (adeia kai aphobia, fearlessness); beginning by studied vacancy of thought or passivity of intellect (ekousios amathia), he is seized by an uncontrollable madness (akousios mania psyches).這些匿名的對手的方法描述了該教派的預言(優西比烏,五,十七,2-3):首先出現心煩意亂的先知與恐怖(恩parekstasei),然後如下安靜(adeia偕aphobia,無畏);開端,研究空缺思想或被動的智慧(ekousios amathia),他是抓住一個無法控制的瘋狂(akousios躁狂症精神上)。 The prophets did not speak as messengers of God: "Thus saith the Lord," but described themselves as possessed by God and spoke in His Person.先知沒有上帝的使者的身份發言:“耶和華如此說,”但說自己是擁有上帝和他的人發言。 "I am the Father, the Word, and the Paraclete," said Montanus (Didymus, "De Trin.", III, xli); and again: "I am the Lord God omnipotent, who have descended into to man", and "neither an angel, nor an ambassador, but I, the Lord, the Father, am come" (Epiphanius, "Hær.", xlviii, 11). “我的父親,這個詞,和聖靈,說:”孟他努(迪代,“德特林。”,三,四十一),並再次:“我是上帝萬能的,誰已陷入到人”,和“既不是天使,也不是大使,但我,主,父親,我來”(埃皮法尼烏斯,“哈爾。”,48,11)。 And Maximilla said: "Hear not me, but hear Christ" (ibid.); and: "I am driven off from among the sheep like a wolf [that is, a false prophet--cf. Matt., vii, 15]; I am not a wolf, but I am speech, and spirit, and power."和馬克西米拉說:“不是我聽,但聽到基督”(同上);和:“我趕下車從羊中像狼[即,假先知-比照。馬特。,七,15] ;我不是狼,但我講話,和精神,力量。“ This possession by a spirit, which spoke while the prophet was incapable of resisting, is described by the spirit of Montanus: "Behold the man is like a lyre, and I dart like the plectrum. The man sleeps, and I am awake" (Epiphanius, "Hær.", xlviii, 4).這所擁有的精神,足而先知是無法抗拒,是描述的精神蒙塔努斯:“你們看這個人就像是豎琴,和我一樣的撥子飛鏢。男子睡,我醒來”(埃皮法尼烏斯,“哈爾。”,48,4)。

We hear of no false doctrines at first.我們聽到沒有虛假學說在第一。 The Paraclete ordered a few fasts and abstinences; the latter were strict xerophagioe, but only for two weeks in the year, and even then the Saturdays and Sundays did not count (Tertullian, "De jej.", xv).在聖靈下令幾個齋戒和禁慾,後者是嚴格xerophagioe,但只有兩個星期的一年,即使這樣,星期六和星期日不計算在(良,“德jej。”十五)。 Not only was virginity strongly recommended (as always by the Church), but second marriages were disapproved.這不僅是處女強烈建議(一如既往由教會),但第二次婚姻被拒絕。 Chastity was declared by Priscilla to be a preparation for ecstasy: "The holy [chaste] minister knows how to minister holiness. For those who purify their hearts [reading purificantes enim corda, by conjecture for purificantia enim concordal] both see visions, and placing their head downwards (!) also hear manifest voices, as saving as they are secret" (Tertullian, "Exhort." X, in one manuscript).貞節被宣布普麗西拉是準備搖頭丸:“神聖的[純潔]部長知道如何部長聖潔。對於那些誰淨化心靈[閱讀purificantes enim科達,由猜想purificantia enim concordal]既見異象,並放置他們的頭部向下(!)也聽到明顯的聲音,因為他們是秘密保存為“(良,”勸誡。“十,一稿)。 It was rumored, however, that Priscilla had been married, and had left her husband.據傳聞,不過,梁美芬已經結婚,並已離開了她的丈夫。 Martyrdom was valued so highly that flight from persecution was disapproved, and so was the buying off of punishment.殉難的飛行高度重視,以便從迫害被拒絕,所以是收買的懲罰。 "You are made an outlaw?" “你是作出了取締?” said Montanus, "it is good for you. For he who is not outlawed among men is outlawed in the Lord. Be not confounded. It is justice which hales you in public. Why are you confounded, when you are sowing praise? Power comes, when you are stared at by men."孟他努說,“這是對你有好處。因為他是誰不取締男子是非法的,在主。你們不要混淆。它是正義的阿萊斯你在公共場所。為什麼你困惑,當你播種讚美?電力則,當你看著男人。“ And again: "Do not desire to depart this life in beds, in miscarriages, in soft fevers, but in martyrdoms, that He who suffered for you may be glorified" (Tertullian, "De fuga", ix; cf. "De anima", lv).並重申:“不要想離開這個生活在床,在流產,在軟發燒,但在殉道,認為他受到了誰,你是榮耀”(良,“德風雅”,第九條;比照。“德靈魂“呂)。 Tertullian says: "Those who receive the Paraclete, know neither to flee persecution nor to bribe" (De fuga, 14), but he is unable to cite any formal prohibition by Montanus.良說:“誰得到聖靈,但不會知道逃離迫害,也不行賄”(德風雅,14),但他無法舉出任何正式禁止由孟他努。

So far, the most that can be said of these didactic utterances is that there was a slight tendency to extravagance.到目前為止,大多數可以說,這些言論是說教,有輕微傾向奢侈。 The people of Phrygia were accustomed to the orgiastic cult of Cybele.弗里吉亞的人都習慣了狂歡邪教的錫貝爾勒。 There were doubtless many Christians there.毫無疑問,有許多基督徒那裡。 The contemporary accounts of Montanism mention Christians in otherwise unknown villages: Ardabau on the Mysian border, Pepuza, Tymion, as well as in Otrus, Apamea, Cumane, Eumenea.當代基督徒佔孟他努提到在其他未知的村莊:Ardabau對Mysian邊界,Pepuza,Tymion,以及在Otrus,阿帕米亞,Cumane,Eumenea。 Early Christian inscriptions have been found at Otrus, Hieropolis, Pepuza (of 260), Trajanopolis (of 279), Eumenea (of 249) etc. (see Harnack, "Expansion of Christianity", II, 360).早期基督教銘文已發現Otrus,Hieropolis,Pepuza(260),Trajanopolis(279),Eumenea(249)等(見哈納克,“擴大基督教”,第二章,360)。 There was a council at Synnada in the third century.有一個理事會Synnada在第三世紀。 The "Acta Theodoti" represent the village of Malus near Ancyra as entirely Christian under Diocletian.在“學報Theodoti”代表海棠村附近的安該拉是完全基督教戴克里先下。 Above all we must remember what crowds of Christians were found in Pontus and Bithynia by Pliny in 112, not only in the cities but in country places.最重要的是,我們必須記住的人潮基督徒被發現本都和比提尼亞由普林尼在112,不僅在城市,而且在全國各地進行。 No doubt, therefore, there were numerous Christians in the Phrygian villages to be drawn by the astounding phenomena. Crowds came to Pepuza, it seems, and contradiction was provoked.毫無疑問,因此,有許多基督徒在弗里吉亞村莊制定了驚人的現象。人群來到Pepuza,似乎是挑釁和矛盾。 In the very first days Apollinarius, a successor of St. Papias as Bishop of Hierapolis in the southwestern corner of the province, wrote against Montanus.在第一天Apollinarius,繼承聖主教的希拉波利斯帕皮亞作為在西南角的省,說對蒙塔努斯。 Eusebius knew this letter from its being enclosed by Serapion of Antioch (about 191-212) in a letter addressed by him to the Christians of Caria and Pontus.尤西比烏斯知道這封信從被包圍在謝拉皮翁安提(約191-212)在他的信的基督徒卡里亞和本都。 Apollinarius related that Ælius Publius Julius of Debeltum (now Burgas) in Thrace, swore that "Sotas the blessed who was in Anchialus [on the Thracian coast] had wished to cast out the demon from Priscilla; but the hypocrites would not allow it." Clearly Sotas was dead, and could not speak for himself. Apollinarius相關的來源於多普布利烏斯朱利葉Debeltum(現布爾加斯)在色雷斯,發誓說:“Sotas的祝福誰在Anchialus [根據色雷斯海岸]曾希望投出的惡魔從普麗西拉,但偽君子不會允許它。”顯然 Sotas死了,不能為自己說話。 The anonymous writer tells us that some thought Montanus to be possessed by an evil spirit, and a troubler of the people; they rebuked him and tried to stop his prophesying; the faithful of Asia assembled in many places, and examining the prophecies declared them profane, and condemned the heresy, so that the disciples were thrust out of the Church and its communion.這些匿名的作家告訴我們,有些人認為蒙塔努斯是由一個具有邪惡的精神,以及troubler的人,他們斥責他,並試圖阻止他的預言,忠實地聚集在亞洲的許多地方,並檢查他們的預言宣告褻瀆,並譴責異端,使門徒們伸出的教會和它的共融。

It is difficult to say how soon this excommunication took place in Asia. Probably from the beginning some bishops excluded the followers of Montanus, and this severity was growing common before the death of Montanus; but it was hardly a general rule much before the death of Maximilla in 179; condemnation of the prophets themselves, and mere disapproval of their disciples was the first stage.這是很難說這罰多久發生在亞洲。大概從一開始就排除了一些主教信徒蒙塔努斯,這嚴重程度日益強烈的共同前死亡蒙塔努斯,但它絕不是一般規則多前去世馬克西米拉179;譴責自己的先知,和僅僅是反對他們的弟子是第一階段。 We hear of holy persons, including the bishops Zoticus of Cumana and Julian of Apamea, attempting to exorcise Maximilla at Pepuza, doubtless after the death of Montanus.我們聽到的神聖的人,包括主教Zoticus的庫馬納和朱利安阿帕米亞,試圖驅除馬克西米拉在Pepuza,無疑後死亡蒙塔努斯。 But Themison prevented them (Eusebius, V, xvi, 17; xviii, 12).但Themison阻止他們(優西比烏,五,十六,十七,十八,12)。 This personage was called a confessor but, according to the anonymous writer, he had bought himself off.這個人物被稱為懺悔,但據匿名的作家,他自己買了。 He published "a catholic epistle, in imitation of the Apostle", in support of his party.他出版了“一個天主教書信,在仿製的使徒”,在支持他的黨。 Another so- called martyr, called Alexander, was for many years a companion of Maximilla, who, though a prophetess, did not know that it was for robbery, and not "for the Name", that he had been condemned by the proconsul Æmilius Frontinus (date unknown) in Ephesus; in proof of this the public archives of Asia are appealed to.另一個所謂的烈士,被稱為亞歷山大,是多年的伴侶馬克西米拉,誰,雖然是預言家,不知道這是因搶劫罪,而不是“為名稱”,他被譴責駐伊米利烏斯弗朗提努(日期不詳)在以弗所,在此證明了亞洲的公共檔案的呼籲。 Of another leader, Alcibiades, nothing is known.另一領導人,亞西比德,沒有什麼是已知的。 The prophets are accused of taking gifts under the guise of offerings; Montanus sent out salaried preachers; the prophetesses painted their faces, dyed their eyelids with stibium, wore ornaments and played at dice.先知被指控服用禮物幌子下的產品;蒙塔努斯派出受薪傳道;的預言畫他們的臉,他們的眼皮染成銻,戴著首飾和發揮在骰子。 But these accusations may be untrue.但這些指控可能是不真實的。 The great point was the manner of prophesying.偉大的一點是預言的方式。 It was denounced as contrary to custom and to tradition.它被指責為違背習俗和傳統。 A Catholic writer, Miltiades, wrote a book to which the anonymous author refers, "How a prophet ought not to speak in ecstasy".天主教作家,米里基阿德,寫了一書,其中提到的匿名作者,“不應該如何先知發言搖頭丸”。 It was urged that the phenomena were those of possession, not those of the Old Testament prophets, or of New Testament prophets like Silas, Agabus, and the daughters of Philip the Deacon; or of prophets recently known in Asia, Quadratus (Bishop of Athens) and Ammia, prophetess of Philadelphia, of whom the Montanist prophets boasted of being successors.這是敦促該現象的佔有,而不是那些舊約的先知,或新約先知像西拉斯,亞迦布和女兒菲利普執事;或稱為先知最近在亞洲,卡德拉特斯(主教雅典)和Ammia,預言費城人吹噓的Montanist先知被繼承人。 To speak in the first person as the Father or the Paraclete appeared blasphemous.發言的第一人的父親或聖靈出現褻瀆。 The older prophets had spoken "in the Spirit", as mouthpieces of the Spirit, but to have no free will, to be helpless in a state of madness, was not consonant with the text: "The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets."老先知曾發言“的精神”,作為喉舌的精神,但有沒有自由意志,將無助於一個國家的瘋狂,是不是一致的案文:“精神的先知都受先知。“ Montanus declared: "The Lord hath sent me as the chooser, the revealer, the interpreter of this labor, this promise, and this covenant, being forced, willingly or unwillingly, to learn the gnosis of God." The Montanists appealed to Gen., ii, 21: "The Lord sent an ecstasy [ektasin] upon Adam"; Ps.蒙塔努斯宣稱:“耶和華差遣我的選擇器,探寶器,該解釋這種勞動,這個承諾,這個公約,被強迫,情願或不情願地學習感悟上帝。”該montanists呼籲將軍,二,21:“耶和華發出狂喜[ektasin]要求亞當”;聚苯乙烯。 cxv, 2: "I said in my ecstasy"; Acts, x, 10: "There came upon him [Peter] an ecstasy"; but these texts proved neither that an ecstasy of excitement was proper to sanctity, nor that it was a right state in which to prophesy.第一百一十五,2:“我說在我的狂喜”,行為中,x,10:“他有來到[彼得] 1搖頭丸”,但事實證明這些文本不是一個狂喜的興奮是恰當的神聖性,也不是說這是一個權國家在其中的預言。

A better argument was the declaration that the new prophecy was of a higher order than the old, and therefore unlike it.一個更好的理由就是聲明,新的預言是一個更高層次的較舊,因此不像它。 It came to be thought higher than the Apostles, and even beyond the teaching of Christ.它後來被認為高於使徒,甚至超出了教學的基督。 Priscilla went to sleep, she said, at Pepuza, and Christ came to her and slept by her side "in the form of a woman, clad in a bright garment, and put wisdom into me, and revealed to me that this place is holy, and that here Jerusalem above comes down".普麗西拉去睡覺,她說,在Pepuza,基督來到她睡在她身邊“的形式對一個女人,穿著光明的服裝,並把智慧為我,讓我發現原來這個地方是神聖的,並在這裡耶路撒冷以上歸結“。 "Mysteries" (sacraments?) were celebrated there publicly. “謎”(聖禮?)為慶祝有公開。 In Epiphanius's time Pepuza was a desert, and the village was gone.在埃皮法尼烏斯的時間Pepuza是一個沙漠,村莊消失了。 Marcellina, surviving the other two, prophesied continual wars after her death--no other prophet, but the end. It seems on the whole that Montanus had no particular doctrine, and that his prophetesses went further than he did.馬塞利納,存活下來的另外兩個,預言她去世後,不斷的戰爭-沒有其他的先知,但最終。看來,整體上蒙塔努斯沒有特別的學說,他的預言比他走得更遠。 The extravagances of his sect were after the deaths of all three; but it is difficult to know how far we are to trust our authorities.他的奢侈節之後的所有3人死亡,但很難知道多少我們要相信我們的當局。 The anonymous writer admits that he has only an uncertain report for the story that Montanus and Maximilla both hanged themselves, and that Themison was carried into the air by a devil, flung down, and so died.這些匿名的作家承認,他只是一個不確定的情況報告和馬克西米拉故事蒙塔努斯都上吊自殺,這Themison進行到空氣中的魔鬼,扔了,等死。 The sect gained much popularity in Asia.該教派獲得不少知名度在亞洲。 It would seem that some Churches were wholly Montanist.看來,一些教堂被完全Montanist。 The anonymous writer found the Church at Ancyra in 193 greatly disturbed about the new prophecy.筆者發現的匿名教會在安該拉大為193感到不安的新的預言。 Tertullian's lost writing "De Ecstasi", in defense of their trances, is said by Prædestinatus to have been an answer to Pope Soter (Hær., xxvi, lxxxvi), who had condemned or disapproved them; but the authority is not a good one.良失去寫作“德Ecstasi”,他們的靜坐在國防,據說是由Prædestinatus已經回答了教皇索特(Hær.,26,捌拾),誰曾譴責或拒絕他們,但這些權力是不是一個好一。 He has presumably confounded Soter with Sotas, Bishop of Anchialus.他大概混淆索特與Sotas,主教Anchialus。 In 177 the Churches of Lyons and Vienne sent to the Churches of Asia and Phrygia their celebrated account of the martyrdoms that had been taking place.在177個教會的里昂和維埃納發送到亞洲和弗里吉亞教會他們慶祝帳戶的殉道已經發生。 Eusebius tells us that at the same time they enclosed letters which had been written in prison by the martyrs on the question of the Montanists.尤西比烏斯告訴我們,在同一時間,他們已被封閉的信寫在監獄中的烈士的問題上了Montanists。 They sent the same by Irenæus to Pope Eleutherius.他們發出同樣的愛任紐,教皇Eleutherius。 Eusebius says only that they took a prudent and most orthodox view.尤西比烏斯只說他們採取了審慎的和最正統的觀點。 It is probable that they disapproved of the prophets, but were not inclined to extreme measures against their followers.這是可能的,他們不贊成的先知,但不傾向於極端措施對他們的追隨者。 It was not denied that the Montanists could count many martyrs; it was replied to their boast, that all the heretics had many, and especially the Marcionites, but that true martyrs like Gaius and Alexander of Eumenea had refused to communicate with fellow martyrs who had approved the new prophecy (Anon. in Eusebius, V, xvi, 27).這並不是否認了Montanists可以依靠的許多烈士,那是說他們吹噓,所有的異端有很多,特別是Marcionites,但真正的烈士一樣蓋烏斯和亞歷山大Eumenea拒絕與同事溝通了烈士誰批准了新的預言(Anon.在優西比烏,五,十六,27)。 The acts of Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice (the last of these threw herself into the fire), martyrs of Thyatira under Marcus Aurelius (about 161-9), may exhibit an influence of Montanism on the martyrs.卡爾普斯的行為,Papylus和Agathonice(最後這撲在火),烈士的蒂厄拉根據馬可奧勒留(約161-9),可能會出現一個影響孟他努的烈士。

MONTANISM IN THE WEST孟他努我國西部

A second-century pope (more probably Eleutherius than Victor) was inclined to approve the new prophecies, according to Tertullian, but was dissuaded by Praxeas.第二個世紀的教宗(更可能Eleutherius比維克多)傾向於批准新的預言,根據良,但被勸阻的Praxeas。 Their defender in Rome was Proclus or Proculus, much reverenced by Tertullian.他們的後衛在羅馬的普羅克洛或Proculus,更贏得尊重的良。 A disputation was held by Gaius against him in the presence of Pope Zephyrinus (about 202-3, it would seem).一個爭論是對他持有的該猶在出席教皇Zephyrinus(約202-3,看來)。 As Gaius supported the side of the Church, Eusebius calls him a Churchman (II, xxv, 6), and is delighted to find in the minutes of the discussion that Gaius rejected the Johannine authorship of the Apocalypse, and attributed it to Cerinthus.由於該猶支持方的教會,叫他一尤西比烏斯丘奇曼(第二,二十五,六),並高興地看到在分鐘的討論中否決了該猶johannine的著作權的啟示,並歸因於克林妥。 But Gaius was the worse of the two, for we know from the commentary on the Apocalypse by Bar Salibi, a Syriac writer of the twelfth century (see Theodore H. Robinson in "Expositor", VII, sixth series, June, 1906), that he rejected the Gospel and Epistles of St. John as well, and attributed them all to Cerinthus.但該猶是更糟的兩個,因為我們知道從評注的啟示大律師Salibi,一個敘利亞作家的12世紀(見西奧多H ·羅賓遜在“expositor”,七,六系列,6月,1906年),他拒絕了福音和書信的聖約翰的歡迎,並歸咎於他們都克林妥。 It was against Gaius that Hippolytus wrote his "Heads against Gaius" and also his "Defense of the Gospel and the Apocalypse of John" (unless these are two names for the same work).正是在該猶是西波呂說他的“首腦反對該猶”,也是他“國防的福音和約翰的啟示”(除非這兩個名字相同的工作)。 St. Epiphanius used these works for his fifty-first heresy (cf. Philastrius, "Hær." lx), and as the heresy had no name he invented that of Alogoi, meaning at once "the unreasoning" and "those who reject the Logos".聖埃皮法尼烏斯利用這些作品為他的第五十一屆異端(參見Philastrius,“哈爾。”lx的),並作為異端沒有名字,他臆造出Alogoi,含義,在一次的“不通情理”和“誰反對標誌“。 We gather that Gaius was led to reject the Gospel out of opposition to Proclus, who taught (Pseudo-Tertullian, "De Præsc.", lii) that "the Holy Ghost was in the Apostles, but the Paraclete was not, and that the Paraclete published through Montanus more than Christ revealed in the Gospel, and not only more, but also better and greater things"; thus the promise of the Paraclete (John 14:16) was not to the Apostles but to the next age.我們推測,該猶是導致拒絕福音出來反對普羅克洛,誰教(偽良,“德Præsc。”呂氏)說,“聖靈在使徒,但聖靈是沒有,而且聖靈通過蒙塔努斯發表超過基督在福音中發現,不僅多,但也更好,更大的事“,因此承諾的聖靈(約翰福音14:16)是不是使徒,但到下一個時代。 St. Irenæus refers to Gaius without naming him (III, xi, 9): "Others, in order that they may frustrate the gift of the Spirit, which in the last days has been poured upon the human race according to the good pleasure of the Father, do not admit that form [lion] which corresponds with the Gospel of John in which the Lord promised to send the Paraclete; but they reject the Gospel and with it the prophetic Spirit. Unhappy, indeed, in that, wishing to have no false prophets [reading with Zahn pseudoprophetas esse nolunt for pseudoprophetoe esse volunt], they drive away the grace of prophecy from the Church; resembling persons who, to avoid those who come in hypocrisy, withdraw from communion even with brethren."聖愛任紐是指該猶他沒有點名(第三十一,9):“其他人,使他們可能阻礙聖靈的恩賜,而在最後的日子已經倒在人類根據好高興的父親,不承認形式[獅子]對應與約翰福音中主答應派遣聖靈,但他們拒絕了福音,它的預言精神。不滿,的確,在這,希望有無假先知[閱讀與贊恩pseudoprophetas埃塞nolunt精神而為pseudoprophetoe埃塞],他們趕走寬限期從教會的預言;相似的人誰,為了避免那些誰進來虛偽,甚至退出共融與兄弟。“ The old notion that the Alogi were an Asiatic sect (see ALOGI) is no longer tenable; they were the Roman Gaius and his followers, if he had any.舊的觀念認為爾羅基是一個亞洲節(見爾羅基)不再是站不住腳的,他們是羅馬蓋烏斯和他的追隨者,如果他有什麼。 But Gaius evidently did not venture to reject the Gospel in his dispute before Zephyrinus, the account of which was known to Dionysius of Alexandria as well as to Eusebius (cf. Eusebius, III, xx, 1, 4).但該猶顯然不敢拒絕在他的福音爭端之前Zephyrinus,該帳戶的是眾所周知的狄奧尼修斯的亞歷山大以及尤西比烏斯(參見尤西比烏斯,三,XX條,1,4)。 It is to be noted that Gaius is a witness to the sojourn of St. John in Asia, since he considers the Johannine writings to be forgeries, attributed by their author Cerinthus to St. John; hence he thinks St. John is represented by Cerinthus as the ruler of the Asiatic Churches.這是應該指出,該猶是一個見證逗留聖約翰在亞洲,因為他認為該johannine著作是偽造的,由行為人克林妥歸因到聖約翰,因此他認為聖約翰是代表克林妥作為統治者的亞洲教會。 Another Montanist (about 200), who seems to have separated from Proclus, was Æschines, who taught that "the Father is the Son", and is counted as a Monarchian of the type of Noetus or Sabellius.另一個Montanist(約200),誰似乎已經脫離普羅克洛,是Æschines,誰告訴我們,“父親是兒子”,是算作一個上帝一體的類型Noetus或撒伯流。

But Tertullian is the most famous of the Montanists.但良是最有名的了Montanists。 He was born about 150-5, and became a Christian about 190-5.他出生約150-5,成為一個基督徒約190-5。 His excessive nature led him to adopt the Montanist teaching as soon as he knew it (about 202-3).他過多的性質使他採用Montanist教學,一旦他知道(約202-3)。 His writings from this date onwards grow more and more bitter against the Catholic Church, from which he definitively broke away about 207.他的作品從該日起增加越來越多的苦反對天主教,而他最終衝破了約207。 He died about 223, or not much later.他死了約 223個,或不晚得多。 His first Montanist work was a defense of the new prophecy in six books, "De Ecstasi", written probably in Greek; he added a seventh book in reply to Apollonius.他的第一個Montanist工作是國防的新的預言在6書籍,“德Ecstasi”,可能寫在希臘,他補充說:第七書在回答阿波羅紐斯。 The work is lost, but a sentence preserved by Prædestinatus (xxvi) is important: "In this alone we differ, in that we do not receive second marriage, and that we do not refuse the prophecy of Montanus concerning the future judgment."這項工作是丟失,但保留了一個句子Prædestinatus(26)是重要的:“在這一年內,我們不同,是因為我們沒有收到第二次婚姻,和我們不拒絕預言蒙塔努斯關於將來的判斷。” In fact Tertullian holds as an absolute law the recommendations of Montanus to eschew second marriages and flight from persecution.事實上良認為作為一個絕對法的建議,以避免第二次婚姻蒙塔努斯和航班從迫害。 He denies the possibility of forgiveness of sins by the Church; he insists upon the newly ordained fasts and abstinences.他否認的可能性寬恕的罪孽,由教會,他堅持認為,新受戒的齋戒和禁慾。 Catholics are the Psychici as opposed to the "spiritual" followers of the Paraclete; the Catholic Church consists of gluttons and adulterers, who hate to fast and love to remarry.天主教徒是Psychici而不是“精神”的追隨者的聖靈;天主教教會組成的貪食和姦淫,誰不喜歡和愛快再婚。 Tertullian evidently exaggerated those parts of the Montanist teaching which appealed to himself, caring little for the rest.良顯然誇大了這些地區的Montanist對自己教學的呼籲,關心小的休息。 He has no idea of making a pilgrimage to Pepuza, but he speaks of joining in spirit with the celebration of the Montanist feasts in Asia Minor.他不知道做一個朝聖Pepuza,但他談到加入的精神與慶祝節日的Montanist在小亞細亞。 The Acts of Sts.該行為的STS。 Perpetua and Felicitas are by some thought to reflect a period a Carthage when the Montanist teaching was arousing interest and sympathy but had not yet formed a schism. perpetua和費利西塔斯是由一些思考,以反映一個時期迦太基時Montanist教學是激發興趣和同情,但尚未形成分裂。

The following of Tertullian cannot have been large; but a Tertullianist sect survived him and its remnants were reconciled to the Church by St. Augustine (Hær., lxxxvi).下面的良不能已大,但一Tertullianist節他和倖存下來的殘餘物調和,以教會的聖奧古斯丁(Hær.,捌拾)。 About 392-4 an African lady, Octaviana, wife of Hesperius, a favorite of the Duke Arbogastes and the usurper Maximus, brought to Rome a Tertullianist priest who raved as if possessed.關於392-4一個非洲女,奧克塔維亞娜,妻子Hesperius,最喜歡的公爵Arbogastes和篡權鮃,帶來了羅馬一Tertullianist祭司誰妄言像著魔似的。 He obtained the use of the church of Sts.他獲得的使用教會的STS。 Processus and Martinianus on the Via Aurelia, but was turned out by Theodosius, and he and Octaviana were heard of no more.突和Martinianus有關威盛奧里利亞,但被拒絕由狄奧多西,他和奧克塔維亞娜沒有更多的人聽到。 Epiphanius distinguished a sect of Montanists as Pepuzians or Quintillians (he calls Priscilla also Quintilla).埃皮法尼烏斯傑出的一節的Montanists作為Pepuzians或Quintillians(他呼籲梁美芬也金蒂利亞)。 He says they had some foolish sayings which gave thanks to Eve for eating of the tree of knowledge.他說,他們有一些愚蠢的說法,這使感謝夏娃吃樹的知識。 They used to sleep at Pepuza in order to see Christ as Priscilla had done.他們用來睡覺Pepuza才能看到基督梁美芬做了。 Often in their church seven virgins would enter with lamps, dressed in white, to prophesy to the people, whom by their excited action they would move to tears; this reminds us of some modern missions rather than of the Irvingite "speaking with tongues", with which the Montanist ecstasies have often been compared.通常在他們的教會7處女將進入燈具,身著白色,以預言的百姓,就是他們興奮的行動,他們將轉移到流淚,這提醒我們的使命,而不是一些現代的Irvingite“說方言”,與該Montanist興奮過後往往比較。 These heretics were said to have women for their bishops and priests, in honor of Eve.這些異端據說有婦女,他們的主教和司鐸,在榮譽的前夕。 They were called "Artotyrites", because their sacrament was of bread and cheese.他們被稱為“Artotyrites”,因為他們的聖事是麵包和奶酪。 Prædestinatus says the Pepuzians did not really differ from other Montanists, but despised all who did not actually dwell at the "new Jerusalem". Prædestinatus說,Pepuzians沒有真正不同於其他Montanists,但鄙視所有誰實際上並沒有停留在“新耶路撒冷”。 There is a well-known story that the Montanists (or at least the Pepuzians) on a certain feast took a baby child whom they stuck all over with brazen pins.有一個眾所周知的故事了Montanists(或至少是Pepuzians)對某一節日採取了牙牙學語的孩子他們所堅持的無恥銷全國各地。 They used the blood to make cakes for sacrifice.他們用血,使蛋糕的犧牲。 If the child died it was looked upon as a martyr; if it lived, as a high-priest.如果孩子死了它看成是烈士,如果它生活,作為一個高神父。 This story was no doubt a pure invention, and was especially denied in the "De Ecstasi" of Tertullian.這個故事無疑是純粹的發明,並且特別否認“德Ecstasi”的良。 An absurd nickname for the sect was Tascodrugitoe, from Phrygian words meaning peg and nose, because they were said to put their forefinger up their nose when praying "in order to appear dejected and pious" (Epiphanius, Hær., xlviii, 14).一個荒謬的暱稱該教派是Tascodrugitoe,從弗里吉亞詞的含義PEG和鼻子,因為他們說,把他們的食指了他們在祈禱時鼻子“,以便出現沮喪和虔誠”(埃皮法尼烏斯,哈爾。,48,14)。

It is interesting to take St. Jerome's account, written in 384, of the doctrines of Montanism as he believed them to be in his own time (Ep., xli).有趣的是,採取圣杰羅姆的帳戶,寫在384的孟他努派的教義,他相信他們能夠在自己的時間(插曲,四十一)。 He describes them as Sabellians in their idea of the Trinity, as forbidding second marriage, as observing three Lents "as though three Saviours had suffered".他形容他們為薩姆奈特人在他們的想法的三位一體,作為禁止第二次婚姻,因為觀察3倫茨“好像3奧爾塞弗斯遭受了”。 Above bishops they have "Cenones" (probably not koinonoi, but a Phrygian word) and patriarchs above these at Pepuza.最重要的主教,他們有“Cenones”(很可能不是koinonoi,但弗里吉亞字)和元老以上這些在Pepuza。 They close the door of the Church to almost every sin. They say that God, not being able to save the world by Moses and the Prophets, took flesh of the Virgin Mary, and in Christ, His Son, preached and died for us. And because He could not accomplish the salvation of the world by this second method, the Holy Spirit descended upon Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla, giving them the plenitude which St. Paul had not (1 Corinthians 13:9).他們關閉大門的教會幾乎所有的罪孽。他們說,上帝,而不是能夠拯救世界的摩西和先知,帶肉的聖母瑪利亞,並在基督裡,他的兒子,並鼓吹為我們死。因為他不能完成救亡世界的第二種方法,聖靈降臨蒙塔努斯,普里斯卡馬和馬克西米拉,使他們充實而聖保羅沒有(哥林多前書13時09分)。 St. Jerome refuses to believe the story of the blood of a baby; but his account is already exaggerated beyond what the Montanists would have admitted that they held. Origen ("Ep. ad Titum" in "Pamph. Apol.", I fin.) is uncertain whether they are schismatics or heretics.圣杰羅姆不肯相信故事的嬰兒的血液,但他的帳戶已經超出了Montanists誇張會承認,他們舉行。奧利(“的EP。廣告Titum”中的“Pamph。Apol。”我鰭。)是不確定他們是否schismatics與羅馬或異端。 St. Basil is amazed that Dionysius of Alexandria admitted their baptism to be valid (Ep., clxxxii).聖巴索是驚訝,狄奧尼修斯的亞歷山大承認自己的洗禮是有效的(插曲,clxxxii)。 According to Philastrius (Hær., xlix) they baptized the dead.據Philastrius(Hær.,第四十九章),他們死去的洗禮。 Sozomen (xviii) tells us that they observed Easter on 6 April or on the following Sunday. Sozomen(十八)告訴我們,他們觀察到復活節4月6日或以下星期日。 Germanus of Constantinople (PG, XCVIII, 44) says they taught eight heavens and eight degrees of damnation. Germanus君士坦丁堡公司(PG,XCVIII,44歲)說,他們教8天,8度的詛咒。 The Christian emperors from Constantine onwards made laws against them, which were scarcely put into execution in Phrygia (Sozomen, II, xxxii).從基督教皇帝君士坦丁開始對他們制定的法律,其中幾乎沒有付諸執行的弗里吉亞(Sozomen,二,三十二)。 But gradually they became a small and secret sect.但是,他們逐漸成為小型的秘密教派。 The bones of Montanus were dug up in 861.這些骨頭的蒙塔努斯被挖出來的861。 The numerous Montanist writings (bibloi apeiroi, "Philosophumena", VIII, xix) are all lost.眾多的Montanist著作(bibloi apeiroi,“Philosophumena”,八,19)都丟失。 It seems that a certain Asterius Urbanus made a collection of the prophecies (Eusebius, V, xvi, 17).看來,在一定Asterius烏爾巴努斯作出了收集的預言(優西比烏,五,十六,十七)。

A theory of the origin of Montanism, originated by Ritschl, has been followed by Harnack, Bonwetsch, and other German critics.一個理論的孟他努派的起源,起源於由後里奇爾,一直遵循的哈納克,Bonwetsch,和其他德國批評。 The secularizing in the second century of the Church by her very success and the disappearance of the primitive "Enthusiasmus" made a difficulty for "those believers of the old school who protested in the name of the Gospel against this secular Church, and who wished to gather together a people prepared for their God regardless alike of numbers an circumstances".在世俗化的第二個世紀的教會她非常成功和失踪的原始“Enthusiasmus”作出了難度為“那些老派的信徒誰抗議的名稱對這個世俗福音教會,以及誰希望聚集一人準備為他們的神都不管的情況下的數字“。 Some of these "joined an enthusiastic movement which had originated amongst a small circle in a remote province, and had at first a merely local importance. Then, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit. . .The wish was, as usual, father to the thought; and thus societies of 'spiritual' Christians were formed, which served, especially in times of persecution, as rallying points for all those, far and near, who sighed for the end of the world and the excessus e soeculo, and who wished in these last days to lead a holy life. These zealots hailed the appearance of the Paraclete in Phrygia, and surrendered themselves to his guidance" (Harnack in "Encycl. Brit.", London, 1878, sv Montanism).其中一些“加入了一個熱情的運動,起源於一個小圓圈之間在偏遠省份,並在第一的只是一個地方的重要性。然後,在弗里吉亞的哭了嚴格的基督徒生活的信念是加強了在一個新的和最後流露的精神。。。的願望是,像往常一樣,父親的思想,從而社會的'精神'基督教徒組成,其中服務,特別是在時間的迫害,作為凝聚點,所有這些,遠和近,誰嘆了口氣對最終的世界和excessus é soeculo,誰願意在這最後的日子過聖潔的生活。稱讚這些痴迷者的外觀在弗里吉亞的聖靈,並交出他的指導下自己“(哈納克在” Encycl。英國人。“,倫敦,1878年,希沃特孟他努派)。 This ingenious theory has its basis only in the imagination, nor have any facts ever been advanced in its favor.這有其獨創性的理論基礎只能在想像,也沒有任何事實從未先進的贊成票。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息寫由約翰查普曼。 Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.轉錄由羅伯特 B ·奧爾森。 Offered to Almighty God for the grace for all people to seek the Truth and find it in His One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.提供給全能的神的恩典為所有的人尋求真理,發現在他一,至聖,天主教和使徒教會。天主教百科全書,卷十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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