Counter - Reformation反 - 改革

General Information 一般信息

The Counter - Reformation was the movement within the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th and 17th centuries that tried to eliminate abuses within that church and to respond to the Protestant Reformation. Until recently, historians tended to stress the negative and repressive elements in this movement, such as the Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books, and to concentrate their attention on its political, military, and diplomatic aspects. 反-改革是該運動在羅馬天主教教會在16世紀和17世紀,試圖消除濫用在該教堂和回應的新教改革。直到最近,歷史學家往往強調的負面因素和鎮壓這場運動,如宗教裁判所和指數禁書,並把注意力集中在其政治,軍事,外交等方面的問題。 They now show greater appreciation for the high level of spirituality that animated many of the leaders of the Counter - Reformation.現在他們表現出更大的讚賞,高層次的靈性的動畫許多領導人的反-改革。

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The century before the outbreak of the Reformation was marked by increasing and widespread dismay with the venality of the bishops and their involvement in politics, with the ignorance and superstition of the lower clergy, with the laxity of religious orders, and with the sterility of academic theology. Movements for a return to the original observances within religious orders and the activity of outspoken critics of the papacy like Girolamo Savonarola were symptomatic of the impulses for reform that characterized sectors of the Catholic church during these years.本世紀前爆發的改革的特點是增加和普遍不安與唯利是圖的主教和參與政治,與愚昧和迷信較低的神職人員,在鬆弛的宗教命令,並與不育學術神學。變動返回到原來的紀念活動,在宗教活動的命令和直言不諱的批評者的教皇像薩佛納羅拉是有症狀的衝動為特徵的改革,部門的天主教教會在這些年裡。

Not until Paul III became pope in 1534 did the Roman Catholic church receive the leadership it needed to coordinate these impulses and meet the challenge of the Protestants.直到教皇保羅三世成為當時在1534年羅馬天主教會的領導收到它需要協調這些衝動和迎接挑戰的新教徒。 This pope approved new religious orders like the Jesuits, and he convoked the Council of Trent (1545 - 63) to deal with the doctrinal and disciplinary questions raised by the Protestant reformers.這教皇批准了新的宗教命令的耶穌像,他召集安理會的遄達(1545 - 63)處理紀律問題的理論和所提出的新教改革者。 The decrees of that council formulating belief and practice dominated Roman Catholic thinking for the next four centuries.該理事會的法令制訂的信念和實踐為主的羅馬天主教思想在未來4個世紀。 Paul III, as well as his successors, also committed papal resources to military action against the Protestants.保羅三,以及他的繼任者,還承諾教皇資源軍事行動對新教徒。

The Counter - Reformation was activist, marked by enthusiasm for the evangelization of newly discovered territories, especially in North and South America; for the establishment of religious schools, where the Jesuits took the lead; and for the organization of works of charity and catechesis under the leadership of reformers like Saint Charles Borromeo.反-改革是積極分子,主要標誌是熱情的福傳新發現的領土,特別是在北美和南美,為建立宗教學校,那裡的耶酥會帶頭,並組織工程下的慈善和理領導的改革者如聖查爾斯博羅密歐。 Somewhat paradoxically, there was also a renewed enthusiasm for contemplation, and the era produced two of the greatest representatives of Mysticism - Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross.有點矛盾的,也有一個新的熱情沉思,時代產生的兩個最大的神秘主義的代表-修女的阿維拉和約翰的十字架。

John W O'Malley約恩 W奧馬利

Bibliography 書目
AG Dickens, The Counter Reformation (1969); HO Evennett, The Spirit of the Counter Reformation (1970); AD Wright, Counter Reformation (1982).公司狄更斯,反改革(1969年);何文尼特,聖靈反改革(1970年);公元賴特,反改革(1982年)。


Counter-Reformation反宗教改革

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Counter-Reformation was the label for the Roman Catholic revival of the sixteenth century. It emphasizes that the reaction to the Protestant challenge was the dominant theme of contemporary Catholicism.反宗教改革的標籤為羅馬天主教復興的16世紀。它強調的反應,新教的挑戰是當代天主教佔主導地位的主題。 The movement is also labeled the Catholic Reformation and the Catholic renaissance, since elements of Catholic reform and revival predated the Protestant Reformation and were, like Protestantism, a response to the widespread aspiration for religious regeneration pervading late fifteenth century Europe.該運動還標示的天主教改革和天主教的復興,因為內容的改革和振興的天主教早於宗教改革並像新教,回應了廣泛的願望宗教再生瀰漫15世紀末期的歐洲。 It is now better understood that the two reformations, Protestant and Catholic, though believing themselves to be in opposition, had many similarities and drew on a common past: the revival of preaching exemplified in the great pre - Reformation preachers like Jan Hus, Bernardino of Siena, and Savonarola; the Christ - centered, practical mysticism of the Devotio Moderna; the movement for ecclesistical reform headed by Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros in Spain but also well represented by reforming bishops in France and Germany.現在是更好地理解這兩個教育改革,新教和天主教,但相信自己是反對派,有許多相似之處,制定一個共同的過去:復甦的說教體現在大前-改革傳教士像揚胡斯,伯納迪諾的錫耶納和薩沃納羅拉;基督-為本,切實神秘主義的Devotio莫德納;的改革運動,ecclesistical德為首的樞機主教希梅內斯在西班牙西斯內羅斯也很好的代表,但通過改革主教在法國和德國。

The Counter - Reformation is sometimes described as a Spanish movement.反-改革是有時被稱為西班牙的運動。 Over three thousand mystical works are known to have been written in sixteenth century Spain, suggesting that mysticism was a popular movement.超過3000神秘工程是眾所周知的,也有人寫在16世紀,西班牙,表明神秘主義是一種流行的運動。 But the dominant Spanish mystics were three aristocrats: Teresa of Avila (1515 - 82), John of the Cross (1542 - 91), and Ignatius of Loyola (1491 - 1556). Two of the three great instruments of the Counter - Reformation stemmed from Spain, namely the Society of Jesus and the Inquisition. The third was the Council of Trent, which was finally convened in 1545 after constant pressure from the Emperor Charles V, grandson of Spain's great reforming monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella.但西班牙神秘主義者三個主導貴族:修女的阿維拉(1515 - 82),約翰的十字架(1542年至1591年),並依納爵羅耀拉(1491年至1556年)。 兩名三大文書的反-改革源於來自西班牙,即耶穌和學會的宗教裁判所。第三是安理會的遄達,終於在1545年召開後恆壓從皇帝查爾斯五世,孫子西班牙君主的偉大改革,費迪南德和伊莎貝拉。

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits), incorporated in 1540, was the most remarkable of the new orders of reformed priests (clerks regular) who lived among the faithful rather than withdrawing into monasteries.該協會的耶穌(耶穌),成立於1540年,是最顯著的新訂單的改革司鐸(辦事員經常)誰生活中的忠實,而不是撤回到寺廟。 Other orders included the Theatines (1524), Somaschi (1532), and Barnabites (1534).其他命令,包括Theatines(1524),索馬斯基(1532),和Barnabites(1534)。 The founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola, sought to prepare his followers for a life of triumphal service and heroic self - sacrifice through his Spiritual Exercises, a series of practical meditations.耶穌會的創始人,依納爵羅耀拉,準備尋求他的追隨者的生活服務和英雄凱旋自我-通過他的犧牲精神練習,一系列實際的反省。 The Jesuits ministered to the poor, educated boys, and evangelized the heathen.耶穌事奉的窮人,受過教育的男孩,並且擴大了異教徒。 Francis Xavier (1506 - 52) a Spanish Jesuit, traveled to Goa, South India, Ceylon, Malaya, and Japan on his amazing missionary journeys.弗朗西斯澤維爾(1506至1552年)西班牙耶穌會,前往果阿,南印度,錫蘭,馬來西亞,日本對他的驚人的傳教旅程。 When Ignatius died, the society had around 1,000 members administering 100 foundations.當伊格去世後,社會發生了大約1,000名成員管理100基礎。 A century later there were over 15,000 Jesuits and 550 foundations, testifying to the sustained vitality of the Counter - Reformation.一個世紀後全球有超過15000名耶穌會士和550基金會,作證的持續生命力的反-改革。

The Roman Inquisition was established in 1542 by Pope Paul III to suppress Lutheranism in Italy.羅馬宗教裁判所成立於1542年由教皇保羅三鎮壓路德教在意大利。 Cardinal Caraffa, its Inquisitor General, later Pope Paul IV (1555 - 59), directed that heretics in high places should be dealt with most severely, "for on their punishment, the salvation of the classes beneath them depends." The Roman Inquisition reached its peak during the pontificate of the saintly zealot Pius V (1566 - 72), systematically extirpating Italian Protestants and securing Italy as a base for a counteroffensive on the Protestant north.紅衣主教加拉法,其砂鍋一般,後來教皇保羅四世(1555年至1559年),指示,異教徒在高的地方,應處理最嚴重,“對他們的處罰,拯救他們腳下的類而定。”羅馬宗教裁判所達成其全盛時期的教皇庇護五世的聖潔的狂熱分子(1566年至1572年),系統地摘除意大利新教徒和確保意大利為基地的反攻的新教北方。

The corrupt hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church was dramatically reformed in the wake of the Council of Trent.腐敗的層次,羅馬天主教教會在急劇改革後的安理會的遄達。 Dioceses mushroomed in areas where there was felt to be a particular Protestant threat. Bishops carried out frequent visitations of their dioceses and established seminaries for the training of clergy.教區雨後春筍般出現的地方被認為是一個有益的新教的威脅。主教經常進行探訪,並建立了自己的教區神學院的培訓神職人員。 The number of church buildings and clergy increased markedly.教堂的人數顯著增加建築物和神職人員。 The most vigorous of the reforming popes, Sixtus V (1585 - 90), established fifteen "congregations" or commissions to prepare papal pronouncements and strategy.最有力的改革教皇,西斯五(1585年至1590年),建立15個“教會”或佣金準備教皇的言論和策略。 Some Protestant gains were reversed under the direction of such theologians as Robert Bellarmine (1542 - 1621) and Peter Canisius (1521 - 97).一些新教漲勢扭轉這種方向下的神學家羅伯特貝拉明(1542年至1621年)和彼得卡尼西斯(1521 - 97)。 The Counter - Reformation in general, and the Council of Trent in particular, strengthened the position of the pope and the forces of clericalism and authoritarianism.反-改革一般,安理會的遄達,特別是加強了教皇的位置和力量的教權主義和專制。 The genuinely spiritual foundations of these developments should not be denied.真正精神基礎這些事態發展不應該被剝奪。

FS Piggin財政司司長 Piggin
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
H Daniel - Rops, The Catholic Reformation; J Delumeau, Catholicism Between Luther and Voltaire; AG Dickens, The Counter - Reformation; P Dudon, St. Ignatius of Loyola; HO Evennett, The Spirit of the Counter - Reformation; BJ Kidd, The Counter - Reformation, 1550 - 1600; The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, tr. Ĥ丹尼爾-滾翻保護結構,天主教改革; J Delumeau,天主教與路德和伏爾泰;公司狄更斯,反-改革; P Dudon,聖依納爵羅耀拉,何文尼特,聖靈反-改革;北京基德的反-改革,1550至1600年,在聖依納爵神操,文。 A Mottola; MR O'Connell, The Counter - Reformation 1559 - 1610.阿默特萊;議員奧康內爾,反-改革1559年至1610年。


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