Apostles' Creed使徒信經

Advanced Information 先進的信息

For hundreds of years Christians believed that the twelve apostles were the authors of the widely known creed that bears their name. According to an ancient theory, the twelve composed the creed with each apostle adding a clause to form the whole. 數百名基督徒為年認為,十二使徒是作詞廣為人知的信條承擔他們的名字。根據一個古老的理論,12組成的信條與每個使徒加入一項條款,以形成整體。 Today practically all scholars understand this theory of apostolic composition to be legendary.今天,幾乎所有的學者理解這一理論的使徒組成,是出名的。 Nevertheless, many continue to think of the creed as apostolic in nature because its basic teachings are agreeable to the theological formulations of the apostolic age.然而,許多人仍然認為的信條作為使徒的性質,因為它的基本教義是同意的神學配方的使徒時代。

The full form in which the creed now appears stems from about 700 AD.完整的形式,現在出現的信條源於公元700年左右。 However, segments of it are found in Christian writings dating as early as the second century.然而,它的部分基督教的著作中找到約會早在公元二世紀。 The most important predecessor of the Apostles' Creed was the Old Roman Creed, which was probably developed during the second half of the second century.最重要的前身使徒信經是舊羅馬信條,這可能是發達國家在下半年的第二個世紀。

The additions to the Apostles' Creed are clearly seen when its present form is compared to the Old Roman version:在增加的使徒信經清楚地看到在目前的形式是相對於舊羅馬版本:

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I believe in God the Father Almighty. 我相信上帝,全能的父。 And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord, who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary; crucified under Pontius Pilate and buried; the third day he rose from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father, from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. 而在他的獨生子耶穌基督我們的主,誰是出生聖靈和聖母瑪利亞;釘在十字架上,埋葬在本丟彼拉多;第三天他從死裡復活,他升天,並在右邊坐著的父親,他從那裡來,審判活人,死人。 And in the Holy Spirit; the holy Church; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the flesh. 而在聖靈神聖的教會;原諒的罪孽,復活的肉。

Still earlier fragments of creeds have been discovered which declare simply:更早的碎片信條已被發現,並宣布很簡單:

"I believe in God the Father Almighty, and in Jesus Christ his only Son, our Lord. And in the Holy Spirit, the holy Church, the resurrection of the flesh." “我相信上帝,全能的父,並在他的獨生子耶穌基督,我們的主。而在聖靈,聖教會,復活的肉。”

The Apostles' Creed functioned in many ways in the life of the church.使徒信經在許多方面發揮作用在生命的教會。 For one thing, it was associated with entrance into the fellowship as a confession of faith for those to be baptized.一方面,它是與相關入口進入金作為一個認罪的信仰為那些被洗禮。 In addition, catechetical instruction was often based on the major tenets of the creed.此外,教理教育往往是主要的原則基礎上的信條。 In time, a third use developed when the creed became a "rule of faith" to give continuity to Christian teachings from place to place and to clearly separate the true faith from heretical deviations.隨著時間的推移,當第三次使用而開發的信條變成了“法治誠信”給予連續性基督教教義的地方,從地方分清楚真正的信仰從邪教的偏差。 Indeed, it may well have been that the main factor involved in adding clauses to the Old Roman Creed to develop the Apostles' Creed was its usefulness in these varied ways in the life of the church.事實上,它很可能是參與的主要因素在增加的條款,老羅馬信條發展使徒信經是其效用在這些不同的方式在生命的教會。 By the sixth or seventh century the creed had come to be accepted as a part of the official liturgy of the Western church.由第六或第七世紀的信仰已經到了被接納為正式禮儀的一部分,在西方教會。 Likewise, it was used by devout individuals along with the Lord's Prayer as a part of their morning and evening devotions.同樣,它被用來虔誠的個人隨著主禱文作為其部分早晚奉獻。 The churches of the Reformation gladly gave their allegiance to the creed and added it to their doctrinal collections and used it in their worship.教會的宗教改革樂意給他們效忠的信條,並加入到他們的理論集合,並用它在他們的崇拜。

The Trinitarian nature of the Apostles' Creed is immediately evident.三位一體的性質,使徒們的信條是一目了然的。 Belief in "God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth" is affirmed first.信仰的“上帝,全能的父,創造天地的地球”是肯定第一。 But the heart of the creed is the confession concerning "Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord," with special attention given to the events surrounding his conception, birth, suffering, crucifixion, resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and coming judgment.但心臟的信條是招供有關“耶穌基督,他唯一的兒子,我們的主,”有特殊的照顧,他的周圍發生的事件的概念,出生,痛苦,受難,復活,升天,提升,和未來的判斷。 The third section declares belief in the Holy Spirit.第三節宣告信仰聖靈。 To this Trinitarian confession are added clauses related to the holy catholic church, communion of saints, forgiveness of sins, resurrection of the body, and life everlasting.為了達到這個三位一體的供詞被添加有關條款的神聖天主教教會的共融的聖人,寬恕的罪過,復活的身體和生命永恆的。

The polemical nature of the Apostles' Creed is likewise evident. Emphasizing the unity of God's fatherhood and sovereignty disputed Marcion's rejection of the same.在爭論的性質,使徒們的信條是同樣明顯。強調團結上帝的父親和主權有爭議的馬吉安的拒絕一樣。 The affirmation of the reality of Christ's humanity and historicity denied the contention of Marcionite and docetic heretics that he was not a fully human person who could be born, suffer, and die.對現實的肯定基督的人性和歷史性否認爭鳴Marcionite和docetic異端,他不是一個完全人誰可以出生,受苦,和死亡。 His conception by the Holy Spirit and birth of the Virgin Mary as well as his exaltation after resurrection affirmed Jesus' deity over against those who denied it. Other clauses may well have been added to deal with particular crises faced by the church.他的構想,由聖靈和出生的聖母瑪利亞,以及其提高後肯定復活耶穌的神對那些超過誰否認了這一說法。其他條款很可能被添加到處理特殊的教會所面臨的危機。 For example, the confession regarding forgiveness of sins may have related to the problem of postbaptismal sins in the third century.例如,關於寬恕的罪過懺悔,可能有相關的問題的postbaptismal罪孽在第三世紀。 Likewise, affirming the holy catholic church may have dealt with the Donatist schism.同樣,肯定了神聖天主教教會可能處理的多納分裂。

The Apostles' Creed continues to be used today much as it was in the past: as a baptismal confession; as a teaching outline; as a guard and guide against heresy; as a summarization of the faith; as an affirmation in worship.使徒們的信條仍然是今天使用的很多,因為它是在過去:作為一個洗禮的供詞,作為教學的大綱;作為一個後衛,指導反邪教;作為一個概括的信仰;作為一個肯定的崇拜。 It has maintained in modern times its distinction as the most widely accepted and used creed among Christians.它一直在現代倍區分作為最廣泛接受和使用的信條包括基督徒。

OG Oliver, Jr. 146/03奧利弗,小

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
JND Kelly, Early Christian Creeds; W Barclay, The Apostles' Creed for Everyman; S Barr, From the Apostles' Faith to the Apostles' Creed; P Fuhrmann, The Great Creeds of the Church; W Pannenberg, The Apostles' Creed in the Light of Today's Questions; J Smart, The Creed in Christian Teaching; HB Swete, The Apostles' Creed; H Thielicke, I Believe: The Christian's Creed; BF Westcott, The Historic Faith. JND的凱利,早期基督教教義; W巴克利,在使徒信經的普通人中,S巴爾,從使徒信仰的使徒信經; P富爾曼,偉大的教義的教會; W潘內伯格,使徒信經中鑑於今天的問題; J聰明,信仰基督教教學;乙肝斯威特,使徒信經; Ĥ蒂利克,我認為:基督教的信條;高爐韋斯科特,歷史悠久的信仰。


Apostles' Creed使徒信經

Advanced Information 先進的信息

"The Old Roman Creed" “老羅馬信條”

I BELIEVE in God almighty [the Father almighty—( Rufinus )]我相信全能的上帝[全能的父,(Rufinus)]
And in Christ Jesus, his only Son, our Lord並在基督耶穌,他唯一的兒子,我們的主
Who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary誰是出生聖靈和聖母瑪利亞
Who was crucified under Pontius Pilate and was buried誰被釘在十字架下本丟彼拉多和被埋葬
And the third day rose from the dead而第三天從死裡復活
Who ascended into heaven誰升天
And sitteth on the right hand of the Father和1:46右手的父親
Whence he cometh to judge the living and the dead.從那裡,他必來審判活人與死人。
And in the Holy Spirit而在聖靈
The holy church神聖的教堂
The remission of sins緩解的罪孽
The resurrection of the flesh復活的肉
The life everlasting.生命永恆的。 [ Rufinus omits this line. ] [Rufinus忽略了這條路線。]


The Apostles' Creed使徒信經
(sixth-century Gallican version) (六世紀的高盧版)

I BELIEVE in God the Father almighty,我相信上帝全能的父,
I also believe in Jesus Christ his only Son, our Lord,我也相信他的獨生子耶穌基督,我們的主,
conceived of the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary.設想聖靈出生的聖母瑪利亞。
suffered under Pontius Pilate, crucified, dead and buried; he descended into hell,在本丟彼拉多遭受,釘在十字架上,死,埋葬,他的後裔到地獄,
rose again the third day,再次上升的第三天,
ascended into heaven,升天,
sat down at the right hand of the Father,坐在右手的父親,
thence he is to come to judge the living and the dead.他是從那裡來審判活人與死人。
I believe in the Holy Ghost,我相信聖靈,
the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints,神聖的天主教教會,共融的聖人,
the remission of sins,緩解的罪孽,
the resurrection of the flesh and life eternal.復活的肉體和生命永恆的。


The Apostles' Creed使徒信經
(as usually recited today) (如通常背誦今天)

I BELIEVE in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth: And in Jesus Christ his only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.我相信上帝,全能的父,創造天地的地球:而在他的獨生子耶穌基督,我們的主,誰的構思是由聖靈出生的聖母瑪利亞,在本丟彼拉多遭受被釘在十字架上,死了,埋葬,他的後裔在地獄裡的第三天,他從死裡復活,他升天,並在右邊1:46上帝,全能的父,他從那裡來,審判活人,死人。

I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy catholic church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life everlasting.我相信聖靈;神聖天主教教會,在共融的聖人;原諒的罪孽,復活的身體和生命永恆的。 Amen阿門


The Apostles' Creed vs. Gnosticism使徒信經主場迎戰諾斯替主義

A Creed generally emphasizes the beliefs opposing those errors that the compilers of the creed think most dangerous at the time.一般一個信條強調反對這些錯誤的信念,該編譯器的信條認為最危險的時候。 The Creed of the Council of Trent, which was drawn up by the Roman Catholics in the 1500's, emphasized those beliefs that Roman Catholics and Protestants were arguing about most furiously at the time.的信條理事會的遄達,這是制定了由羅馬天主教會在1500年代,強調這些信仰的羅馬天主教徒和新教徒有爭論最激烈的時候。 The Nicene Creed, drawn up in the fourth century, is emphatic in affirming the Deity of Christ, since it is directed against the Arians, who denied that Christ was fully God.尼西亞信經,制定了第四世紀,是有力的,肯定神的基督,因為它是針對白羊座,誰否認基督是完全的神。 The Apostles' Creed, drawn up in the first or second century, emphasizes the true Humanity, including the material body, of Jesus, since that is the point that the heretics of the time (Gnostics, Marcionites, and later Manicheans) denied.使徒們的信條,制定了第一或第二個世紀,強調真正的人性,包括材料的機構,耶穌,因為這是一點,異端的時間(諾斯替,Marcionites,後來Manicheans)否認。 (See 1 John 4:1-3) (見約翰一書4:1-3)

Thus the Apostles' Creed is as follows:因此,使徒們的信條是如下:

* I believe in God the Father Almighty, *我相信上帝,全能的父,
* Maker of Heaven and Earth, *設備的天地,

The Gnostics held that the physical universe is evil and that God did not make it. 該Gnostics認為,物理宇宙是邪惡的,上帝並沒有做到。

* And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, Our Lord, *並在耶穌基督,他唯一的兒子,我們的主,
* Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, *誰的構思是由聖靈,
* Born of the Virgin Mary, *出生的聖母瑪利亞,

The Gnostics were agreed that the orthodox Christians were wrong in supposing that God had taken human nature or a human body. 該Gnostics人一致認為,正統的基督教徒在假設都是錯誤的,神已採取人性或人體內。 Some of them distinguished between Christ, whom they acknowledged to be in some sense divine, and the man Jesus, who was at most an instrument through whom the Christ spoke. 其中一些區分基督,他們承認,在某種意義上是神聖的,和耶穌的人,誰是最多的工具,透過他的基督發言。 They held that the man Jesus did not become the bearer or instrument of the Christ until the Spirit descended upon him at his baptism, and that the Spirit left him before the crucifixion, so that the Spirit had only a brief and tenuous association with matter and humanity. 他們認為,該名男子耶穌並沒有成為承載或文書的基督聖靈降臨之前,他在他的洗禮,這讓他的精神十字架前,讓聖靈只有一個簡短的問題和薄弱協會人類。 Others affirmed that there was never a man Jesus at all, but only the appearance of a man, through which appearance wise teachings were given to the first disciples. Against this the orthodox Christians affirmed that Jesus was conceived through the action of the Holy Spirit (thus denying the Gnostic position that the Spirit had nothing to do with Jesus until his Baptism), that he was born (which meant that he had a real physical body, and not just an appearance) of a virgin (which implied that he had been special from the first moment of his life, and not just from the baptism on . 其他人肯定有一個人從來沒有在所有耶穌,但只有一個人的外觀,通過外觀明智的教誨是給予第一弟子。正統的基督徒在此申明,耶穌被設想通過行動的聖靈(從而否定了諾斯底的立場,即精神無關,與耶穌,直到他的洗禮),他出生(這意味著他有一個真正的身體,而不是只是一個外觀)的處女(這意味著他已特別從第一時刻,他的生活,而不是僅僅從洗禮的

* Suffered under Pontius Pilate, *遭受本丟彼拉多手下,

There were many stories then current about gods who died and were resurrected, but they were offered quite frankly as myths, as non-historical stories symbolic of the renewal of the vegetation every spring after the seeming death of winter. 有許多關於神的故事當時的死亡和復活誰,但他們的神話提供了非常坦率地說,作為非歷史故事象徵性的植被重建後,每年春天似乎死亡的冬天。 If you asked, "When did Adonis die, you would be told either, "Long ago and far away," or else, "His death is not an event in earthly time." Jesus, on the other hand, died at a particular time and place in history, under the jurisdiction of Pontius Pilate, Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 CE, or during the last ten years of the reign of the Emperor Tiberius. 如果你問,“什麼時候阿多尼斯死,要么你會被告知,”很久以前和遙遠,“否則,”他的死不是一個事件,在塵世的時間。“耶穌,另一方面,在一個特定的死亡在歷史的時間和地點,管轄範圍內的本丟彼拉多,朱迪亞檢察院26日至36行政長官,或在過去10年的統治的皇帝提比略。

* was crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into Hades. *被釘在十字架,死,埋葬,他陷入地獄。

Here the creed hammers home the point that he was really dead. 這裡的信條錘點回家,他真的死了。 He was not an illusion. 他不是一個幻想。 He was nailed to a post. 他被釘在一個崗位。 He died. He had a real body, a corpse, that was placed in a tomb. 他死了。他有一個真正的身體,一具屍體,這是放置在一個墳墓。 He was not merely unconscious — his spirit left his body and went to the realm of the dead. 他不僅是無意識的-他的精神留下他的身體,來到了死者的境界。 It is a common belief among Christians that on this occasion he took the souls of those who had died trusting in the promises made under the Old Covenant — Abraham, Moses, David, Elijah, Isaiah, and many others — and brought them out of the realm of the dead and into heavenly glory. 這是一個共同的信念,基督徒,在這個場合,他的靈魂的人誰死了信任的承諾,根據舊盟約-亞伯拉罕,摩西,大衛,以利亞,以賽亞書,和許多其他人-和領他們出的境界的死亡,到天上的榮耀。 But the creed is not concerned with this point. 但信仰並不關心這一點。 The reference to the descent into Hades (or Hell, or Sheol) is here to make it clear that the death of Jesus was not just a swoon or a coma, but death in every sense of the word. 該參考墮入地獄(或地獄,或陰間)在這裡要明確指出,死亡的耶穌不只是昏厥或處於昏迷狀態,但死在任何意義上來說的話。

* The third day he rose from the dead, he ascended into heaven, *第三天他從死裡復活,他升天,
* and is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. *是坐在右手上帝,全能的父。
* From thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead. *從那裡他將要審判活人死人。

* I believe in the Holy Ghost, *我相信聖靈,
* the holy catholic church, *神聖天主教教會,

The Gnostics believed that the most important Christian doctrines were reserved for a select few. 該Gnostics認為,最重要的基督教教義是留給有選擇的幾個。 The orthodox belief was that the fullness of the Gospel was to be preached to the entire human race. 正統的信仰是,豐滿的福音是要傳遍整個人類。 Hence the term "catholic," or universal, which distinguished them from the Gnostics. 因此,術語“天主教”或普遍的,而他們從傑出的Gnostics。

* the communion of saints, *共融的聖人,
* the forgiveness of sins, *原諒的罪孽,

The Gnostics considered that what men needed was not forgiveness, but enlightenment. 該Gnostics認為,什麼人需要的不是寬恕,而是啟發。 Ignorance, not sin, was the problem. 無知,而不是罪過,是一個問題。 Some of them, believing the body to be a snare and delusion, led lives of great asceticism. 其中有些人,認為身體是一個圈套和妄想,造成巨大生命,禁慾主義。 Others, believing the body to be quite separate from the soul, held that it did not matter what the body did, since it was completely foul anyway, and its actions had no effect on the soul. 其他人,相信該機構相當的靈魂分開舉行,它沒有身體沒有什麼問題,因為它完全是犯規無論如何,它的行為並沒有影響我們的靈魂。 They accordingly led lives that were not ascetic at all. 因此,他們的生活造成了不苦行的。 Either way, the notion of forgiveness was alien to them. 無論哪種方式,這一概念是格格不入的寬恕他們。

* the resurrection of the body, *復活的身體,

The chief goal of the Gnostics was to become free forever from the taint of matter and the shackles of the body, and to return to the heavenly realm as Pure Spirit. 的主要目標的Gnostics是成為自由永遠的污點從物質和身體的束縛,並返回到天國境界作為純精神。 They totally rejected any idea of the resurrection of the body. 他們完全拒絕任何思想的復活的身體。

* and the life everlasting. *和永生。 AMEN阿門

James Kiefer詹姆斯基弗


Apostles' Creed使徒信經

Catholic Information 天主教信息

A formula containing in brief statements, or "articles," the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles.公式包含簡短發言,或“文章”的基本原則的基督教信仰,並具有其作者,按照傳統,十二門徒。

I. ORIGIN OF THE CREED一,原產地的信條

Throughout the Middle Ages it was generally believed that the Apostles, on the day of Pentecost, while still under the direct inspiration of the Holy Ghost, composed our present Creed between them, each of the Apostles contributing one of the twelve articles.在整個中世紀,人們普遍認為,使徒,在一天的五旬節,而仍在直接靈感的聖靈,我們目前的組成,它們之間的信條,每一個使徒貢獻,在12項條款。 This legend dates back to the sixth century (see Pseudo-Augustine in Migne, PL, XXXIX, 2189, and Pirminius, ibid., LXXXIX, 1034), and it is foreshadowed still earlier in a sermon attributed to St. Ambrose (Migne, PL, XVII, 671; Kattenbusch, I, 81), which takes notice that the Creed was "pieced together by twelve separate workmen".這個傳說可以追溯到六世紀(見偽奧古斯丁在米涅,特等,第39屆,2189,和Pirminius,同上。,LXXXIX,1034),它是在一個仍然較早預示講道歸因於聖劉漢銓(米涅,特等,十七,671; Kattenbusch,我81),其中需要注意的信條是“拼湊起來的12個獨立的工人。” About the same date (c. 400) Rufinus (Migne, PL, XXI, 337) gives a detailed account of the composition of the Creed, which account he professes to have received from earlier ages (tradunt majores nostri).大約在同一日期(公元前400)rufinus(簡稱米涅,特等,21,337)提供了一個詳細的組成的信條,佔他自稱已收到來自前代(tradunt majores nostri)。 Although he does not explicitly assign each article to the authorship of a separate Apostle, he states that it was the joint work of all, and implies that the deliberation took place on the day of Pentecost.雖然他沒有明確分配到每篇文章的作者的一個單獨的使徒,他指出,這是聯合所有的工作,並暗示,審議發生在一天的降臨。 Moreover, he declares that "they for many just reasons decided that this rule of faith should be called the Symbol", which Greek word he explains to mean both indicium, ie a token or password by which Christians might recognize each other, and collatio, that is to say an offering made up of separate contributions.此外,他宣稱,“他們很多正當理由決定,這條規則的信仰應被稱為符號”,其中希臘字,他解釋為指indicium,即象徵或密碼,其中基督徒可能相互承認,並collatio,即一個單獨的產品進行了捐款。 A few years before this (c. 390), the letter addressed to Pope Siricius by the Council of Milan (Migne, PL, XVI, 1213) supplies the earliest known instance of the combination Symbolum Apostolorum ("Creed of the Apostles") in these striking words: "If you credit not the teachings of the priests . . . let credit at least be given to the Symbol of the Apostles which the Roman Church always preserves and maintains inviolate."幾年前,這個(公元前390),信教宗西利修斯理事會米蘭(米涅,特等,十六,1213)供應已知最早的實例的組合Symbolum Apostolorum(“信仰的使徒”)在這些驚人的話:“如果你的信用不是教義的祭司。。。讓信貸至少給了使徒的象徵,而羅馬教會始終保持和維護原則。” The word Symbolum in this sense, standing alone, meets us first about the middle of the third century in the correspondence of St. Cyprian and St. Firmilia, the latter in particular speaking of the Creed as the "Symbol of the Trinity", and recognizing it as an integral part of the rite of baptism (Migne, PL, III, 1165, 1143).這個詞Symbolum在這個意義上說,獨自站在那裡,滿足我們先對中間的第三個世紀在塞浦路斯的對應聖和聖Firmilia,特別是後者講的信條為“三位一體的象徵”,並認識到它作為一個不可分割的部分儀式的洗禮(米涅,特等,三,1165,1143)。 It should be added, moreover, that Kattenbusch (II, p. 80, note) believes that the same use of the words can be traced as far back as Tertullian.應該補充,此外,Kattenbusch(二,第80頁,注)認為,同樣使用的話可以追溯到早在良。 Still, in the first two centuries after Christ, though we often find mention of the Creed under other designations (eg regula fidei, doctrina, traditio), the name symbolum does not occur.然而,在兩個世紀後的第一個基督,儘管我們經常提到的信條找到根據其他名稱(如雷古拉信德奧跡,doctrina,絡中),名稱symbolum不會發生。 Rufinus was therefore wrong when he declared that the Apostles themselves had "for many just reasons" selected this very term.因此,Rufinus錯誤時,他宣布自己的使徒有“正當理由很多:”選擇這個術語。 This fact, joined with the intrinsic improbability of the story, and the surprising silence of the New Testament and of the Ante-Nicene fathers, leaves us no choice but to regard the circumstantial narrative of Rufinus as unhistorical.這一事實,聯同內在不大可能的故事,令人驚訝的沉默的新約和休息室尼西亞的父親,使我們別無選擇,只能把間接說明Rufinus作為非歷史的。

Among recent critics, some have assigned to the Creed an origin much later than the Apostolic Age.在最近的批評,有些人的信條分配給它們的起源不遲於使徒時代。 Harnack, eg, asserts that in its present form it represents only the baptismal confession of the Church of Southern Gaul, dating at earliest from the second half of the fifth century (Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntniss, 1892, p. 3).哈納克,例如,他聲稱,在其目前的形式它只代表洗禮招供的教會南部高盧,約會在最早從下半年的第五世紀(達斯apostolische Glaubensbekenntniss,1892年,第3頁)。 Strictly construed, the terms of this statement are accurate enough; though it seems probable that it was not in Gaul, but in Rome, that the Creed really assumed its final shape (see Burn in the "Journal of Theol. Studies", July, 1902).嚴格解釋,本聲明的條款不夠準確,但似乎有可能,這不是在高盧,但在羅馬的信條真正承擔其最後形狀(見燒傷的“雜誌的Theol。研究”,7月, 1902年)。 But the stress laid by Harnack on the lateness of our received text (T) is, to say the least, somewhat misleading.但所規定的壓力就遲到哈納克我們收到的文字(T)是,至少可以說,有些誤導。 It is certain, as Harnack allows, that another and older form of the Creed (R) had come into existence, in Rome itself, before the middle of the second century.可以肯定的是,作為哈納克允許,另一個和老年人形式的信條(註冊商標)的誕生,在羅馬本身,在中間的第二個世紀。 Moreover, as we shall see, the differences between R and T are not very important and it is also probable that R, if not itself drawn up by the Apostles, is at least based upon an outline which dates back to the Apostolic age.此外,正如我們將會看到,該差異R和T是不是很重要的,也是可能thatṛ,if本身不制定up by的使徒,但至少based upon 1 outline可以追溯到的使徒時代。 Thus, taking the document as a whole, we may say confidently, in the words of a modern Protestant authority, that "in and with our Creed we confess that which since the days of the Apostles has been the faith of united Christendom" (Zahn, Apostles' Creed, tr., p, 222).因此,考慮該文件作為一個整體,我們可以滿懷信心地說,在一個現代的話新教的權力,即“在與我們的信條,我們承認,這些天以來,一直是使徒信仰基督教的團結”(贊恩,使徒信經,文。,磷,222)。 The question of the apostolicity of the Creed ought not to be dismissed without due attention being paid to the following five considerations:現在的問題是使徒的信條不應該被解僱,被給予應有的重視以下五個因素:

(1) There are very suggestive traces in the New Testament of the recognition of a certain "form of doctrine" (typos didaches, Romans 6:17) which moulded, as it were, the faith of new converts to Christ's law, and which involved not only the word of faith believed in the heart, but "with the mouth confession made unto salvation" (Romans 10:8-10). (一)有很有啟發的痕跡在新約中的認可某種“形式的學說”(錯字didaches羅馬書6:17)的製品,因為它是,新的信仰皈依基督的法律,並不僅涉及字的信仰,相信在心臟,但“口裡承認,就可以得救”(羅馬書10:8-10)。 In close connection with this we must recall the profession of faith in Jesus Christ exacted of the eunuch (Acts 8:37) as a preliminary to baptism (Augustine, "De Fide et Operibus", cap. ix; Migne, PL, LVII, 205) and the formula of baptism itself in the name of the Three Persons of the Blessed Trinity (Matthew 28:19; and cf. the Didache 7:2, and 9:5).緊密聯繫這一點,我們必須回顧行業在耶穌基督的信仰付出了太監(徒8:37),作為預備洗禮(奧古斯丁,“德等Operibus善意”,帽。第九條;米涅,特等,第五十七號, 205)和公式的洗禮本身的名義,三人的祝福三一(馬太28:19;和CF。牧羊人7:2和9:5)。 Moreover, as soon as we begin to obtain any sort of detailed description of the ceremonial of baptism we find that, as a preliminary to the actual immersion, a profession of faith was exacted of the convert, which exhibits from the earliest times a clearly divided and separate confession of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, corresponding to the Divine Persons invoked in the formula of baptism.此外,當我們開始獲得任何類型的詳細說明儀式的洗禮,我們發現,作為一種初步的實際浸泡,專業的信念是付出的轉換,其中展品從最早的時候明確劃分和單獨的自白父親,兒子,和聖靈,對應於神聖的人援引該公式的洗禮。 As we do not find in any earlier document the full form of the profession of faith, we cannot be sure that it is identical with our Creed, but, on the other hand, it is certain that nothing has yet been discovered which is inconsistent with such a supposition.因為我們沒有發現任何早期文件的完整形式的職業信仰,我們不能肯定這是相同的與我們的信條,但他於另一方面,可以肯定的是什麼目前尚未發現這是不符合這樣的假設。 See, for example, the "Canons of Hippolytus" (c. 220) or the "Didascalia" (c. 250) in Hahn's "Bibliothek der Symbole" (8, 14, 35); together with the slighter allusions in Justin Martyr and Cyprian.見,例如,“大砲的hippolytus”(長220)或“didascalia”的(約250)在哈恩的“明鏡Symbole藏書”(8,14,35);連同輕典故在烈士和賈斯汀塞浦路斯。

(2) Whatever difficulties may be raised regarding the existence of the Disciplina Arcani in early times (Kattenbusch, II, 97 sqq.), there can be no question that in Cyril of Jerusalem, Hilary, Augustine, Leo, the Gelasian Sacramentary, and many other sources of the fourth and fifth centuries the idea is greatly insisted upon; that according to ancient tradition the Creed was to be learned by heart, and never to be consigned to writing. (2)無論遇到什麼困難可以提出關於存在的Disciplina Arcani在早期(Kattenbusch,二,97時12 sqq。),就沒有問題,在西里爾耶路撒冷,希拉里,奧古斯丁,利奧的Gelasian聖餐,和許多其他來源的第四和第五世紀的想法是非常堅持的,是根據古老的傳統信條是要用心學習,決不要委託寫作。 This undoubtedly provides a plausible explanation of the fact that in the case of no primitive creed is the text preserved to us complete or in a continuous form.這無疑提供了一個可信的解釋是,在該案件沒有原始的信條是保留給我們完整的文本或在連續形式。 What we know of these formulae in their earliest state is derived from what we can piece together from the quotations, more or less scattered, which are found in such writers, for example, as Irenaeus and Tertullian.我們知道這些公式在其最早的國家是來自我們可以拼湊從報價,或多或少分散,而被發現在這些作家,例如,作為愛任紐和良。

(3) Though no uniform type of Creed can be surely recognized among the earlier Eastern writers before the Council of Nicaea, an argument which has been considered by many to disprove the existence of any Apostolic formula, it is a striking fact that the Eastern Churches in the fourth century are found in possession of a Creed which reproduces with variations the old Roman type. (3)雖然沒有統一的類型可以肯定的信條中較早認識到東歐作家擺在安理會面前的尼西亞,論點已被許多人認為反駁存在任何使徒的公式,這是一個驚人的事實,東方教會在第四世紀被發現藏有一個信條是變化的再現了古老的羅馬式。 This fact is full admitted by such Protestant authorities as Harnack (in Hauck's Realencyclopädie, I, 747) and Kattenbusch (I, 380 sq.; II, 194 sqq., and 737 sq.).這一事實充分承認這種新教當局哈納克(在豪克的Realencyclopädie,我,747)和Kattenbusch(一,380平方米;二,194時12 sqq。,和737平方米)。 It is obvious that these data would harmonize very well with the theory that a primitive Creed had been delivered to the Christian community of Rome, either by Sts.很顯然,這些數據將協調得很好,原始的理論信條已被送到羅馬的基督教社區,無論是通過STS。 Peter and Paul themselves or by their immediate successors, and in the course of time had spread throughout the world.彼得和保羅自己或由他們直接的繼任者,並在這一過程中的時間已經傳遍世界。

(4) Furthermore note that towards the end of the second century we can extract from the writings of St. Irenæus in southern Gaul and of Tertullian in far-off Africa two almost complete Creeds (Transc. Note: hyperlink to Acreed2.gif) agreeing closely both with the old Roman Creed (R), as we know it from Rufinus, and with one another. (4)另外注意,臨近結束的第二個世紀,我們可以從中聖愛任紐的著作在南部高盧和良在遙遠的非洲兩個幾乎完整的信條(Transc.注:超鏈接到Acreed2.gif)同意同時密切與舊的羅馬信條(註冊商標),因為我們知道它從Rufinus,並與對方。 It will be useful to translate from Burn (Introduction to the Creeds, pp. 50, 51) his tabular presentation of the evidence in the case of Tertullian.這將是有益的翻譯從燒傷(介紹信條,頁。50,51)他的表格提出的證據的案件良。 (Cf. MacDonald in "Ecclesiastical Review", February, 1903): (參見麥克唐納在“教會評論”,2月,1903年):

THE OLD ROMAN CREED舊的羅馬信條

AS QUOTED BY TERTULLIAN (c. 200)引述良(約 200)

De Virg.德維吉尼亞。 Vel.威賽。 1De Praecept. 1De Praecept。 13 13 1De Praecept. 1De Praecept。 26 26
(1) Believing in one God Almighty, maker of the world (1)認為在一個全能的上帝,製造商世界 (1) We believe one only God (1)我們相信只有一個上帝 (1) I believe in one God, maker of the world (1)我相信在一個上帝,製造商的世界
(2) and His Son, Jesus Christ (2)和他的兒子耶穌基督 (2) and the son of God Jesus Christ (2)神的兒子耶穌基督 (2) the Word, called His Son, Jesus Christ (2)字,叫他的兒子,耶穌基督
(3) born of the Virgin Mary (3)出生的聖母瑪利亞 (3) born of the Virgin (3)出生的處女 (3) by the Spirit and power of God the Father made flesh in Mary's womb, and born of her (3)所體現的精神和力量的神成了肉身的父親在瑪麗的子宮,以及她的出生
(4) crucified under Pontius Pilate (4)根據本丟彼拉多釘在十字架上 (4) Him suffered died, and buried (4)他遭受死亡,埋葬 (4) fastened to a cross. (4)固定在十字架上。
(5) on the third day brought to life from the dead (5)對生活帶來第三天從死 (5) brought back to life (5)帶回生活 (5) He rose the third day (5)他在第三天上漲
(6) received in heaven (6)以天堂 (6) taken again into heaven (6)採取再次到天堂 (6) was caught up into heaven (6)被捲入到天堂
(7) sitting now at the right hand of the Father (7)現在坐在右手的父親 (7) sits at the right hand of the Father (7)坐在右手的父親 (7) set at the right hand of the Father (7)設置在右手的父親
(8) will come to judge the living and the dead (8)會來審判活人與死人 (8) will come to judge the living and the dead (8)會來審判活人與死人 (8) will come with glory to take the good into life eternal, and condemn the wicked to perpetual fire (8)將帶著榮耀,以良好的成永恆的生命,並譴責邪惡,以永久火災
(9) who has sent from the Father the Holy Ghost. (9)誰從父派遣聖靈。 (9) sent the vicarious power of His Holy Spirit (9)發送的替代電源,他的聖靈
(10) to govern believers (10)管信徒 (In this passage articles 9 and 10 precede 8) (在此通過第9和第10先8)
(12) through resurrection of the flesh. (12)通過復活的肉。 (12) restoration of the flesh. (12)恢復的肉。

Such a table serves admirably to show how incomplete is the evidence provided by mere quotations of the Creed and how cautiously it must be dealt with.這種表欽佩,說明服務不完全是由所提供的證據僅僅報價的信條,以及如何謹慎,必須處理。 Had we possessed only the "De Virginibus Velandis" we might have said that the article concerning the Holy Ghost did not form part of Tertullian's Creed.如果我們只擁有“德Virginibus Velandis”我們可能會說,這一條關於聖靈並不構成的一部分良的信條。 Had the "De Virginibus Velandis" been destroyed, we should have declared that Tertullian knew nothing of the clause "suffered under Pontius Pilate".如果“德Virginibus Velandis”被摧毀,我們應該已經宣布,良毫不知情的一句“根據本丟彼拉多遭受”。 And so forth.等等。

(5) It must not be forgotten that while no explicit statement of the composition of a formula of faith by the Apostles is forthcoming before the close of the fourth century, earlier Fathers such as Tertullian and St. Irenæus insist in a very emphatic way that the "rule of faith" is part of the apostolic tradition. Tertullian in particular in his "De Praescriptione", after showing that by this rule (regula doctrinoe) he understands something practically identical with our Creed, insists that the rule was instituted by Christ and delivered to us (tradita) as from Christ by the Apostles (Migne. PL, II, 26, 27, 33, 50). (五)必須不能忘記,雖然沒有明確聲明的組成一個公式信仰的使徒是即將在收盤前的第四個世紀,早期教父德爾圖良和聖如愛任紐堅持在一個非常有力的方式該“規則”信仰的一部分,是使徒的傳統。良特別是在他的“德Praescriptione”後,顯示本規則(雷古拉doctrinoe)幾乎相同的東西,他明白我們的信條,堅持認為這些規則是由基督提起並交付給我們(tradita)從基督的使徒(Migne.特等,二,26,27,33,50)。 As a conclusion from this evidence the present writer, agreeing on the whole with such authorities as Semeria and Batiffol that we cannot safely affirm the Apostolic composition of the Creed, considers at the same time that to deny the possibility of such origin is to go further than our data at present warrant.作為結論從這一證據目前的作家,同意對整個這類當局塞梅里亞和Batiffol,我們不能安全地肯定使徒組成的信條,認為在同一時間否認的可能性,如原產地是為了更進一步比我們目前需要的數據。 A more pronouncedly conservative view is urged by MacDonald in the "Ecclesiastical Review", January to July, 1903.更凸現保守的看法是敦促麥克唐納在“教會評論”,1至7月,1903年。

II.二。 THE OLD ROMAN CREED舊的羅馬信條

The Catechism of the Council of Trent apparently assumes the Apostolic origin of our existing Creed, but such a pronouncement has no dogmatic force and leaves opinion free.在問答理事會的遄達顯然假設使徒起源我們現有的信條,但這樣的宣告沒有教條式的輿論自由的力量和葉片。 Modern apologists, in defending the claim to apostolicity, extend it only to the old Roman form (R), and are somewhat hampered by the objection that if R had been really held to be the inspired utterance of the Apostles, it would not have been modified at pleasure by various local churches (Rufinus, for example, testifies to such expansion in the case of the Church of Aquileia), and in particular would never have been entirely supplanted by T, our existing form. The difference between the two will best be seen by printing them side by side (Creeds R and T):現代辯護士,捍衛聲稱使徒,延長只能以古老的羅馬表(R)和有點妨礙了異議,如果R被認為是真正的激勵話語的使徒,就不會被隨意修改,各地方教會(Rufinus,例如,證明了這種擴張的案件教會的阿奎),特別是決不會被完全取代由T,我們現有的形式。兩者之間的差別最能可以看到他們並排印刷(教義R和T):

Old Roman Creed (R)舊羅馬信條(註冊商標) Existing Modern Creed (T)現有的現代信條(T)的
(1) I believe in God the Father Almighty; (1)我相信上帝,全能的父; (1) I believe in God the Father Almighty Creator of Heaven and earth (1)我相信上帝,全能的父創作的天地
(2) And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; (2)和耶穌基督,他唯一的兒子,我們的主; (2) And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; (2)在耶穌基督,他唯一的兒子,我們的主;
(3) Who was born of (de) the Holy Ghost and of (ex) the Virgin Mary; (3)誰是出生的(德)的聖靈和(前)聖母瑪利亞; (3) Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, (3)誰的構思是由聖靈出生的聖母瑪利亞,
(4) Crucified under Pontius Pilate and buried; (4)根據本丟彼拉多釘在十字架上,埋葬; (4) Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; (4)根據本丟彼拉多遭受被釘在十字架上,受死,埋葬;
(5) The third day He rose again from the dead, (5)第三天他從死裡復活, (5) He descended into hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; (5)他的後裔在地獄裡的第三天,他從死裡復活;
(6) He ascended into Heaven, (6)他躋身天堂, (6) He ascended into Heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; (6)他躋身天堂,1:46在右手神,全能的父;
(7) Sitteth at the right hand of the Father, (7)1:46在右手的父親, (7) From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. (7)從那裡他將要審判活人死人。
(8) Whence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. (8)從那裡他將要審判活人死人。 (8) I believe in the Holy Ghost, (8)我相信聖靈,
(9) And in the Holy Ghost, (9)和聖靈, (9) The Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints (9)神聖的天主教教會,共融的聖人
(10) The Holy Church, (10)聖教會, (10) The forgiveness of sins, (10)寬恕的罪孽,
(11) The forgiveness of sins; (11)寬恕的罪孽; (11) The resurrection of the body, and (11)復活的身體,
(12) The resurrection of the body. (12)復活的身體。 (12) life everlasting. (12)永生。

Neglecting minor points of difference, which indeed for their adequate discussion would require a study of the Latin text, we may note that R does not contain the clauses "Creator of heaven and earth", "descended into hell", "the communion of saints", "life everlasting", nor the words "conceived", "suffered", "died", and "Catholic".忽視小點的差異,這的確為他們充分的討論將需要研究的拉丁文字,我們可以注意到,R不包含條款“的創作天地”,“陷入地獄”,“聖人的共融“,”永生“,也改為”設想“,”遭遇“,”死亡“和”天主教“。 Many of these additions, but not quite all, were probably known to St. Jerome in Palestine (c. 380.--See Morin in Revue Benedictine, January, 1904) and about the same date to the Dalmatian, Niceta (Burn, Niceta of Remesiana, 1905).這些新增的許多,但並不完全所有,很可能是已知圣杰羅姆在巴勒斯坦(公元前380 .--見莫蘭在歌劇篤,今年1月,1904年),大約在同一日期之前向達爾馬提亞,尼切塔(燒傷,尼切塔對 Remesiana,1905年)。 Further additions appear in the creeds of southern Gaul at the beginning of the next century, but T probably assumed its final shape in Rome itself some time before AD 700 (Burn, Introduction, 239; and Journal of Theol. Studies, July, 1902).進一步增加出現在南部高盧信條在開始下個世紀,但T可能承擔其最後形狀本身在一段時間之前,羅馬公元700(燒傷,導言,239;和日記的Theol。研究,7月,1902年) 。 We know nothing certain as to the reasons which led to the adoption of T in preference to R.我們什麼都不知道的某些作為的原因而導致的T通過優先於河

III.三。 ARTICLES OF THE CREED文章的信條

Although T really contains more than twelve articles, it has always been customary to maintain the twelvefold division which originated with, and more strictly applies to, R. A few of the more debated items call for some brief comment.雖然Ŧ真的含有超過12篇文章,一直習慣保持了12師的起源與,並更嚴格地適用於河,有幾項要求的項目更辯論一些簡短的評論。 The first article of R presents a difficulty. R的第一篇文章提出了一個困難。 From the language of Tertullian it is contended that R originally omitted the word Father and added the word one; thus, "I believe in one God Almighty".從語言的良它是有爭議的R字省略原本父親和增加了一個字,因此,“我相信,在一個全能的上帝”。 Hence Zahn infers an underlying Greek original still partly surviving in the Nicene Creed, and holds that the first article of the Creed suffered modification to counteract the teachings of the Monarchian heresy.因此贊恩推斷一個潛在的希臘原始部分仍然存活在尼西亞信條,並認為,第一條修改的信條遭受抵制的上帝一體的教導異端邪說。 It must suffice to say here that although the original language of R may possibly be Greek, Zahn's premises regarding the wording of the first article are not accepted by such authorities as Kattenbusch and Harnack.它必須足夠在這裡說,儘管原來的語言的R可能是希臘,贊恩的處所有關的第一篇文章的措辭不接受這種當局Kattenbusch和哈納克。

Another textual difficulty turns upon the inclusion of the word only in the second article; but a more serious question is raised by Harnack's refusal to recognize, either in the first or second article of R, any acknowledgment of a pre-existent or eternal relation of Sonship and Fatherhood of the Divine Persons.另一種文字難以打開後,列入這個詞只有在第二篇文章,但更嚴重的問題是,所提出的哈納克拒絕承認,無論是在第一或第二條的R,任何承認一個預先存在的或永恆的關係兒子名分和父親的神人。 The Trinitarian theology of later ages, he declares, has read into the text a meaning which it did not possess for its framers.三位一體的神學後世,他宣布,已讀入文本的意義,它不具備的制定者。 And he says, again, with regard to the ninth article, that the writer of the Creed did not conceive the Holy Ghost as a Person, but as a power and gift.他說,再次,關於第九屆文章,作者的信條並沒有想像的聖靈作為一個人,而是作為一個權力和禮物。 "No proof can be shown that about the middle of the second century the Holy Ghost was believed in as a Person." “沒有證據可以證明,對中的第二個世紀的聖靈,相信作為一個人。” It is impossible to do more here than direct the reader to such Catholic answers as those of Baumer and Blume; and among Anglicans to the very convenient volume of Swete.這是不可能在這裡做更多的讀者比直接回答,如天主教那些巴默和布盧姆,當中聖公會的非常方便的體積斯威特。 To quote but one illustration of early patristic teaching, St. Ignatius at the end of the first century repeatedly refers to a Sonship which lies beyond the limits of time: "Jesus Christ . . . came forth from one Father", "was with the Father before the world was" (Magn., 6 and 7). While, with regard to the Holy Ghost, St. Clement of Rome at a still earlier date writes: "As God lives, and the Lord Jesus Christ lives, and the Holy Spirit, the faith and hope of the elect" (cap. lviii).舉一個例子,但早期教父的教學,聖依納爵在最後的第一個世紀多次提到這是一個兒子名分超出限制時間:“耶穌基督。。。挺身而出,從一個父親”,“是與父親是前世界“(Magn.,6和7)。雖然,關於聖靈,聖克萊門特的羅馬在較早的日期仍然寫道:”作為上帝的生命,和主耶穌基督的生命,而聖靈,信念和希望的選舉“(香港法例第LVIII)號。 This and other like passages clearly indicate the consciousness of a distinction between God and the Spirit of God analogous to that recognized to exist between God and the Logos.這和其他類似的段落清楚地表明了意識的區分上帝和上帝的聖靈類似,承認存在與上帝的標誌。 A similar appeal to early writers must be made in connection with the third article, that affirming the Virgin Birth.類似的呼籲的作家必須在連接與第三條,即肯定了美屬維爾京誕生。 Harnack admits that the words "conceived of the Holy Ghost" (T), really add nothing to the "born of the Holy Ghost" (R).哈納克承認,改為“構想的聖靈”(T)的,真的沒有增加任何新的“出生的聖靈”(註冊商標)。 He admits consequently that "at the beginning of the second century the belief in the miraculous conception had become an established part of Church tradition".他承認,因此,“在開始的第二個世紀的神奇的信仰觀念已經成為建立教會的傳統的一部分”。 But he denies that the doctrine formed part of the earliest Gospel preaching, and he thinks it consequently impossible that the article could have been formulated in the first century.但他否認該原則最早形成的一部分,福音傳道,因此,他認為這不可能,這一條可以在已制定的第一個世紀。 We can only answer here that the burden of proof rests with him, and that the teaching of the Apostolic Fathers, as quoted by Swete and others, points to a very different conclusion.我們只能回答說,這裡的舉證責任在於他,而且教學的使徒父親,作為引述斯威特等人,點到一個非常不同的結論。

Rufinus (c. 400) explicitly states that the words descended into hell were not in the Roman Creed, but existed in that of Aquileia. rufinus(簡稱角400)明確規定,即陷入地獄沒有在羅馬信條,但在該阿奎萊亞存在。 They are also in some Greek Creeds and in that of St. Jerome, lately recovered by Morin.他們也在一些希臘教義,並在這聖杰羅姆,最近恢復了莫蘭。 It was no doubt a remembrance of I Peter, iii, 19, as interpreted by Irenaeus and others, which caused their insertion.這無疑是我懷念的彼得,三,19所解釋的愛任紐等,造成其插入。 The clause, "communion of saints", which appears first in Niceta and St. Jerome, should unquestionably be regarded as a mere expansion of the article "holy Church".該條款,“共融的聖人”,其中第一次出現在尼切塔和圣杰羅姆,毫無疑問應該被視為單純擴大的文章“聖教會”。 Saints, as used here, originally meant no more than the living members of the Church (see the article by Morin in Revue d'histoire et de litterature ecclesiastique. May, 1904, and the monograph of JP Kirsch, Die Lehre von der Gemeinschaft der Heiligen, 1900).聖人,這裡所用的,原本不超過成員的生活,教會(見文章,莫蘭在歷史雜誌等德litterature ecclesiastique。5月,1904年,太平紳士的專著和基爾希,模具萊勒馮明鏡Gemeinschaft德Heiligen,1900)。 For the rest we can only note that the word "Catholic", which appears first in Niceta, is dealt with separately; and that "forgiveness of sins" is probably to be understood primarily of baptism and should be compared with the "one baptism for the forgiveness of sins" of the Nicene Creed.對於其餘部分,我們只能注意到,用“天主教”,它第一次出現在尼切塔,是分開處理,並認為“寬恕的罪孽”也許是可以理解主要的洗禮,應該比“一個洗禮的饒恕的罪孽“的尼西亞信經。

IV.四。 USE AND AUTHORITY OF THE CREED使用及管理局的信條

As already indicated, we must turn to the ritual of Baptism for the most primitive and important use of the Apostles' Creed.如前所述,我們必須轉向儀式的洗禮為最原始的和重要的使用使徒們的信條。 It is highly probable that the Creed was originally nothing else than a profession of faith in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost of the baptismal formula.這是極有可能是原先的信條是沒有別的比專業的信念在父,子,聖靈的洗禮公式。 The fully developed ceremonial which we find in the seventh Roman Ordo, and the Gelasian Sacramentary, and which probably represented the practice of the fifth century, assigns a special day of "scrutiny", for the imparting of the Creed (traditio symboli), and another, immediately before the actual administration of the Sacrament, for the redditio symboli, when the neophyte gave proof of his proficiency by reciting the Creed aloud.儀式的充分發展,我們發現在第七羅馬歐爾和Gelasian聖餐,並可能代表了實踐的第五世紀,分配一個特殊的日子的“審查”,為傳授的信條(symboli絡中),以及另外,在實際執行前的聖事,為redditio symboli,當新手證明了他的能力通過大聲背誦的信條。 An imposing address accompanied the traditio and in an important article, Dom de Puniet (Revue d'Histoire Ecclesiastique, October, 1904) has recently shown that this address is almost certainly the composition of St. Leo the Great.陪同堂而皇之地址和絡中的重要文章,大教堂車手普涅特(現代史和Ecclesiastique,10月,1904年)最近報告顯示,這幾乎是肯定的組成聖利奧大。 Further, three questions (interrogationes) were put to the candidate in the very act of baptism, which questions are themselves only a summary of the oldest form of the Creed.此外,三個問題(interrogationes)被付諸候選人在非常行為的洗禮,這問題本身只是一個簡要的最古老形式的信條。 Both the recitation of the Creed and the questions are still retained in the Ordo baptizandi of our actual Roman ritual; while the Creed in an interrogative form appears also in the Baptismal Service of the Anglican "Book of Common Prayer".無論是背誦的信條和問題仍然保留在我們的實際歐爾baptizandi羅馬儀式,而信仰的形式出現的疑問也是在受洗服務的聖公會“公禱書”。 Outside of the administration of baptism the Apostles' Creed is recited daily in the Church, not only at the beginning of Matins and Prime and the end of Compline, but also ferially in the course of Prime and Compline.以外的行政洗禮的使徒信經是每天背誦在教會裡,不僅在開始的晨禱和總理和最終的Compline,而且在這一過程中ferially總理和Compline。 Many medieval synods enjoin that it must be learnt by all the faithful, and there is a great deal of evidence to show that, even in such countries as England and France, it was formerly learnt in Latin.許多中世紀的主教會議責成它必須由所有信徒據悉,且有大量的證據顯示,即使在這些國家中英國和法國,這是以前learned在拉丁美洲。 As a result of this intimate association with the liturgy and teaching of the Church, the Apostles' Creed has always been held to have the authority of an ex cathedra utterance.結果與此密切關聯的禮儀和教學的教會,使徒們的信條,一直被認為有權威的當然教堂話語。 It is commonly taught that all points of doctrine contained in it are part of the Catholic Faith, and cannot be called in question under pain of heresy (St. Thomas, Summa Theologica, II-II:1:9).這是教授,所有點的學說中也有一部分信仰天主教,而不能受到質疑,根據疼痛的異端(聖托馬斯,神學大全,二,二:1:9)。 Hence Catholics have generally been content to accept the Creed in the form, and in the sense, in which it has been authoritatively expounded by the living voice of the Church.因此天主教徒一般都樂於接受的信條的形式,在某種意義上,其中已權威性闡述了由生活在教會的聲音。 For the Protestants who accept it only in so far as it represents the evangelical teaching of the Apostolic Age, it became a matter of supreme importance to investigate its original form and meaning.對於新教徒誰接受它只是在這麼遠,因為它代表了福音教學使徒時代,它成為一個問題的極端重要性,以探討其原來的形式和意義。 This explains the preponderating amount of research devoted to this subject by Protestant scholars as compared with the contributions of their Catholic rivals.這說明了佔優勢的數量研究專門討論這一事項,新教的學者相比,他們的貢獻與天主教對手。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息寫由赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄的唐納德 J皇家。 Dedicated to Jack and Kathy Graham, faithful friends in the Church Universal The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.竭誠為傑克和凱西格雷厄姆,忠實的朋友在教會通用的天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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