John Calvin約翰卡爾文

General Information 一般信息

French theologian John Calvin, b.法國神學家約翰卡爾文灣 July 10, 1509, d. 1509年7月10日,四 May 27, 1564, was, after Martin Luther, the guiding spirit of the Protestant Reformation. If Luther sounded the trumpet for reform, Calvin orchestrated the score by which the Reformation became a part of Western civilization. Calvin studied in Paris, probably from 1521 to 1526, where he was introduced to humanistic scholarship and to appeals for reform of the church. 1564年5月27日,是後,馬丁路德的指導精神的新教改革。 路德吹響了號角,如果為改革卡爾文策劃評分,其中改造成為西方文明的一部分。卡爾文研究在巴黎,大概從1521到1526年,在那裡他被介紹給人文學術研究和呼籲改革的教會。 He then studied law at his father's bidding from about 1525 to 1530.然後,他學習法律在他父親的出價從大約1525至1530年。 When his father died in 1531, Calvin turned immediately to his first love - study of the classics and theology.當他在1531年父親去世,他立即轉身卡爾文初戀情人-研究的經典和神學。 Between 1526 and 1531, he experienced a distinctly Protestant conversion. "God," he wrote much later, "at last turned my course in another direction by the secret rein of his providence." 1526年和1531年之間, 他經歷了一個明顯的新教轉換。“上帝”,他寫道晚得多,“終於把我的另一個方向的過程中發揮的秘密,他的普羅維登斯。” Calvin's first published work was a commentary on Seneca's De Clementia (1532).卡爾文的第一次發表的作品是評注塞涅卡的德克萊芒(1532)。 A profusion of influential commentaries on books of the Bible followed.阿豐富有影響力的評論對書籍的聖經之後。

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His position in France became precarious when in 1533 his friend Nicholas Cop, rector of the University of Paris, gave a public address supporting reform.他的立場,法國在1533年時變得不穩定他的朋友尼古拉斯警探,校長的巴黎大學,發表了支持改革的公共地址。 Eventually Calvin was forced to flee in 1535 to Basel, Switzerland.最終卡爾文被迫逃離1535巴塞爾,瑞士。 There he produced a small book about his new reformed beliefs.在那裡,他製作了一本小書對他的新改革的信念。 It was designed to offer a brief summary of essential Christian belief and to defend French Protestants, who were then undergoing serious persecution, as true heirs of the early church.它的目的是提供一個簡要介紹基督教的基本信仰和捍衛法國新教徒,誰當時經歷嚴重的迫害,作為真正的繼承人早期教堂。 This first edition of Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) contained only six brief sections.這首版卡爾文的研究所基督教宗教 (1536年)中只有6個簡短的章節。 By the last edition (1559), it had grown to 79 full chapters. The Institutes presents with unmatched clarity a vision of God in his majesty, of Christ as prophet, priest, and king, of the Holy Spirit as the giver of faith, of the Bible as the final authority, and of the church as the holy people of God. Its doctrine of Predestination is Calvin's deduction from his belief in human sinfulness and God's sovereign mercy in Christ.到了最後一版(1559年),它已發展到79個完整的章節。 研究院提出的一個無與倫比的清晰的眼光,在他威嚴的神,基督為先知,祭司,和國王,聖靈作為送禮者的信心,對聖經作為最終的權威,教會的聖民為神。及其學說的宿命是卡爾文的推論,他認為在人類從罪惡和上帝的主權在基督憐憫。

After the publication of the Institutes, Calvin fully intended to devote his life to further study.出版後,各研究所,卡爾文充分準備獻身進一步研究。 On a trip to Strasbourg in July 1536, however, he was forced to detour through Geneva where he hoped to stay only one night.在訪問斯特拉斯堡在1536年7月,但是,他被迫繞道通過,他希望在日內瓦逗留一晚。 The fiery Guillaume Farel, who had labored long for the reform of that city, had other plans.火熱紀堯姆惹勒,誰辛苦了長期的改革這個城市,有其他的計劃。

Threatening Calvin with a curse from God, Farel persuaded him to remain.卡爾文威脅與詛咒上帝,惹勒勸說他留下來。 The next 2 years were difficult, as Calvin's rigorous plans for reform of church and city clashed with Geneva's long - standing moral indifference.未來2年是困難的,因為卡爾文嚴格的計劃和城市改革的教會衝突與設在日內瓦的長期-站在道德冷漠。 In 1538, Calvin and Farel were expelled from the city.在1538年,卡爾文和法爾被驅逐出城。 Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg where he spent the most enjoyable years of his life as pastor of the city's French congregation.卡爾文前往斯特拉斯堡,他度過了最愉快的幾年,他生活的城市牧師的法國眾。 While in Strasbourg, Calvin produced an influential commentary on the Book of Romans, oversaw the preparation of a liturgy and a psalm book that he would use later in Geneva, and married the widow Idelette de Bure.雖然在斯特拉斯堡,卡爾文產生了影響力的評注書羅馬人,負責監督編制的禮儀和詩篇的書,他將使用後在日內瓦,娶寡婦Idelette去布雷。 When friends of Calvin gained control of the Geneva council in 1541, they asked him to return, and he reluctantly agreed.當朋友的卡爾文上漲控制在1541日內瓦議會,他們要求他返回,他勉強同意。 During the next 14 years his reforms met stiff resistance. Some Genevans then, and many critics later, considered Calvin's morality absurdly severe, with its banning of plays and its attempt to introduce religious pamphlets and psalm singing into Geneva's taverns.在未來14年的改革遇到頑強的抵抗。 有些Genevans當時,許多批評後,認為卡爾文的道德荒謬嚴重,其禁止的戲劇和宗教的企圖引進小冊子和詩篇歌唱到日內瓦的酒館。

Others have admired the courage of his conviction that all of life should glorify God.其他人欽佩的勇氣,他相信所有的生活應該頌揚上帝。 Finally, the libertines blundered in 1553 by offering backhanded support to the heretic Michael Servetus.最後,在1553年的浪子失誤提供反手支持邪教邁克爾塞爾維特。 Servetus was condemned to death by burning, and by 1555 the city belonged to Calvin. The Presbyterian church order that he instituted established a principle of lay involvement that had great impact throughout Europe.塞爾維特被判處死刑的燃燒,由1555年的城市屬於卡爾文。 基督長老教會,以便他提起建立了參與的原則奠定了很大的影響整個歐洲。

During Calvin's last years, Geneva was home to many religious refugees who carried away the desire to implement a Genevan reform in their own countries.在卡爾文的最後幾年,日內瓦是在家中,許多宗教難民誰帶走的願望實施日內瓦人改革自己的國家。 His personal letters and published works reached from the British Isles to the Baltic. The Geneva Academy, founded in 1559, extended the circle of his influence.他的個人信件和出版作品達到從不列顛群島到波羅的海。日內瓦學院,成立於1559年,延長了對他的影響圈。 His lucid use of French promoted that language much as Luther's work spread the influence of German.他清晰地使用這種語言的法語促進高達路德的工作蔓延的影響,德國。 By the time he died, Calvin, in spite of a reserved personality, had generated profound love among his friends and intense scorn from his enemies. His influence, which spread throughout the Western world, was felt especially in Scotland through the work of John Knox.他死的時候,卡爾文,儘管保留個性,產生了深刻的愛在他的朋友和激烈的嘲諷他的敵人。 他的影響力,這在整個西方世界的傳播,特別是有人認為通過在蘇格蘭工作約恩諾克斯。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾

Bibliography 書目
WJ Bousma, Calvin (1987); Q Breen, John Calvin: A Study in French Humanism (1968); J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1559 ed.; HJ Forstman, Word and Spirit: Calvin's Doctrine of Biblical Authority (1962); THL Parker, John Calvin: A Biography (1975); R Stauffer, The Humanness of John Calvin (1971); F Wendel, Calvin: The Origin and Development of His Religious Thought (1963). WJ通訊公司Bousma,卡爾文(1987年); Q布林,約翰卡爾文:一個研究法國人文主義(1968年); J卡爾文,研究所的基督教宗教,1559年版。;黃建忠Forstman,Word和精神:卡爾文的教義的聖經委員會(1962年);門THL帕克,約翰卡爾文:一個生平(1975)與r斯托弗,在思辨約翰卡爾文(1971年),女溫德爾,卡爾文:起源和發展他的宗教思想(1963年)。


John Calvin (1509 - 1564)約翰加爾文(1509至1564年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

John Calvin is considered the father of Reformed and Presbyterian doctrine and theology. Calvin was born in Noyon, Picardie. 約翰加爾文被認為是父親的改造和長老會教義和神學。卡爾文出生於努瓦永,皮卡。 His father was a notary who served the bishop of Noyon, and as a result Calvin, while still a child, received a canonry in the cathedral which would pay for his education.他的父親是一名公證人誰擔任主教的努瓦永,並因此卡爾文,而仍然是一個孩子,收到了在教堂的牧師會會員將支付他的教育。 Although he commenced training for the priesthood at the University of Paris, his father, because of a controversy with the bishop and clergy of the Noyon cathedral, now decided that his son should become a lawyer, and sent him to Orleans, where he studied under Pierre de l'Etoile.雖然他開始訓練的神職人員在巴黎大學,他的父親,因為一個爭議的主教和神職人員的努瓦永大教堂,現在決定,他的兒子應該成為一個律師,並送他到新奧爾良,在那裡他師從皮埃爾戴高樂廣場。 Later he studied at Bourges under the humanist lawyer Andrea Alciati.後來,他就讀於布爾根據以人為本的律師安德烈阿爾恰蒂。 It was probably while in Bourges that he became a Protestant.這可能是同時在布爾日,他成為一名新教徒。

On his father's death Calvin returned to Paris, where he became involved with the Protestants there and as a result had to leave, eventually spending some time in Italy and in Basel, Switzerland.在他父親去世卡爾文回到巴黎,在那裡他成為涉及與新教徒那裡,結果不得不離開,最終花費一些時間在意大利和瑞士巴塞爾。 In the latter city he published the first edition of the Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).在後者的城市,他出版了第一版的各研究所基督教(1536年)。 After wandering around France, he decided to go to Strasbourg, a Protestant city, but while stopping overnight in Geneva he was approached by William Farel, who had introduced the Protestant movement there.法國左右徘徊後,他決定去斯特拉斯堡,新教的城市,但同時阻止通宵在日內瓦他走近威廉法惹勒,誰介紹了新教運動的存在。 After considerable argument Calvin was persuaded to stay and help.經過大量的論點卡爾文被說服留和幫助。 Calvin and Farel, however, soon ran into strong opposition and were forced out of the city, Calvin going to Strasbourg, where he stayed for three years (1538 - 41), ministering to a French Protestant refugee congregation.卡爾文和法惹勒,不過,很快陷入強烈反對,被迫離開城市,卡爾文前往斯特拉斯堡,他在那裡呆了三年(1538年至1541年),一家法國新教服事難民聚集。 Called back to Geneva in 1541, he remained there for the rest of his life as the leader of the Reformed Church.回到日內瓦呼籲在1541年,他在那裡停留了他的生命,其餘的作為領導者的改革教會。

While Calvin was the pastor of the Eglise St. Pierre and spent much of his time preaching, his greatest influence came from his writings.雖然卡爾文是牧師的埃格斯聖皮埃爾和花了很多時間,他的說教,他最大的影響來自他的著作。 Both his Latin and his French were clear and his reasoning lucid. He wrote commentaries on twenty - three of the OT books and on all of the NT except the Apocalypse. In addition he produced a large number of pamphlets, devotional, doctrinal, and polemical.他的拉美和他的法國人清楚,他的推理清晰。 他寫的評論對2003年的書籍和催產素對所有的NT除外啟示。此外,他製作了大量的小冊子,虔誠的,理論和論戰。 But most important of all, his Institutes went through five editions, expanding from a small book of six chapters to a large work of seventy - nine chapters in 1559.但最重要的是,他的機構經歷了五個版本,擴大從一本小書6章,以大量的工作79章在1559年。 Calvin also translated the original Latin versions into French.卡爾文還翻譯了原來的拉丁語版本翻譯成法文。 All these works were widely distributed and read throughout Europe.所有這些作品廣為散發,並宣讀整個歐洲。

Not only was Calvin's influence widespread in his own day through his writings, but his impact on the Christian church has continued down to the present day. His works have been translated into many different languages, one of the most recent being the translation of the Institutes into Japanese. 不僅是卡爾文的影響力廣泛的在他自己的一天,通過他的著作,但他的影響的基督教教堂一直延續到今天。他的作品已被翻譯成多種不同的語言,其中最近的是翻譯的院校成日文。 The result has been that his theological teachings as well as his political and social views have wielded a strong influence on both Christians and non - Christians since the Reformation.其結果是,他的神學教義以及他的政治和社會的意見揮舞強烈影響基督教徒和非-基督徒以來的改革。

WS Reid為里德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
THL Parker, John Calvin; WS Reid, ed., John Calvin: His Influence on the Western World; GE Duffield, ed., John Calvin; J Cadier, The Man God Mastered; TB Van Halsema, This Was John Calvin; G Harkness, John Calvin, the Man and His Ethics; J Moura and P Louvet, Calvin: A Modern Biography; BB Warfield, Calvin and Augustine; R Stauffer, The Humanness of John Calvin; F Wendel, Calvin.門THL帕克,約翰卡爾文,是里德,編輯。,約翰加爾文:他對西方世界;通用電氣杜菲爾德,編輯。約翰卡爾文; J卡迪耶,該名男子上帝掌握;結核病凡霍爾塞馬,這是約翰卡爾文; Ğ哈克尼斯約翰卡爾文,人與他的道德; J莫拉和P盧韋,卡爾文:一個現代傳記; BB心跳沃菲爾德,卡爾文和奧古斯丁; R斯托弗,在思辨的約翰卡爾文,女溫德爾,卡爾文。


John Calvin約翰卡爾文

Catholic Information 天主教信息

This man, undoubtedly the greatest of Protestant divines, and perhaps, after St. Augustine, the most perseveringly followed by his disciples of any Western writer on theology, was born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564.這名男子,無疑是最大的新教divines,或許,在聖奧古斯丁,最持之以恆其次是他的弟子任何西方神學作家,出生於努瓦永在皮卡第,法國,1509年7月10日,在日內瓦和死亡,1564年5月27日。

A generation divided him from Luther, whom he never met.阿代分為他從路德,他從未謀面的人。 By birth, education, and temper these two protagonists of the reforming movement were strongly contrasted.因出生,教育,鍛煉這兩個主角的改革運動的強烈對比。 Luther was a Saxon peasant, his father a miner; Calvin sprang from the French middle-class, and his father, an attorney, had purchased the freedom of the City of Noyon, where he practised civil and canon law.路德是一個撒克遜農民,他的父親是一個礦工;卡爾文源於法國的中產階級,和他的父親,一個律師,已經購買的自由城市的努瓦永,他在那裡實行民事和教會法。 Luther entered the Order of Augustinian Hermits, took a monk's vows, was made a priest and incurred much odium by marrying a nun.路德進入訂購奧古斯丁隱士,採取了和尚的誓言,是一名牧師和招致許多憎恨娶一個尼姑。 Calvin never was ordained in the Catholic Church; his training was chiefly in law and the humanities; he took no vows.卡爾文從來沒有被祝聖的天主教教會,他的訓練主要是在法律和人文,他沒有採取任何誓言。 Luther's eloquence made him popular by its force, humour, rudeness, and vulgar style. Calvin spoke to the learned at all times, even when preaching before multitudes. His manner is classical; he reasons on system; he has little humour; instead of striking with a cudgel he uses the weapons of a deadly logic and persuades by a teacher's authority, not by a demagogue's calling of names.路德的口才使他深受市民的力量,幽默,粗魯和庸俗作風。卡爾文發言的教訓在任何時候,甚至當說教之前眾人。他的態度是經典,他的理由對系統,他已很少幽默;而不是打擊與一棒子,他使用的武器的致命的邏輯和說服由一名教師的權威,而不是由一個煽動者的要求的名字。 He writes French as well as Luther writes German, and like him has been reckoned a pioneer in the modern development of his native tongue.他寫道,法國以及德國路德寫道,和他一樣一直忽視的先驅,現代發展,他的母語。 Lastly, if we term the doctor of Wittenberg a mystic, we may sum up Calvin as a scholastic; he gives articulate expression to the principles which Luther had stormily thrown out upon the world in his vehement pamphleteering; and the "Institutes" as they were left by their author have remained ever since the standard of orthodox Protestant belief in all the Churches known as "Reformed."最後,如果我們長期在醫生的維滕貝格一個神秘的,我們可以總結卡爾文作為一個學者,他給闡明體現的原則路德曾氣呼呼拋出後,世界在他的強烈編制小冊子;和“研究所”,因為他們是離開他們的作者仍然自從正統基督教信仰的標準在所有的教會被稱為“歸正”。 His French disciples called their sect "the religion"; such it has proved to be outside the Roman world.他的弟子稱為法國的教派“宗教”,因此它已被證明是羅馬以外的世界。

The family name, spelt in many ways, was Cauvin latinized according to the custom of the age as Calvinus.該系列的名稱,說明在許多方面,是考溫latinized根據習俗的年齡定Calvinus。 For some unknown reason the Reformer is commonly called Maître Jean C. His mother, Jeanne Le Franc, born in the Diocese of Cambrai, is mentioned as "beautiful and devout"; she took her little son to various shrines and brought him up a good Catholic.對於一些不明原因的改革者通常稱為貝耶讓長他的母親珍妮樂法郎,出生在教區康布雷,提到“美麗和虔誠”,她把她的小兒子各殿堂和他帶來了一個好天主教徒。 On the father's side, his ancestors were seafaring men.在父親的身邊,他的祖先是航海的男子。 His grandfather settled at Pont l'Evêque near Paris, and had two sons who became locksmiths; the third was Gerard, who turned procurator at Noyon, and there his four sons and two daughters saw the light.他的祖父定居在巴黎附近的蓬勒韋克,並有兩個兒子誰成為鎖匠,第三是杰拉德,誰把檢察長在努瓦永,還有他的四個兒子和兩個女兒看到了光。 He lived in the Place au Blé (Cornmarket).他住在廣場金竹葉提取物(康馬基特)。 Noyon, a bishop's see, had long been a fief of the powerful old family of Hangest, who treated it as their personal property.努瓦永,一個主教看到,長期以來一直是封地強大的古老家族的Hangest,誰把它作為其個人財產。 But an everlasting quarrel, in which the city took part, went on between the bishop and the chapter.但是,一個永恆的爭吵,在該城市參加,繼續與主教之間的篇章。 Charles de Hangest, nephew of the too well-known Georges d'Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen, surrendered the bishopric in 1525 to his own nephew John, becoming his vicar-general.查爾斯德Hangest,侄子的太知名的喬治德阿姆博斯,魯昂大主教,主教在1525年交出了自己的侄子約翰,成為他的副主教秘書長。 John kept up the battle with his canons until the Parliament of Paris intervened, upon which he went to Rome, and at last died in Paris in 1577.約翰不斷的戰鬥與他的大砲,直到議會巴黎干預後,他去了羅馬,最後死在巴黎在1577年。 This prelate had Protestant kinsfolk; he is charged with having fostered heresy which in those years was beginning to raise its head among the French.這已新教主教親屬,他被控犯有異端有促進,這在幾年已開始抬頭之間的法國人。 Clerical dissensions, at all events, allowed the new doctrines a promising field; and the Calvins were more or less infected by them before 1530.文書糾紛,在所有的事件,使新的理論有希望的領域,以及卡爾文或多或少感染了他們1530年之前。

Gerard's four sons were made clerics and held benefices at a tender age.杰拉德的四個兒子發了言神職人員和舉行 benefices在投標年齡。 The Reformer was given one when a boy of twelve, he became Curé of Saint-Martin de Marteville in the Vermandois in 1527, and of Pont l'Eveque in 1529.該重整時,其中一個是給一個男孩的12歲,他成為治愈聖馬丁德馬特維爾在韋爾芒杜瓦在1527和杜邦勒韋克在1529年。 Three of the boys attended the local Collège des Capettes, and there John proved himself an apt scholar.三個男孩參加了當地大學德Capettes,還有約翰證明了自己是一個非常恰當的學者。 But his people were intimate with greater folk, the de Montmor, a branch of the line of Hangest, which led to his accompanying some of their children to Paris in 1523, when his mother was probably dead and his father had married again.但他的人體內有更大的民俗,德Montmor,一個分支線的Hangest,這導致他陪同他們的一些子女在1523年到巴黎時,他的母親很可能已經死亡,他的父親再次結婚。 The latter died in 1531, under excommunication from the chapter for not sending in his accounts.後者在1531年去世,罰下從本章沒有派遣他的帳戶。 The old man's illness, not his lack of honesty, was, we are told, the cause.這位老人的病情,而不是他缺乏誠信,是我們被告知,該事業。 Yet his son Charles, nettled by the censure, drew towards the Protestant doctrines.然而,他的兒子查爾斯,急了譴責,並提請對新教教義。 He was accused in 1534 of denying the Catholic dogma of the Eucharist, and died out of the Church in 1536; his body was publicly gibbeted as that of a recusant.他被指控在1534年否認天主教教條的聖體,並熄滅了教會在1536年,他的屍體被公開gibbeted因為這一個recusant。

Meanwhile, young John was going through his own trials at the University of Paris, the dean or syndic of which, Noel Bédier, had stood up against Erasmus and bore hard upon Le Fèvre d'Etaples (Stapulensis), celebrated for his translation of the Bible into French.與此同時,年輕的約翰正在經歷他自己的審判在巴黎大學的院長或理事,其中,諾埃爾貝迪耶,已經站起來對伊拉斯謨和孔硬後萊費弗里德埃塔普勒(Stapulensis),慶祝他的翻譯聖經成法文。 Calvin, a "martinet", or oppidan, in the Collèege de la Marche, made this man's acquaintance (he was from Picardy) and may have glanced into his Latin commentary on St. Paul, dated 1512, which Doumergue considers the first Protestant book emanating from a French pen. Another influence tending the same way was that of Corderius, Calvin's tutor, to whom he dedicated afterwards his annotation of I Thessalonians, remarking, "if there be any good thing in what I have published, I owe it to you".卡爾文的“馬蒂”,或oppidan,在Collèege德拉馬爾凱,使這名男子的熟人(他是從皮卡),並可能看了一眼他的拉丁述評聖保羅,日期為1512杜梅格認為新教的第一本書產生於法國的筆。另一個影響趨於相同的方式是,Corderius,卡爾文的導師,向他專門事後他批註的帖撒羅尼迦,作評估,“如果有什麼好的東西在我所發表的,我有責任向你“。 Corderius had an excellent Latin style, his life was austere, and his "Colloquies" earned him enduring fame. Corderius有很好的拉丁風格,他的生活簡樸,他的“學術討論會”為他贏得了持久的名聲。 But he fell under suspicion of heresy, and by Calvin's aid took refuge in Geneva, where he died September 1564.但他屬於涉嫌異端,由卡爾文的援助避難在日內瓦,在那裡他死於1564年9月。 A third herald of the "New Learning" was George Cop, physician to Francis I, in whose house Calvin found a welcome and gave ear to the religious discussions which Cop favoured.第三個先驅的“新學”是喬治警察,醫生弗朗西斯本人,在其家卡爾文發現一個值得歡迎的,給耳朵的宗教討論中警匪青睞。 And a fourth was Pierre-Robert d'Olivet of Noyon, who also translated the Scriptures, our youthful man of letters, his nephew, writing (in 1535) a Latin preface to the Old Testament and a French one -- his first appearance as a native author -- to the New Testament.和一個第四名的是皮埃爾羅伯特德奧利韋的努瓦永,誰也翻譯聖經,我們的年輕文學家,他的侄子,寫作(在1535)1拉丁前言舊約和一名法國1 -他第一次出現的一個土生土長的作者-新約。

By 1527, when no more than eighteen, Calvin's education was complete in its main lines.到1527年,當時並沒有超過18,卡爾文的教育是在完成其主要線路。 He had learned to be a humanist and a reformer.他學會了一個人道主義者和改革者。 The "sudden conversion" to a spiritual life in 1529, of which he speaks, must not be taken quite literally. “突然轉換”到精神生活在1529年,其中他談到,絕不能採取毫不誇張地說。 He had never been an ardent Catholic; but the stories told at one time of his ill-regulated conduct have no foundation; and by a very natural process he went over to the side on which his family were taking their stand.他從來沒有一個狂熱的天主教徒,但說的故事總有一段時間他的虐待行為規範有no foundation;和1 very自然process他走到方在他的家人被taking的立場。 In 1528 he inscribed himself at Orléans as a law student, made friends with Francis Daniel, and then went for a year to Bourges, where he began preaching in private.他在1528年題寫自己在奧爾良作為一個法律系的學生,交了朋友與弗朗西斯丹尼爾,然後出去了一年,布爾,在那裡他開始鼓吹在私下進行。 Margaret d'Angoulême, sister of Francis I, and Duchess of Berry, was living there with many heterodox Germans about her.瑪格麗特德昂古萊姆,姐姐的弗朗西斯,我和貝里公爵夫人,是生活在那裡與許多德國人對她的異端。

He is found again at Paris in 1531.他再被發現於 1531年在巴黎。 Wolmar had taught him Greek at Bourges; from Vatable he learned Hebrew; and he entertained some relations with the erudite Budaeus. Wolmar曾教他希臘在布爾,從Vatable他得知希伯來語;他受理的一些關係與博學布多伊斯。 About this date he printed a commentary on Seneca's "De Clementiâ".關於這個日期,他印製了評注塞涅卡的“德克萊芒”。 It was merely an exercise in scholarship, having no political significance.它只是一個行使獎學金,沒有政治意義。 Francis I was, indeed, handling Protestants severely, and Calvin, now Doctor of Law at Orléans, composed, so the story runs, an oration on Christian philosophy which Nicholas Cop delivered on All Saints' Day, 1532, both writer and speaker having to take instant flight from pursuit by the royal inquisitors.弗朗西斯,我的確,處理新教徒嚴重,和Calvin,現在法學博士在奧爾良,組成的,因此運行的故事,一致辭基督教哲學,尼古拉斯警探發表的諸聖日,1532年,作家和演講者都不得不採取即時航班從追求由皇家調查者。 This legend has been rejected by modern critics.這個傳說已經拒絕了現代的批評。 Calvin spent some time, however, with Canon du Tillet at Angoulême under a feigned designation.卡爾文花了一些時間,但是,與佳能杜蒂萊在昂古萊姆下假裝指定。 In May, 1534, he went to Noyon, gave up his benefice, and, it is said, was imprisoned.今年5月,1534年,他前往努瓦永,放棄了采邑,而且,這是說,被監禁。 But he got away to Nerac in Bearn, the residence of the Duchess Margaret, and there again encountered Le Fèvre, whose French Bible had been condemned by the Sorbonne to the flames.但他沒來,以內拉奇在貝亞恩,住所的夫人瑪格麗特,並有再次遇到萊費弗里,聖經的法國已經譴責了索邦大學的火焰。 His next visit to Paris fell out during a violent campaign of the Lutherans against the Mass, which brought on reprisals, Etienne de la Forge and others were burnt in the Place de Grève; and Calvin accompanied by du Tillet, escaped -- though not without adventures -- to Metz and Strasburg.他的下一個訪問巴黎期間下降了暴力運動的lutherans對質量,這帶來的報復,艾蒂安德拉熱和其他被燒死在廣場德格雷沃;和Calvin伴隨著杜蒂萊,逃跑-儘管不無冒險 - 向梅斯和斯特拉斯堡。 In the latter city Bucer reigned supreme.在後一種城市布塞珥的天下。 The leading reformers dictated laws from the pulpit to their adherents, and this journey proved a decisive one for the French humanist, who, though by nature timid and shy, committed himself to a war on paper with his own sovereign.領先的改革者支配的法律從講壇到他們的追隨者,這旅程證明是決定性的一為法國人文主義者,誰,但本質上膽怯和害羞,自己犯下的戰爭在紙上用自己的主權。 The famous letter to Francis I is dated 23 August, 1535.著名的信我是弗朗西斯月1535年8月23日。 It served as a prologue to the "Institutes", of which the first edition came out in March, 1536, not in French but in Latin.它充當一個序幕的“研究所”,其中第一個版本出來3月,1536年,而不是在法國,但在拉丁美洲。 Calvin's apology for lecturing the king was, that placards denouncing the Protestants as rebels had been posted up all over the realm.卡爾文的道歉的講學國王,這標語牌譴責新教徒作為叛軍已張貼了各地的境界。 Francis I did not read these pages, but if he had done so he would have discovered in them a plea, not for toleration, which the Reformer utterly scorned, but for doing away with Catholicism in favour of the new gospel.弗朗西斯我沒有看過這些網頁,但如果他這樣做,他會發現在他們的認罪,而不是容忍,而改革者完全蔑視,但這樣做取消天主教贊成新的福音。 There could be only one true Church, said the young theologian, therefore kings ought to make an utter end of popery.只能有一個真正的教會說,年輕的神學家,因此,國王應該作出徹底結束popery。 (For an account of the "Institutes" see CALVINISM.) The second edition belongs to 1539, the first French translation to 1541; the final Latin, as revised by its author, is of 1559; but that in common use, dated 1560, has additions by his disciples. (對於一個帳戶的“研究所”看加爾文。)第二版屬於1539年,第一個法語翻譯到1541年,最後的拉丁語,後經修改的作者,是1559年,但在共同使用,日期1560年,增加了他的弟子。 "It was more God's work than mine", said Calvin, who took for his motto "Omnia ad Dei gloriam", and in allusion to the change he had undergone in 1529 assumed for his device a hand stretched out from a burning heart. “這是多神的工作比我的”,說卡爾文,誰花了他的座右銘“廣告計劃廣告棣gloriam”,並在針對這一變化發生在1529年,他承擔了他的裝置伸出一隻手從燃燒的心。

A much disputed chapter in Calvin's biography is the visit which he was long thought to have paid at Ferraro to the Protestant Duchess Renée, daughter of Louis XII.一個頗具爭議的一章,加爾文的傳記是訪問,他曾長期認為是支付費拉羅的新教蕾妮公爵夫人,女兒,路易十二。 Many stories clustered about his journey, now given up by the best-informed writers.關於他的許多故事聚集的旅程,現在放棄了最知情的作家。 All we know for certain is that the Reformer, after settling his family affairs and bringing over two of his brothers and sisters to the views he had adopted undertook, in consequence of the war between Charles V and Francis I, to reach Bale by way of Geneva, in July, 1536.我們都知道的肯定的是,重整後,解決他的家庭事務,實現兩年多,他的兄弟姐妹們的見解,通過了承諾,在後果之間的戰爭查理五世和弗朗西斯我,達到貝爾的形式,日內瓦 7月,1536年。 At Geneva the Swiss preacher Fare, then looking for help in his propaganda, besought him with such vehemence to stay and teach theology that, as Calvin himself relates, he was terrified into submission.在日內瓦的瑞士傳教士票價,然後尋求幫助在他的宣傳,懇求他留下如此激烈,教神學,作為卡爾文關乎自己,他很害怕屈服。 We are not accustomed to fancy the austere prophet so easily frightened.我們不習慣於花式嚴峻先知這麼容易害怕。 But as a student and recluse new to public responsibilities, he may well have hesitated before plunging into the troubled waters of Geneva, then at their stormiest period.但作為一個學生,隱士新的公共責任,他很可能陷入之前猶豫了混水摸魚的日內瓦,然後在他們的暴風雨時期。 No portrait of him belonging to this time is extant.沒有人像他屬於這個時間是現存的。 Later he is represented as of middle height, with bent shoulders, piercing eyes, and a large forehead; his hair was of an auburn tinge. Study and fasting occasioned the severe headaches from which he suffered continually.後來,他是代表作為中等高度,用彎曲的肩膀,刺穿眼睛,大額頭,他的頭髮是一個奧本色彩。研究和空腹引起的嚴重頭痛,他遭受不斷。 In private life he was cheerful but sensitive, not to say overbearing, his friends treated him with delicate consideration.在私人生活中他是樂觀的,但敏感的,並不是說霸道,他的朋友對待他與微妙的考慮。 His habits were simple; he cared nothing for wealth, and he never allowed himself a holiday.他的習慣,很簡單,他關心什麼財富,他決不允許自己的假期。 His correspondence, of which 4271 letters remain, turns chiefly on doctrinal subjects.他的信件,其中4271信仍然存在,原來主要是對理論科目。 Yet his strong, reserved character told on all with whom he came in contact; Geneva submitted to his theocratic rule, and the Reformed Churches accepted his teaching as though it were infallible.然而,他堅強,保留字符告訴所有的人,他來到接觸;日內瓦提交給他的神權統治,並接受了他的歸正教學,就好像是萬無一失的。

Such was the stranger whom Farel recommended to his fellow Protestants, "this Frenchman", chosen to lecture on the Bible in a city divided against itself. Geneva had about 15,000 inhabitants.這就是陌生人法爾建議他的同胞新教徒,“這個法國人”,選擇講授聖經在城市分為自相。日內瓦有大約15000名居民。 Its bishop had long been its prince limited, however, by popular privileges.其主教已久的王子有限的,然而,流行的特權。 The vidomne, or mayor, was the Count of Savoy, and to his family the bishopric seemed a property which, from 1450, they bestowed on their younger children.該vidomne,或市長,是薩伏依伯爵和他的家庭主教似乎是一個財產,從1450年,他們賦予自己年幼的孩子。 John of Savoy, illegitimate son of the previous bishop, sold his rights to the duke, who was head of the clan, and died in 1519 at Pignerol.約翰的薩沃伊,私生子前主教,賣掉了他的權利,公爵,誰是團長,氏族,並分別於1519年在皮涅羅爾。 Jean de la Baume, last of its ecclesiastical princes, abandoned the city, which received Protestant teachers from Berne in 1519 and from Fribourg in 1526.讓德拉波美,去年其教會的王子,被遺棄的城市,並獲得新教的教師從伯爾尼在1519年和1526年弗里堡。 In 1527 the arms of Savoy were torn down; in 1530 the Catholic party underwent defeat, and Geneva became independent.在1527年薩伏伊的武器被拆除,在1530年的天主教黨經歷了失敗,日內瓦成為獨立。 It had two councils, but the final verdict on public measures rested with the people.它有兩個議會,但最後的判決對公眾的措施與市民休息。 These appointed Farel, a convert of Le Fevre, as their preacher in 1534.這些任命的法惹勒,一個轉換萊費弗里,因為他們的牧師在1534年。 A discussion between the two Churches from 30 May to 24 June, 1535 ended in victory for the Protestants.一個討論兩個教會之間月30日至1535年6月24日結束了勝利的新教徒。 The altars were desecrated, the sacred images broken, the Mass done away with.該神壇被褻瀆,神聖的形象破碎,地下取消。 Bernese troops entered and "the Gospel" was accepted, 21 May, 1536. This implied persecution of Catholics by the councils which acted both as Church and State.伯爾尼部隊進入和“福音”被接受,1536年5月21日。這就意味著迫害的天主教徒的議會的行為既作為教會與國家。 Priests were thrown into prison; citizens were fined for not attending sermons.神父被扔進監獄;公民被罰款不參加布道。 At Zürich, Basle, and Berne the same laws were established. Toleration did not enter into the ideas of the time.在蘇黎世,巴塞爾和伯爾尼建立了同樣的法律。寬容沒有進入思想的時間。

But though Calvin had not introduced this legislation, it was mainly by his influence that in January, 1537 the "articles" were voted which insisted on communion four times a year, set spies on delinquents, established a moral censorship, and punished the unruly with excommunication.不過,雖然卡爾文還沒有推出這項立法,它主要是由他的影響力,在今年1月,1537年的“文章”被否決的共融堅持一年四次,設置間諜的罪犯,建立了道德審查,並處罰違規用逐出教會。 There was to be a children's catechism, which he drew up; it ranks among his best writings.有是一個兒童的教義,他起草了,它已躋身他最好的著作。 The city now broke into "jurants" and "nonjurors" for many would not swear to the "articles"; indeed, they never were completely accepted.這座城市現在闖入“jurants”和“nonjurors”許多不發誓的“文章”,實際上,他們從來沒有被完全接受。 Questions had arisen with Berne touching points that Calvin judged to be indifferent.問題出現了伯爾尼感人點,卡爾文認為是冷漠的。 He made a figure in the debates at Lausanne defending the freedom of Geneva.他在辯論中的數字在洛桑捍衛自由的日內瓦。 But disorders ensued at home, where recusancy was yet rife; in 1538 the council exiled Farel, Calvin, and the blind evangelist, Couraud.但隨後疾病在家裡,在那裡躲避國教尚未盛行,在1538年流亡議會法惹勒,卡爾文,和盲人傳播者,Couraud。 The Reformer went to Strasburg, became the guest of Capito and Bucer, and in 1539 was explaining the New Testament to French refugees at fifty two florins a year.前往斯特拉斯堡的重整,成為客戶的卡皮托和布塞珥,並在1539年在解釋新約,以法國的難民在52金幣1年。 Cardinal Sadolet had addressed an open letter to the Genevans, which their exile now answered. Sadolet urged that schism was a crime; Calvin replied that the Roman Church was corrupt.樞機Sadolet已解決了一封公開信向Genevans,現在,他們的流亡回答。Sadolet敦促分裂是一種犯罪;卡爾文回答說,羅馬教會是腐敗。 He gained applause by his keen debating powers at Hagenau, Worms, and Ratisbon.他獲得的掌聲,他在激烈的辯論權力哈格瑙,蠕蟲和拉蒂斯邦。 But he complains of his poverty and ill-health, which did not prevent him from marrying at this time Idelette de Bure, the widow of an Anabaptist whom he had converted.但他抱怨他的貧困和健康欠佳,這並不妨礙他在這個時候結婚,Idelette德草屋,寡婦再洗禮派的一個人,他已經轉換。 Nothing more is known of this lady, except that she brought him a son who died almost at birth in 1542, and that her own death took place in 1549.沒有更多人知道這位女士,除了她帶來了一個兒子出生時,幾乎誰死在1542年,和她自己的死亡發生在1549年。

After some negotiation Ami Perrin, commissioner for Geneva, persuaded Calvin to return.經過一番談判阿美族佩林,專員,日內瓦,說服卡爾文返回。 He did so, not very willingly, on 13 September, 1541.他這樣做,不是很樂意,9月13日1541。 His entry was modest enough.他的條目被足夠謙虛。 The church constitution now recognized "pastors, doctors, elders, deacons" but supreme power was given to the magistrate.教堂的憲法現在公認的“牧師,醫生,長老,執事”,但最高權力交給了法官。 Ministers had the spiritual weapon of God's word; the consistory never, as such, wielded the secular arm Preachers, led by Calvin, and the councils, instigated by his opponents, came frequently into collision.部長們的精神武器神的話語;的康西斯托從來沒有,因此,揮舞手臂世俗傳教士,為首的卡爾文和議會,煽動他的對手,來經常到碰撞。 Yet the ordinances of 1541 were maintained; the clergy, assisted by lay elders, governed despotically and in detail the actions of every citizen.然而,條例的1541年繼續維持下去;神職人員,協助奠定長老,管轄專制和詳細的行動的每一個公民。 A presbyterian Sparta might be seen at Geneva; it set an example to later Puritans, who did all in their power to imitate its discipline.斯巴達的長老會被視為在日內瓦,它樹立了榜樣後來清教徒,誰也都在他們的權力,模仿其紀律。 The pattern held up was that of the Old Testament, although Christians were supposed to enjoy Gospel liberty.該模式是,舉行了舊約,雖然基督徒理應享受福音的自由。 In November, 1552, the Council declared that Calvin's "Institutes" were a "holy doctrine which no man might speak against."去年11月,1552年,安理會宣布,卡爾文的“研究所”是一個“神聖的學說沒有人會發言反對。” Thus the State issued dogmatic decrees, the force of which had been anticipated earlier, as when Jacques Gouet was imprisoned on charges of impiety in June, 1547, and after severe torture was beheaded in July. Some of the accusations brought against the unhappy young man were frivolous, others doubtful.因此,國家發行的教條式的法令,該部隊已被預期的早,因為當雅克古埃被監禁,罪名的不虔誠6月,1547年,和嚴重的酷刑被斬首後,在7月。一些的指控提起不愉快的年輕人是瑣碎的,別人懷疑。 What share, if any, Calvin took in this judgment is not easy to ascertain.什麼股票,如果有的話,卡爾文參加了這個判斷是不容易確定。 The execution of however must be laid at his door; it has given greater offence by far than the banishment of Castellio or the penalties inflicted on Bolsec -- moderate men opposed to extreme views in discipline and doctrine, who fell under suspicion as reactionary.但執行的,必須奠定在他的門,它已獲得更大的罪行,遠遠超過了卡斯泰利奧或流放的刑罰造成對Bolsec -中度男性反對極端的觀點和學說的紀律,誰落入懷疑是反動的。 The Reformer did not shrink from his self-appointed task.該重整沒有畏縮,他自封的任務。 Within five years fifty-eight sentences of death and seventy-six of exile, besides numerous committals of the most eminent citizens to prison, took place in Geneva.五年內58句死亡和76流放,除了眾多的最傑出的偵訊公民監獄,參加了在日內瓦舉行。 The iron yoke could not be shaken off. In 1555, under Ami Perrin, a sort of revolt was attempted.鐵的枷鎖無法擺脫。在1555年,根據阿美族佩林,一種是企圖反抗。 No blood was shed, but Perrin lost the day, and Calvin's theocracy triumphed.沒有血棚,但佩林失去了一天,卡爾文的神權政治的勝利。

"I am more deeply scandalized", wrote Gibbon "at the single execution of Servetus than at the hecatombs which have blazed in the autos-da-fé of Spain and Portugal". “我更深刻地震驚”,說長臂猿“在單一的執行塞爾維特比在hecatombs已走出了一條在汽車達鐵的西班牙和葡萄牙。” He ascribes the enmity of Calvin to personal malice and perhaps envy. The facts of the case are pretty well ascertained.他賦予了敵意的卡爾文個人惡意,甚至嫉妒。案件事實的確定是相當不錯。 Born in 1511, perhaps at Tudela, Michael Served y Reves studied at Toulouse and was present in Bologna at the coronation of Charles V. He travelled in Germany and brought out in 1531 at Hagenau his treatise "De Trinitatis Erroribus", a strong Unitarian work which made much commotion among the more orthodox Reformers.出生於1511年,也許在圖德拉,曾任邁克爾Ÿ列韋斯就讀於圖盧茲和出席在博洛尼亞在查爾斯五世的加冕,他前往德國和提出了在1531年在哈格瑙他的論文“德Trinitatis Erroribus”,一個強大統一的工作這使許多騷動中更正統的改革者。 He met Calvin and disputed with him at Paris in 1534, became corrector of the press at Lyons; gave attention to medicine, discovered the lesser circulation of the blood, and entered into a fatal correspondence with the dictator of Geneva touching a new volume "Christianismi Restitutio," which he intended to publish.他會見了卡爾文和有爭議的與他在1534年在巴黎,成為校正的新聞在里昂,注意了藥物,發現了較小的流通的血液,並進入了一個致命的書信與獨裁者的日內瓦接觸一個新的數量“Christianismi恢復原狀“,他打算發表。 In 1546 the exchange of letters ceased.在1546年停止了換函。 The Reformer called Servetus arrogant (he had dared to criticize the "Institutes" in marginal glosses), and uttered the significant menace, "If he comes here and I have any authority, I will never let him leave the place alive."所謂的改革者塞爾維特傲慢(他敢於批判“學院”在邊緣掩蓋),並說出了重大威脅,“如果他來到這裡,我有什麼權力,我永遠不會讓他離開的地方活著。” The "Restitutio" appeared in 1553.在“恢復原狀”出現在1553年。 Calvin at once had its author delated to the Dominican inquisitor Ory at Lyons, sending on to him the man's letters of 1545-46 and these glosses.卡爾文在其作者delated曾經向多米尼加砂鍋奧賴在里昂,派給他的人的信的1545年至1546年,這些掩蓋。 Hereupon the Spaniards was imprisoned at Vienne, but he escaped by friendly connivance, and was burnt there only in effigy.於此西班牙人被監禁在維埃納省,但他逃脫了友好的縱容,和被燒毀只在有肖像。 Some extraordinary fascination drew him to Geneva, from which he intended to pass the Alps.一些特殊的魅力吸引他到日內瓦,從他打算通過阿爾卑斯山。 He arrived on 13 August, 1553.他來到 1553年8月13日。 The next day Calvin, who had remarked him at the sermon, got his critic arrested, the preacher's own secretary coming forward to accuse him.第二天卡爾文,誰曾說過他在布道,得到了影評人被捕,牧師自己的秘書站出來指責他。 Calvin drew up forty articles of charge under three heads, concerning the nature of God, infant baptism, and the attack which Servetus had ventured on his own teaching.卡爾文制定了40條收費根據三國元首關於上帝的性質,嬰兒的洗禮,而這次襲擊的塞爾維特都敢於對自己的教學。 The council hesitated before taking a deadly decision, but the dictator, reinforced by Farel, drove them on. In prison the culprit suffered much and loudly complained.該委員會之前猶豫採取致命的決定,但獨裁者,輔以法惹勒,將它們的。在監獄裡的罪犯遭受很大,大聲抱怨。 The Bernese and other Swiss voted for some indefinite penalty.瑞士的伯爾尼和其他一些投票無限期刑罰。 But to Calvin his power in Geneva seemed lost, while the stigma of heresy; as he insisted, would cling to all Protestants if this innovator were not put to death.但是,為了他的權力加爾文在日內瓦似乎失去了,而恥辱的異端,因為他堅持,堅持將所有的新教徒如果這個創新不是處死。 "Let the world see" Bullinger counselled him, "that Geneva wills the glory of Christ." “讓世界看到”布凌格輔導他,“日內瓦遺囑的榮耀基督。”

Accordingly, sentence was pronounced 26 October, 1553, of burning at the stake. "Tomorrow he dies," wrote Calvin to Farel.因此,判決宣告1553年10月26日,在燃燒的股份。“明天他死了,”說卡爾文向法爾。 When the deed was done, the Reformer alleged that he had been anxious to mitigate the punishment, but of this fact no record appears in the documents.當契約是做,改革者聲稱,他已急於減輕處罰,但這一事實沒有任何記錄出現在文件中。 He disputed with Servetus on the day of execution and saw the end.他與塞爾維特有爭議的一天,看到了執行結束。 A defence and apology next year received the adhesion of the Genevan ministers.阿國防和道歉明年收到的附著力的Genevan部長。 Melanchthon, who had taken deep umbrage at the blasphemies of the Spanish Unitarian, strongly approved in well-known words.梅蘭希頓,誰採取了深樹蔭在褻瀆了西班牙尋道,強烈批准著名詞。 But a group that included Castellio published at Basle in 1554 a pamphlet with the title, "Should heretics be persecuted?"但一組,其中包括卡斯泰利奧發表於1554年在巴塞爾的小冊子的標題,“應該受到迫害異端?” It is considered the first plea for toleration in modern times.它被認為是第一個認罪的容忍在現代倍。 Beza replied by an argument for the affirmative, couched in violent terms; and Calvin, whose favorite disciple he was, translated it into French in 1559.貝薩回答說有一個參數的話,措辭在暴力方面,和Calvin,其最喜歡的弟子,他是,它翻譯成法文在1559年。 The dialogue, "Vaticanus", written against the "Pope of Geneva" by Castellio, did not get into print until 1612.這次對話,“Vaticanus”,書面反對“教皇”日內瓦由卡斯泰利奧,沒有進入打印,直到1612年。 Freedom of opinion, as Gibbon remarks, "was the consequence rather than the design of the Reformation."意見自由,因為長臂猿言論,“是的後果,而不是設計的改革。”

Another victim to his fiery zeal was Gentile, one of an Italian sect in Geneva, which also numbered among its adherents Alciati and Gribaldo.另一位受害人向他強烈的熱情是詹蒂萊,其中意大利在日內瓦節,這也數在其信徒阿爾恰蒂和格里巴爾多。 As more or less Unitarian in their views, they were required to sign a confession drawn up by Calvin in 1558.由於或多或少統一在他們的意見,他們被要求簽署一份供認制定了在1558年由卡爾文。 Gentile subscribed it reluctantly, but in the upshot he was condemned and imprisoned as a perjurer.詹蒂萊訂閱它勉強,但在結果他被譴責和監禁作為作偽證。 He escaped only to be twice incarcerated at Berne, where in 1566, he was beheaded.他只有需要兩次逃脫被關押在伯爾尼,凡在1566年,他被斬首。 Calvin's impassioned polemic against these Italians betrays fear of the Socinianism which was to lay waste his vineyard.卡爾文的慷慨激昂的論戰對這些意大利人害怕背叛了Socinianism這是奠定浪費他的葡萄園。 Politically he leaned on the French refugees, now abounding in the city, and more than equal in energy -- if not in numbers -- to the older native factions.政治上,他俯身對法國的難民,現在豐富的城市,更不是平等的能源-如果不是在數字-到舊本土派系。 Opposition died out.反對黨熄滅。 His continual preaching, represented by 2300 sermons extant in the manuscripts and a vast correspondence, gave to the Reformer an influence without example in his closing years.他不斷的說教,代表2300說教現存的手稿和廣闊的信件,給了改革者的影響,而在他最後幾年的例子。 He wrote to Edward VI, helped in revising the Book of Common Prayer, and intervened between the rival English parties abroad during the Marian period.他寫信給愛德華六世,幫助修改書的共同祈禱,並介入當事人之間的競爭對手英國在國外期間的瑪麗安。 In the Huguenot troubles he sided with the more moderate.在胡格諾麻煩,他站在較溫和。 His censure of the conspiracy of Amboise in 1560 does him honour.他譴責阿姆博斯的陰謀在1560年的不尊敬他。 One great literary institution founded by him, the College, afterwards the University, of Geneva, flourished exceedingly.一個偉大的文學機構由他創辦的學院,大學後,日內瓦,蓬勃發展極。 The students were mostly French.這些學生大多是法國人。 When Beza was rector it had nearly 1500 students of various grades.當貝薩它是校長近1500學生的各種等級。

Geneva now sent out pastors to the French congregations and was looked upon as the Protestant Rome.現在日內瓦發出了向法國教會牧師,被視為新教羅馬。 Through Knox, "the Scottish champion of the Swiss Reformation", who had been preacher to the exiles in that city, his native land accepted the discipline of the Presbytery and the doctrine of predestination as expounded in Calvin's "Institutes".通過諾克斯,“蘇格蘭冠軍的瑞士宗教改革”,誰曾牧師的流亡者在這個城市,他的家鄉接受了紀律的長老和學說的宿命所闡明的卡爾文的“研究所”。 The Puritans in England were also descendants of the French theologian.清教徒在英國也後裔的法國神學家。 His dislike of theatres, dancing and the amenities of society was fully shared by them.他不喜歡的劇院,舞蹈和設施的社會是完全贊同他們。 The town on Lake Leman was described as without crime and destitute of amusements.萊蒙湖上的小鎮被形容為沒有犯罪和貧困的娛樂活動。 Calvin declaimed against the "Libertines", but there is no evidence that any such people had a footing inside its walls The cold, hard, but upright disposition characteristic of the Reformed Churches, less genial than that derived from Luther, is due entirely to their founder himself.卡爾文慷慨陳詞反對“浪子”,但沒有任何證據表明這些人有一個立足點的牆壁內冷,硬,但正直的性格特徵的歸正,少和煦的比來自路德,完全是由於他們的創始人自己。 Its essence is a concentrated pride, a love of disputation, a scorn of opponents.其實質是一個集中的驕傲,愛爭論,一個蔑視對手。 The only art that it tolerates is music, and that not instrumental.唯一的藝術,它容忍是音樂,而不是工具。 It will have no Christian feasts in its calendar, and it is austere to the verge of Manichaean hatred of the body.它將有沒有基督教節日在其日曆,它是嚴峻的邊緣摩尼教仇恨的身體。 When dogma fails the Calvinist, he becomes, as in the instance of Carlyle, almost a pure Stoic.當教條,失敗的加爾文主義,他成為,如凱雷的實例,幾乎是純粹的斯多葛。 "At Geneva, as for a time in Scotland," says JA Froude, "moral sins were treated as crimes to be punished by the magistrate." “在日內瓦,作為今後一個時期在蘇格蘭,說:”司法機構政務長佛洛德,“道德罪被視為罪行受到懲罰的裁判官。” The Bible was a code of law, administered by the clergy.聖經是一個代碼的法律,管理的神職人員。 Down to his dying day Calvin preached and taught.到他死的那一天卡爾文宣揚和教導。 By no means an aged man, he was worn out in these frequent controversies.絕不是一中年男子,他穿在這些頻繁的爭議。 On 25 April, 1564, he made his will, leaving 225 French crowns, of which he bequeathed ten to his college, ten to the poor, and the remainder to his nephews and nieces. 4月25日1564年,他提出他的意願,離開法國225克朗,而他留給他的10個學院,10個窮人,其餘的他的侄子和侄女。 His last letter was addressed to Farel.他的最後一封信是寫給法爾。 He was buried without pomp, in a spot which is not now ascertainable.他被安葬沒有輕車簡從,在一處地方,是不是現在查明。 In the year 1900 a monument of expiation was erected to Servetus in the Place Champel.在1900年的贖罪是一個紀念碑豎立在廣場尚佩爾塞爾維特。 Geneva has long since ceased to be the head of Calvinism.日內瓦早已不再是頭部的加爾文。 It is a rallying point for Free Thought, Socialist propaganda, and Nihilist conspiracies.這是一個凝聚點的思想自由,社會主義的宣傳,和虛無主義的陰謀。 But in history it stands out as the Sparta of the Reformed churches, and Calvin is its Lycurgus.但在歷史上它突出的斯巴達的歸正教會,和Calvin是其萊克格斯。

Publication information Written by William Barry.出版信息寫由威廉巴里。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.轉錄由托馬斯漢奇爾。天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1,1908。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰 farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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