Great Schism大分裂

General Information 一般信息

The term Great Schism is used to refer to two major events in the history of Christianity: the division between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches, and the period (1378 - 1417) during which the Western church had first two, and later three, lines of popes.大分裂一詞是用來指兩件大事在歷史上基督教:師之間的東區(東正教),西方(羅馬)教會,期間(1378至1417年)期間,西方教會了前兩個,後來三,線條的教皇。

Eastern Schism東方教會分裂

The schism between the Eastern and Western churches is traditionally dated to 1054, although the precise point at which the split became a fixed and lasting reality is difficult to determine.在分裂與東部和西部教會的傳統追溯到1054年,雖然精確點而分裂成為一個固定的和持久的現實是難以確定。 Many causes contributed to the growing misunderstanding and alienation between the two groups.有很多原因造成的誤解和疏離感日益兩組之間。 Partly these were differences of philosophical understanding, liturgical usage, language, and custom, but political rivalries and divisions were also involved.部分原因是這些人對哲學的理解不同,禮儀的使用,語言和習俗,但政治爭鬥和分歧也參與。 Occasions of friction, hostility, and open division on doctrinal questions as well as matters of discipline and daily practice had occurred long before 1054 - for example, the Photian schism of the 9th century.多次摩擦,敵意,公開組的理論問題,以及事項的紀律和日常實踐中出現了很久以前1054 -例如,Photian分裂的9世紀。

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In the West the Latin church and especially the papacy took on many activities and powers in default of other authority, but this action was often regarded as usurpation by the East, where a different relationship existed between emperor and church.在西方,尤其是拉丁教會和教皇發生在許多活動和權力,在默認的其他權力,但這一行動經常被視為篡奪的東方,在不同的關係之間存在一個皇帝,教堂等。 The heated disputes over such matters as the ecclesiastical calendar, the use of leavened or unleavened bread, or additions to the Creed (notably the filioque clause) reached a climax in 1054, when Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other.在激烈的爭議等事項教會日曆,或使用無酵酵麵包,或增加的信條(特別是filioque條款)在1054年達到了高潮,當教皇利奧九和宗主教邁克爾Cerularius驅逐對方。 Technically, only a few people were affected by this action, but the tone had been set and the direction fixed.在技術上,只有少數人受到影響通過這一行動,但語氣已定,方向固定。

Later attempts to reunite the churches foundered on local feeling, and mutual hatred grew through selfish acts on both sides during some parts of the Crusades; the low point was the sacking of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade.稍後嘗試重新統一教會沉沒於當地的感情,相互仇恨長大自私的行為,通過雙方在一些地區,對十字軍東征,低一點是洗劫君士坦丁堡在1204年第四次十字軍東征期間。 The schism continues to the present, but recently serious attempts at mutual understanding have offered the hope of reconciliation.的分裂一直持續到現在,但最近在認真努力的相互了解提供了和解的希望。

Western Schism西方教會分裂

The Western Schism began in the events after the death of Pope Gregory XI in March 1378.西方教會分裂後,開始在這些事件中死亡的羅馬教皇格雷戈里十一1378年3月。 The people of Rome were determined not to allow the papacy - which had been absent at Avignon for 70 years and dominated by French influence - to leave Rome upon the election of the new pope.羅馬的人民都決心不讓教皇-這已在阿維尼翁缺席70年,主要由法國的影響-離開羅馬後,選舉新教皇。 The result was a loud and controversial conclave with cries for a Roman or at least an Italian pope.其結果是一個響亮的呼聲和爭議的一個秘密會議,或至少是羅馬教皇意大利。 The man chosen, Urban VI, was not a cardinal, but he had served in the curia.該名男子選擇,市區六,是不是一個大是大非,但他曾擔任了教廷。

Soon the cardinals realized the mistake that they had made in electing Urban.不久,樞機主教實現了錯誤,他們在選城市。 He disdained the advice of others, could be ruthless if opposed or questioned, and was committed to reform through an extreme reduction of the powers of the cardinals, who for decades had been almost corulers with the popes in Avignon. The result of this clash was tragedy for the church.他鄙視他人的意見,如果可以無情的反對或質疑,並承諾通過改革減少了極端的權力的樞機主教,誰數十年來幾乎corulers與教皇在阿維尼翁。結果這一衝突是悲劇的教堂。

Led by the French, the majority of cardinals gradually withdrew from the papal court.率領由法國,大部分樞機主教逐漸退出了教皇法庭。 They met at Anagni and declared Urban's election null and void because, they alleged, their votes had been made under pressure and fear for their lives.他們會見了在阿納尼並宣布城市的選舉無效,因為他們聲稱,他們的選票已經取得了壓力和恐懼下為自己的生命。 They then elected one of their own as Pope Clement VII.然後,他們自己選出的教皇克萊門特七世。 For the next three decades the church was divided along national, political, and religious lines between the papal claimants - the Roman line of Urban VI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, and Gregory XII, and the Avignon line of Clement VII and Benedict XIII - until, after various proposals and repeated failures, the cardinals from both obediences abandoned their claimants out of despair of getting any cooperation from them toward unity.在接下來的30年裡,沿著教堂被分裂的國家,政治和宗教之間的教皇索賠-羅馬線市區六,博尼法斯九,無辜第七,第十二和格雷戈里和阿維尼翁線克萊門特第七和第十三篤-直到之後的各種建議和反复的失敗,樞機主教從obediences放棄索賠人走出絕望的合作得到任何他們走向統一。

The Conciliar Epoch, which led eventually to the healing of the schism, began in 1409 when the cardinals called the Council of Pisa.而大公會議時代,導致最終癒合的分裂,在1409年就開始當樞機主教呼籲安理會的比薩。 The council deposed both Gregory XII and Benedict XIII and then elected a third claimant, Alexander V (to be succeeded shortly afterward by the medieval John XXIII).該委員會同時廢黜格雷戈里第十二和第十三篤,然後選出三分之一索賠,亞歷山大五(不久之後將接替約翰二十三世的中世紀)。 The Pisan claimants received the support of most of Latin Christendom, but the schism continued until the Council of Constance (1414 - 18) removed all three claimants and elected the one pope accepted by just about all - Martin V - on Nov. 11, 1417.該皮薩恩人領取的支持大多數拉美基督教,但分裂一直持續到安理會的康斯坦茨(1414 - 18)刪除了所有三個索賠人並選舉產生了1教宗接受只是所有-馬丁五世-對1417年11月11日。 At the Council of Basel (1431 - 49) another schism occurred with the election of "Antipope" Felix V. He abdicated, however, in 1449.在巴塞爾委員會(1431年至1449年)又發生了分裂與選舉“對立教宗”費利克斯訴他放棄,然而,在1449年。

Thomas E Morrissey托馬斯 E莫里西

Bibliography 書目
CH Dawson, The Dividing of Christendom (1971); F Dvornik, The Photian Schism (1948); EF Jacob, Essays in the Conciliar Epoch (1963); S Runciman, The Eastern Schism (1955); JH Smith, The Great Schism (1970); RN Swanson, Universities, Academies, and the Great Schism (1979); W Ullmann, The Origins of the Great Schism (1972).甲烷道森,基督教的劃分(1971年),女Dvornik,Photian分裂(1948年);英法雅各大公小品的時代(1963年)中,S朗西曼,東部分裂(1955年); JH史密斯,大分裂( 1970年);註冊護士斯旺森,大學院校,以及大分裂(1979年); W烏爾曼,起源的大分裂(1972年)。


The Great Schism大分裂

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1054) (1054)

The first permanent severing of the Christian community.第一個永久性切斷的基督教社區。 Its beginnings lay in the division of the Roman Empire at the end of the third century.它的起源在於該師的羅馬帝國在最後的第三個世紀。 Thereafter, the Greek (Eastern) and Latin (Western) sections of the Roman world were administered separately.此後,希臘(東區)和拉丁美洲(西方)路段的羅馬世界是分開管理。 Their cultural and economic differences intensified.他們的文化和經濟差異加劇。 When the political institutions of the Latin empire collapsed in the fifth century, the Greek empire, centered in Constantinople, continued to flourish.當政治體制崩潰的拉丁帝國在五世紀,希臘帝國,在君士坦丁堡為中心,繼續蓬勃發展。

The sustaining institution during this period was the Christian church.該機構維持在這段期間的基督教教堂。 Its theology dominated all forms of though in both the united East and the disintegrating West.它的一切形式的神學統治,但在美東,西瓦解。 Important issues, even worldly ones, were transposed into theological questions.重要的問題,甚至世俗的,被轉化為神學問題。

Two fundamental differences between the Latin Catholic and Greek Orthodox traditions developed during the early Middle Ages.兩個根本性分歧,拉丁美洲天主教和希臘東正教的傳統,在發展早期中世紀。 The first was the Petrine Doctrine, absolute in the West, resisted in the East.首先是伯多祿的學說,絕對在西方,抵制在東部地區。 And the second was a Western addition to the Nicene Creed which provoked the filioque controversy.第二個是西方除了尼西亞信條是引起爭議的filioque。 Other divisive issues such as the celibacy of the priesthood, use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, episcopal control over the sacrament of confirmation, and priestly beards and monkish tonsures were the source of conflict but not schism.其他分歧的問題,如獨身的神職人員,使用未經發酵的麵包聖體,聖事主教控制權的確認,並祭司鬍鬚和monkish tonsures是衝突的根源,但不能分裂。

Of all the institutions that the medieval Christian empire shared, the political was the first to collapse.在所有的機構,中世紀基督教帝國共享,政治是第一個崩潰。 In the West during the fifth century imperial authority fell before invading barbarian kings.在西方,在第五個世紀的皇權下跌野蠻入侵前國王。 Increasingly the Roman patriarch, the pope, filled the power vacuum left by retreating politicians.越來越多的羅馬元老,教宗,填補了權力真空撤退留下的政治家。 The lines between secular and ecclestical authority were hopelessly blurred.該行與世俗權力的絕望和ecclestical模糊。 On the other hand, in Constantinople, where imperial power was still strong, Christian emperors continued to preside over an integrated Christian society.另一方面,在君士坦丁堡,在那裡皇權仍然強勁,基督教皇帝繼續主持一個綜合基督教社會。 As heirs of Constantine, Byzantine emperors dominated the administration of church and state in the style still known as caesaropapism.作為繼承人君士坦丁,拜占庭皇帝的行政主導的教會和國家的風格仍然是被稱為caesaropapism。

Theology in the East was speculative, with important decisions submitted to a collegial - concilliar system in which all the patriarchs, the bishops of Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Rome, played an important role.神學在東方是投機性,具有重要的決定提交給一個合議- concilliar制度,使所有的元老,主教君士坦丁堡,安提阿,亞歷山大,耶路撒冷和羅馬,發揮了重要作用。 It was fully acknowledged that the bishop of Rome had pride of place and certain rights of review over the other four.它充分承認羅馬主教曾驕傲的地方和某些權利的審查比其他4個。 As early as the pontificate of Leo I (440 - 61), however, Roman patriarchs demanded more power.早在教皇利奧我(440 - 61),但是,羅馬元老要求更多的權力。 Matters were made more difficult by the rise of Islam and new barbarian attacks in the seventh and eighth centuries.事項作了更加困難伊斯蘭教的興起和新的野蠻襲擊在第七和第八世紀。 The West became even more isolated, and when contacts between Rome and Constantinople were resumed the gulf between East and West had widened.西方變得更加孤立,當羅馬和君士坦丁堡之間的聯繫被恢復了東方和西方之間的鴻溝已經擴大。

The filioque controversy seems to have originated in sixth century Visigothic Spain where the Arian heresy was endemic.爭議的filioque似乎起源於6世紀西班牙西哥特如阿里安異端十分猖獗。 The Arians claimed that the first and second persons of the Trinity were not coeternal and equal.該白羊座聲稱,第一和第二人的三位一體並不永存和平等。 In an effort to enforce traditional theology, Spanish churchmen added a phrase to the Nicene Creed, "ex Patre Filioque," which amended the old form to state that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Son as well as from the Father.為了執行傳統的神學,西班牙牧師加了尼西亞信條,“當然帕特雷Filioque,”修改了舊的形式聲明,聖靈開始從兒子以及來自父親。 However, it had been agreed in the fourth century that no change in the wording of the creed, except by conciliar consent, was possible.不過,它已同意在第四世紀,沒有改變措辭的信條,除非大公同意,是不可能的。 To the theologically sophisticated East, the filioque phrase seemed to challenge not only the universal creed, but also the official doctrine of the Trinity.對於複雜的神學東的filioque詞組似乎面臨的挑戰不僅是普遍的信仰,而且官方學說的三位一體。 When the issue was raised during the reign of Charlemagne (768 - 814), the papacy seemed to agree. Pope Leo III, while approving the spirit of the filioque, warned against any alteration in the wording of the creed.當有人問,在查理曼大帝統治(768 - 814),教皇似乎都同意。教皇利奧三世,而批准的filioque的精神,對任何警告的措辭改變的信條。

It was the fusion of the filioque controversy with the rise of papal power that created the great crisis of 1054.這是融合的filioque爭議與教皇權力的崛起創造了巨大危機1054。 The "reform" papacy of the eleventh century established itself on the right of the pope, as apostolic heir of Peter, to absolute power over all Christian people and institutions. “改革”教皇的11世紀就建立了自己的權利,教皇,因為使徒彼得的繼承人,絕對的權力,所有的基督教人士和機構。 Such claims had been rejected by the early church councils.這種索賠被駁回了早期教會理事會。 To Eastern patriarchs Christ's charge to Peter in Matt. 16:18 - 19 was shared by all the apostles and their spiritual heirs, the bishops.東區元老基督的收費彼得在馬特。16:18 - 19是共同的使徒和他們的精神繼承人,主教們。 In 1054 Pope Leo IX (1048 - 54) sent a delegation headed by Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida to discuss the problems between the papacy and Constantinople. 1054年教皇利奧九(1048年至1054年)派遣一個代表團團長由樞機主教亨伯特的席爾瓦念珠菌,討論的問題與教皇和君士坦丁堡。 Disaster followed.災難之後。 The Patriarch of Constantinople.君士坦丁堡牧首。 Michael Cerularius, rejected both papal claims and the filioque.邁克爾Cerularius,否決了要求和教皇的filioque。 The Western legates accused Constantinople of having altered the Nicene Creed.西方使節被告君士坦丁堡有改變了尼西亞信條。 In the end, Cardinal Humbert deposited a Bull of Excommunication against Michael Cerularius on the altar of the Hagia Sophia, and the Great Schism was official.最後,樞機主教安貝爾交存牛市絕罰對邁克爾Cerularius在壇上的聖索非亞大教堂和大分裂是官方的。

Thereafter, efforts were made at reunion.此後,作出了努力,在團聚。 As the Muslim Turks advanced on the Byzantine Empire in the high Middle Ages, Eastern Christians were in desperate need of relief from their Western brethren.作為穆斯林土耳其人先進的拜占庭帝國在高中世紀,東部基督徒在急需救濟從他們的西方兄弟。 However, all such hopes ceased when, in 1204, an army of crusading knights from the West sacked Constantinople.然而,所有這些希望停止時,在1204年,一個軍隊的十字軍騎士從西方被解職君士坦丁堡。 Eastern Christians never recovered from this outrage.東部基督徒從來沒有收回這一暴行。 In recent years effort to reconcile the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches have failed.在近幾年的努力調和羅馬天主教和希臘東正教教堂都失敗了。 In 1965, Pope Paul VI lifted the ban of excommunication against Michael Cerularius. 1965年,教皇保羅六世解除了禁令罰對邁克爾Cerularius。 However, the problem of papal rule has been rendered more difficult by nineteenth century Roman declarations of papal infallibility.但是,問題的教皇統治已變得更加困難了19世紀的羅馬教皇犯錯誤的聲明。 The wording of the creed has not been settled.該措辭的信條一直沒有得到解決。

CT Marshall馬歇爾的CT
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
F Dvornik, Byzantium and the Roman Primacy; J Pelikan, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600 - 1700); S Runciman, The Eastern Schism; P Sherrad, The Greek East and the Latin West; T Ware, The Orthodox Church. F Dvornik,拜占庭和羅馬的首要地位; J伯利坎,靈東基督教(600 - 1700)中,S朗西曼,東部恩怨; P謝拉德,希臘東和拉丁美洲西; T波,東正教堂。


The "Eastern Church" “東方教會”

Advanced Information - Catholic Perspective 先進的信息-天主教視角

(Editor's Note: The linked article from the Catholic Enecyclopedia does not meet the usual standards that BELIEVE sets for included articles. The tone of the article is substantially biased toward the Catholic Church and against the Orthodox Church and all other Churches, which would normally eliminate it from consideration. However, the Great Schism was and is such a large event in the history of Christendom, that we felt the need to present both the Catholic and Orthodox perspectives. Our hope is to enable a reader to be able to read and ponder both sides of this important issue, even though both sides' presentations are very biased.) Eastern Church (編者注:鏈接的文章從天主教Enecyclopedia不符合通常的標準,相信這一點規定了包括文章。聲調的文章是大幅偏向天主教教會和對東正教教堂和所有其他教會,這通常會消除它從考慮。然而,大分裂是和是這麼大型的活動,在基督教的歷史,我們感到有必要現在都在天主教和東正教的觀點。我們的希望是使讀者能夠閱讀和思考雙方對這一重要問題,即使雙方的發言都非常偏頗。)東部教會


The Great Schism of the Ecumenical Church在大分裂的普世教會

Advanced Information - Orthodox Perspective 先進的信息-東正教視角

(Editor's Note: The following article does not meet the usual standards that BELIEVE sets for included articles. The tone of the article is substantially biased toward the Orthodox Church and against the Catholic Church, which would normally eliminate it from consideration. However, the Great Schism was and is such a large event in the history of Christendom, that we felt the need to present the Orthodox perspective. As we understand it, any actual scholarly Orthodox works on this subject have never been yet translated into English. Our hope is to enable a reader to be able to read and ponder both sides of this important issue, which will hopefully soon be resolved by the two Churches.) (編者注:下面的文章不符合通常的標準,相信這一點規定了包括文章。聲調的文章是大幅偏向東正教教堂,反對天主教教會,這通常會消除它的考慮。然而,大分裂過去是,就是這樣一個large事件的基督教的歷史,我們感到了that need to目前的正統觀點。據我們了解,在實際的學術Orthodox works on這課題的還從未被翻譯成英文。我們的希望是使讀者能夠閱讀和思考,雙方對這一重要問題,這將有望很快得到解決的兩個教會。)

Unity of the Churches統一教會

The movement toward the unity of the Christian Churches today demands a knowledge of the beliefs of others as well as of one's own beliefs, in order to provide a climate for unity through a better understanding of each other's faith.該運動走向統一的基督教教會今天需要一個知識的信念以及對他人對自己的信念,為了提供一個團結的氣氛,通過更好地了解對方的信仰。 A blind acceptance of the teachings and beliefs of any Church with which unity is sought, or an indifference toward one's own beliefs and teaching will not be a solid basis for unity among the Christian Churches.一名盲人接受的教義和信仰的任何教會與團結,是尋求,或冷漠對待自己的信念和教學將不會是一個堅實的基礎,團結各基督教教會。

A Christian interested in the unity of the Churches should oppose both bigotry and indifference.一個基督教感興趣的團結教會都應該反對偏見和冷漠。 He ought to study his own faith and the beliefs of others in the past and in the present with humbleness and sympathy; to invoke the grace of God to guide his understanding of both views; to distinguish between divine truths for salvation and the customs and practices of his Church and of the various other Churches.他應該學習他自己的信仰和信念的人在過去和現在的謙卑和同情;援引上帝的恩典,引導他了解雙方意見,以區分神聖真理的救贖和風俗習慣他的教會和其他各教會。

If a unity is sought between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, it is indispensable that the reasons and causes for separation between these Churches be carefully studied in the light of the circumstances and personalities of the time when the separation took place.如果一個團結之間尋求的是東正教和羅馬天主教教會,它是不可或缺的理由和原因之間的分離教會認真研究光的情況和人物的時候發生的分離。

When the Church was One and Undivided, proclaiming the same beliefs and having the same type of administration, the Eastern branch protested against the Western because of the latter's innovations, which were foreign to the beliefs and practices set forth by the Seven Ecumenical Synods of the first eight centuries. The claim of the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, which later resulted in the proclaiming of his infallibility, is considered the main cause of separation of the Western branch from the Eastern.當教會是一個和不可分割的,宣布同樣的信念和具有相同類型的行政管理,東區分局抗議西方,因為後者的創新,這是外國的信仰和做法提出了七個合一主教會議的前8世紀。索賠中至高無上的羅馬的主教,後來導致他犯錯誤宣布,被認為是主要的原因離職西部支來自東部。

A concise study of the events and incidents of this separation - called the Great Schism - is presented in the following pages in order to furnish facts necessary for a better understanding and eventual answer for the unity of these Churches in the future.一個簡潔研究的事件和事故的這種分離-所謂的大分裂-載於以下網頁,以便提供必要的事實為更好地理解和最終答案為團結這些教會的未來。 Innovations formulated by the Roman Catholic Church after the Schism are innumerated.創新辦法,由羅馬天主教教會的分裂後的innumerated。

The Real Motives of the Great Schism的真正動機的大分裂

The Early Period of the Church初期教會

Although the Bishops of the undivided Church were (and are) equal to each other in the administration of the liturgical rites and the teaching, they began to differ in rank according to the valuation of the places where their Sees were located.雖然主教的教會是不可分割的(和)等於彼此在管理的禮儀禮節和教學,他們開始在不同職級根據估值的地方看到了自己的位置。 Rome, Alexandria and Antioch were prominent cities, Metropolis, in those days.羅馬,亞歷山大和安提了突出的城市,大都市,在那些日子裡。 Their Bishops were Metropolitans, and the Bishop of Rome was given the honorary precedence only because Rome was then the political capital of the world.他們的主教是大都市,而羅馬主教被授予榮譽優先,只是因為當時羅馬的政治資本的世界。 Later, the Bishops of the capitals of all political Provinces were called Archbishops. When the Emperor moved his Seat from Rome to Constantinople, the Archbishop of latter was given equal reverence with that of Rome "because Constantinople was the 'King's city' "; later in 587, the honorary title of "Ecumenical" was bestowed on him, too.後來,主教首都的所有政治省份被稱為大主教。當皇帝提出他的座位從羅馬到君士坦丁堡的大主教後者獲得同等的崇敬與該羅馬“,因為君士坦丁堡是'國王的城市'”,後來在587,榮譽稱號的“合一”是賦予他了。 By 451 the Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem were called Patriarchs, of whom only two remained free after the inroads of the Moslems (7th century): that of Rome in the West, and Constantinople in the East, both equal in rank and reverence.由451主教羅馬,君士坦丁堡,亞歷山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷被稱為始祖,其中只有2仍然免費後打入的穆斯林(公元7世紀):即羅馬在西方,在東方的君士坦丁堡,都等於在等級和崇敬。 Later, the attempted abolishment of the equal rank status of both Seats was the main cause of the Great Separation.後來,試圖廢除等級地位的平等兩個座位是主要的原因是大分離。

The Claims Of The Bishops Of Rome該索賠的羅馬主教

The Bishop of Rome, even today in the 20th century, insists that he has a primacy of jurisdiction over all Churches, including the Patriarchs of the East.羅馬的主教,甚至在20世紀的今天,堅持說他有一個至高無上的管轄權所有教堂,包括始祖的東方。 He claims they should be subject to him since "he is not only Bishop of Rome and the Patriarch of the West but also the Vicar of Christ on Earth, the successor of St. Peter, and the Supreme Pontiff".他聲稱,他們應受到他因為“他不僅是羅馬的主教和宗主教的西方,而且副主教基督的地球上,繼承聖彼得,和最高法院的教宗”。 Pope Pius XII in 1955 called upon the "Uniat" Church to use its utmost to bring the Orthodox Churches to the "fold".教皇皮亞斯十二世在1955年呼籲“Uniat”教會使用它的最大努力,使東正教教會的“倍”。 The Eastern Orthodox is told that it would not be necessary to change any of the teachings or customs of the Orthodox Church but to submit himself under the Pope's jurisdiction; that is, to lose every right of freedom and independence.東正教是說,它不會改變任何必要的教誨或海關的東正教教堂,但他在提交教皇的管轄範圍,即喪失一切權利,自由和獨立。 In other words, unconditional surrender under the Pope's yoke is asked.換句話說,在無條件投降教宗的枷鎖是問。 But the principles of the democratic government of the Eastern Orthodox Church is its very foundation.但原則的民主政府的東正教教堂是它的基礎。 The "Conscience of the Church" is its supreme authority and the infallible guidance to proclaim the truth of Salvation, as was the case for centuries for the Western Church, too. “良心的教會”是它的最高權力機構和犯錯的指導宣告救國真理,就是這樣的情況幾百年的西方教會也。 The question as to the supremacy of the Pope was the main cause of the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches.該問題,對至高無上的教皇是主要的原因是分離的東方和西方教會。 Is it a true claim?它是一個真正的說法? How and when did the Popes start to claim such authority?如何以及何時教皇開始要求這種權力?

The Development Of The Pope's Claims To Supremacy的開發的教皇聲稱至上

The roots of the claim of supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over the political and ecclesiastical leaders are to be found in the traditions of pagan Rome here the Emperor was the supreme Pontiff.的根源索賠的凌駕性的羅馬主教在政治和宗教領導人都可以發現在傳統的異教羅馬這裡的皇帝是至高無上的教宗。

Millions of early Christians were persecuted and slaughtered because they refused to worship the Emperor as God.早期以百萬計的基督徒遭到迫害和屠殺,因為他們拒絕崇拜天皇是神。 Their precious sacrifice did not destroy the super-throne; it was used merely to replace the pagan Emperor with the Christian Pope.他們的犧牲並沒有破壞珍貴的超級寶座,它只是被用來代替異教的皇帝與教皇的基督教。

Thus, with that background, some of the bishops of Rome invented and manufactured fictitious theories of the pope's "divine right" to govern the affairs of State as well as of the Church. The claims thereby divided the Church, which by nature and principle was meant to be One; the bishops waged wars, created inquisitions, forced on the West the Great Protest, and finally, developed theories as to infallibility, and all of these in the name of God!因此,在這種背景下,一些主教羅馬的發明和製造的虛構理論的教皇的“神聖權利”,以管理事務的國家以及教會。索賠從而分裂了教會,這自然和原則意味著是一個;主教曾經發動過戰爭,創建訴求的,被迫在西大抗議,最後,發展理論,以犯錯誤,所有這些名稱中的上帝!

These fictitious theories, which were destined to be accepted as true for some centuries, though later recognized distinctly as the most cleverly manufactured falsehoods are three: The Pseudo-Clementines, the Pseudo-Isidorian Decrees, and the Pseudo-Constantine Donation.這些虛構的理論,這是注定要被接受為真正的數百年,但後來確認為最明顯巧妙地製造謊言有三:偽橘,偽Isidorian法令,以及偽君士坦丁捐贈。

The Pseudo-Clementine Writings該偽克萊門汀創作

The Attempt To Elevate Peter And The Seat Of Rome To Supremacy.提升的嘗試彼得和所在地羅馬霸權。

The Pseudo-Clementine writings are false "Homilies" (discourses) falsely attributed to the Bishop of Rome Clement (93-101), which attempted to restate the life of Apostle Peter.該偽克萊門汀的著作是假的“頌歌”(話語)錯誤地歸因於羅馬主教克萊門特(93-101),其中試圖重申對使徒彼得的生命。 The purpose was one: the elevation of Peter over the other Apostles, especially Apostle Paul, and the elevation of the Seat of Rome over any other Bishop's Seat "Peter", it was claimed, "who was the most able of all (the others)' was called to illuminate the West, the darkest place of the Universe."其目的是1:海拔彼得比其他使徒,特別是使徒保羅,和海拔的所在地羅馬對任何其他主教的座椅“彼得”,據稱,“誰是最有能力的所有(其他)'被稱為照亮西方,宇宙最黑暗的地方。“

The "Homilies" were written to fit the misleading interpretation of Matthew 16:18,19, that "You art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church ... and I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven ".在“頌歌”等誤導性的書面解釋,以適應馬修16:18,19,即“你的藝術彼得,這塊石頭上我要建立我的教會...我會給你鑰匙的天國王朝” 。 It is misleading because the word "rock" does not refer to Peter, but to the faith that "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" (v. 16).這是誤導,因為這個詞“岩石”並不是指彼得,但對信仰,“你是基督,是永生神的兒子”(五16)。 There is not one sign of the primacy of Peter over the other Apostles mentioned in the Bible, and if a primacy was intended, a decision of such importance and magnitude certainly would have been mentioned in the Bible in unambiguous language.沒有一個跡象中至高無上的使徒彼得比其他聖經中提到,如果一個primacy旨在,一個決定如此重要和規模一定會被提到聖經中毫不含糊的語言。 In many cases the opposite is true; Paul wrote to Galatians, "I withstood him, (Peter) to the face, because he was to be blamed" (2:11); besides, it is well known that Peter thrice denied Christ.在許多情況下,事實正好相反,保羅寫信給加拉太書,“我頂住他(彼得)的臉,因為他被指責”(2:11);此外,眾所周知,彼得三次否認基督。 Peter did not found the Church of Rome; he actually remained in Antioch for many years before reaching Rome.彼得沒有發現羅馬的教會,他其實還停留在安提阿多年才到達羅馬。 To say that as Christ reigns in Heaven, Peter and his successors, the popes, govern the Earth, is a statement alien to the spirit of the Gospel and the understanding of the early Church.如果說作為基督統治在天堂,彼得和他的繼任者,教皇,執政地球,是一個聲明的精神格格不入的福音和理解早期教會。 Christ was and is the cornerstone and the Head of the Church, consisting of all members of His Body. (cf. Col.1:24).基督是基石,而且是頭,教會,其中包括所有成員的他的屍體。(參見Col.1:24)。

The Pseudo-Isidorian Decrees And The Pseudo-Constantian Donation該偽 Isidorian法令和偽 Constantian捐贈

The Attempt To Legitimatize the Papacy.在企圖合法化的羅馬教皇。

These Decrees are a collection, arranged in the 9th century, consisting of canons of synods as well as the Pope's false decrees, which were added later.這些法令是一個集合,安排在9世紀,其中包括大砲的主教會議,以及教宗的虛假法令,這又增加了以後。 For these decrees it is said that "No other illegitimacy in the history of the world was made with such cleverness, and no other forgery has such results", as a great historian wrote.對於這些法令是說“沒有其他不合法的歷史世界是懷著這樣的聰明,並沒有其他偽造了這樣的結果”,作為一個偉大的歷史學家說。 The illegitimacy lies in the skilled counterfeiting of canonical sources in such a way that the supremacy of the Pope was its concrete results.有關非婚生子女在於熟練假冒典型來源這樣一種方式的至高無上的教皇是其具體的成果。 The Priesthood, they concluded, is above political authority; and the head of the Priesthood is the Pope; the Pope then is the "Head of the Universe" ( caput totius orbis ).神職人員,他們的結論,是超越政治權威和頭部的神職人員是教宗,教宗則是“團長的宇宙”( 按額津貼托蒂厄斯奧比斯 )。 This "conclusion" was supported by another clever forgery that Constantine the Great left to the Pope the political power of his position in Rome as a Donation to him!這個“結論”是支持的另一個聰明的偽造君士坦丁大帝留給教皇政權的立場,他在羅馬為他捐款!

These highly skilled pieces of forgery only awaited a master to enforce them - Pope Nicholas I. Pope Nicholas I (858-867), a strong-willed personality, called them "ancient monuments" and imposed them upon the bishops and political authorities of the West.這些高度熟練件偽造只等待一個主執行他們-教宗尼古拉斯一教皇尼古拉一世(858-867),一個意志堅強的性格,稱他們為“古蹟”,並實施他們在主教和政治當局的西。 It was said of him that "Nicholas made himself Emperor of all the world."有人說他是“皇帝尼古拉把自己所有的世界。” After the period of ill fame of the popes and clergy these forgeries became the official rules for the new reform and moral uprightness of the clergy.生病後時期成名的教皇和神職人員這些偽造成為正式規則的新的改革和道德正直的神職人員。 Thus the Pseudo-Isidorian decrees had prevailed and established the "primacy" of the Pope. Historians as well as Catholic scholars recognize that these "Decrees" have been proven as forgeries; but nevertheless they were used as the foundation for the supremacy of the Pope. How long will the popes themselves continue to believe in the strength of their house without a solid foundation?因此,偽Isidorian法令已佔了上風,並成立了“至高無上”的教宗。歷史學家以及天主教學者承認,這些“法令”已被證明是偽造的,但他們作為基礎的至高無上的教皇。多久教皇仍然相信自己的實力在他們家沒有一個堅實的基礎? The popes continue attempting to conquer all churches and especially the Eastern Orthodox Church by using a new instrument: the Uniat Church.教皇繼續企圖征服所有的教堂,尤其是東正教教會通過使用新的工具:為Uniat教會。 "Return back to the fold" is a plea which is heard time and again. “返回到折疊”是一個請求是一次又一次地聽到。 Possibly it results from a religious inferiority complex as far as the trust and historical facts are concerned. The Eastern Church is "the pillar and bulwark of the truth " which has been preserved by it "everywhere, anytime" against the undue claims or encroachments by the See of the West.其結果可能是從宗教的自卑就歷史事實的信任和關心。東部教會是“支柱產業和堡壘的真相”已保留了它“無處不在,隨時”對過分的要求或侵占在見西方。 The "fold" is where the "truth" is taught; where the One only Shepherd is recognized as its Head, Jesus Christ.在“倍”,是“真”是教導,那裡的人們只牧羊犬是公認的頭,耶穌基督。 To that "fold" the Western Church is called to join by abolishing the "innovations" and the pretext of supremacy of the Pope at the expense of the "fold".為了實現這一“倍”西方教會呼籲取消了參加“創新”和藉口至高無上的教宗在犧牲的“倍”。

Actual Events that led to the Schism實際事件導致的分裂

Synopsis Of The Events Of The Great Schism故事大綱發生的事件的大分裂

Four separations between the Eastern and Western parts of the Undivided Church took place without an official statement of schism, and they lasted from 15 to 50 years until the churches resumed their union again.四分色東部和西部之間的地區發生的不可分割的教會沒有官方聲明的分裂,他們歷時15至50年,直到教會重新恢復他們的結合。 The great and last schism resulted from a chain of events between the Western and Eastern parts of the Church which lasted for approximately two hundred years (863-1054).偉大的和最後的分裂造成的連鎖事件之間的西部和東部地區的教會歷時約二百年(863-1054)。 At the beginning and the end there were some acts of excommunications on both sides.在開始和結束時有一些行為excommunications雙方。 During this period of silence, indifference and hatred dominated both sides, ruining the last fortress of the Union.在此期間的沉默,冷漠和仇恨支配雙方,斷送了最後堡壘的聯盟。

The Election Of Patriarch Of Constantinople Photius在選舉 Photius君士坦丁堡牧首

Photius, a prominent layman, the chief Secretary of State, whose "virtue, wisdom and competence were universally acknowledged", was appointed and elected (875) as Patriarch of Constantinople straight from the rank of layman, replacing Patriarch Ignatius. Pope Nicholas, seeing a favorable opportunity for interfering in Eastern affairs, appointed himself as judge over two conflicting parties by his own authority and rejected the election of Photius. He asserted on the one hand that Photius had been made Patriarch without his approval, an unprecedented claim, and on the other hand that he had been raised within a single week from a mere layman, to the rank of Archbishop. Photius,一個突出的門外漢,行政國務卿,他的“德,智慧和能力是舉世公認的”,被任命和選舉產生(875)作為君士坦丁堡宗主教直接從基層的門外漢,取代主教伊格。教皇尼古拉斯,看到一個良好的機會,東事務的干涉,自封為法官對衝突雙方由他自己的權威,因此駁回了選舉的photius。他斷言,一方面是Photius主教已經取得了沒有他的批准,一個前所未有的要求,並於另一方面,他已經提出一個星期內從一個單純的門外漢,其職級的大主教。 Of course, Pope Nicholas had no right to interfere in such an affair; therefore, the election was valid, as was the case with Ambrose, a bishop of Milan, and many other laymen who had been raised to high rank in the Church.當然,教皇尼古拉斯無權干涉這樣的事,因此,這次選舉是有效的,因為是這樣的,劉漢銓,主教的米蘭,和其他許多普通人誰已提高到高排在教會。

Synod Repudiates Pope's Claim主教會議否定教宗的索賠

Four years later, in 861, at a Synod in Constantinople both parties, Photians and Ignatians, decided in favor of Photius in the presence of the Pope's delegates. 4年後,在861,在主教在君士坦丁堡雙方,Photians和Ignatians,決定贊成photius在在場的教宗的代表。 Pope Nicholas, who was furious because the Eastern Church did not submit slavishly to his arbitrary demands, convened a Synod of his own in Rome in 863 and "excommunicated" Photius, the Patriarch of Constantinople. The Church ignored this additional provocation.教皇尼古拉斯,誰是憤怒,因為東部教會沒有提交他任意盲目的要求,召開了一個他自己的世界主教會議在羅馬863和“驅逐”Photius,君士坦丁堡牧首。教會忽略了這一額外的挑釁。

Photius' Encyclical Against The Pope's Innovations photius的諭反對教宗的創新

Pope Nicholas, by the same arbitrary authority, attempted to detach the young Church of Bulgaria, which was founded by the Church of Constantinople and by Photius himself, from its allegiance to its Mother Church.教皇尼古拉斯,由同一個任意的權力,企圖分離的年輕教會,保加利亞,這是由教會的君士坦丁堡和由photius自己,從效忠於它的母親教會。 Because of this anti-canonical activity of Pope Nicholas, Photius sent out in 867 his famous encyclical to the Patriarchs of the East accusing the Pope:由於這種反規範的活動教皇尼古拉斯,Photius發出了他著名的通諭,以867的始祖東指責教宗:

  1. of inserting into the Creed the word " filoque ", meaning that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father but "and from the Son" as well;插入信條的詞“filoque”,即聖靈的收益不僅來自父親,但“從兒子”,以及;
  2. for intervening in the newly founded Church of Bulgaria by repeating the sacrament of Chrismation, to the Bulgarian Christians on the pretext that they had previously been baptized by married priests from Constantinople;對於新成立的干預教會的聖禮保加利亞重複的Chrismation向保加利亞基督徒的藉口,他們以前洗禮已婚神父君士坦丁堡;
  3. for dominating the churches of the West; and為主導的西方教會,以及
  4. for interfering in disputes outside his own jurisdiction.為干涉他自己的管轄範圍以外的糾紛。

Photius Dethroned And Later Vindicated Photius顛覆了,後來平反

Pope Adrian II, possessed by the same pride and ambition as his predecessor, exploited a psychological moment in Eastern affairs to achieve what Pope Nicholas could not.亞德二世,擁有由同一自豪感和野心是他的前任,受剝削的心理時刻在東事務要做到教皇尼古拉不能。 Emperor Basil, who was refused Holy Communion by Photius because he murdered his foster father, Emperor Michael, in 867 deposed Photius from his throne and brought back Ignatius.皇帝羅勒,誰被拒絕聖餐由photius,因為他殺害了他的養父,皇帝邁克爾,在867廢黜Photius從他的寶座,並帶回伊格。 Pope Adrian II took advantage of this situation and demanded from Basil the condemnation of Photius, the common enemy.亞德二世利用了這一情況,並要求從羅勒譴責的photius,共同的敵人。 Emperor Basil convened a synod in 869, and by coersion brought the bishops to condemn Photius. Adrian's delegates and Basil forcibly and falsely obtained the acknowledgment that the Pope is the "supreme and absolute head of all the Churches, superior even to ecumenical synods".皇帝巴西爾召開主教在869,和coersion帶來的主教譴責Photius。阿德里安的代表和羅勒強行虛假得到承認,教宗是“至高無上和絕對頭的所有教堂,上級甚至基督教主教會議”。 This so-called eighth ecumenical synod (by the Western Church) has never been recognized by the Eastern Church, but after 10 years it was unanimously denounced by a great Synod in Constantinople, in 879, by Ignatians as well as Photians.這種所謂的十八合一主教(由西方教會)從來沒有被承認由東區教會,但10年後,大家一致譴責了一個偉大的主教在君士坦丁堡,公元879年,由Ignatians以及Photians。 This synod acknowledged the full justification of Photius and his manly stand against the Roman despotism.這主教承認的充分理由的photius和他的男子漢站在反對羅馬專制。 Photius is considered the unmovable rock against which all the heavy waves of slavery and domination have been broken. photius是不可移動岩石認為對所有的大風浪的奴役和統治被打破。 The Church thanks the Lord, its Head, for the inspiration of this great man by "whom the Eastern Church has managed to preserve intact both faith and freedom".教會感謝主,其負責人的靈感對這位偉人的“東方教會的人已經設法保存完好都信仰和自由”。

Period Of Cold Silence (879-1054)沉默冷戰時期(879-1054)

Nevertheless, no official schism was pronounced by either Church until 1054.不過,沒有正式的任何一方被宣告分裂教會,直到1054年。 During this period of approximately two hundred years a chill of silence prevailed.在這段期間,大約兩百年一冷的沉默佔了上風。 Six generations were not sufficient to expel this evil element from the Church.六代都不足以驅逐這一邪惡元素的教會。 The arbitrariness of human administration dominated fellowship and love, which are considered the substance and fruit of Christ's divine work and message.人類管理的隨意性和愛情為主的獎學金,這被認為是物質和水果基督的神聖工作和信息。

The Final Break (1054)最後歇(1054)

The seal of separation which was placed on paper in 1054, dividing the Church into East and West, was brought to a head by an innocent act by the Patriarch Michael Cerularius.印章的分離是放在文件在1054年,教會分裂為東,西,被帶到一個頭由一個無辜的行為由主教邁克爾Cerularius。 He wrote a letter to Bishop John of Trania in Italy enumerating the innovations which had been introduced by the Roman Church, and he begged him to give this letter a wide hearing in order that the truth might prevail.他寫了一封信給主教在意大利的Trania列舉的創新已經採取了羅馬教會,他懇求他給這封信廣泛聽證會,以便真相可能會佔上風。 This act apparently witnesses the fact that the Patriarch did not accept any sort of schism yet.這種行為顯然是證人的事實,即不接受主教任何形式的分裂呢。 Pope Leo IX sent a sharp reply, severely rebuking the author of the letter.教皇利奧九發出尖銳答复,嚴厲斥責了該信的作者。

The Emperor of Constantinople, Constantine Monomathus, facing a threat of his political interest in Italy, had need of the Pope's help, and he sent a conciliatory reply asking him to send delegates to restore friendly relations.皇帝君士坦丁堡,君士坦丁Monomathus,面對威脅他的政治利益,在意大利,有需要的教皇的幫助下,他發出了和解的答复,請他派代表來恢復友好關係。 The Pope sent Cardinal Humbert with a different mission, which he fully executed.亨伯特樞機主教,教宗發出了不同的使命,他充分執行。 Humbert did not meet the Emperor or the Patriarch, but he laid on the altar of the Church of Saint Sophia in Constantinople a bull of excommunication against the Eastern Church, attempting to stigmatize it as "the repository of all the heresies of the past", and then hastily disappeared.亨伯特不符合皇帝的主教,但他並在壇上的聖索非亞教堂在君士坦丁堡的牛市絕罰對東部教會,企圖誣衊它是“信息庫的所有歪理邪說的過去”,然後匆匆消失。 The Patriarch in turn drew up a sentence of excommunication against the Western Church, signed jointly by the other Patriarchs.宗主教又制定了句絕罰對西方教會,共同簽署了由其他始祖。 And thus the black seal kept closed the gates of the bridges between East and West.黑色的印章,從而保持關閉的大門在東方和西方之間的橋樑。

The Main Cause Of Separation分離的主要原因

The ambition of the Popes (as we respectfully call the Bishops of Rome) was to subordinate the Eastern Church under their supremacy.野心的教皇(我們恭敬地稱之為羅馬主教)是從屬於東方教會根據自己的優勢。 The See of Rome was ancient and apostolic.領略古老的羅馬和使徒。 Its bishops could, without any more interference from the Emperor, exercise a kind of political authority, too.它的主教可以,沒有任何更多的干擾,從皇帝,行使政治權力種也。 They began very early to appear as a court of appeal, in the West, to which all problems should be submitted for solution.他們很早就開始出現一個法庭提出上訴,在西方,這是所有問題都應提交的解決方案。 They found a pretext for their intrusion in the domestic quarrels at Constantinople during the 9th century in order to invade and dominate the entire Eastern Church.他們發現他們的入侵為藉口,在國內爭吵在君士坦丁堡在第九世紀,以侵略和統治整個東部教會。

A Catholic scholar states that:天主教學者指出:

"... the Papacy, from and after the ninth century, attempted to impose, in the name of God, upon the universal Church a yoke unknown to the first eight centuries". “...羅馬教皇,從9世紀後,企圖強加在上帝的名義,呼籲普世教會的一個未知的枷鎖前8世紀。”

The same attempt is in process today with the letter issued (1955) by Pope Pius XII, urging the Uniates to convert the Orthodox people and bring them under the Pope's rule.同樣的嘗試是在過程中發出的信今天(1955年)由教宗比約十二世,敦促Uniates轉換東正教的人,使他們在教皇的統治。

Reunion Sought留尼汪徵詢

The Crusades and Forced "Reunion"十字軍東征和強迫“大團圓”

Later, the Crusaders from the West forced the Greek Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem to abandon their Sees and for sixty years imposed their cruel government on Constantinople (1204-1261), pillaging its resources and causing its eventual downfall. An effort at "reunion" was really an attempt to enslave the Eastern Church at the Pseudo-Synod of Ferrara-Florence (1438) where the representatives of the Eastern Church, by force, signed a statement of reunion.後來,從西方的十字軍,迫使希臘始祖的安提阿和耶路撒冷,並放棄他們認為判處60年政府對他們的殘酷君士坦丁堡(1204年至1261年),掠奪其資源,並最終導致其倒台。力爭在“團聚”真是一個企圖奴役東部教會在偽主教費拉拉,佛羅倫薩(1438)凡代表的東部教會,以武力,簽署了一項聲明中團聚。 Although it was proclaimed on July 6, 1439, it was never approved by the Church as a whole and was later denounced by a synod in Constantinople in 1451.雖然它被宣布於1439年7月6日,這是從來沒有批准由教會作為一個整體,後來譴責一個主教在君士坦丁堡在1451年。 Orthodoxy has suffered more from the Christian West than from the Moslem East.東正教受到了更多的來自西方基督教比從穆斯林地區。 The downfall of Constantinople in 1453 put a tragic end to any effort at reunion.君士坦丁堡的垮台在1453年提出一個悲慘的結局在團聚的任何努力。

The Possibility Of Reunion And The Honorary Position Of The Pope留尼旺的可能性等榮譽位置教皇

For approximately one thousand years the Eastern and Western Churches were united, without at least any open attempt of one to subordinate the other.大約一千年的東方和西方教會的團結,沒有任何公開企圖至少一個服從其他。 The Eastern Church never has raised such a demand.東部教會從來沒有提出這樣的要求。 It has always respected the Holy See of Rome and its Bishop, who was considered to be "the first among equals". He abolished this brotherly relation with the other leaders of the Church and separated himself and the Western Church from the Eastern.它始終尊重和羅馬教廷的主教,誰被認為是“首當其衝”。取消這個兄弟的關係,他與其他領導人,教會和失散的自己和西方教會從東方。 The Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the claim of the Pope and his attempt at supremacy because for hundreds of years the undivided Church never considered such a claim.東正教不接受聲稱教宗和他的企圖在至高無上的,因為數百年的不可分割的教會從來沒有考慮這樣一個觀點。 There is hope and a possibility of reunion.有希望和可能性的團聚。 It depends upon the Leaders rather than the people of both Churches and especially upon the Holy Father of Rome.它取決於領導人,而不是人民,特別是雙方在教會和教宗的羅馬。 The Separation took place in 1054 not because of a false dogma as was the case with heretics.分離發生在1054年不是一個虛假的教條,因為象這樣的異端。 Both Sees and Churches exist up till today.雙方認為和教會存在,直至今日。 That which has made the situation more difficult after the separation is that besides the stronger ambition of the Popes for their supremacy, the Western Church has created a new type of government and many "innovations" and dogmas, some of which can be considered as local customs.那些以往一直令情況的反應更容易,就是脫了,除了強大的野心的教皇for their霸權,西方教會創造了一種新型的政府和許多“創新”和教條,其中一些可以考慮的地方習俗。 Both Churches should accept the principles of affiliation and the Truths of faith which the one undivided Church knew in the first thousand years of our Lord.這兩個教會應該接受的原則的從屬關係和真理的信仰是一個不可分割的教會知道,在1000年第一,我們的主。


The Innovations的創新

Although the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church are closer to the beliefs of the Orthodox Church than are those of any other churches, it is necessary to list a few of the innovations added by the Roman Church after the separation of the Western from the Eastern Church.雖然信仰羅馬天主教教會更接近信仰的東正教教堂是那些比任何其他教會,有必要列出的一小部分創新添加的羅馬教會分離後,西部從東部教會。 Also, it is necessary to mention that the attitude of the Western section of the One Church, even before the Schism, was not free from arbitrariness.此外,有必要提及的是,西方的態度第一個教會,甚至在分裂,是不是免費的隨意性。 The Western branch tended to centralize administrative power, a characteristic inherited from the early Roman political tendencies toward a totalitarian government.西方分行傾向於集中的行政權力,一個特點繼承了早期羅馬的政治傾向對一個極權政府。 Following is the list of innovations.以下是列表的創新。

Primacy至高無上

The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the Pope, who is called the Vicar of Christ (a title of the Roman pontiff dating from the 8th century) expresses his claim to universal jurisdiction and implies that the other bishops are not equal to him, but subordinate to him as his representatives - a claim that is foreign to the ancient Church.最高人民法院管轄的主教,教皇,誰是所謂的副主教基督 (標題的羅馬教皇約會從8世紀)表示,他主張普遍管轄權,暗示其他主教是不等同於他,但他的下屬作為他的代表-一個聲稱是外國的古老教堂。

Infallibility犯錯誤

In 1870 the Roman Catholic Church, at the Vatican Council, declared that infallibility (the inability to err in teaching the revealed truth) was attached to the definition of the Pope in matters of faith and morals, apart from the consent of the Church. The Vatican Council declared: 1870年羅馬天主教教會,在梵蒂岡會議,宣布犯錯誤(無法在教學中犯錯誤揭示真理)是隸屬的定義,教宗的信仰和道德問題,除了同意的教會。的梵蒂岡會議宣布:

"Jesus Christ has three existences. His personal existence, which Arius denied; His mystical existence in the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, which Calvin denied; and His other existence, which completes the first two and through which He lives constantly, namely His authority in the person of His Vicar on Earth. The Council, maintaining this third existence, assures the world that it possesses Jesus Christ." “耶穌基督的存在有三個。他個人的存在,阿里烏斯否認,他的神秘的存在,聖的聖體聖事,而卡爾文否認;和他的其他存在,完成了前兩個是他的生命,通過不斷地,即他的權力在他的牧師的人在地球上。安理會,維持這個第三的存在,保證了它擁有世界耶穌基督。“

Herein, the Synods were abolished.在此,在主教會議被取消。

The Procession of the Holy Spirit遊行的聖靈

The insertion of the phrase filoque , meaning "and the son", in the eighth article of the Nicene Creed, to read that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father but also from the Son as well, perverts the theological teaching of the Gospel and the Undivided Church (John 15,26; Acts 2,33).插入這句話filoque,意思是“和兒子”,在第八條的尼西亞信經,讀,聖靈的收益不僅來自父親,但也從兒子以及,枉法的神學教學的福音和不可分割的教會(約翰15,26;行為2.33)。

Purgatory and indulgences煉獄和寬容

Purgatory is an intermediate state where souls are made clean for paradise by expiatory suffering, according to the Roman Church.煉獄是一種中間狀態,靈魂是潔淨的天堂贖罪的痛苦,根據羅馬教會。 It is a place or state for penitent souls departing this life cleansed from venial sins and temporal punishment due to remitted mortal sins.這是一個地方或國家的靈魂懺悔離開這個生活清洗從venial罪孽和時間的處罰,由於匯款凡人的罪過。 In the Roman Church, indulgences are a remission by those authorized of the temporary punishment still due to sin after sacramental absolution either in this world or in purgatory.在羅馬教會,寬容是緩解這些授權的臨時處罰單後,仍因聖赦免要么在這個世界上,在煉獄。

The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary聖母無原罪聖母瑪麗亞

In 1854 a council of the Vatican pronounced the new teaching that the Virgin Mary was born without original sin, a statement not found either in the Holy Scriptures or in Sacrad Tradition. (The Undivided Church taught and teaches the virgin birth of Jesus Christ only) The Orthodox Church honors highly the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos, the unique personality chosen by God to serve the highest mission toward the salvation of mankind in the Incarnation of Jesus Christ.在1854年會的一個顯著的新的教學梵蒂岡的聖母無原罪出生,一言未發現無論是在聖經或Sacrad傳統。(不可分割的教會教導,教導了處女耶穌基督誕生只)東正教教會榮譽高度的聖母瑪利亞為聖母,獨特的個性選擇的上帝服務的最高使命對拯救人類的化身耶穌基督。

Assumption of the Virgin Mary聖母升天的聖母

The assumption (bodily ascension) of the Virgin Mary was pronounced as a dogma in 1952 by the Pope of the Rome Church.假設(身體阿森松)的聖母瑪利亞被宣布作為一個教條,1952年由教皇的羅馬教會。 This belief is not found in the Scriptures nor is it found in the Sacred Tradition.這種信念是沒有發現在聖經也不是發現在神聖傳統。

(EDITOR'S NOTE: that date might actually be 1950.) (編者注:該日期可能實際上是1950年。)

Baptism洗禮

Baptism, which originally was an immersion of the body of the faithful in the water, was replaced during the 14th century in the Roman Church by sprinkling.洗禮,原本是一個沉浸在身體的信徒在水中,改為在14世紀的羅馬教會的灑。

Invocation調用

The invocation, or epiklesis , which is a prayer offered at the time of the change of the Holy Gifts (bread and wine), is omitted by the Roman Church, which uses only the scriptural words, "Take, eat ..."該調用,或epiklesis,這是一個祈禱提供了當時的改變神聖禮物(麵包和酒),是由羅馬教會省略,僅使用了聖經所說:“拿,吃...” and "Drink ye all of it ..."和“你們所有的飲料它...”

Unleavened Bread除酵

Unleavened bread is used by the Roman Church instead of leavened bread, which was the tradition of the Undivided Church.未經發酵的麵包所用的羅馬教會,而不是酵麵包,這是傳統的不可分割的教會。

Holy Communion聖餐

Holy Communion in the Roman Church is given to the layman only from the sanctified bread and not from the sanctified wine, which now is restricted to the clergy.聖餐在羅馬教會是考慮到一般人只是從神聖的麵包,而不是從神聖的葡萄酒,現在僅限於神職人員。

Holy Unction聖目的職能

Holy Unction is offered as last rites to the sick, an innovation of the eleventh century.聖目的職能是提供最後的儀式,以作為病人,一個創新的11世紀。

Divorce離婚

Divorce is not granted to the faithful in the Roman Church, which the Undivided Church issued.離婚是不給予信徒在羅馬教會,而不可分割的教會發出。

Clergy's Marital Status神職人員的婚姻狀況

Marriage of the clergy is prohibited, a restriction imposed in the later centuries against the decision of the First Ecumenical Synod (325 AD).婚姻的神職人員是禁止,限制強加在以後的幾個世紀所針對的決定第一基督教主教會議(公元325)。


HOPE FOR "UNITY OF FAITH"希望“團結”信仰

An historic event of great magnitude took place on Jan. 5, 1964, when Patriarch Athenagoras I and Pope Paul VI met in Jerusalem. Their "embrace of peace" and declaration of reconciliation was the first official act by the two churches since the Schism in 1054.一個歷史性的事件發生了規模巨大1月5日,1964年,當我和宗主教哥拉教皇保羅六世在耶路撒冷會晤。它們的“懷抱”和平與和解宣言是第一次正式採取行動,因為這兩個教會中的分裂1054。 Then in 1965 both churches lifted the anathemas and excommunications placed against one another in 1054.然後在1965年取消了這兩個教會anathemas和excommunications放在互相在1054年。 These great events however have not changed the actual status of each church, for the Schism still remains.然而,這些偉大的事件並沒有改變實際狀況各教會,為教會分裂依然存在。 In addition, the unprecedented journeys of the Patriarch and the Pope to one another's See were the result of the lifting of historical obstacles.此外,前所未有的旅程的主教和教宗對彼此的見的結果是解除歷史的障礙。 This has led to dialogue between the two churches for the first time in 900 years.這導致兩個教會之間的對話,第一次在900年。 These historical events are hopeful signs to resolving the problems of the Great Schism.這些歷史事件是有希望的跡象,解決問題的大分裂。

Hope For Unity Of The Christian Churches希望統一的基督教教堂

Pure Faith is a living faith for all the members of the Mystical Body of Christ.純潔的信仰是一種生活信念的所有成員的基督奧體。 It is not the Faith of the technical theologian nor of the narrow minded faithful.這不是對技術的信仰神學家,也不是狹隘的忠誠。 The Christian Faith does not require knowledge of geometry as was the case with Plato's philosophy.基督徒的信仰並不需要幾何知識就是這樣的情況與柏拉圖的哲學。 The theologian who is supposed to be more versed in the Divine Revelation is not a teacher of his original theories but rather an instructor of Truths, which have already been revealed and can be accepted by all people on faith.神學家誰更富精通神聖啟示錄not他一個teacher of original理論而是教練的真理,這些已經被揭露出來並且可以接受的所有的人on信心。

The Christian faith is not a theory or erudition but a living element working in every sincere Christian.基督徒的信仰不是一種理論或博學,而是活生生的元素在每一個虔誠的基督徒工作。 The technical theological controversies are only for the "pleasure of knowledge" of a very few people, but not for the members of the Mystical Body of Christ.該技術神學爭論,只是為“快樂的知識”的極少數人,但並非為成員的基督奧體。 They are rather the personal presuppositions of learned men, who have become entangled in the net they have woven, from which they Cannot set themselves free.他們是相當的個人預設的有學問的人,誰已成為糾纏在他們編織的網,從他們無法為自己的自由。 Some technical theologians and others with a talented and dynamic personality, on occasions of strong disagreement or in an assumption of a new movement, have separated themselves or led their followers out of the Mystical Body of Christ, the Undivided and Ecumenical Church.神學家和其他一些技術人才和具有活力的個性,有時人的強烈反對,或在一個假設的一個新的運動,已分離自己或導致其追隨者走出奧體的基督,基督教教會的分割,。

Their followers have never understood the, deep theological arguments involved; they never have followed such a leader with a sound conviction of keeping the venerable Faith intact.他們的追隨者從未理解,深刻神學涉及的論點,他們從來沒有遵循這樣的領導者,一個健全的信念保持古老的信念不變。 They have followed him because of human motives and superficial justifications.他們都跟隨他,是因為人類的動機和膚淺的理由。 Neither the leaders nor the followers have stood united in the very Mystical Body of Christ to fight, if necessary, for the restoration of any faulty direction or corruption of the other fellow members of the one Body.無論是領導還是追隨者已經站在團結在非常神秘的基督身體對抗,如果需要,可對任何錯誤的方向恢復或貪污的其他成員的一個機構。 Instead they left and are disunited, constituting what they believe to be a "new" faith.相反,他們離開,並處於分裂狀態,構成了他們認為是一個“新”的信念。 But from such new groups others have left also for a more "pure" faith, and so on.但是,從這些新團體也為其他人留下一個更“純粹”的信念,等等。

All the churches of Christ today first must return to the Truths of the Undivided Church, the Ecumenical Church, with humbleness and repentance to restore the pure faith - "the unity of faith"; without a rigid conformity as far as customs and rites are concerned.所有教會的基督今天首先必須返回到真理的不可分割的教會,普世教會,與謙卑和懺悔,恢復純潔的信仰- “團結的信念”,沒有一個硬性盡可能符合海關和禮儀方面。

The first five centuries of the Christian era was the period during which the foundation of the Church was established by the blood of its martyrs and the teaching and works of its great Fathers.首五個世紀的基督教時代是期間的基礎,教會設立了血的烈士和教學和工程的偉大父親。 By the end of the 10th century the separation of the One Church took place because of the human weakness of the Church leaders in the administration and customs rather than from its disagreement over the redemptive Truths of the Church. By the end of the 15th century the movement began against the discrepancies of the current leaders of the Western Church, but it went far beyond the anticipations of its leaders.到年底的10世紀的分離,在一個教堂發生由於人類的弱點,教會領導人的行政和海關,而不是從它的分歧,救贖真理的教會。到年底的15世紀運動開始對不符,目前領導人的西方教會,但它遠遠超出了預其領導人。 Can we hope that at least by the close of the 20th century we will complete the Hegelian trilogy of synthesis, ie the unity of all churches?難道我們希望至少由關閉的20世紀,我們將完成黑格爾三部曲的合成,即團結全體教會? For the Church of Christ was meant to be one:對於教會的基督的意思是1:

"There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of us all, who is above all and in all" (Eph. 4:5-6). “有一個機構和一個精神,正如你被稱為向一,希望屬於您的電話,一主,一信,一洗,一神,我們所有的父,他是高於一切,所有”(弗。4:5-6)。

We pray and we hope.我們祈禱,我們的希望。

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America希臘東正教大主教管區的美

(Editor's Note: Other branches of the Orthodox Church hold differing views on many of these issues. In some cases, they even consider the date of the Great Schism to not be 1054 AD but 1204 AD when the Catholic Crusades sacked Constantinople.) (編者注:其它分支東正教教會持有不同意見,在許多這些問題。在某些情況下,他們甚至考慮之用的大分裂不被公元1054年公元1204年,但天主教十字軍東征時被解職君士坦丁堡。)


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