Jansenism詹森主義

General Information 一般信息

The theological position known as Jansenism was probably the single most divisive issue within the Roman Catholic church between the Protestant Reformation and the French Revolution. The doctrine took its name from the Flemish theologian and bishop of Ypres, Cornelius Jansen (1585 - 1638), who summarized his ideas on Grace and free will in his posthumously published treatise, the Augustinus (1640). 神學的立場稱為詹森主義可能是一個最分歧的問題在羅馬天主教會之間的宗教改革和法國大革命。該學說佔據了它的名字來自佛蘭芒神學家和主教伊普爾,科尼利厄斯詹森(1585年至1638年),誰總結他的思想和自由意志的恩典在他死後出版的著作中,奧古斯丁(1640)。 Relying on the strictest possible interpretation of one aspect of Saint Augustine's philosophy, Jansen argued in favor of absolute Predestination, in which humans are perceived as incapable of doing good without God's unsolicited grace and only a chosen few are believed to receive Salvation. In this respect, the doctrine closely resembled Calvinism, although the Jansenists always vigorously proclaimed their attachment to Roman Catholicism.依靠嚴格的可能解釋的一個方面,聖奧古斯丁的哲學, 詹森說,贊成的絕對宿命,在這種人類被認為是沒有能力做好事沒有上帝的不請自來的寬限期只有選擇了少數人認為獲得救贖。在這方面,非常相似,加爾文的學說,雖然詹森教徒一向積極宣布他們的依戀羅馬天主教。

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As Jansenism was elaborated in France, especially by Jansen's friend Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, the abbot of Saint - Cyran, and by the latter's protege Antoine Arnauld, it also entailed an austere form of piety and a rigorously puritanical morality. From the 1640s, the spiritual center of Jansenism became the convent of Port - Royal - des - Champs (near Paris) where numerous nobles, parlementarians, and intellectuals favorable to the movement made religious retreats.正如詹森主義擬定了在法國,尤其是詹森的朋友讓Duvergier德Hauranne,在住持聖-齊蘭,以及後者的門生安托萬Arnauld,也帶來了嚴峻形式的虔誠和嚴格的清教徒式的道德。從1640年代中,精神中心的詹森主義成為修道院的港口-皇家-德-香榭麗舍(巴黎附近)在眾多的貴族,parlementarians和知識分子的運動作出了有利於宗教靜修。

Almost from the beginning, the Jansenists aroused the hostility both of the Jesuits, who opposed the theology and moral teachings of the group, and of the French royal government, who associated the Jansenists with the opposition "Devout party" and with the rebellions of the Fronde (1648 - 53).幾乎從一開始,詹森教徒都引起敵意的耶穌會士,誰反對神學和道德說教的集團,法國王室政府,誰聯繫的詹森教徒與反對派“虔誠的黨”,並與反叛的投石黨運動(1648至1653年)。 As early as 1653, five propositions supposedly found in the Jansenist position were condemned by Pope Innocent X. In 1713, under intense pressure from King Louis XIV, Pope Clement XI issued the bull Unigenitus condemning 101 propositions in a treatise by another French Jansenist, Pasquier Quesnel (1634 - 1719).早在1653年的五點主張據說發現了簡森派的立場譴責了教皇英諾森十,1713年,在強大的壓力,從國王路易十四,教皇克萊門特十一發出的牛市Unigenitus譴責101命題的論文由另一家法國簡森派,帕斯基耶爾奎斯內爾(1634年至1719年)。 The French king closed Port - Royal - des - Champs in 1709 and had it razed to the ground in 1710.法國國王封閉港口-皇家-德-香榭麗舍在1709年,把它夷為平地在1710年。

During the 18th century, Jansenism acquired a much broader following among the lower French clergy and spread to other areas of Europe, notably Spain and Italy.在18世紀,詹森獲得了更廣泛的中低以下法國教士和蔓延到歐洲其他地區,尤其是西班牙和意大利。 The Jansenists increasingly allied themselves with the Gallicans in the French Parlements in an effort to force the calling of an ecclesiastical council to reconsider the pope's condemnation (Gallicanism).越來越多的詹森教徒自己與盟軍在法國Parlements Gallicans,努力迫使調用一個教會理事會重新考慮教皇的譴責(Gallicanism)。 The greatest triumph of the Jansenists came in the 1760s when the parlements forced the suppression of the Jesuits in France.最大的勝利是在1760年代來到詹森教徒時parlements強迫壓制的耶穌會在法國。 But thereafter the movement declined in importance.但此後該運動的重要性下降。 Only a small group of Jansenists survived into the 19th century.只有一小群的詹森主義者存活到19世紀。

T Tackett Ŧ塔克特

Bibliography 書目
NJ Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism (1936); R Clark, Strangers and Sojourners at Port Royal (1972); A Sedgwick, Jansenism in Seventeenth - Century France (1977); D Van Kley, The Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France (1975).新澤西州阿伯克龍比,詹森主義的起源(1936年); R克拉克,陌生人和索喬納斯在皇家港(1972年);阿塞奇威克,詹森主義在第十七-世紀的法國(1977年); Ð凡克利,詹森教徒和驅逐耶穌會從法國(1975年)。


Cornelius Otto Jansen科尼利厄斯奧托詹森

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1585 - 1638). (1585年至1638年)。 Flemish Catholic theologian.佛蘭芒語天主教神學家。 Jansen was born at Accoi, near Leerdam in southern Holland, and educated first at Louvain and then at Paris, where he received his doctorate in 1617. Shortly thereafter he was appointed director of the Saint Pulcherie Seminary in Louvain and professor of exegesis at the university.詹森出生於Accoi,荷蘭南部靠近利爾丹,首先在比利時魯汶和教育,然後在巴黎,在那裡他獲得了博士學位,1617年。此後不久,他被任命為聖皮爾謝神在Louvain和教授在大學的註釋。 In 1630 he was named Regius Professor of Sacred Scripture, and in 1635 was University Rector. 1630年他被任命為雷吉烏什教授聖經,並在1635年的大學校長。 Next year he was consecrated Bishop of Ypres, where he died of the plague in 1638.明年,他是神聖的主教伊普爾,在那裡他死於1638年的鼠疫。

After Jansen's death some of the commentaries which he had written for his academic lectures on biblical books were published.經過詹森的死一些評論,他寫了他的學術講座,聖經的書籍出版。 More significant, however, was his major treatise on Augustine.更為重要的,然而,他的主要著作的奧古斯丁。 Jansen had been interested in Augustine's religious thought since student days.詹森一直感興趣奧古斯丁的宗教思想,因為學生時代。 In the early 1620s, coming to believe that Augustine's theology of efficacious predestinating grace was being threatened by the humanitarian tendencies of the Jesuit theologians of the Counter - Reformation, he embarked on an intensive study of Augustine's works, particularly his anti - Pelagian writings.早在1620年代,開始相信,奧古斯丁的神學有效predestinating恩是受到威脅的人道主義傾向的耶穌會神學家反-改革,他開始了深入的研究奧古斯丁的作品,尤其是他的反-伯拉糾著作。 The massive treatise which resulted from this work, entitled Augustinus, was published posthumously in 1640.這導致了大量的論文從這項工作中,題為奧古斯丁,於1640年去世後出版。 Its three parts presented Augustine's theology of grace in a systematic and continuous synthesis.它分為三個部分奧古斯丁的神學中的恩典有系統和持續的合成。 Part I described the Pelagian and semi - Pelagian heresies which Augustine sought to refute; Part II expounded Augustine's interpretation of man's original state of innocence and his subsequent fall; and Part III set forth his doctrine of salvation through God's redeeming grace in Jesus Christ.第一部分介紹了伯拉糾和半-伯拉糾異端邪說而奧古斯丁試圖反駁;第二部分闡述了奧古斯丁的解釋人類的原始狀態的清白,他隨後下降;和第三部分提出了他的學說的救贖通過上帝的救贖恩典在耶穌基督。

The publication of this work touched off a heated controversy in Roman Catholic circles in European countries, particularly in France.這項工作的出版引發了一場激烈的爭論在羅馬天主教界在歐洲國家,特別是在法國。 Jansen's theology encountered strong opposition both from the ecclesiastical establishment and from the civil power.詹森的神學都遇到強烈的反對來自教會的成立,從民間的力量。 In 1635 five propositions, allegedly derived from Jansen, were condemned by Pope Innocent X in his bull Cum Occasione. 1635年的五點主張,據稱來自詹森,譴責了教皇英諾森十世在他的公牛射精Occasione。 These propositions, related to predestination, maintained that without God's enabling grace man cannot fulfill the divine commands and that the operation of God's grace, bestowed on his elect, is irresistible. Despite such official opposition, however, Jansenism, because it sought to defend traditional orthodoxy, to deepen personal piety, and to foster ascetic rigor in moral conduct, enlisted the support of certain notabilities.這些主張,與宿命,認為沒有上帝的授權寬限期人不能履行神聖的命令和行動上帝的恩典,賜給他的當選,是不可抗拒的。儘管有這樣的反對黨,但是,詹森主義,因為它試圖捍衛傳統正統,深化個人的虔誠,並促進在嚴格禁慾主義道德的行為,邀請了一些名流的支持。 One of them was Blaise Pascal, whose Povincial Letters is one of the classic documents of this controversy.其中一人被布萊斯帕斯卡,其Povincial英皇是其中一個典型的文件和本爭議。 Other supporters included the theologian and philosopher Antoine Arnauld and his sister Jacqueline, abbess of the convent of Port Royal, which became an important center of Jansenist influence.其他支持者包括神學家和哲學家安托萬Arnauld和他的妹妹杰奎琳,住持的修道院的皇家港,成為一個重要的中心簡森派的影響。

But in 1709 Port Royal was closed down and its occupants dispersed; and in 1713 Pope Clement XI, in his bull Unigenitus, officially condemned certain propositions attributed to Pasquier Quesnel, a leading Jansenist theologian.但在1709年皇家港被關閉,其居民分散,並在1713年教皇克萊門特十一,在他的公牛Unigenitus,正式譴責某些主張,歸因於帕斯基耶爾奎斯內爾領先簡森派神學家。 Though the movement in France was thus seriously damaged, in 1723 the Jansenists of the Netherlands nominated a schismatic archbishop of Utrecht as their ecclesiastical leader, and this group has maintained its existence down to the present day, becoming in the later nineteenth century part of the Old Catholic Church.雖然在法國的運動因此受到嚴重破壞,在1723年的詹森教徒在荷蘭提名的分裂的烏得勒支總主教作為教會領袖,而這一群體保持其存在下降到目前的一天,成為19世紀中後期的一部分,舊天主教教會。

NV Hope內華達州的希望

Bibliography 書目
N Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism; RA Knox, Enthusiasm; E Romanes, The Story of Port Royal; A Sedgwick, Jansenism in Seventeenth Century France. ñ阿伯克龍比,詹森主義的起源;類風濕性關節炎諾克斯,熱情,電子商務羅馬尼斯,皇家港的故事,一個塞奇威克,詹森主義在17世紀的法國。


Jansenius and Jansenism Jansenius和詹森主義

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres (Cornelius Jansenius Yprensis), from whom Jansenism derives its origin and name, must not be confounded with another writer and bishop of the same name Cornelius Jansenius Gandavensis (1510-1576), of whom we possess several books on Scripture and a valuable "Concordia Evangelica."科尼利厄斯揚森,主教伊普爾(科尼利厄斯Jansenius Yprensis),從其中詹森主義源自它的起源和名稱,不得混淆與另一作家和主教的同名科尼利厄斯Jansenius Gandavensis(1510年至1576年),其中有幾本關於我們聖經和一種寶貴的“協和Evangelica。”

I. LIFE AND WRITINGS一,生活及寫作

The subject of this article lived three-quarters of a century later than his namesake.這篇文章的題目住四分之三個世紀後比他同名。 He was born 28 October, 1585, of a Catholic family, in the village of Accoi, near Leerdam, Holland; died at Ypres, 6 May, 1638.他出生於1585年10月28日,一個天主教家庭,在村Accoi,近利爾丹,荷蘭,享年伊普爾,1638年5月6日。 His parents, although in moderate circumstances, secured for him an excellent education.他的父母,儘管在溫和的情況下,為他獲得良好的教育。 They sent him first to Utrecht.他們送他首先烏得勒支。 In 1602 we find him at the University of Louvain, where he entered the College du Faucon to take up the study of philosophy.我們發現他在1602年在比利時魯汶大學,在那裡他進入大學杜提前計入Faucon會有採取了學習哲學。 Here he passed two years, and at the solemn promotion of 1604 was proclaimed first of 118 competitors.在這裡,他通過兩年,並於1604年晉升為莊嚴宣布第一個118的競爭對手。 To begin his theological studies he entered the College du Pape Adrien VI, whose president, Jacques Janson, imbued with the errors of Baius and eager to spread them, was to exert an influence on the subsequent course of his ideas and works.開始他的神學思想,他進入了教皇阿德里安六世書院,其總裁雅克漢松,充滿了錯誤的Baius和傳播他們渴望,是一種施加影響以後的過程中他的思想和作品。 Having hitherto been on amicable terms with the Jesuits, he had even sought admission into their order.直到現在,有良好條件與耶穌會士,他甚至試圖進入他們的訂單。 The refusal he experienced, the motives of which are unknown to us, seems not to be altogether unrelated to the aversion he subsequently manifested for the celebrated society, and for the theories and practices it championed.拒絕他的經歷,其中的動機,我們不知道,似乎並沒有被完全無關的厭惡,他後來表現為著名的社會,並為它倡導理論與實踐。 He was also associated with a young and wealthy Frenchman, Jean du Verger de Hauranne, who was completing his course of theology with the Jesuits, and who possessed a mind subtile and cultured, but restless and prone to innovations, and an ardent and intriguing character.他也與一個年輕和富有的法國人,讓杜韋爾熱德Hauranne,誰是他的過程中完成的神學與耶穌會士,誰擁有一個心靈微妙和培養,但容易產生不安和創新,以及熱情和迷人的性格。 Shortly after his return to Paris towards the end of 1604, du Verger was joined there by Jansenius, for whom he had secured a position as tutor.不久後,他返回巴黎對1604年年底,杜韋爾熱一同那裡Jansenius,對他們來說,他已經獲得了導師的立場。 About two years later he attracted him to Bayonne, his native town, where he succeeded in having him appointed director of an episcopal college.大約兩年後,他巴約納吸引他,他的家鄉,在那裡他成功地讓他委任為董事的主教大學。 There, during eleven or twelve years of studies ardently pursued in common, on the Fathers and principally on St. Augustine, the two friends had time to exchange thoughts and to conceive daring Projects.目前,在11或12年的熱烈追求的共同研究,在父親和主要的聖奧古斯丁,這兩個朋友有時間來交流思想,並大膽設想的項目。 In 1617, while du Verger, who had returned to Paris, went to receive from the Bishop of Poitiers the dignity of Abbot of St-Cyran, Jansenius returned to Louvain, where the presidency of the new College de Sainte Pulcherie was confided to him.在1617年,而杜韋爾熱,誰已返回巴黎,去接受主教的普瓦捷的尊嚴的住持聖,齊蘭,Jansenius返回魯汶,其中擔任的新學院德聖皮爾謝裡吐露了他。 In 1619 he received the degree of Doctor of Theology, and afterwards obtained a chair of exegesis. 1619年,他獲得了神學學位的博士,後來獲得了椅子的註釋。 The commentaries which he dictated to his pupils, as well as several writings of a polemical nature, brought him in a short time a deserved renown.他的評注的支配他的學生,以及一些論戰性的著作,使他在很短的時間,是當之無愧的聲譽。

These writings of Jansenius were not at first intended for publication, in fact they did not see the light until after his death.這些著作的Jansenius不打算在第一次出版,其實他們並沒有看到光明,直到他去世後。 They are concise, clear and perfectly orthodox in doctrine.他們是簡明,清晰和完美的正統學說。 The principal ones are "Pentateuchus, sive commentarius in quinque libros Mosis" (Louvain, 1639), "Analecta in Proverbia Salomonis, Ecclesiasten, Sapientiam, Habacuc et Sophoniam" (Louvain, 1644); "Tetrateuchus, seu commentarius in quatuor Evangelia" (Louvain,1639).主要的有“Pentateuchus,sive commentarius在西洋參利夫羅斯莫西斯”(魯汶,1639),“Analecta在Proverbia Salomonis,Ecclesiasten,Sapientiam,Habacuc等Sophoniam”(魯汶,1644),“Tetrateuchus,東南大學commentarius在quatuor Evangelia”(魯汶,1639)。 Some of these exegetical works have been printed more than once.其中一些作品已印訓詁不止一次。 Among his polemical works are "Alexipharmacum civibus Sy vaeducensibus propinatum adversus ministrorum fascinum" (Louvain 1630); then, in reply to the criticism of the Calvinist Gisbert Voet, "Spongia notarum quibus Alexipharmacum aspersit Gisbertus Voetius" (Louvain, 1631).在他的論戰作品是“Alexipharmacum civibus施vaeducensibus propinatum adversus ministrorum fascinum”(魯汶1630),然後,在回答的批評,加爾文希斯韋特沃耶特,“斯波notarum quibus Alexipharmacum aspersit Gisbertus Voetius”(魯汶,1631)。 Jansenius published in 1635, under the pseudonym of Armacanus, a volume entitled "Alexandri Patricii Armacani Theologi Mars Gallicus seu de justitia armorum regis Galliae libri duo". Jansenius發表在1635年,筆名Armacanus下,一個卷,題為“Alexandri Patricii Armacani Theologi火星Gallicus東南大學代尤斯蒂蒂婭armorum雷吉斯Galliae利博利二重奏”。 This was a bitter and well-merited satire against the foreign policy of Richelieu, which was summed up in the odd fact of the "Most Christian" nation and monarchy constantly allying themselves with the Protestants, in Holland, Germany, and elsewhere, for the sole purpose of compassing the downfall of the House of Austria.這是一個痛苦和幸福值得諷刺對外交政策的黎塞留,這是總結了奇怪的事實“最受基督教”國家和君主制本身不斷結盟與新教徒,荷蘭,德國和其他地方,為唯一的目的羅盤的垮台眾議院奧地利。

The same author has left us a series of letters addressed to the Abbot of St-Cyran, which were found among the papers of the person to whom they were sent and printed under the title: "Naissance du jansenisme decouverte, ou Lettres de Jansénius à l'abbé de St-Cyran depuis l'an 1617 jusqu'en 1635" (Louvain, 1654). It was also during the course of his professorate that Jansenius, who was a man of action as well as of study, journeyed twice to Spain, whither he went as the deputy of his colleagues to plead at the Court of Madrid the cause of the university against the Jesuits; and in fact, through his efforts their authorization to teach humanities and philosophy at Louvain was withdrawn.同一作者給我們留下了一連串的信件給住持聖,齊蘭,其中的文件中找到的人向他們發送和打印的標題下:“誕生杜jansenisme decouverte,歐純文學德Jansénius à拉貝德聖,齊蘭depuis l' 1 1617 jusqu'en 1635“(魯汶,1654)。也正是在這一過程中,他professorate的Jansenius,誰是一個人的行動以及為研究,起行兩次西班牙,何處,他作為副去他的同事在法院申辯馬德里大學對事業的耶穌會,而事實上,通過他的努力,他們的授權,以人文科學和哲學教授在比利時魯汶被撤回。 All this, however, did not prevent him from occupying himself actively and chiefly with a work of which the general aim, born of his intercourse with St-Cyran, was to restore to its place of honour the true doctrine of St. Augustine on grace, a doctrine supposedly obscured or abandoned in the Church for several centuries. He was still working on it when, on the recommendation of King Philip IV and Boonen, Archbishop of Mechlin, he was raised to the See of Ypres.所有這一切,但是,並沒有阻止他從自己佔據主動,而且主要是同一個工作的總的目的,他出生的交往與聖,齊蘭,是恢復其名譽的真正的地方主義關於聖奧古斯丁的恩典,一種學說所謂模糊或放棄了幾個世紀的教會。他仍然是工作的時候,就建議國王腓力四世和博南,大主教梅克林,他被提升到見伊普爾。 His consecration took place in 1636, and, though at the same time putting the finishing touches to his theological work, he devoted himself with great zeal to the government of his diocese.他的奉獻發生在1636年,而且,雖然在同一時間做最後的整理工作涉及到他的神學,他以極大的熱情投身到政府對他的教區。 Historians have remarked that the Jesuits had no more cause to complain of his administration than the other religious orders. He succumbed to an epidemic which ravaged Ypres and died, according to eyewitnesses, in dispositions of great piety.歷史學家們說,耶穌會沒有更多的不滿,他的政府比其他宗教命令。他死於一種流行病的肆虐伊普雷斯死亡,據目擊者說,在處置重大虔誠。 When on the point of death he confided the manuscript which he cherished to his chaplain, Reginald Lamaeus, with the command to publish it after taking counsel with Libert Fromondus, a professor at Louvain, and Henri Calenus, a canon of the metropolitan church.在談到這一點,他的死亡,他的手稿吐露珍惜他的牧師,雷金納德Lamaeus,與它的命令發布後,採取與利伯特Fromondus律師,教授在比利時魯汶,和亨利Calenus,佳能的大都會教堂。 He requested that this publication be made with the utmost fidelity, as, in his opinion, only with difficulty could anything be changed.他要求本刊物作出的最忠誠,因為,他認為,只有什麼困難可以改變的。 "If, however," he added, "the Holy See wishes any change, I am an obedient son, and I submit to that Church in which I have lived to my dying hour. This is my last wish." The editors of the "Augustinus" have been wrongly accused of having intentionally and disloyally suppressed this declaration, it appears plainly enough on the second page in the original edition. “但是,如果”他補充說,“羅馬教廷希望改變的話,我是一個聽話的兒子,我提交到該教會在我所住到我死小時。這是我最後的願望。”編輯們的“奧古斯丁”被錯誤地指控有故意和disloyally抑制這一聲明,似乎顯然不夠的第二頁上的原版。 On the other hand its authenticity has been contested by means of external and internal arguments, founded notably on the discovery of another will, dated the previous day (5 May), which says nothing regarding the work to be published.另一方面它的真實性提出異議,並通過這一手段外部內部爭論,成立特別是關於將發現另一個月的前一天(5月5日),該說什麼有關的工作得以出版。 But it is quite conceivable that the dying prelate was mindful of the opportunity to complete his first act by dictating to his chaplain and confirming with his seal this codicil which, according to the testamentary executors, was written only half an hour before his death.但是這是可以想像的是奄奄一息的主教銘記的機會來完成他的第一個行動硬要他與他的牧師,並確認這個密封遺囑,而根據遺囑執行人,只寫了前半小時,他的死亡。 It has been vainly sought, a priori, to make the fact appear improbable by alleging that the author was in perfect good faith as to the orthodoxy of his views.據妄圖尋求,先驗,使不可能出現的事實,撰文,指在完善誠信為他的正統觀點。 Already, in 1619, 1620, and 1621, his correspondence with St-Cyran bore unmistakable traces of a quite opposite state of mind; in it he spoke of coming disputes for which there was need to prepare; of a doctrine of St. Augustine discovered by him, but little known among the learned, and which in time would astonish everybody, of opinions on grace and predestination which he dared not then reveal "lest like so many others I be tripped up by Rome before everything is ripe and seasonable".目前,在1619年,1620年和1621年,他的信件與聖,齊蘭孔無誤的痕跡相當對面的心境;他也談到了未來的糾紛而有必要作好準備;的一種學說聖奧古斯丁發現由他,但鮮為人知的中的經驗教訓,並及時將每個人都感到驚訝,對寬限期的意見和宿命,他不敢再發現“,否則像我這麼多的人被絆倒由羅馬之前一切都成熟,季節性”。 Later, in the "Augustinus" itself (IV, xxv-xxvii), it is seen that he scarcely disguises the close connection of several of his assertions with certain propositions of Baius, though he ascribes the condemnation of the latter to the contingent circumstances of time and place, and he believes them tenable in their obvious and natural sense.後來,在“奧古斯丁”本身(四,二十五,二十七),可以看出,他幾乎沒有偽裝的密切聯繫,他的一些主張與某些命題的Baius,雖然賦予了他譴責後者情況下的隊伍時間和地點,他相信在他們成立了顯而易見的和自然的感覺。

Nothing, therefore, authorized the rejection of the famous declaration, or testament, of Jansenius as unauthentic.沒什麼,因此,拒絕授權的著名宣言或遺囑,作為非真實的Jansenius。 But neither is there any authorization for suspecting the sincerity of the explicit affirmation of submission to the Holy See which is therein contained.但也不是沒有任何授權的誠意的懷疑明確申明提交給羅馬教廷是其中所載。 The author, at the time of his promotion to the doctorate in 1619, had defended the infallibility of the pope in a most categorical thesis, conceived as follows: "The Roman Pontiff is the supreme judge of all religious controversies, when he defines a thing and imposes it on the whole Church, under penalty of anathema, his decision is just, true, and infallible."筆者,當時他晉升為博士學位在1619年,捍衛了犯錯誤的教皇在一個最明確的論斷,設想如下:“羅馬教皇是最高法官所有宗教的爭論,當他定義了一個東西並規定它在整個教會,在刑罰的詛咒,他的決定是公正,真實和可靠的。“ At the end of his work (III, x, Epilogus omnium) we find this protestation perfectly parallel with that of his testament: "All whatsoever I have affirmed on these various and difficult points, not according to my own sentiment, but according to that of the holy Doctor, I submit to the judgment and sentence of the Apostolic See and the Roman Church, my mother, to be henceforth adhered to if she judges that it must be adhered to, to retract if she so wishes, to condemn and anathematize it if she decrees that it should be condemned and anathematized. For since my tenderest childhood I have been reared in the beliefs of this Church; I imbibed them with my mother's milk; I have grown up and grown old while remaining attached to them; never to my knowledge have I swerved therefrom a hair's-breadth in thought, action or word, and I am still firmly decided to keep this faith until my last breath and to appear with it before the judgment-seat of God."在結束他的工作(第三,第十,Epilogus Omnium公司),我們覺得這是完全平行的抗議,他的遺囑:“我肯定所有任何對這些不同和難點,不是根據自己的情緒,但是根據該神聖醫生,我服從判決和刑罰的使徒見與羅馬教會,我的母親,從今以後要堅持,如果她的法官,它必須遵守,如果收回她願意的話,譴責和詛咒但如果她的法令,它應該受到譴責和詛咒。對於因為我的溫柔的童年我一直飼養的信念這個教會,我吸脹他們與我的母親的奶,我已經長大了,變老,而其餘的重視他們,永遠就我所知,我已經越過由此一hair's -廣度在思想,行動或文字,我仍然堅定地決定保留這個信念,直到我生命的最後一刻,並出現與之前的判斷議席的上帝。“ Thus Jansenius, although he gave his name to a heresy, was not himself a heretic, but lived and died in the bosom of the Church.因此Jansenius,雖然他給了他的名字是異端邪說,是不是他自己一個異教徒,但生活並死在懷裡的教會。 In view of the fact that he consciously and deliberately aimed at innovation or reforming, it would certainly be difficult to exculpate him entirely or declare that his attitude was in no wise presumptuous and rash; but impartial history may and should take into account the peculiar atmosphere created about him by the still smouldering controversies on Baianism and the widespread prejudices against the Roman Curia.鑑於這一事實,他自覺地,故意在創新或改革的目的,它當然很難完全或開脫罪責他宣稱,他的態度是在任何明智的狂妄和紅疹;但impartial歷史可以而且應該考慮到特殊atmosphere對他所創造的爭論仍在冒煙的Baianism和廣泛的反對羅馬教廷的偏見。 To determine the extent to which these and similar circumstances, by deluding him necessarily diminished his responsibility, is impossible, that is the secret of God.要確定在何種程度上這些和類似的情況下,他所迷惑一定減少他的責任,是不可能的,那是上帝的秘密。

II.二。 THE "AUGUSTINUS" AND ITS CONDEMNATION在“奧古斯丁”及其譴責

After the death of Jansenius, the internuncio Richard Aravius vainly endeavoured to prevent the printing of his manuscript; this undertaking, actively furthered by the friends of the dead man, was completed in 1640.後死亡Jansenius的公使理查德Aravius妄圖努力,以防止他的手稿的打印,這承諾,積極地進一步推動了死者的朋友,在1640年完成。 The folio volume bore the title: "Cornelii Jansenii, Episcopi Yprensis, Augustinus, seu doctrina S. Augustini de humanae naturae sanitate, aegritudine, medicina, adversus Pelagianos et Massilienses".開本量孔的標題:“Cornelii Jansenii,Episcopi Yprensis,奧古斯丁,單粒子翻轉doctrina南奧古斯蒂尼德humanae naturae薩尼塔特,aegritudine,梅迪奇納,adversus Pelagianos等Massilienses”。 It was divided into three volumes, of which the first, chiefly historical, is an exposition in eight books of Pelagianism; the second, after an introductory study on the limitations of human reason, devotes one book to the state of innocence or the grace of Adam and the angels, four books to the state of fallen nature, three to the state of pure nature; the third volume treats in ten books of "the grace of Christ the Saviour", and concludes with "a parallel between the error of the Semipelagians and that of certain moderns", who are no other than the Molinists.它分為三冊,其中第一,主要是歷史,是世界博覽會8書籍佩拉糾;第二,在介紹研究人類理性的局限,專門用書,給國家或無罪的恩典亞當與天使,四本書,給國家塌的性質,三,純自然的狀態,第三卷對待10本書的“寬限期基督救世主”,並得出結論與“平行之間的誤差Semipelagians,而某些現代人“,誰是沒有其他比Molinists。 The author, if we are to accept his own statement, laboured for twenty years on this work, and to gather his materials he had ten times read the whole of St. Augustine and thirty times his treatise against the Pelagians.筆者,如果我們要接受他自己的聲明,辛苦了20年的這項工作,並收集他的材料,他曾10次閱讀整個聖奧古斯丁和他的論文對30倍的pelagians。 From these readings emerged a vast system, whose identity with Baianism neither skilful arrangement nor subtile dialectic could disguise.從這些數據中出現一個龐大的系統,其身份與Baianism既不嫻熟安排或微妙的辯證可以偽裝。

His fundamental error consists in disregarding the supernatural order, for Jansenius as for Baius, the vision of God is the necessary end of human nature; hence it follows that all the primal endowments designated in theology as supernatural or preternatural, including exemption from concupiscence, were simply man's due.其根本錯誤在於無視超自然秩序,Jansenius為Baius,視力神是人的本性必要結束,因此可以認為,一切的原始禀賦指定為超自然的或超自然的神學,其中包括免除concupiscence被只是人的款項。 This first assertion is fraught with grave consequences regarding the original fall, grace, and justification.這首充滿說法是嚴重的後果對原秋天,優雅和理由。 As a result of Adam's sin, our nature stripped of elements essential to its integrity, is radically corrupt and depraved.結果亞當的罪孽,我們的天性剝奪其完整性的基本因素,是徹底的腐敗和墮落。 Mastered by concupiscence, which in each of us properly constitutes original sin, the will is powerless to resist; it has become purely passive.掌握了concupiscence,這在我們每個妥善構成原罪,意志是無力抵抗,它已成為純粹的被動。 It cannot escape the attraction of evil except it be aided by a movement of grace superior to and triumphant over the force of concupiscence. Our soul, henceforth obedient to no motive save that of pleasure, is at the mercy of the delectation, earthly or heavenly, which for the time being attracts it with the greatest strength.它不能逃脫的吸引力邪惡的,除了它是借助於運動的寬限期優越和勝利對部隊的concupiscence。我們的靈魂,從此服從沒有動機節省那快樂,是在慈悲的歡樂,人間或天上,而暫時吸引它以最大的力量。 At once inevitable and irresistible, this delectation, if it come from heaven or from grace, leads man to virtue; if it come from nature or concupiscence, it determines him to sin.在一次不可避免的和不可抗拒的,這歡樂,如果它是來自天上或寬限期,導致男人的美德,如果它來自自然或concupiscence,它決定了他的罪惡。 In the one case as in the other, the will is fatally swept on by the preponderant impulse.在一個案例作為另一種是,將是致命的優勢就席捲衝動。 The two delectations says Jansenius, are like the two arms of a balance, of which the one cannot rise unless the other be lowered and vice versa.這兩個delectations說Jansenius,就像兩個武器的平衡,其中一個不能上升,除非其他降低,反之亦然。 Thus man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is dominated by grace or by concupiscence; he never resists either the one or the other.因此,人不可抗拒的,儘管自願,是否是好或邪惡的,因為他是根據佔主導地位的寬限期或concupiscence,他從來不抵制任何一方或另一方。 In this system there is evidently no place for purely sufficient grace; on the other hand it is easy to discern the principles of the five condemned propositions (see below).在這個系統中有沒有地方顯然是出於純粹的足夠的恩典;另一方面,很容易辨別的原則五個譴責命題(見下文)。

In order to present this doctrine under the patronage of St. Augustine, Jansenius based his argument chiefly on two Augustinian conceptions: on the distinction between the auxilium sine quo non granted to Adam, and the auxilium quo, active in his descendants; and on the theory of the "victorious delectation" of grace.為了提出這一學說的贊助下,聖奧古斯丁,他的論點主要是基於Jansenius兩個奧古斯丁概念:在區分的auxilium非正弦現狀給予亞當和auxilium現狀,活躍在他的後裔,並在理論的“勝利的歡樂”的寬限期。 A few brief remarks will suffice to make clear the double mistake.簡短的幾句話就足以說明了雙重錯誤。 In the first place the auxilium sine quo non is not, in the idea of Augustine, "a grace purely sufficient", since through it the angels persevered; it is on the contrary a grace which confers complete power in actu primo (ie the ability to act), in such a way that, this being granted, nothing further is needed for action.擺在首位的auxilium非正弦現狀不是,在奧古斯丁的思想,“一個純粹的恩典足夠的”,因為通過它的使者堅持,這是相反的一個寬限期賦予完整的電源在ACTU的普里莫(即能力採取行動),在這樣一種方式,這是理所當然的,沒有什麼需要進一步採取行動。 The auxilium quo, on the other hand, is a supernatural help which bears immediately on the actus secundus (ie the performance of the action) and in this grace, in so far as it is distinguished from the grace of Adam, must be included the whole series of efficacious graces by which man works out his salvation, or the gift of actual perseverance, which gift conducts man infallibly and invincibly to beatitude, not because it suppresses liberty, but because its very concept implies the consent of man.該auxilium現狀,另一方面,是一種超自然的幫助,熊立即而犯罪secundus(即表現的行動),並在這恩典,只要它是區別於亞當寬限期,必須包括:整個系列有效的青睞,其中男子得救了他的作品,或饋贈實際不懈努力下,禮品進行男子無誤和不敗,以beatitude的,不是因為它抑制了自由,但由於其本身的概念,意味著人的同意。 The delectation of grace is a deliberate pleasure which the Bishop of Hippo explicitly opposes to necessity (voluptas, non necessitas); but what we will and embrace with consenting pleasure, we cannot at the same time not will, and in this sense we will it necessarily.在歡樂的恩典是一種蓄意的樂趣的主教河馬明確反對的必要性(voluptas,非necessitas),但我們的意志和擁抱同意的樂趣,我們不能在同一時間不會,並在此意義上,我們將它未必。 In this sense also, it is correct to say, "Quod amplius nos delectat, secundum id operemur necesse est" (ie in acting we necessarily follow what gives us most pleasure).在這個意義上說也是,這是正確的說,“狴amplius數delectat,孔型編號operemur necesse預測”(即在演戲的,我們一定按照最讓我們高興)。 Finally, this delight is called victorious, not because it fatally subjugates the will, but because it triumphs over concupiscence, fortifying free will to the point of rendering it invincible to natural desire.最後,這是所謂的勝利的喜悅,不是因為它致命subjugates的意願,而是因為它戰勝concupiscence,強化自由意志的一點是不可戰勝的渲染對自然的願望。 It is thus clear that we can say of men sustained by and faithful to grace, "Invictissime quod bonum est velint, et hoc deserere invictissime nolint".由此可見,我們可以說男人持續的和忠實的寬限期,“Invictissime狴博納姆預測velint,等責deserere invictissime nolint”。

The success of the "Augustinus" was great, and it spread rapidly throughout Belgium, Holland, and France.成功的“奧古斯丁”是偉大的,它迅速蔓延,整個比利時,荷蘭和法國。 A new edition, bearing the approbation of ten doctors of the Sorbonne, soon appeared at Paris.一個新版本,附有10個醫生認可的索邦大學,很快出現在巴黎。 On the other hand, on 1 August, 1641, a decree of the Holy Office condemned the work and prohibited its reading; and the following year Urban VIII renewed the condemnation and interdiction in his Bull "In eminenti".另一方面,8月1日1641年,一項法令的神聖辦公室的工作譴責和禁止其閱讀,以及下一年的城市第八延長譴責和禁止在他的公牛“在eminenti”。 The pope justified his sentence with two principal reasons: first, the violation of the decree forbidding Catholics to publish anything on the subject of grace without the authorization of the Holy See; second, the reproduction of several of the errors of Baius.教皇他的判決理由主要有兩個原因:第一,違反該法令禁止天主教徒發布任何關於這個問題的寬限期未經授權的羅馬教廷,二是再生產幾個錯誤的Baius。 At the same time, and in the interests of peace, the sovereign pontiff interdicted several other works directed against the "Augustinus".同時,在利益的和平,主權教宗停職其他一些作品針對“奧古斯丁”。 Despite these wise precautions the Bull, which some pretended was forged or interpolated, was not received everywhere without difficulty.儘管這些明智的預防措施,公牛,一些自稱為偽造或插,沒有收到任何地方均沒有困難。 In Belgium, where the Archbishop of Mechlin and the university were rather favourable to the new ideas, the controversy lasted for ten years.在比利時,那裡的大主教梅克林和大學較為有利的新觀念,爭論持續了十年。 But it was France which thenceforth became the chief centre of the agitation.但是,這是法國此後成為行政中心的地位,攪拌。 At Paris, St-Cyran, who was powerful through his relations besides being very active, succeeded in spreading simultaneously the doctrines of the "Augustinus" and the principles of an exaggerated moral and disciplinary rigorism, all under the pretence of a return to the primitive Church.在巴黎,聖,齊蘭,誰是強大的,除了通過他的關係是非常積極的,同時成功地傳播教義的“奧古斯丁”和誇大的道德原則和紀律rigorism,所有的偽裝下,返回到原始教會。 He had succeeded especially in winning over to his ideas the influential and numerous family of Arnauld of Andilly, notably Mère Angélique Arnauld, Abbess of Port-Royal, and through her the religious of that important convent.他在爭取成功,尤其是他的思想的影響力和無數家庭的Arnauld的昂迪伊,特別是現代形成協調安赫利奎Arnauld,住持的港口皇家,並通過她的這一重要的宗教修道院。 When he died, in 1643, Doctor Antoine Arnauld quite naturally succeeded him in the direction of the movement which he had created.當他死了,在1643年,醫生成功地安托萬Arnauld他很自然的方向運動的他所創建的。 The new leader lost no time in asserting himself in startling fashion by the publication of his book "On Frequent Communion", which would have been more correctly entitled "Against Frequent Communion" but which, as it was written with skill and a great display of erudition, did not a little towards strengthening the party.新領導人不失時機地斷言自己在驚人的方式在出版他的著作“論頻繁共融”,這將有更正確的題為“打擊多發性共融”,但它,因為這是寫的技能和一個偉大的展示博學,沒有一點對加強黨。

Although the Sorbonne had accepted the Bull "In eminenti", and the Archbishop of Paris had, in 1644 proscribed the work of Jansenius, it continued to be spread and recommended, on the pretext that authority had not rejected a single well-determined thesis.雖然接受了索邦大學的公牛“在eminenti”,和巴黎大主教曾在1644年被禁的工作Jansenius,它繼續蔓延和建議,其藉口是沒有權力否決了單井確定的論文。 It was then (1649) that Cornet, syndic of the Sorbonne, took the initiative in a more radical measure; he extracted five propositions from the much-discussed work, two from the book "On Frequent Communion", and submitted them to the judgment of the faculty.這在當時(1649年)的短號,理事的索邦大學,很主動,更激進的措施,他從提取的五點主張,而討論多時的工作,兩個“一書作者頻繁共融”,並提交他們的判斷該學院。 This body, prevented by the Parlement from pursuing the examination it had begun, referred the affair to the general assembly of the clergy in 1650.這個機構,防止由Parlement從追求考試,它已經開始提到此事向大會於1650年的神職人員。 The greater number considered it more fitting that Rome should pronounce, and eighty-five bishops wrote in this sense to Innocent X, transmitting to him the first five propositions.數字越大認為,應該更合適,羅馬發音,和85主教在這個意義上說,以諾森十,傳輸給他的第一個5點主張。 Eleven other bishops addressed to the sovereign pontiff a protest against the idea of bringing the matter to trial elsewhere than in France.其他11名主教給教宗一個主權抗議思想此事提請審判在法國以外的地方。 They demanded in any case the institution of a special tribunal, as in the "De auxiliis" affair, and the opening of a debate in which the theologians of both sides should be allowed to submit their arguments.他們要求該機構在任何情況下的一個特別法庭,如“德auxiliis”事件,和開放的辯論,由神學家,雙方應允許提交他們的論點。 The decision of Innocent X was what might have been expected: he acceded to the request of the majority, keeping in view as far as possible the wishes of the minority.這一決定對無辜者X是什麼可能被期望:他加入了大多數人的要求,同時考慮盡可能的意願,是少數。 A commission was appointed, consisting of five cardinals and thirteen consultors, some of whom were known to favour acquittal.任命一個委員會,其中包括5個諮樞機和13,其中有些人知道贊成無罪釋放。 Its laborious examination lasted two years: it held thirty-six long sessions, of which the last ten were presided over by the pope in person.它費力的考試持續了2年:舉行了36屆長,其中近10人主持了教宗的人。 The "Augustinus" which, as has been said, had friends on the bench, was defended with skill and tenacity.該“奧古斯丁”,正如人們所說的,有朋友在板凳上,是捍衛與技能和堅韌。 Finally its advocates presented a table of three columns, in which they distinguished as many interpretations of the five propositions: a Calvinistic interpretation, rejected as heretical, a Pelagian or Semipelagian interpretation, identified by them with the traditional doctrine, also to be cast aside, and lastly, their interpretation, the idea of St. Augustine himself, which could not but be approved.最後的主張提出了表3列,他們在盡可能多的理解與傑出的5點主張:一加爾文的解釋,拒絕為異端邪說,一伯拉糾或Semipelagian解釋,確定它們與傳統的理論,也被拋棄,最後,他們的解釋,自己的想法聖奧古斯丁,這不能不予以通過。 This plea, skilful as it was could not avert the solemn condemnation, by the Bull "Cum occasione" (31 May, 1653), of the five propositions, which were as follows:這個呼籲,嫻熟的,因為它是無法避免的嚴正譴責,被公牛“暨occasione”(1653年5月31日),在五點主張,其中如下:

Some of God's commandments are impossible to just men who wish and strive (to keep them) considering the powers they actually have, the grace by which these precepts may become possible is also wanting;有些神的戒律是不可能只是男人誰的願望和努力(使他們)在考慮其實際擁有的權力,寬限期,以使這些戒律也可能是想成為可能;

In the state of fallen nature no one ever resists interior grace;在倒下的國家性質,從來沒有人抗拒內部的寬限期;

To merit, or demerit, in the state of fallen nature we must be free from all external constraint, but not from interior necessity,值得,或記過處分,在倒下的國家性質,我們必須不受任何外部約束,但不能從內部的必要性,

The Semipelagians admitted the necessity of interior preventing grace for all acts, even for the beginning of faith; but they fell into heresy in pretending that this grace is such that man may either follow or resist it;該semipelagians承認有必要的內部寬限期為防止一切行為,甚至是信仰的開端,但他們陷入異端在假裝這恩典是這樣的人可能要么跟上或抗拒;

To say that Christ died or shed His blood for all men, is Semipelagianism.如果說基督死亡或流血為所有的人,是Semipelagianism。

These five propositions were rejected as heretical, the first four absolutely, the fifth if understood in the sense that Christ died only for the predestined. All are implicitly contained in the second, and through it, all are connected with the above-mentioned erroneous conception of the state of innocence and the original fall.這五個命題被拒絕為異端邪說,前4個絕對,第五,如果在這個意義上理解基督死亡只為命中註定。都是隱式包含在第二位,通過它,所有的連接與上述錯誤觀念國家無罪推定和原下降。 If it be true that fallen man never resists interior grace (second proposition), it follows that a just man who violates a commandment of God did not have the grace to observe it.如果它是真實的墮落的人從來沒有抗拒內部寬限期(第二命題),因此,一個正直的人誰違反了戒律的神的恩典沒有遵守它。 That he therefore transgresses it through inability to fulfil it (first proposition).因此他無法逾越它通過履行它(第一命題)。 If, however, he has sinned and thus demerited, it is clear that, to demerit, the liberty of indifference is not requisite, and what is said of demerit must also be said of its correlative, merit (third proposition).但是,如果他犯了罪,因此記過,很明顯,為了記過,冷漠的自由是沒有必要的,哪些是必須說的缺點也可以說及其相關,值得(第三命題)。 On the other hand, if grace is often wanting to the just, since they fall, it is wanting still more to sinners; it is therefore impossible to maintain that the death of Jesus Christ assured to every man the graces necessary for salvation (fifth proposition).另一方面,如果寬限期通常是想要的正義,因為它們下跌,但仍希望更多的罪人,這是不可能的,因此認為,死亡耶穌基督保證每個人的青睞必要的救贖(第五次命題)。 If this be so, the Semipelagians were in error in admitting the universal distribution of a grace which may be resisted (fourth proposition).如果是這樣,該semipelagians在承認錯誤的普遍分佈的寬限期可能抵制(第四命題)。

III.三。 RESISTANCE OF THE JANSENISTS阻的詹森教徒

Well received by the Sorbonne and the General Assembly of the Clergy, the Bull "Cum occasione" was promulgated with the royal sanction.深受索邦大學和大會的神職人員,在公牛“暨occasione”的頒布與皇家制裁。 This should have opened the eyes of the partisans of Jansenius.這應該已經打開眼游擊隊的Jansenius。 They were given the alternative of finally renouncing their errors, or of openly resisting the supreme authority. They were thrown for the moment into embarrassment and hesitation, from which Arnauld extricated them by a subtlety: they must, he said, accept the condemnation of the five propositions, and reject them, as did the pope, only, these propositions were not contained in the book of the Bishop of Ypres, or if they were found therein, it was in another sense than in the pontifical document; the idea of Jansenius was the same as that of St. Augustine, which the Church neither could, nor wished to, censure.他們獲得的替代終於放棄了他們的錯誤,或公然抗拒的最高權威。他們拋出的時刻到尷尬和猶豫,他們從中Arnauld擺脫一個微妙:他們必須,他說,接受譴責的五點主張,並拒絕他們一樣,教皇只,這些主張沒有在書中所載的主教伊普爾,或者如果發現他們當中,它是在另一種意義上比宗座文件;的思想Jansenius同樣因為這是聖奧古斯丁,該教會也不能,也不希望,譴責。 This interpretation was not tenable; it was contrary to the text of the Bull, no less than to the minutes of the discussions which had preceded it, and throughout which these propositions were considered and Presented as expressing the sense of the "Augustinus".這種解釋是站不住腳的,它違背了文字的公牛,不低於該分鐘的討論中有它之前,這些命題和整個審議並主辦的表達意義上的“奧古斯丁”。 In March, 1564, thirty-eight bishops rejected the interpretation, and communicated their decision to the sovereign pontiff, who thanked and congratulated them.今年3月,1564年,38主教拒絕了解釋,並通報其決定主權教宗,誰感謝,並祝賀他們。 The Jansenists persisted none the less in an attitude opposed alike to frankness and to logic.詹森教徒堅持在一個較低的無反對都能坦誠的態度和邏輯。 The occasion soon arrived for them to support this with a complete theory.這個日子很快就來了,他們支持這項具有完整的理論。 The Duc de Liancourt, one of the protectors of the party, was refused absolution until he should change his sentiments and accept purely and simply the condemnation of the "Augustinus".在德代利揚庫爾之一,保護了黨,被拒絕赦免他,直到他要改變情緒,並接受純粹只是譴責的“奧古斯丁”。 Arnauld took up his pen and in two successive letters protested against any such exaction. Arnauld拿起筆,在連續兩個字母抗議任何苛求。 Ecclesiastical judgments, he said, are not all of equal value, and do not entail the same obligations; where there is question of the truth or falsity of a doctrine, of its revealed origin or its heterodoxy, the Church in virtue of its Divine mission is qualified to decide; it is a matter of right.教會的判決,他說,不是所有的平等價值,並且不產生同樣的義務,如果有問題的真理或謬誤的學說,揭示了其來源或異端,教會在憑藉其神聖的使命有資格來決定,這是一個問題的權利。 But if the doubt bears upon the presence of this doctrine in a book, it is a question of purely human fact, which as such does not fall under the jurisdiction of the supernatural teaching authority instituted in the Church by Jesus Christ.但是,如果存在疑問時熊本學說書,這是一個純粹的人的問題的事實,因此不屬於管轄範圍內的超自然的教學權威建立在耶穌基督的教會。 In the former case, the Church having pronounced sentence, we have no choice but to conform our belief to its decision; in the latter, its word should not be openly contradicted it claims from us the homage of a respectful silence but not that of an interior assent.在前者情況下,教會已宣判的刑期,我們沒有選擇,只能以符合我們的信念,其決定;在後者,其詞不應該公開反駁聲稱從我們的敬意尊重沉默,但不是一個內地同意。 Such is the famous distinction between right and fact, which was henceforth to be the basis of their resistance, and through which the recalcitrants pretended to remain Catholics, united to the visible body of Christ despite all their obstinacy.這就是著名的權利和事實之間的區別,這是今後要依據他們的抵抗,並通過該recalcitrants假裝保持天主教徒,團結,以有形的身體,基督雖然他們頑固不化。 This distinction is both logically and historically the denial of the doctrinal power of the Church.這種區別是邏輯上和歷史上都否認了教會的教義權力。 For how is it possible to teach and defend revealed doctrine if its affirmation or denial cannot be discerned in a book or a writing, whatever its form or its extent?至於怎麼可能教的教義和捍衛透露,如果它的肯定或否定不能辨別在一本書或一寫,無論其形式或程度? In fact, from the beginning, councils and popes have approved and imposed as orthodox certain formulas and certain works, and from the beginning have proscribed others as being tainted with heresy or error.事實上,從一開始,議會和教皇批准,並處以一定的公式和一些正統的作品,從一開始就已經被禁止他人被染上異端或錯誤。

The expedient contrived by Arnauld was so opposed to both fact and reason that a number of Jansenists who were more consistent in their contumacy, such as Pascal, refused to adopt it or to subscribe to the condemnation of the five propositions in any sense.人為的權宜由Arnauld如此既反對事實和理由,一個數字的詹森主義者誰更符合他們的contumacy,如帕斯卡爾,拒絕採納或訂閱的譴責的5點主張在任何意義。 The greater number, however, took advantage of it to mislead others or deceive themselves.數字越大,但是,它利用了他人誤導或欺騙自己。 All of them, moreover, through personal intercourse, preaching, or writing, displayed extraordinary activity in behalf of their ideas.所有這些,而且,通過個人交往,傳道,或文字,展示非凡的活動中代表他們的想法。 They aimed especially, following the tactics inaugurated by St-Cyran, at introducing them into religious orders, and in this way they were in a measure successful, eg with the Oratory of Berulle.特別是針對他們,下面的策略成立由聖,齊蘭,在介紹他們到宗教命令,並以這種方式,他們是在一個成功的措施,例如與論辯的貝呂勒。 Against the Jesuits, in whom from the first they had encountered capable and determined adversaries, they had vowed a profound antipathy and waged a war to the death.對耶穌會士,在他們從一開始他們遇到的對手有能力和決心,他們發誓深刻的反感和發動戰爭的死亡。 This inspired the "Provinciales" which appeared in 1656.這啟發了“Provinciales”的出現在1656年。 These were letters supposedly addressed to a provincial correspondent.據稱這些信件給記者一個省。 Their author Blaise Pascal, abusing his admirable genius, therein lavished the resources of a captivating style and an inexhaustible sarcastic humour to taunt and decry the Society of Jesus, as favouring and propagating a relaxed and corrupt moral code.其作者布萊斯帕斯卡,濫用他的令人欽佩的天才,其中一個慷慨的資源是取之不盡,用之不竭迷人的風格和諷刺幽默的嘲諷和譴責社會的耶穌,贊成和宣傳作為一種輕鬆和腐敗的道德準則。 To this end the errors or imprudences of some members, emphasized with malicious exaggeration, were made to appear as the official doctrine of the whole order.為此,錯誤或輕率的一些成員,強調了惡意誇張,提出了顯示為官方學說的整個秩序。 The "Provinciales" were translated into elegant Latin by Nicole disguised for the occasion under the pseudonym of Wilhelmus Wendrochius.該“Provinciales”被翻譯成優雅的拉丁由妮可變相的場合下,化名的威廉默斯Wendrochius。 They did a great deal of harm.他們做了很大的傷害。

However, the Sorbonne, again declaring itself against the faction, had, by 138 votes against 68, condemned the latest writings of Arnauld, and, on his refusal to submit, it dismissed him, together with sixty other doctors who made common cause with him.然而,索邦大學,再次宣布自己對派了,以138票對68,譴責最新著作的Arnauld,而且,他拒絕提交,它解僱他,連同60其他醫生誰作出共同的事業與他。 The assembly of bishops in 1656 branded as heretical the unfortunate theory of right and of fact, and reported its decision to Alexander VII, who had just succeeded Innocent X. On 16 October the pope replied to this communication by the Bull "Ad sanctam Beati Petri sedem".該大會的主教在1656年命名為邪教的不幸理論和事實的權利,並報告其決定亞歷山大第七,誰剛剛成功無辜十10月16日,教皇回答了這個溝通的公牛“廣告sanctam貝亞蒂的Petri sedem“。 He praised the clear-sighted firmness of the episcopate and confirmed in the following terms the condemnation pronounced by his predecessor: "We declare and define that the five propositions have been drawn from the book of Jansenius entitled 'Augustinus', and that they have been condemned in the sense of the same Jansenius and we once more condemn them as such."他讚揚了明確的眼光堅定的主教,並確認在以下方面的譴責,宣布由他的前任:“我們聲明並定義的5點主張已引起了書Jansenius題為'奧古斯丁',他們已譴責在這個意義上相同Jansenius,我們再次譴責他們。“ Relying on these words, the Assembly of the Clergy of the following year (1657) drew up a formula of faith conformable thereto and made subscription to it obligatory.依托這些話,大會的神職人員次年(1657年)制定了一個公式,並提出與之相適應的信仰訂閱它的義務。 The Jansenists would not give in. They claimed that no one could exact a lying signature from those who were not convinced of the truth of the matter.詹森教徒不會屈服,他們聲稱,沒有人能確切撒謊的簽名那些誰不相信真理的問題。 The religious of Port-Royal were especially conspicuous for their obstinacy, and the Archbishop of Paris, after several fruitless admonitions, was forced to debar them from receiving the sacraments.宗教的港口皇家尤為突出他們的固執,和巴黎大主教,經過幾次無果而終訓誡,他們被迫日後不再接收聖禮。 Four bishops openly allied themselves with the rebellious party: they were Henri Arnauld of Angers Buzenval of Beauvais, Caulet of Pamiers, and Pavillon of Aleth.四位主教公開自己與盟國反叛的黨:他們是亨利Arnauld昂熱比藏瓦爾的博韋,Caulet的帕米耶和Pavillon的Aleth。 Some claimed besides that the Roman pontiff alone had the right to exact such subscription.除了一些聲稱是羅馬教皇單獨有確切的有關認購權。 In order to silence them, Alexander VII, at the instance of several members of the episcopate, issued (15 February 1664) a new Constitution, beginning with the words, "Regiminis Apostolici".為了讓他們保持沉默,亞歷山大七,在實例的幾個成員的主教,印發(1664年2月15日)一新憲法,開始改為“Regiminis Apostolici”。 In this he enjoined, with threat of canonical penalties for disobedience, that all ecclesiastics, as well as all religious, men and women, should subscribe to the following very definite formulary:為此,他責成,以威脅懲罰不服從命令的規範,所有神職人員,以及所有宗教,男人和婦女,應同意以下非常明確的處方:

I, (Name), submitting to the Apostolic constitutions of the sovereign pontiffs, Innocent X and Alexander VII, published 31 May, 1653 and 16 October, 1656, sincerely repudiate the five propositions extracted from the book of Jansenius entitled 'Augustinus', and I condemn them upon oath in the very sense expressed by that author, as the Apostolic See has condemned them by the two above mentioned Constitutions (Enchiridion, 1099).我(姓名),提交給使徒憲法主權教宗,無辜X和亞歷山大七,出版1653年5月31日和1656年10月16日,真誠地推翻的5點主張從書中摘錄的Jansenius題為'奧古斯丁',並我譴責他們在宣誓中所表達的意義上,筆者認為,作為聖座譴責他們由兩個以上的憲法(便覽,1099)。

It would be a mistake to believe that this direct intervention of the pope sustained as it was by Louis XIV, completely ended the stubborn opposition.這將是一個錯誤的認為,這種直接干預的教皇持續,因為它是由路易十四,徹底結束了頑固反對。 The real Jansenists underwent no change of sentiment.真正的詹森教徒的感情經歷沒有改變。 Some of them, such as Antoine Arnauld and the greater number of the religious of Port-Roval, defying both the ecclesiastical and the civil authority, refused their signature, on the pretext that it was not in the power of any person to command them to perform an act of hypocrisy, others subscribed, but at the same time protesting more or less openly that it applied only to the question of right, that the question of fact was reserved and should be so, since in this respect the Church had no jurisdiction, and above all no infallibility.其中一些,如安東尼Arnauld和更大數目的宗教港口羅瓦爾,不畏都教會和民間的權威,拒絕他們的簽名,其藉口,這是不是在權力的任何人命令他們執行行為的虛偽,別人認購,但同時抗議或多或少公開表示它僅僅適用於權利的問題,這個問題其實是預留的,應該如此,因為在這方面的教會沒有管轄權,而最重要的不犯錯誤。 Among those who stood for explicit restriction and hence for refusal to sign the formulary as it was, must be numbered the four bishops mentioned above.在那些誰主張明確的限制,因此拒絕簽署該處方,因為它是,須按上述四個主教。 In the mandates through which they communicated to their flocks the Bull "Apostolici" they did not hesitate expressly to maintain the distinction between fact and right.在通過他們的任務傳達給他們的羊群的公牛“Apostolici”他們毫不猶豫地明確維持之間的區別事實和權利。 The pope being informed of this, condemned these mandates, 18 January, 1667.教宗被告知這一點,譴責這些任務,1667年1月18日。 He did not stop there, but, in order to safeguard both his authority and the unity of belief, he decided, with the full approbation of Louis XIV to subject the conduct of the culprits to a canonical judgment, and for this purpose he appointed as judges nine other members of the French episcopate.他並沒有就此打住,但是,為了維護他的權威和雙方的團結的信念,他決定,充分認可與路易十四,以主題的匪徒進行一個典型的判斷,並為此目的,他獲委任為法官,其他9個成員的法國主教。

IV.四。 THE PEACE OF CLEMENT IX太平紳士的克萊門特九

In the midst of all this, Alexander VII died, 22 May, 1667.在這一切之中,亞歷山大七世去世,1667年5月22日。 His successor Clement IX wished at first to continue the process, and he confirmed the appointed judges in all their powers.克萊門特九,希望他的繼任者在第一,繼續這一進程,他任命的法官在確認了他們所有的權力。 However, the king, who had at first displayed great zeal in seconding the Holy See in the affair, seemed to have let his ardour cool.然而,國王,誰在第一次顯示了極大的熱情在借調羅馬教廷在這一事件,似乎已經讓他的熱情冷卻。 Rome had not judged it expedient to yield to all his wishes regarding the formation of the ecclesiastical tribunal.羅馬不是權宜之計,以判斷它屈從於他所有的願望就形成了宗教法庭。 Together with his court he began to be apprehensive lest a blow should be struck at the "liberties" of the Gallican Church.連同他的法庭,他開始擔心怕是一個打擊,應在取得“自由”的高盧聖教會。 The Jansenists skilfully turned these apprehensions to their profit.詹森主義者巧妙地變成了這些疑慮,以豐厚的利潤。 They had already won over several ministers of state, notably Lyonne, and they succeeded in gaining for their cause nineteen members of the episcopate, who in consequence wrote to the sovereign pontiff and to the king. In their petition to the pope these bishops, while protesting their profound respect and entire obedience, observed that the infallibillty of the Church did not extend to facts outside of revelation.他們已經贏得了數名國務部長,特別是Lyonne,他們成功地為自己的事業中取得19個成員的主教,誰在後果寫信給教皇的主權和國王。在他們的請願書,教宗這些主教,而抗議他們深深的敬意和整個服從,指出infallibillty的教會並不包括事實以外的啟示。 They further confounded purely human or purely personal facts with dogmatic facts, ie such as were implied by a dogma or were in necessary connection with it, and under cover of this confusion, they ended by affirming that their doctrine, the doctrine of the four accused bishops, was the common doctrine of the theologians most devoted to the Holy See, of Baronius, Bellarmine, Pallavicini, etc. The same assertions were repeated in a more audacious form in the address to the king, in which they spoke also of the necessity of guarding against theories which were new and "harmful to the interests and safety of the State".他們進一步混淆純粹的人,也不是單純的個人事實與教條的事實,即如被隱含的教條或在必要的連接與它,這種混亂的掩護下,他們結束了肯定,他們的學說,這個學說的4名被告主教,是共同的學說,神學家最忠實的羅馬教廷,巴若尼,貝拉明,帕拉維奇尼等,重複同樣的說法在一個更大膽的形式在地址到國王,他們在發言也是有必要防範其中新理論和“有害的利益和安全的國家”。 These circumstances brought about a very delicate situation, and there was reason to fear that too great severity would lead to disastrous results.這些情況帶來了一個非常微妙的情況,人們有理由擔心,過大的嚴重性將導致災難性的後果。 On this account the new nuncio, Bargellini, inclined towards a peaceful arrangement, for which he obtained the pope's consent.在此帳戶的新聖座大使,巴爾杰利尼,傾向於和平的安排,為此他獲得了教皇的同意。 D'Estrées, the Bishop of Laon, was chosen as mediator, and at his request there were associated with him de Gondren, Archbishop of Sens. and Vialar, Bishop of Châlons, both of whom had signed the two petitions just spoken of, and were, therefore, friends of the four accused prelates.代斯特雷的主教拉昂,被選定為調解人,並在他的要求與他有關聯的德Gondren,參議員和維亞拉爾大主教,主教夏龍,兩人都已經簽署了兩份請願剛才發言的,和人,因此,朋友的4名被告主教。 It was agreed that these last should subscribe without restriction to the formulary and cause it to be subscribed to in like manner by their clergy in diocesan synods, and that these subscriptions should take the place of an express retractation of the mandates sent out by the bishops.與會者一致認為,去年應該訂閱這些不受限制的名冊,並安排將簽署在他們喜歡的方式在各教區神職人員主教會議,而且這些訂閱應該取代了明確的任務前言取消派出由主教。 Pursuant to this arrangement they convened their synods, but, as later became known all four gave oral explanations authorizing respectful silence on the question of fact, and it would seem that they acted thus with some connivance on the part of the mediators, unknown, however, to the nuncio and perhaps to d'Estrées.根據這項安排,他們召開的主教會議,但是,正如後來成為著名四個尊重了口頭解釋,授權問題上保持沉默的事實,將他們作出這樣的舉動似乎有些縱容的一部分,調解員,未知的,但向大使和或許代斯特雷。 But this did not prevent them from affirming, in a common address to the sovereign pontiff, that they themselves and their priests had signed the formulary, as had been done in the other dioceses of France.但是,這並不妨礙他們從肯定,在一個共同的地址,以主權教宗,而他們自己和他們的祭司簽署了處方,這一點已得到了其他教區的法國。

D'Estrées for his part wrote at the same time: "The four bishops have just conformed, by a new and sincere subscription, with the other bishops".德埃斯特雷部分說他在同一時間:“這四位主教剛剛符合,由新的和真誠的認購,與其他主教”。 Both letters were transmitted by the nuncio to Rome, where Lyonne, also alleging that the signatures were absolutely regular, insisted that the affair should be brought to an end.這兩封信聖座大使轉達了羅馬,在那裡Lyonne,還聲稱該簽名是絕對規律,堅持認為這一事件應提請結束。 For this reason the pope, who had received these documents 24 September, informed Louis XIV of the fact about 28 September, expressing his joy for the "subscription pure and simple" which had been obtained, announcing his intention to restore the bishops in question to favour and requesting the king to do the same.基於這個原因,羅馬教皇,誰收到了這些文件9月24日通知路易十四的事實對9月28日,為表達他的喜悅“認購單純”,這已取得,宣布他打算恢復主教問題贊成,並要求國王這樣做。 However, before the Briefs of reconciliation thus announced had been sent to each of the four prelates concerned, rumours which had at first been current with regard to their lack of frankness grew more definite, and took the shape of formal and repeated denunciations.不過,在簡介和解因而宣布已發送到每個主教的四個方面,傳聞曾在第一方面是目前他們缺乏坦率變得更加明確,並採取了正式的形狀和反复譴責。 Hence, by order of Clement IX, Bargellini had to make a new investigation at Paris.因此,借命令的克萊門特九,巴爾杰利尼不得不做出新的調查在巴黎。 As the final result he sent to Rome a report drawn up by Vialar.至於最後的結果他給羅馬的一份報告起草了維亞拉爾。 This report stated with regard to the four bishops: "They have condemned and caused to be condemned the five propositions with all manner of sincerity, without any exception or restriction whatever, in every sense in which the Church has condemned them"; but he then added explanations concerning the question of fact which were not altogether free from ambiguity.這份報告指出,關於四位主教:“他們都譴責,並造成受到譴責的5點主張與所有方式的誠意,沒有任何例外或限制什麼的,在任何意義上來說,教會在譴責他們”,但他隨後關於補充的解釋,其實這個問題並沒有完全擺脫含糊。 The pope, no less perplexed than before, appointed a commission of twelve cardinals to obtain information.教皇,沒有比以前少困惑,任命了一個委員會12樞機獲取信息。 These secured, it seems, the proof of the language made use of by the bishops in their synods.這些擔保,似乎證明了語言的使用由主教在主教會議。 Nevertheless, in consideration of the very grave difficulties which would result from opening up the whole case again, the majority of the commission held that they might and should abide practically by the testimony of the official documents and especially by that of the minister I,yonne regarding the reality of the "subscription pure and simple", at the same time emphasizing anew this point as the essential basis and the condition sine qua non of peace.不過,考慮的非常嚴重的困難,這將導致從開放的整個案件再次,大部分的委員會認為,他們可能會和應遵守的證詞實際上的正式文件,特別是,該部部長餘,約訥省關於現實的“認購純粹和簡單”,同時重新強調這一點的重要基礎和必要條件的非和平。

The four Briefs of reconciliation were then drawn up and dispatched; they bear the date, 19 January, 1669.四個簡介和解當時制定並派出,他們承擔的日期,1669年1月19日。 In them Clement IX recalls the testimony he had received "concerning the real and complete obedience with which they had sincere}y subscribed to the formulary, condemning the five propositions without any exception or restriction, according to all the senses in which they had been condemned by the Holy See".在他們的證詞克萊門特九回憶,他收到了“關於真實和完整的服從與它們有誠意)Ÿ訂閱了處方,譴責的5點主張沒有任何例外或限制,根據所有的感官中,他們被譴責教廷“。 He remarks further that being "most firmly resolved to uphold the constitutions of his predecessors, he would never have admitted a single restriction or exception".他還說話“最堅定地維護憲法,他的前任,他決不會承認一個單一的限制或例外。” These preambles were as explicit and formal as possible.這些序言分別為盡可能明確和正式的。 They prove, especially when compared with the terms and object of the formulary of Alexander VII, how far wrong the Jansenists were in celebrating this termination of the affair as the triumph of their theory, as the acceptance by the pope himself of the distinction between right and fact.他們證明,尤其是相對於條件和對象的處方亞歷山大七,在多大程度上是錯誤的詹森教徒慶祝這一事件終止的勝利為他們的理論,作為自己接受了教皇的權利之間的區別和事實。 On the other hand it is clear from the whole course of the negotiations that the loyalty of these champions of a stainless and unfaltering moral code was more than doubtful.另一方面它是明顯,從整個過程中的談判的忠誠度,這些冠軍的不銹鋼和自強不息的道德準則較令人懷疑。 At all events, the sect profited by the muddle these manoeuvres had created to extend its conquest still further and to get a stronger hold on several religious congregations.在所有的事件,該教派獲利的混亂造成了這些演習,以進一步擴大其征服並獲得一個更強大一些宗教團體舉辦。 It was favoured by various circumstances.它是由各種情況青睞。 Among them must be included the growing infatuation in France for the so-called Gallican Liberties, and in consequence a certain attitude of defiance, or at least indocility, towards the supreme authority; then the Declaration of 1682, and finally the unfortunate affair of the Régale.其中必須包括在法國日益迷戀所謂的高盧自由,並在一定後果的蔑視態度,或至少indocility,向最高權力機構,那麼1682年的宣言,最後不幸的事盛宴。 It is worthy of remark that in this last conflict it was two Jansenist bishops of the deepest dye who most energetically upheld the rights of the Church and the Holy See, while the greater number of the others too readily bowed before the arrogant pretensions of the civil power.這是值得的說法,在這最後的衝突是兩個簡森派主教最深的染料誰最大力維護的權利,教會和羅馬教廷,而更多的人太容易屈服於傲慢自負的前公務員權力。

V. JANSENISM AT THE BEGINNING OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY五,詹森主義在開始的18世紀

Despite the reticence and equivocation which it allowed to continue, the "Peace of Clement IX" found a certain justification for its name in the period of relative calm which followed it, and which lasted until the end of the seventeenth century.儘管沉默和含糊,它繼續下去,“和平的克萊門特九”找到了一些理由為它的名字在相對平靜的時期遵循它,並一直持續到年底的17世紀。 Many minds were tired of the incessant strife, and this very weariness favoured the cessation of polemics.很多人心中已經厭倦了無休止紛爭,這非常厭倦贊成停止論戰。 Moreover the Catholic world and the Holy See were at that time preoccupied with a multitude of grave questions, and through force of circumstances Jansenism was relegated to second place.此外,天主教世界和教廷當時忙於與許多嚴重的問題,並通過武力的情況是詹森主義置於次要地位。 Mention has already been made of the signs of a recrudescence of Gallicanism betrayed in the Four Articles of 1682, and in the quarrels of which the Régale was the subject.提到已經取得了一個復發的跡象Gallicanism出賣了四篇1682,並在爭吵的盛宴,其中的主體。 To this period also belongs the sharp conflict regarding the franchises, or droit d'asile (right of asylum), the odious privilege concerning which Louis XIV showed an obstinacy and arrogance which passed all bounds (1687).這一時期,也屬於尖銳衝突有關的專營權,或droit德阿西萊(右庇護),其中的惡劣特權有關路易十四的固執和傲慢的表現通過了所有的界限(1687年)。 Moreover, the Quietist doctrines spread by de Molinos, and which seduced for a brief period even the pious and learned Fénelon as well as the relaxed opinions of certain moralists, furnished matter for many condemnations on the part of Innocent XI, Alexander VIII, and Innocent XII. Finally, another impassioned debate had arisen which drew into the arena several groups of the most distinguished and best intentioned theologians, and which was only definitively closed by Benedict XIV, namely the controversy concerning the Chinese and Malabar Rites.此外,寂靜主義理論傳播的德諾斯,並引誘一個短暫的時期甚至虔誠和教訓費內隆以及放寬某些道德家的意見,對許多問題提供譴責對無辜第十一部分,亞歷山大八和無辜十二。最後,另一個又出現了慷慨激昂的辯論也波及到了幾組舞台上最傑出和最善意的神學家,這是唯一的最終關閉本篤十四,即有關的爭議中,馬拉巴禮儀之爭。 All these combined causes had for a time distracted public attention from the contents and the partisans of the "Augustinus". Besides, "Jansenism" was beginning to serve as a label for rather divergent tendencies, not all of which deserved equal reprobation.所有這些加起來,造成了時間,分散了公眾的注意力從內容和游擊隊的“奧古斯丁”。此外,“詹森主義”已開始作為一個標籤為比較不同的傾向,但並不是所有這些當之無愧的平等非難。 The out-and-out Jansenists, those who persisted in spite of everything in upholding the principle of necessitating grace and the consequent errors of the five propositions, had almost disappeared with Pascal.在不折不扣詹森主義者,儘管那些誰堅持的一切原則是需要堅持的恩典和由此產生的誤差的五點主張,幾乎消失的帕斯卡爾。 The remainder of the really Jansenist party without committing itself to a submission pure and simple, assumed a far more cautious demeanour.其餘的真正簡森派黨本身沒有犯有一項提案單純,承擔了更為謹慎的風範。 The members rejected the expression "necessitating grace", substituting for it that of a grace efficacious "in itself", seeking thus to identify themselves with the Thomists and the Augustinians.成員拒絕的表達“是需要的恩典”,代替它的有效的恩典“本身”,從而確定自己的追求與Thomists和奧古斯丁。

Abandoning the plainly heretical sense of the five propositions, and repudiating any intention to resist legitimate authority, they confined themselves to denying the infallibility of the Church with regard to dogmatic facts.放棄顯然邪教意義上的五點主張,並拒絕接受任何意圖抗拒合法權力,他們只限於自己否定了教會犯錯誤就武斷的事實。 Then, too, they were still the fanatical preachers of a discouraging rigorism, which they adorned with the names of virtue and austerity, and, under pretext of combating abuses, openly antagonized the incontestable characteristics of Catholicism especially its unity of government, the traditional continuity of its customs, and the legitimate part which heart and feeling play in its worship.然後,他們也仍然是一個狂熱的傳教士勸阻rigorism,裝飾他們的姓名和緊縮的美德,並根據藉口打擊侵權行為,公然對抗天主教的無可爭辯的特徵,特別是它的統一的政府,傳統的連續性其習俗和合法的部分,心和感覺發揮其崇拜。 With all their skilful extenuations they bore the mark of the levelling, innovating, and arid spirit of Calvinism.與所有的嫻熟extenuations他們承受著標誌的水準,創新,乾旱加爾文主義精神。 These were the fins Jansénistes.這是鰭Jansénistes。 They formed thenceforth the bulk of the sect, or rather in them the sect properly so called was summed up.他們組成了此後的大部分該教派,或者說在他們的教派所謂正確的總結。 But apart from them, though side by side with them, and bordering on their tendencies and beliefs, history points out two rather well-defined groups known as the "duped Jansenists" and the "quasi-Jansenists".但是,除了他們,雖然與他們並肩,與接壤的傾向和信仰,歷史點出兩個較為明確的群體被稱為“欺騙詹森主義者”和“準詹森主義者”。 The first were in good faith pretty much what the fins Jansénistes were by system and tactics: they appear to us as convinced adversaries of necessitating grace, but no less sincere defenders of efficacious grace; rigorists in moral and sacramental questions, often opposed, like the Parlementarians, to the rights of the Holy See; generally favourable to the innovations of the sect in matters of worship and discipline.第一次是在真誠幾乎什麼鰭Jansénistes是由系統和戰術:在我們看來,他們的說服對手說明必須寬限期,但同樣真誠的維護者的有效寬限期; rigorists在道德和聖事的問題,往往反對,像Parlementarians,對權利的羅馬教廷,一般有利於創新的事項該教派的崇拜和紀律。 The second category is that of men of Jansenist tinge.第二類是,男性簡森派色彩。 While remaining within bounds in theological opinions, they declared themselves against really relaxed morality against exaggerated popular devotions and other similar abuses.而其餘在神學範圍內的意見,對他們宣布自己真的放鬆道德誇大流行的奉獻和對其他類似的侵權行為。 The greater number were at bottom zealous Catholics, but their zeal, agreeing with that of the Jansenists on so many points, took on, so to speak, an outer colouring of Jansenism, and they were drawn into closer sympathy with the party in proportion to the confidence with which it inspired them.更大的一些熱心的天主教徒在底部,但他們的積極性,同意與該的詹森教徒這麼多點,上了,這麼說吧,一個外部的詹森主義色彩,他們同情被捲入密切黨同比例信心與它啟發他們。 Even more than the "duped" Jansenists they were extremely useful in screening the sectarians and in securing for them, on the part of the pastors and the multitude of the faithful, the benefit either of silence or of a certain leniency.甚至超過了“欺騙”詹森主義者,他們是非常有用的篩選宗派主義和確保對他們來說,對部分牧師和眾人的忠實,好處之一沉默或某從寬處理。

But the error remained too active in the hearts of the real Jansenists to endure this situation very long.但是,錯誤仍然過於活躍在心中的真實詹森教徒忍受這種情況很長。 At the beginning of the eighteenth century it manifested itself by a double occurrence which revived all the strife and trouble.在開始的18世紀,它本身所表現的雙重發生衝突和恢復所有的麻煩。 The discussion began afresh with regard to the "case of conscience" of 1701.重新開始討論有關的“良心問題”的1701號決議。 A provincial conference was supposed to inquire whether absolution might be given to a cleric who declared that he held on certain points the sentiments "of those called Jansenists", especially that of respectful silence on the question of fact.阿省的會議本來是要詢問是否可考慮赦免一個教士誰宣稱他曾在某些問題上的感情“這些所謂的詹森主義者”,尤其是尊重的問題上保持沉默的事實。 Forty doctors of the Sorbonnet -- among them some of great renown, such as Natalis Alexander -- decided affirmatively. 40醫生的Sorbonnet -其中一些極負盛名,如Natalis亞歷山大-決定肯定。 The publication of this decision aroused all enlightened Catholics, and the "case of conscience" was condemned by Clement XI (1703), by Cardinal de Noailles, Archbishop of Paris, by a large number of bishops, and finally by the faculties of theology of Louvain, Douai, and Paris.該刊物的這一決定引起了所有開明的天主教徒,而“案例”良心譴責了克萊門特十一(1703),由紅衣主教諾阿耶,巴黎大主教,由大量的主教,最後由學院的神學魯汶,杜埃和巴黎。 The last-named, however as its slowness would indicate, did not arrive at this decision without difficulty.最後命名的,但是作為其緩慢將表明,在沒有到達這個決定沒有困難。 As for the doctors who signed, they were terrified by the storm they had let loose, and either retracted or explained their action as best they might, with the exception of the author of the whole movement, Dr. Petitpied, whose name was erased from the list of the faculty.至於誰簽署的醫生,他們被嚇壞了風暴,他們讓鬆散,要么收回或解釋他們的行動最好的,他們可能與異常的作者對整個運動,博士Petitpied,他的名字被抹去的,名單上的教師。 But the Jansenists, though pressed hard by some and abandoned by others, did not yield.但詹森主義者,雖然竭力一些和被遺棄的人,沒有屈服。 For this reason Clement XI, at the request of the Kings of France and Spain, issued 16 July 1705, the Bull "Vineam Domini Sabaoth" (Enchiridion, 1350) in which he formally declared that respectful silence was not sufficient for the obedience due to the constitutions of his predecessors.基於這個原因,克萊門特十一,在國王的請求,法國和西班牙,1705年7月16日發出的公牛“Vineam多米尼千萬軍馬”(便覽,1350),他正式宣布,尊重沉默是不夠的,由於服從憲法對他的前任。 This Bull, received with submission by the assembly of the clergy of 1705, in which only the Bishop of Saint-Pons obstinately refused to agree with the opinion of his colleagues, was afterwards promulgated as a law of the State.這輪牛市,收到大會提交了對1705年的神職人員,其中只有主教聖龐斯頑固拒絕同意他的同事的意見,後來被頒布為國家法律。 It may be said to have officially terminated that period of half a century of agitation occasioned by the signing of the formulary.這可以說已經正式終止此期間半個世紀所引起的激動簽署的處方。 It also terminated the existence of Port-Royal des Champs, which up to that time had remained a notorious centre and hotbed of rebellion.它也終止了存在的港口皇家香榭麗舍,其中最多的仍然是一個臭名昭著的時候了中心和叛亂的溫床。

When it was proposed to the religious that they should accept the new Bull, they would consent only with this clause: "that it was without derogating from what had taken place in regard to them at the time of the peace of the Church under Clement XI".當有人提議到宗教是他們應該接受的新牛市,他們只同意將這一條款:“它在沒有減損place採取了什麼就在他們對和平的時候,教會根據克萊門特XI “。 This restriction brought up again their entire past, as was clearly shown by their explanation of it, and therefore made their submission a hollow pretence.重提這個限制他們的整個過去,顯然表明了他們的解釋是,因此使他們的意見是空心的幌子。 Cardinal de Noailles urged them in vain; he forbade them the sacraments, and two of the religious died without receiving them, unless it were secretly from a disguised priest.紅衣主教諾阿耶敦促他們徒勞的,他禁止他們的聖禮,和兩名死亡沒有收到他們的宗教,除非它被秘密從變相祭司。 As all measures had failed, it was high time to put an end to this scandalous resistance.由於所有措施均告失敗,這是時候結束這種可恥的阻力。 A Bull suppressed the title of the Abbey of Port-Royal des Champs, and reunited that house and its holdings to the Paris house.牛市抑制標題修道院的港口皇家香榭麗舍,和團聚的房子,其持有的巴黎房子。 The Court gave peremptory orders for a prompt execution, and, despite all the means of delay contrived and carried out by those interested, the pontifical sentence had its full effect.法院給予強制執行訂單迅速,而且,儘管所有的人為的拖延手段,開展了這些感興趣,宗座句子有其充分的效果。 The surviving choir religious were scattered among the convents of the neighbouring destroyed dioceses (29 October 1709).倖存的合唱團宗教零星分散在各鄰國的修道院摧毀教區(1709年10月29日)。 This separation had the desired good results.這種分離取得預期的良好效果。 All the rebellious nuns ended by submitting, save one, the mother prioress, who died at Blois without the sacraments, in 1716.所有的反叛修女結束時提交,節省一,母親普賴爾斯,誰無死在布盧瓦的聖禮,在1716年。 The Government wishing to eradicate even the trace of this nest of errors, as Clement XI called it, destroyed all the buildings and removed elsewhere the bodies buried in the cemetery.政府希望消除的痕跡,甚至這個巢的錯誤,稱這是克萊門特十一,摧毀所有的建築物和其他地方的屍體移走被埋在墓地。

During the disputes concerning the "case of conscience", a new book came cautiously on the scene another "Augustinus", pregnant with storms and tempests, as violent as the first.在有關爭端“案的良心”,一本新書來謹慎現場另一個“奧古斯丁”,懷孕與風暴和暴風雨,作為暴力的第一次。 The author was Paschase Quesnel, at first a member of the French Oratory, but expelled from that congregation for his Jansenistic opinions (1684), and since 1689 a refugee at Brussels with the aged Antoine Arnauld whom he succeeded in 1696 as leader of the party.筆者是Paschase奎斯內爾,首先是會員的法國演講,但開除他的會眾Jansenistic意見(1684),自1689年一難民在布魯塞爾與安托萬Arnauld歲的人,他成功地在1696年作為黨領袖。 The work had been published in part as early as 1671 in a 12mo volume entitled "Abrégé de la morale de l'Evangile, ou pensées chrétiennes sur le texte des quatres évangélistes".這項工作已發表在1671年的一部分,早在一12mo卷,題為“Abrégé德拉士氣德l'樂王吉爾堡,歐pensées chrétiennes河畔樂texte德quatres évangélistes”。 It appeared with the hearty approbation of Vialar, Bishop of Châlons, and, thanks to a style at once attractive and full of unction which seemed in general to reflect a solid and sincere piety, it soon met with great success.這似乎與熱忱的讚許,維亞拉爾,主教夏龍,而且由於在一次有吸引力的風格和充滿油膏似乎總體反映了堅實的和真誠的虔誠,它很快就遇到了很大的成功。 But in the later development of his first work, Quesnel had extended it to the whole of the New Testament.但在後來的發展,他的第一部作品,奎斯內爾已擴大到整個新約。 He issued it in 1693, in an edition which comprised four large volumes entitled, "Nouveau testament en francais avec des réflexions morales sur chaque verset".他是在1693年發出,在一版,設有四個大量題為“運動風格遺書恩主頁avec德réflexions莫拉萊斯河畔查克verset”。 This edition, besides the earlier approbation of Vialar which it inopportunely bore, was formally approved and heartily recommended by his successor, de Noailles, who, as subsequent events showed, acted imprudently in the matter and without being well-informed as to the contents of the book.這個版本,除了早期的讚許,維亞拉爾它不湊巧孔,正式批准並衷心推薦他的繼任者,德諾阿耶,誰,隨後的事件表明,魯莽地採取行動的問題,並沒有被充分了解的內容,以該書。 The "Réflexions morales" of Quesnel reproduced, in fact, the theories of the irresistible efficaciousness of grace and the limitations of God's will with regard to the salvation of men.在“反射莫拉萊斯的”奎斯內爾轉載,事實上,理論的不可抗拒efficaciousness的恩典和局限性上帝的意志,關於拯救男性。 Hence they soon called forth the sharpest criticism, and at the same time attracted the attention of the guardians of the Faith.因此,他們很快提出了尖銳的批評所謂,並在同一時間吸引了關注的監護人的信仰。 The Bishops of Apt (1703) Gap (1704), Nevers, and Besançon (1707) condemned them, and, after a report from the Inquisition, Clement XI proscribed them by the Brief "Universi dominici" (1708) as containing the propositions already condemned and as manifestly savouring of the Jansenist heresy". Two years later (1710) the Bishops of Luçon and La Rochelle forbade the reading of the book.主教們的公寓(1703)峽(1704),訥韋爾,和貝桑松(1707)譴責他們,並報告後,從宗教裁判所,克萊門特十一禁止他們的摘要“學報JOURNAL多米尼奇”(1708)的主張已為含有顯然譴責和品嚐的簡森派異端“。兩年後(1710年)的主教盧肯和拉羅謝爾禁止閱讀的書。

Their ordinance, posted in the capital, gave rise to a conflict with Noailles, who, having become cardinal and Archbishop of Paris, found himself under the necessity of withdrawing the approbation he had formerly given at Châlons. However, as he hesitated, less through attachment to error than through self love, to take this step, Louis XIV asked the pope to issue a solemn constitution and put an end to the trouble.他們的條例,張貼在首都引起了衝突與諾瓦耶,誰,已成為樞機主教,大主教巴黎,發現自己下的必要性的認同,他撤回原先給予在沙隆。然而,他猶豫了一下,大致可通過附件錯誤不是通過自愛,採取這一步驟,路易十四要求教宗發出莊嚴的憲法,結束了麻煩。 Clement XI then subjected the book to a new and very minute examination, and in the Bull "Unigenitus" (8 September, 1713) he condemned 101 propositions which had been taken from the book (Enchiridion, 1351 sq.).克萊門特十一然後受到的書,一個新的和非常分鐘的檢查,並在公牛“Unigenitus”(1713年9月8日)他譴責101命題已被採取從書(便覽,1351平方米)。 Among these were some propositions which, in themselves and apart from the context, seemed to have an orthodox sense.其中有些主張是,除了本身和從上下文,似乎有一個正統的感覺。 Noailles and with him eight other bishops, though they did not refuse to proscribe the book, seized this Pretext to ask explanations from Rome before accepting the Bull.諾阿耶並與他8其他主教,雖然他們並沒有拒絕禁止的書,以此為藉口,要求檢獲的解釋,從羅馬之前接受公牛。 This was the beginning of lengthy discussions the gravity of which increased with the death of Louis XIV (1715), who was succeeded in power by Philippe d'Orléans.這是年初以來長時間的討論,其中增加的嚴重性與死亡的路易十四(1715),誰是成功的權力由Philippe德奧爾良。 The regent took a much less decided stand than his predecessor, and the change soon had its effect on various centres, especially on the Sorbonne, where the sectaries had succeeded in winning over the majority.麗晶酒店更決定了一個比他的前任的立場,並很快改變了各中心的作用,特別是在索邦大學,那裡的教派已成功地贏得多數。 The faculties of Paris, Reims, and Nantes, who had received the Bull, revoked their previous acceptance.該學院的巴黎,蘭斯和南特,誰收到了公牛,撤銷其先前接受。 Four bishops went even farther, having recourse to an expedient of which only heretics or declared schismatics had hitherto bethought themselves, and which was essentially at variance with the hierarchical concept of the Church; they appealed from the Bull "Unigenitus" to a general council (1717).四位主教去,甚至更遠,求助於權宜之計,其中只有異端或宣布schismatics與羅馬迄今為止bethought了自己,這是本質上的差異與等級觀念的教會,他們呼籲從公牛“Unigenitus”向總理事會( 1717)。 Their example was followed by some of their colleagues, by hundreds of clerics and religious, by the Parlements and the magistracy Noailles, for a long time undecided and always inconsistent, ended by appealing also, but "from the pope obviously mistaken to the pope better informed and to a general council".他們為榜樣其次他們的一些同事,由數百名神職人員和宗教,由Parlements和裁判法院諾阿耶,很長一段時間未定,始終不一致,也結束了吸引力,但“從教宗的明顯錯誤,以更好的教皇通知和一個總理事會“。

Clement XI, however, in the Bull "Pastoralis officii" (1718), condemned the appeal and excommunicated the appellants.克萊門特十一,但是,在牛市“Pastoralis officii”(1718),譴責和驅逐上訴人的上訴。 But this did not disarm the opposition, which appealed from the second Bull as from the first Noailles himself published a new appeal, no longer chiefly to the pope "better informed", but to a council, and the Parlement of Paris, suppressed the Bull "Pastoralis". The multiplicity of these defections and the arrogant clamour of the appellants might give the impression that they constituted, if not a majority, at least a very imposing minority.但這並沒有解除武裝的反對派,呼籲從第二公牛從第一次諾阿耶自己公佈了一項新的呼籲,不再主要是教宗“更好地了解”,但進入議會,並Parlement巴黎,鎮壓公牛“Pastoralis”。叛逃的多重這些喧囂和傲慢的上訴人可能給人的印象是它們構成,如果不是大多數,至少是一個非常施加少數。 Such, however, was not the case, and the chief evidence of this lies in the well-established fact that enormous sums were devoted to paying for these appeals.這樣,不過,不是的話,證據和行政這是在眾所周知的事實是巨資專門用於繳交這些上訴。 After allowing for these shameful and suggestive purchases, we find among the number of the appellants, one cardinal, about eighteen bishops, and three thousand clerics.經過允許這些可恥的和暗示的購買,我們發現其中有多少上訴人,一個大是大非,大約18主教,神職人員和3000。 But without leaving France, we find opposed to them four cardinals, a hundred bishops, and a hundred thousand clerics, that is, the moral unanimity of the French clergy.但如果沒有離開法國,我們發現其中4樞機反對,1 100主教,神職人員和10.0萬,即,道德一致,法國的神職人員。 What is to be said, then, when this handful of protesters is compared to the whole of the Churches of England, the Low Countries, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Naples, Savoy, Portugal, Spain, etc., which, on being requested to pronounce, did so by proscribing the appeal as an act of schism and foolish revolt?什麼是可說的,那麼,當這個少數示威者相比,是整個教會的英格蘭,低地國家,德國,匈牙利,意大利,那不勒斯,薩沃伊,葡萄牙,西班牙等,其中,在被要求發音,這樣做的禁制上訴,行為的分裂和愚蠢的反? The polemics, however, continued for several years.的論戰,然而,持續了好幾年。 The return to unity of Cardinal de Noailles, who submitted without restriction in 1728 six months before his death, was a telling blow to the party of Quesnel.返回團結的紅衣主教諾阿耶,誰不加限制在1728年提出的6個月前去世,是一個沉重打擊,以黨的奎斯內爾。 Henceforth it steadily grew less, so that not even the scenes that took place at the cemetery of Saint-Médard, of which mention is made below.從此它穩步增長較少,因此即使場景不是發生在墓地的聖梅達爾,其中提到了下文。 restored it.恢復它。 But the Parlements.但Parlements。 eager to de clare themselves and to apply their Gallican and royalist principles, continued for a long time to refuse to receive the Bull "Unigenitus".渴望自己和克萊爾去運用他們高盧和保皇黨的原則,持續了很長時間拒絕接受公牛“Unigenitus”。 They even made it the occasion to meddle in scandalous fashion in the administration of the sacraments, and to persecute bishops and priests accused of refusing absolution to those who would not submit to the Holy See.他們甚至有機會染指醜聞的方式,將管理的聖禮,並迫害的主教和司鐸指責拒絕赦免那些誰不服從羅馬教廷。

VI.六。 THE CONVULSIONARIES的CONVULSIONARIES

We have reviewed the long series of defensive measures contrived by the Jansenists rejection of the five propositions without rejection of the "Augustinus", explicit distinction between the question of right and the question of fact; restriction of ecclesiastical infallibility to the question of right; the tactics of respectful silence, and appeal to a general council.我們已檢討長遠的一系列防禦措施,人為的詹森教徒拒絕不拒絕的5點主張的“奧古斯丁”,明確區分問題的權利和問題的事實;限制的教會犯錯誤的問題的權利;的沉默戰術的尊重,並呼籲一個總理事會。 They had exhausted all the expedients of a theological and canonical discussion more obstinate than sincere.他們已經用盡了所有的權宜神學和規範不是真誠的討論更加頑固。 Not a single one of these had availed them anything at the bar of right reason or of legitimate authority.沒有一個,這些人利用他們在酒吧的任何權利或合法權威的原因。 They then thought to invoke in their behalf the direct testimony of God Himself, namely, miracles.然後,他們認為他們的代表援引的直接證詞的上帝,即創造奇蹟。 One of their number, an appellant, a rigorist to the point of having once passed two years without communicating, for the rest given to a retired and penitent life, the deacon François de Paris had died in 1727.他們的一個號碼,上訴人,一rigorist重要的一點是有一次通過兩年沒有溝通,其餘為給退休和懺悔的生活,執事弗朗索瓦巴黎死於1727年。 They pretended that at his tomb in the little cemetery of Saint-Médard marvellous cures took place.他們假裝在他的墳墓在小墓地的聖梅達爾發生了奇妙的治療方法。 A case alleged as such was examined by de Vintimille, Archbishop of Paris, who with proofs in hand declared it false and supposititious (1731).據稱這樣的病例進行了檢查,德Vintimille,巴黎大主教,以證明誰手宣布它虛假的迷信(1731)。 But other cures were claimed by the party, and so noised abroad that soon the sick and the curious flocked to the cemetery.但其他人宣稱治愈了黨,所以在國外,很快1:65病人和好奇的聚集在墓地。 The sick experienced strange agitations, nervous commotions, either real or simulated.生病的經歷奇怪的紛爭,緊張騷亂,無論是真實或模擬。 They fell into violent transports and inveighed against the pope and the bishops, as the convulsionaries of Cévennes had denounced the papacy and the Mass. In the excited crowd women were especially noticeable, screaming, yelling, throwing themselves about, sometimes assuming the most astounding and unseemly postures.他們陷入暴力傳輸和猛烈抨擊教皇和主教,作為convulsionaries的塞文譴責了教皇和馬薩諸塞州在興奮的人群,尤其是婦女明顯,尖叫,大叫,扔本身對,有時假設的最驚人的,不體面的姿勢。 To justify these extravagances, complacent admirers had recourse to the theory of "figurism".為了證明這些奢侈品,自滿仰慕已訴諸理論“figurism”。 As in their eyes the fact of the general acceptance of the Bull "Unigenitus" was the apostasy predicted by the Apocalypse, so the ridiculous and revolting scenes enacted by their friends symbolized the state of upheaval which, according to them, involved everything in the Church.由於在他們眼中的事實的普遍接受的公牛“Unigenitus”是叛教預測的啟示,所以荒謬和令人作嘔的場面制定的朋友,象徵國家的動亂,據他們說,在教會中所涉及的一切。 They reverted thus to a fundamental thesis such as has been met with in Jansenius and St-Cyran, and which these latter had borrowed from the Protestants.從而恢復他們的基本論點,如已經會晤了Jansenius和聖,齊蘭,和這些後者借用了新教徒。 A journal the "Nouvelles Ecclesiastiques", had been founded in 1729 to defend and propagate these ideas and practices, and the "Nouvelles" was profusely spread, thanks to the pecuniary resources furnished by the Boîte à Perrette, the name given later to the capital or common fund of the sect begun by Nicole, and which grew so rapidly that it exceeded a million of money.阿雜誌的“新軍Ecclesiastiques”,已成立於1729年,捍衛和宣傳這些想法和做法,以及“新軍”是大汗蔓延,由於金錢資源提供了博伊泰à Perrette,給後來的名稱首都共同基金或該教派開始的妮可,並增長迅速,超過1億美元的資金。 It had hitherto served chiefly to defray the cost of appeals and to support, in France as well as in Holland, the religious, men and women, who deserted their convents or congregations for the sake of Jansenism.它迄今主要是支付服務費用的呼籲和支持,在法國以及荷蘭,宗教,男人和女人,誰遺棄的修道院或教會的詹森主義的緣故。

The cemetery of Saint-Médard, having become the scene of exhibitions as tumultuous as they were indecent, was closed by order of the court in 1732.該墓地的聖梅達爾,已成為展覽現場的混亂,因為他們是不雅,下令關閉了法庭在1732年。 The oeuvre des convulsions, as its partisans called it, was not, however, abandoned. The convulsions reappeared in private houses with the same characteristics, but more glaring.在全部作品德抽搐,因為它的游擊隊稱它,是沒有,不過,被遺棄。抽搐再次出現的私人住宅中具有相同的特徵,但更明顯。 Henceforth with few exceptions they seized only upon young girls, who, it was said, possessed a divine gift of healing.從此,除了少數例外,他們只有在抓住年輕女孩,誰,有人說,擁有一個神聖的禮物癒合。 But what was more astonishing was that their bodies, subjected during the crisis to all sorts of painful tests, seemed at once insensible and invulnerable; they were not wounded by the sharpest instruments, or bruised by enormous weights or blows of incredible violence.但更令人驚訝的是,他們的機構,危機期間遭受的各種痛苦的考驗,似乎在一次愚蠢的和無懈可擊,他們並沒有受傷的尖銳工具,在巨大的重量或撞傷或打擊難以置信的暴力行為。 A convulsionary, nicknamed "la Salamandre", remained suspended for more than nine minutes above a fiery brazier, enveloped only in a sheet, which also remained intact in the midst of the flames.阿抽搐,綽號“拉Salamandre”,仍然暫停超過9分鐘以上的火熱的火盆,只籠罩在一表,也仍然完好無損在中間的火焰。 Tests of this sort had received in the language of the sect the denomination of secours, and the secouristes, or partisans of the secours, distinguished between the petits-secours and the grands-secours, only the latter being supposed to require supernatural force.這類試驗在收到該教派的語言的面額為希克爾斯和secouristes,或游擊隊的希克爾斯,區分的petits -希克爾斯和大獎賽,希克爾斯,只有後者被假定需要超自然的力量。 At this point, a wave of defiance and opposition arose among the Jansenists themselves.此時,一個波的蔑視和反對的詹森主義者本身之間產生。 Thirty appellant doctors openly declared by common consent against the convulsions and the secours. 30上訴人醫生公開宣布一致同意對驚厥和希克爾斯。 A lively discussion arose between the secouristes and the anti-secouristes.阿之間出現熱烈討論的secouristes和反secouristes。 The secouristes in turn were soon divided into discernantes and melangistes, the former distinguishing between the work itself and its grotesque or objectionable features, which they ascribed to the Devil or to human weakness,while the latter regarded the convulsions and the secours as a single work coming from God, in which even the shocking elements had purpose and significance.該secouristes又很快被分為discernantes和melangistes,前區分的工作本身和其怪誕的或不良的特點,這歸因於他們的惡魔,還是人類的弱點,而後者則視痙攣,希克爾斯作為一個單一的工作來自上帝,在這種令人震驚的元素,甚至有目的和意義。

Without entering further into the details of these distinctions and divisions, we may ask how we are to judge what took place at the cemetery of Saint-Médard and the matters connected therewith.如果沒有進入更深入的細節,這些區別和分歧,我們可能會問,我們如何判斷什麼發生在墓地的聖梅達爾和有關事宜。 Whatever may have been said on the subject, there was absolutely no trace of the Divine seal in these happenings.無論可能已就此事表示,絕對沒有一絲神聖的印章在這些發生的事情。 It is needless to recall St. Augustine's principle that all prodigies accomplished outside the Church, especially those against the Church, are by the very fact more than suspicious: "Praeter unitatem, et qui facit miracula nihil est".這是不必要的回顧聖奧古斯丁的原則,所有天才完成教會之外,尤其是那些反對教會,是由非常多可疑的事實:“Praeter unitatem,等誇法西特miracula nihil預測”。 Two things only call for remark.兩件事情只要求說這番話的。 Several of the so-called miraculous cures were made the subject of a judicial investigation, and it was proved that they were based only on testimonies which were either false, interested, preconcerted, and more than once retracted, or at least valueless, the echoes of diseased and fanatic imaginations.幾個所謂的奇蹟般的治愈的課題進行了司法調查,這證明了他們只根據其中任何虛假證詞,有興趣的,預定的,並不止一次地收回,或至少毫無價值,迴聲患病和狂熱的想像。 Moreover, the convulsions and the secours certainly took place under circumstances which mere good taste would reject as unworthy of Divine wisdom and holiness.此外,驚厥和希克爾斯一定的情況下發生的僅僅是好味道也不肯辜負神聖的智慧和聖潔。 Not only were the cures, both acknowledged and claimed, supplementary of one another, but cures, convulsions, and secours belonged to the same order of facts and tended to the same concrete end.不僅是治療,都承認,並聲稱,互相補充,但治療,抽搐,和希克爾斯屬於同一順序的事實和趨於相同的具體目的。 We are therefore justified in concluding that the finger of God did not appear in the whole or in any of its parts.因此,我們有理由得出結論,上帝的手指沒有出現在全部或其任何部分。 On the other hand, although fraud was discovered in several cases, it is impossible to ascribe them all indiscriminately to trickery or ignorant simplicity.另一方面,雖然欺詐被發現在一些案件中,就不可能全部歸咎於他們不加區別地欺騙無知或簡單。 Critically speaking, the authenticity of some extraordinary phenomena is beyond question, as they took place publicly and in the presence of reliable witnesses, particularly anti-secourist Jansenists.批判地說,一些特殊現象的真實性是無庸置疑的,因為它們發生在公開和可靠的證人的存在,尤其是反secourist詹森教徒。 The question remains whether all these prodigies are explicable by natural causes, or whether the direct action of the Devil is to be recognized in some of them.問題是,是否所有這些天才是由自然原因可解釋,還是直接行動的魔鬼是要承認一些他們。 Each of these opinions has its adherents, but the former seems difficult to uphold despite, and in part perhaps because of, the light which recent experiments in suggestion, hypnotism, and spiritism have thrown on the problem.每個這些意見都有其信徒,但前者似乎難以堅持,儘管,在部分或許是因為,光,最近的實驗中建議,催眠術和招魂有投擲問題。 However this may be, one thing is certain; the things here related served only to discredit the cause of the party which exploited them.然而,這可能是,有一點是肯定的事情在這裡只涉及送達詆毀黨的事業,利用它們。 Jansenists themselves came at length to feel ashamed of such practices.詹森教徒在自己的長度來的這種做法感到慚愧。 The excesses connected with them more than once forced the civil authorities to intervene at least in a mild way; but this creation of fanaticism succumbed to ridicule and died by its own hand.與他們的過度連接不止一次被迫民事當局干預,至少在一個溫和的方式,但這種創造的狂熱屈服於嘲笑和死於自己的手。

VII.七。 JANSENISM IN HOLLAND AND THE SCHISM OF UTRECHT詹森在荷蘭和烏得勒支的分裂

Injurious as Jansenism was to religion and the Church in France, it did not there lead to schism properly so called.詹森主義是有害的宗教和教會在法國,它沒有出現導致分裂所謂正確。 The same does not hold good of the Dutch Low Countries, which the most important or most deeply implicated of the sectaries had long made their meeting place, finding there welcome and safety. Since the United Provinces had for the most part gone over to Protestantism, Catholics had lived there under the direction of vicars Apostolic.同樣不持有良好的荷蘭低地國家,其中最重要或最深刻的牽連的教派,早已使他們的聚會地點,發現那裡的歡迎和安全。由於聯合省已大部分轉移到了基督教,天主教徒一直住在有方向副主教使徒。 Unhappily these representatives of the pope were soon won over to the doctrines and intrigues of which the "Augustinus" was the origin and centre.這些不幸的代表,教皇很快贏得了在理論和陰謀,其中的“奧古斯丁”是起源和中心。 De Neercassel, titular Archbishop of Castoria, who governed the whole church in the Netherlands from 1663 to 1686, made no secret of his intimacy with the party.德Neercassel,名譽大主教Castoria,誰管全教會在荷蘭1663年至1686年,沒有任何秘密,他與黨親密。 Under him the country began to become the refuge of all whose obstinacy forced them to leave France and Belgium.根據他的國家開始成為避難所所有的固執迫使他們離開法國和比利時。 Thither came such men as Antoine Arnauld, du Vaucel, Gerberon, Quesnel, Nicole, Petitpied, as well as a number of priests, monks, and nuns who preferred exile to the acceptance of the pontifical Bulls.到那裡等人來為安東尼Arnauld,杜沃塞爾,熱爾伯,奎斯內爾,尼科爾,Petitpied,以及一個數字的祭司,僧侶,尼姑和流放到誰喜歡接受的宗座公牛隊。 A large number of these deserters belonged to the Congregation of the Oratory, but other orders shared with it this unfortunate distinction.阿大量這些逃兵屬於畢業典禮的演講,但其他命令與它共享這個不幸的區別。 When the fever of the appeals was at its height, twenty-six Carthusians of the Paris house escaped from their cloister during the night and fled to Holland.當發燒的上訴是在它的高度,2006年在巴黎Carthusians逃離自己的家修道院,並在夜間逃往荷蘭。 Fifteen Benedictines of the Abbey of Orval, in the Diocese of Trier, gave the same scandal. 15本篤的修道院奧瓦爾,在特里爾教區,作出了同樣的醜聞。 Peter Codde, who succeeded Neercassel in 1686, and who bore the title of Archbishop of Sebaste, went further than his predecessor.彼得Codde,誰在1686年成功Neercassel,誰承擔題目大主教Sebaste,比他的前任走得更遠。 He refused to sign the formulary and, when summoned to Rome, defended himself so poorly that he was first forbidden to exercise his functions, and then deposed by a decree of 1704.他拒絕簽署名冊,並在被召到羅馬,捍衛了自己很差,所以他是第一個禁止行使其職能,並通過了一項法令,被廢黜的1704年。 He died still obstinate in 1710.他死於1710年仍然頑固。 He had been replaced by Gerard Potkamp, but this appointment and those that followed were rejected by a section of the clergy, to whom the States-General lent their support.他取代了杰拉德Potkamp,但這一任命和那些被拒絕後由一節的神職人員,向誰該國的借給他們的支持。 The conflict lasted a long time, during which the episcopal functions were not fulfilled.衝突持續了很長一段時間,在此期間,主教的職能並沒有實現。 In 1723 the Chapter of Utrecht ie a group of seven or eight priests who assumed this name and quality in order to put an end to a precarious and Painful situation, elected, on its own authority, as archbishop of the same city, one of its members, Cornelius Steenhoven, who then held the office of vicar-general. 1723年的烏得勒支章即有一群七,八祭司誰承擔這個名稱和質量,以杜絕一個危險和痛苦的情況下,由選舉產生,對自己的權威,大主教同一城市,它的一個成員,科尼利厄斯斯廷霍,誰然後舉行了辦公室副主教幹事。 This election was not canonical, and was not approved by the pope.這次選舉是不規範的,並沒有教皇批准。 Steenhoven nevertheless had the audacity to get himself consecrated by Varlet, a former missionary bishop and coadjutor Bishop of Babylon, who was at that time suspended, interdicted, and excommunicated.斯廷霍然而卻厚顏無恥地得到自己神聖的Varlet,一名前傳教士主教和助理主教巴比倫,誰當時暫停,停職,並驅逐。 He thus consummated the schism, interdicted likewise and excommunicated, he died in 1725.因此,他完善了分裂,停職同樣和驅逐,他死於1725年。 Those who had elected him transferred their support to Barchman Wuitiers, who had recourse to the same consecrator.這些誰當選他調動了他們的支持Barchman Wuitiers,誰求助於同樣consecrator。 The unhappy Varlet lived long enough to administer the episcopal unction to two successors of Barchman, van der Croon and Meindarts.生活的不愉快Varlet足夠長,負責管理主教油膏兩個接班人的Barchman,范德克魯和Meindarts。 The sole survivor of this sorry line, Meindarts, ran the risk of seeing his dignity become extinct with himself.唯一的倖存者的遺憾線,Meindarts,冒著風險看到他的尊嚴與自己絕跡。 To prevent this, the Dioceses of Haarlem (1742) and Deventer (1757) were created, and became suffragans of Utrecht.為了防止這種情況,該教區的哈勒姆(1742)和芬特爾(1757年)創建的,並成為suffragans烏得勒支。 But Rome always refused to ratify these outrageously irregular acts, invariably replying to the notification of each election with a declaration of nullification and a sentence of excommunication against those elected and their adherents.但羅馬總是悍然拒絕批准這些不規則的行為,總是回答每次選舉通知了申報無效和句子的禁教對他們的當選和信徒。 Yet, in spite of everything, the schismatical community of Utrecht has prolonged its existence until modern times.然而,儘管一切,分裂的社會烏得勒支已延長其存在,直到近代。 At present it numbers about 6000 members in the three united dioceses.目前它的成員人數約6000在三個聯合教區。 It would scarcely be noticed if it had not, in the last century, made itself heard by protesting against Pius IX's re-establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in Holland (1853), by declaring itself against the dogmas of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and Papal Infallibility (1870), and lastly, after the Vatican Council, in allying itself with the "Old Catholics", whose first so-called bishop it consecrated.它幾乎不被察覺,如果沒有,在上個世紀,使自己成為聽取了抗議庇護九的重新建立的天主教等級的荷蘭(1853年),宣稱自己對教條的聖母無原罪(1854年)和教皇犯錯誤(1870年),最後,在梵蒂岡理事會在結盟本身與“舊天主教徒”,其第一個所謂的主教是神聖的。

VIII.八。 DECLINE AND END OF JANSENISM詹森主義的衰落與終結

During the second half of the eighteenth century the influence of Jansenism was prolonged by taking on various forms and ramifications, and extending to countries other than those in which we have hitherto followed it.在下半年的18世紀的詹森主義的影響是長期採取各種形式和後果,並擴展到其他國家比,我們也一直在遵循它。 In France the Parlements continued to pronounce judgments, to inflict fines and confiscations, to suppress episcopal ordinances, and even to address remonstrances to the king in defence of the pretended right of the appellants to absolution and the reception of the last sacraments.在法國,Parlements繼續宣布判決,施以罰款和沒收,壓制主教條例,以解決進諫,甚至對國王在捍衛權利的假裝的上訴人赦免和接待的最後聖禮。 In 1756 they rejected a very moderate decree of Benedict XIV regulating the matter. 1756年,他們拒絕了非常溫和的本篤十四法令規範的問題。 A royal declaration confirming the Roman decision did not find favour in their eyes, and it required all the remaining strength of the monarchy to compel them to register it.一個皇家羅馬宣言確認決定沒有受到青睞在他們眼中,它要求所有的剩餘強度的君主制,迫使他們將其註冊。 The sectaries seemed by degrees to detach themselves from the primitive heresy, but they retained unabated the spirit of insubordination and schism, the spirit of opposition to Rome, and above all a mortal hatred of the Jesuits.該教派的程度似乎要脫離自己從原始異端,但還保留有增無已的精神,不服從和分裂的精神,反對羅馬,首先是一個致命的仇恨的耶穌會士。 They had vowed the ruin of that order, which they always found blocking their way, and in order to attain their end they successively induced Catholic princes and ministers in Portugal, France, Spain, Naples, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies the Duchy of Parma, and elsewhere to join hands with the worst leaders of impiety and philosophism.他們曾誓言毀滅的秩序,他們總是找到阻止他們的方式,以達到其最終他們先後致天主教王公大臣在葡萄牙,法國,西班牙,那不勒斯,兩西西里王國的大公國帕爾馬和其他地方的攜手最差領導人不虔誠和philosophism。 The same tendency was displayed in the work of Febronius, condemned (1764) by Clement XIII; and, instilled into Joseph II by his councillor Godefried van Swieten, a disciple of the revolted church of Utrecht, it became the principle of the innovations and ecclesiastical upheavals decreed by the sacristan-emperor (see FEBRONIANISM).同樣的趨勢是顯示在工作費布羅紐斯,譴責(1764)克萊門特第十三;以及約瑟夫二世注入了他的委員雷德弗里德麵包車施威滕,弟子的反叛教會的烏得勒支,成為原則的創新和教會動亂頒布的教堂司,皇帝(見FEBRONIANISM)。 It raged in similar fashion in Tuscany under the government of the Grand Duke Leopold, brother of Joseph II; and found another manifestation in the famous Synod of Pistoia (1786), the decrees of which, at once the quintessence of Gallicanism and of the heresy of Jansenism, were reproved by the Bull of Pius VI, "Auctorem fidei" (1794).它以類似的方式肆虐下,政府在托斯卡納大公利奧波德的,弟弟約瑟夫二世,並發現另一表現在著名的主教皮斯托亞(1786),其中的法令,在一次的精髓Gallicanism和異端詹森主義,被斥責公牛比約六,“Auctorem信德奧跡”(1794)。 On French soil the remains of Jansenism were not completely extinguished by the French Revolution, but survived in some remarkable personalities, such as the constitutional Bishop Grégoire, and in some religious congregations, as the Sisters of St. Martha, who did not return in a body to Catholic truth and unity until 1847.在法國領土上的詹森主義仍然沒有完全熄滅的法國大革命,但倖存下來的一些顯著的人物,如憲法主教格雷瓜爾,並在某些宗教團體,作為修女聖馬大,誰也不會返回1身體天主教真理和統一,直到1847年。 But its spirit lived on, especially in the rigorism which for a long time dominated the practice of the administration of the sacraments and the teaching of moral theology.但它的精神過活,尤其是在rigorism的長期實踐中佔主導地位的管理和教學的聖禮道德神學。 In a great number of French seminaries, Bailly's "Théologie", which was impregnated with this rigorism, remained the standard textbook until Rome in 1852 put it on the Index "donec corrigatur".在大量的法國修道院,貝利的“神學”,這是這個rigorism浸漬,仍然是標準的教科書,直到羅馬在1852年把它在索引“donec corrigatur”。 Among those who even prior to that had worked energetically against it, chiefly by offering in opposition the doctrines of St. Alphonsus, two names are deserving of special mention: Gousset, whose "Théologie morale" (1844) had been preceded by his "Justification de la theologie morale du bienheureux Alphonse-Marie Liguori" (2nd ed., 1832); Jean-Pierre Berman, professor at the seminary of Nancy for twenty-five years (1828-1853), and author of a "Theologia moralis ex S. Ligorio" (7 vols., 1855). Such is, in outline, the historical account of Jansenism, its origin, its phases, and its decline.在這些甚至在此之前,誰工作過大力反對,主要是提供在反對派的學說,聖阿方,兩個名字都是值得特別提及:Gousset,他的“神學的士氣”(1844年)之前,他已“的理由德拉神學士氣杜bienheureux阿爾方斯瑪麗利古“(第二版。,1832);讓皮埃爾伯曼,在神學院教授南希二十五年(1828年至1853年),和作家的”神學莫拉利斯ex的。利戈里奧“(7卷。,1855)。這就是,在大綱,佔詹森主義的歷史,其產地,其階段,其下降。 It is evident that, besides its attachment to the "Augustinus" and its rigorism in morals, it is distinguished among heresies for crafty proceedings, chicane and lack of frankness on the part of its adherents, especially their pretence of remaining Catholics without renouncing their errors, of staying in the Church despite the Church itself, by skilfully eluding or braving with impunity the decisions of the supreme authority.很明顯,除了其附件的“奧古斯丁”及其rigorism在道德,它是傑出的歪理邪說為狡猾的訴訟中,急彎,缺乏坦率的一部分,它的信徒,特別是他們的幌子剩餘天主教徒沒有放棄他們的錯誤,留在教會,儘管教會本身,巧妙地躲避或冒著受到懲罰的決定的最高權力機構。 Such conduct is beyond doubt without a parallel in the annals of Christianity previous to the outbreak of Jansenism in fact, it would be incredible if we did not in our own day find in certain groups of Modernists examples of this astonishing and absurd duplicity.這種行為是毫無疑問沒有並行的史冊基督教以前的詹森主義的爆發,事實上,這將是不可思議的,如果我們沒有發現在我們自己的一天,在某些群體的例子,這個驚人的現代主義和荒謬的口是心非。 The deplorable consequences, both theoretical and practical, of the Jansenist system, and of the polemics to which it gave rise, may readily be gathered from what has been said, and from the history of the last few centuries.可悲的後果,不管是理論和實踐,對簡森派制度,以及它所爭論引起,可以很容易地從已收集的說,從歷史的過去幾個世紀。

Publication information Written by J. Forget.出版信息寫了J.忘記。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄由托馬斯漢奇爾。天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰 farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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