Antiochene Theology, Theodoret安提阿學派神學,Theodoret

General Information 一般信息

A theologian of the Antiochene school, Theodoret, b.一個神學家的安提阿學派學校,Theodoret灣 Antioch, c.安提阿角 393, dc 458, was a monk of Apamea and bishop of Cyrus, Syria (423). 393,直流458個和尚的阿帕米亞和主教居魯士,敘利亞(423)。 A friend of Nestorius, he became embroiled in the controversy with Saint Cyril of Alexandria, whose views, he held, implied a confusion of the divine and human natures of Christ .一個朋友的聶斯脫裡,他成為捲入爭議與聖西里爾亞歷山大,他的觀點,他認為, 意味著混亂的神和人的天性的基督 Cyril's successor, the powerful Dioscorus, accused (448) Theodoret of dividing Christ into two natures, and although Theodoret insisted on the unity, he was anathematized. The Robber Synod of Ephesus (449), defending Cyril's theology, deposed Theodoret and forced him into exile for a year.西里爾的繼任者,強大的Dioscorus,被告(448)Theodoret劃分基督成兩個性質,雖然Theodoret堅持團結,他是詛咒。強盜主教會議的以弗所(449),保衛西里爾的神學,廢黜Theodoret,強迫他到流亡一年。 At the Council of Chalcedon (451), Theodoret was identified with the Nestorian opposition, but he was persuaded to renounce Nestorius and was recognized as orthodox.在安理會的卡爾西(451),theodoret被確定與景教反對,但他被說服放棄nestorius和被承認為正統。

Theodoret's surviving writings are fine expressions of the Antiochene school of interpretation. Theodoret的生存著作都很好表達了安提阿學派學派的解釋。

Meletius, d. Meletius,四 381, bishop of Antioch and representative of the Antiochene tradition in theology, was appointed to the see in 360. 381,安提阿主教和代表的安提阿學派的傳統,在神學,被任命為見360。 Although a moderate in the controversy over Arianism, he immediately offended the Arian emperor Constantius II and was exiled.雖然適度的爭論阿里烏教派,他立即得罪了阿里安士坦提烏斯二世皇帝,被流放。 In his absence the supporters of Eustathius, a former bishop of Antioch, consecrated (362) Paulinus as bishop, creating a schism.在他缺席的支持者歐斯塔修斯,前主教安提,獻身(362)保林的主教,造成分裂。 Meletius returned in 363 but was exiled twice again (365 - 66 and 371 - 78) under Emperor Valens. Meletius返回363,但再次被放逐的兩倍(365 - 66 371 - 78)下皇帝瓦倫斯。 In the meantime the schism and controversy continued.在此期間,分裂和爭論仍在繼續。 The bishops of Rome and Alexandria sided with Paulinus, whom they regarded as more orthodox than Meletius; the latter's principal supporter was Saint Basil.羅馬的主教和亞歷山大站在保林,他們認為隨著越來越多的人比Meletius正統,後者的主要支持者是聖巴西爾。 Finally restored to his diocese in 378, Meletius was presiding over the First Council of Constantinople when he died.終於恢復了他的教區378 Meletius是主持第一屆理事會君士坦丁堡時就死了。

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Theologians of the Antiochene school emphasized the humanity of Jesus Christ, the Alexandrian his deity . 神學家學校的安提阿學派強調人類的耶穌基督,他的神的亞歷山大 Theodore of Mopsuestia held that Christ's human nature was complete but was conjoined with the Word by an external union.西奧多的Mopsuestia認為,基督是人類的本性是連體完成,但與Word由外部聯盟。 Nestorius, Theodore's pupil, took up his teacher's position after his death.聶斯脫裡,西奧多的學生,拿起他的老師的立場,在他死後。

Nestorius was condemned by the Council of Ephesus (431), which was convened specifically to settle the dispute.聶斯脫裡是譴責安理會的以弗所(431),這是召開專門解決這一爭端。 There the Theotokos was officially affirmed and orthodox doctrine on the nature of Jesus Christ clarified: Christ was pronounced true God and true man, as having two distinct natures in one person - a position that was reaffirmed by the Council of Chalcedon (451).在那裡,聖母被正式確認並正統學說的性質耶穌基督澄清:基督是真正的上帝和真正突出的人,因為有兩個不同性質的集中在一個人-一個立場,重申了安理會的卡爾西(451)。

A biblical commentator and bishop of Mopsuestia (mahp - soo - es' - chuh) in Cilicia, Theodore, c.聖經評論家和主教的Mopsuestia(mahp -洙-上課' -妻)在基利家,西奧多角 350-428, was a representative of the Christology of the Antiochene school. 350-428,是代表基督的安提阿學派學校。 He was born at Antioch and there studied rhetoric, literature, and biblical exegesis with his friend Saint John Chrysostom.他出生在安提阿和苦讀,修辭,文學和聖經註釋和他的朋友聖約翰金口。 Ordained a priest about 383, he was consecrated bishop of Mopsuestia in 392.約383名神父祝聖,他是聖主教的Mopsuestia 392。

In his interpretation of Scripture, Theodore employed a critical and scientific approach, taking a historical rather than an allegorical approach to Genesis and the Psalms.在他的解釋聖經,西奧多僱一個關鍵的和科學的態度,採取歷史的,而不是一個寓言辦法創世記和詩篇。 Theodore's Christology, although it contributed to Nestorianism, anticipated the formula adopted at the Council of Chalcedon (451) on the dual but united natures of Christ.西奧多的基督,但它有助於景教,預計該公式通過在安理會的卡爾西(451)上的雙重性質,但團結的基督。 His views were nevertheless condemned at the Councils of Ephesus and Constantinople (553).但他的觀點在安理會譴責以弗所和君士坦丁堡(553)。

Bibliography 書目
RA Greer, Theodore of Mopsuestia (1961); RA Norris, Manhood and Christ (1963); JJ Delaney and JE Tobin, Dictionary of Catholic Biography (1961); J Quasten, Patrology (1950). A Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (1975); R Loofs, Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine (1914); J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, v.1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition 100 - 600 (1971).類風濕性關節炎格里爾,西奧多的Mopsuestia(1961年);類風濕性關節炎諾里斯,壯年和基督(1963);傑傑德萊尼和乙腦托賓,天主教傳記辭典(1961年); J Quasten,Patrology(1950)。阿格里爾邁爾,基督在基督教傳統( 1975)與r盧夫斯,nestorius和他的位置在歷史的基督教教義(1914); J伯利坎,在基督教傳統,五.1,羽化天主教傳統100 - 600(1971)。


Antiochene Theology安提阿學派神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The book of Acts indicates that the term "Christian" was first used at Antioch and that there was a church there at the time of the early ministry of the apostle Paul (11:26).該書的行為表明,所謂“基督教”是首次使用,並在安提阿教會那裡有一個在當時的早期部使徒保羅(11:26)。 It was from Antioch that Paul began his three missionary journeys.這是從安提阿,保羅開始了他的三個傳教之旅。 It might be called the nearest approach which he had to a headquarters base.它可以被稱為最接近的辦法,他只好一個總部基地。 The decisions of the Apostolic Council at Jerusalem were published there (Acts 15:30 - 31).該決定的使徒會在耶路撒冷發表有(使徒15:30 - 31)。

The first monarchical bishop to secure notice was Ignatius of Antioch.第一君權主教獲得通知伊格安提。 He held the post in the early second century.他認為在後的第二個世紀初。 In his seven epistles he shows himself to be a man eager to defend the full deity and full humanity of Christ.他在他的7書信顯示自己是一個人急於捍衛人類的充分和完全的神的基督。 He particularly warns against docetism, and here appears an emphasis which is increasingly to characterize the school of Antioch. God came into flesh, was born of the Virgin Mary.他特別警告不要幻影說,這裡似乎是一個重點學校越來越多地刻畫了安提阿。 上帝來到成肉,出生的聖母瑪利亞。 Christ died to deliver men and women from ignorance and from the devil. 基督死亡的男子和婦女提供從無知和魔鬼。 He rose again from the dead for us. 他再次上升,從死了我們。 The believer is not only in Christ, he is also christophoros. 信徒不僅是在基督裡,他也是赫里斯托福羅斯。 The Supper is the flesh and blood of Christ, though there is no suggestion of substantial change. 晚飯是基督的血肉,雖然沒有實質性改變的建議。 Brotherly love is a cardinal emphasis in Ignatius. 兄弟的愛是大是大非重點的伊格。

Theophilus of Antioch, in the latter part of the second century, developed the Logos doctrine, referring to the logos prophorikos brought forth to create.西奧菲勒斯安提,在下半年的第二個世紀,發展了理性主義,指的是標誌prophorikos帶來了創造。 The word trias is used to apply to the Godhead first by Theophilus.這個詞是用來申請三疊系的神體首先由西奧菲勒斯。

Three quarters of a century later Paul of Samosata occupied the episcopal throne in Antioch.四分之三個世紀後的保羅薩莫薩塔佔領了在安提阿主教寶座。 The emphasis on the human nature of Christ that was to characterize the later Antioch makes a clear appearance. With a monarchian stress, he found the Logos, a divine force, part of the mind of the Father, dwelling in Jesus from his birth, but apart from the Virgin. He manifested himself as energeia. Jesus was not to be worshipped though his enduement with the Logos was quantitatively unusual.重點對人性的基督,是表徵後來安提阿作出了明確的外觀。 憑藉上帝一體的壓力,他發現的標誌,一個神聖的力量,部分想起了父親,住在耶穌從他的出生,但除了處女。他表現自己作為energeia。 耶穌並沒有被崇拜 ,但他enduement與定量標識不尋常。 His unity with God is one of purpose, of will, of love.他與上帝是一個團結的目的,意志,愛。 While it is possible for Paul to speak of one prosopon of God and the Logos, and to use the term homoousios of Christ and the Father, yet the Logos and the Son were not by any means identical.雖然是可能的保羅談論一prosopon上帝和標識,並使用術語homoousios基督和父親,但理性和兒子並沒有以任何方式相同。 Paul was excommunicated and, after the Roman recapture of Antioch, well - nigh completely lost his influence.保羅被逐出教會,並在羅馬收復安提阿,以及-幾乎成了完全失去了他的影響力。 Paul's opponents did not approve the term homoousios, later to become a touchstone of orthodoxy.保羅的對手並沒有批准這一術語homoousios,後來成為正統的試金石。

Shortly after Paul's fall from power a schoolmaster, Lucian, came to prominence in Antioch.不久後,保羅的倒台一校長,呂西安,來到突出的安提阿。 Lucian conceived of Christ on a higher plane than did Paul.盧西安設想基督在一個較高的層次比保羅。 Whether he considered him as equal with the Father in his deity is questionable.他是否認為他作為平等與父親在他的神是一個疑問。 His work on the text of the Greek Bible was extensive, and he favored the historical and critical interpretation of the Scriptures.他的工作就案文,希臘聖經是廣泛的, 他主張的歷史和批判解釋聖經。

In the decades following the Council of Nicaea, Antioch exhibited wide differences of opinion on the Arian question, but in this atmosphere John Chrysostom grew to maturity with his extraordinary ability as a preacher.在幾十年後會尼西亞,安提阿展出廣泛意見分歧的阿里安的問題,但在這種氣氛約翰金口成長為成熟,他的非凡能力,作為一個佈道者。 Emphasizing the moral values of Christianity, he continued the stress on historical exegesis.強調基督教的道德價值觀,他繼續強調對歷史的註釋。 One of Chrysostom's teachers, the presbyter Diodorus, became in due course Bishop of Tarsus and was recognized as a "normal" theologian by the Council of Constantinople in 381. But he did not find an adequate expression for the relationship between the divine and human natures of Christ. There seemed almost to be a dual personality in his conception.一個金口的教師,長老狄奧多羅斯,成為在適當的時候主教塔爾蘇斯,被認定為“正常”的神學家理事會君士坦丁堡在381。 但他還沒有找到足夠的表達式之間的關係的神和人的天性基督。似乎有幾乎是雙重人格在他的構想。 Another presbyter, Theodore, later Bishop of Mopsuestia, developed historical criticism much further.另一位長老,西奧多,後來主教的Mopsuestia,發展的歷史的批評更多。

He failed to find the doctrine of the Trinity in the OT, and he minimized the messianic intimations in the Psalms.他沒有找到學說的三位一體的加時賽,他最小的救世主的暗示的詩篇。 But he put heavy stress upon the importance of textual and historical study as a basis for exegesis.但他把沉重的壓力時的重要性和歷史研究的文本為基礎的註釋。 Theodore emphasized the difference between God and man.西奧多強調神與人之間的差異。 The Logos humbled himself and became man.該標識自己卑微成為人。 The prosopon of the man is complete and so is that of the Godhead.該prosopon的人是完整的,所以就是神性。 His disciple, the church historian Theodoret, carried on his work.他的弟子,教會歷史學家Theodoret,進行他的工作。 Theodoret's exegesis is in the best historical tradition, his apologetic writing clear and well organized. Theodoret的註釋是在最好的歷史傳統,他的歉意,字跡清晰且有條理。 He stressed the infinite difference between God and man.他強調了無限的上帝和人之間的差異。 His Christological views were unquestionably influenced by his friend Nestorius, the most prominent representative of the Antiochene school.毫無疑問,他的基督論觀點的影響,他的朋友聶斯脫裡,最突出的有代表性的安提阿學派學校。 Impetuous, self confifident full of energy, Nestorius was not a scholar.浮躁,自我confifident充滿活力,聶斯脫裡是不是一個學者。 He emphasized the humanity of Jesus, but it is reasonably clear that what he intended to express was not a view that is heretical.他強調,人類的耶穌,但它是相當清楚,就是他想表達的是不是認為是異端邪說。

The union of Godhead and manhood in Christ is voluntary, but it can be said that there is one prosopon of Jesus Christ.該聯盟在基督神性和男子氣概,是自願的,但可以說有一prosopon耶穌基督。 Nestorius campaigned against the term Theotokos as applied to the Virgin Mary, yet he agreed that, if properly understood, the term was unobjectionable.聶斯脫裡競選對適用於長期聖母聖母瑪利亞,但他同意,如果正確地理解,這個詞是無可非議的。 It was the violence of his emphases, with their stress on the separateness of the human and the divine in Christ, which was dangerous.這是他的重點暴力,他們的壓力對獨立性的人與神在基督裡,這是危險的。

Justinian's Edict of the Three Chapters in 543 was unfair to the School of Antioch in its condemnations of the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia and of Theodoret.查士丁尼的法令中的三個章節543是不公平的學校安提在譴責的著作和西奧多的Mopsuestia的theodoret。 The Council of Constantinople of 553, called the Fifth Ecumenical, condemned writings of the Antioch school, but on the basis of falsified and mutilated quotations.安理會君士坦丁堡的553,被稱為第五合一,譴責著作,安提學校,但在此基礎上偽造和肢解報價。

The separation from the imperial church of the bishops who led the Nestorian schism and the capture of Antioch in 637 by the rising power of Islam checked the further distinctive development of the School of Antioch.從帝國分離教會的主教為首的景教誰分裂和捕捉安提在637所崛起的伊斯蘭教檢查進一步發展特色學校的安提阿。 Its Aristotelian emphasis on rationality, on ethical quality, and on man's free agency was not popular.亞里士多德強調其合理性,在道德品質,以及人的自由球員並不流行。 Yet it is to be valued for its stress on the genuine continuance in the Second Person of the properties of each nature and for its insistence upon the importance of grammaticohistorical exegesis.然而,要重視它強調對真正繼續存在,在第二個人的財產的性質和它的每一個堅持的重要性grammaticohistorical後註釋。

P Woolley P伍利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
CC Richardson, The Christianity of Ignatius of Antioch; G Bardy, Paul de Samosate and Recherches sur saint Lucien d'Antioche et son ecole; F Loofs, Paulus von Samosata and Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine; H deRiedmatten, Les Actes du proces de Paul de Samosate; R Devreesse, Essai sur Theodore de Mopsueste; JF Bethune Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching; AR Vine, An Approach to Christology; RV Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies.消委會理查森,在基督教的伊格那丟; Ğ巴迪,保羅德曼Samosate和勘探河畔聖呂西安蒂奧什等兒子伊科爾,女盧夫斯,保盧斯馮薩莫薩塔nestorius和他的位置,並在歷史的基督教教義; Ĥ deRiedmatten,萊斯Actes杜審判中德保羅德Samosate與r Devreesse,Essai河畔西奧多德Mopsueste;櫻白求恩貝克,nestorius和他的教學;鐵藤,基督的一種方法;房車賣家,兩部古代Christologies。


Antiochene Liturgy安提阿學派禮儀

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch begins with that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then follow that of St. James in Greek, the Syrian Liturgy of St. James, and the other Syrian Anaphorus.該系列最初使用的禮儀在主教安提首先,該使徒憲法,然後遵循這一聖雅各福群在希臘,敘利亞禮儀聖雅各,和其他敘利亞Anaphorus。 The line may be further continued to the Byzantine Rite (the older Liturgy of St. Basil and the later and shorter one of St. John Chrysostom), and through it to the Armenian use.該生產線可以進一步持續到拜占庭成年禮(舊禮儀的聖巴索以及後來和一個短的聖約翰金口),並通過它向亞美尼亞使用。 But these no longer concern the Church of Antioch.但這些已經不再關注安提阿的教會。

I. THE LITURGY OF THE APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS一,禮儀中的使徒憲法

The oldest known form that can be described as a complete liturgy is that of the Apostolic Constitutions.已知最古老的形式,可以說是一個完整的禮儀是,在使徒憲法。 It is also the first member of the line of Antiochene uses.這也是該行第一個成員的安提阿學派用途。 The Apostolic Constitutions consist of eight books purporting to have been written by St. Clement of Rome (died c. 104).使徒憲法包括八個書籍看來已被寫入聖克萊門特的羅馬(死於角104)。 The first six books are an interpolated edition of the Didascalia ("Teaching of the Apostles and Disciples", written in the first half of the third century and since edited in a Syriac version by de Lagarde, 1854); the seventh book is an equally modified version of the Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, probably written in the first century, and found by Philotheos Bryennios in 1883) with a collection of prayers.第一六書是一插版的Didascalia(“教學的使徒和門徒”,寫在上半年的第三個世紀以來在敘利亞文版本編輯由德拉嘉德,1854);第七本書是一個同樣修改後的版本的牧羊人(教學的十二使徒,可能寫在第一世紀,發現Philotheos Bryennios 1883年)的一個集合的祈禱。 The eighth book contains a complete liturgy and the eighty-five "Apostolic Canons".第八本書包含一個完整的禮儀和85“使徒大砲”。 There is also part of a liturgy modified from the Didascalia in the second book.也有部分修改的禮儀從Didascalia在第二本書。 It has been suggested that the compiler of the Apostolic Constitutions may be the same person as the author of the six spurious letters of St. Ignatius (Pseudo-Ignatius).有人建議,編譯器的使徒憲法可能是同一人因為提交虛假的六個字母的聖依納爵(偽伊格)。 In any case he was a Syrian Christian, probably an Apollinarist, living in or near Antioch either at the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century.在任何情況下,他是敘利亞基督教,可能是Apollinarist,或住在附近的安提阿或者在年底的第四或第五世紀的開端。 And the liturgy that he describes in his eighth book is that used in his time by the Church of Antioch, with certain modifications of his own.和禮儀,他描述了他的第八本書是他所用的時間由教會安提,與他自己的某些修改。 That the writer was an Antiochene Syrian and that he describes the liturgical use of his own country is shown by various details, such as the precedence given to Antioch (VII, xlvi, VIII, x, etc.); his mention of Christmas (VIII, xxxiii), which was kept at Antioch since about 375, nowhere else in the East till about 430 (Duchesne, Origines du culte chrétien, 248); the fact that Holy Week and Lent together make up seven weeks (V, xiii) as at Antioch, whereas in Palestine and Egypt, as throughout the West, Holy Week was the sixth week of Lent; that the chief source of his "Apostolic Canons" is the Synod of Antioch in encœniis (341); and especially by the fact that his liturgy is obviously built up on the same lines as all the Syrian ones.這是一個安提阿學派的作家,他介紹了敘利亞和禮儀用他自己的國家表現出的各種細節,如優先考慮安提阿(七,四十六,第八,第十,等等),他提到的聖誕(八,三十三),這是保持在安提約375起,無處可在東方至約430(德雷珀,Origines杜culte克雷蒂安,248);聖週的事實,還借給一起組成了7個星期(五,13)為在安提阿,而在巴勒斯坦和埃及,在整個西方,聖週,是第六週的大齋期,這是主要來源,他的“使徒大砲”是主教安提在encœniis(341),以及特別的是,顯然他的禮儀是建立在相同的線路,因為所有的敘利亞。 There are, however, modifications of his own in the prayers, Creed, and Gloria, where the style and the idioms are obviously those of the interpolator of the Didascalia (see the examples in Brightman, "Liturgies", I, xxxiii-xxxiv), and are often very like those of Pseudo-Ignatius also (ib., xxxv).有,但是,修改自己的祈禱,信仰,和格洛麗亞,那裡的風格和成語是那些明顯的插在Didascalia(見例子布萊曼,“禮儀”,我,三十三,三十四) ,而且往往很喜歡那些偽伊格也(ib.第,三十五)。 The rubrics are added by the compiler, apparently from his own observations.添加的量規由編譯器,顯然是從自己的意見。

The liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, then, represents the use of Antioch in the fourth century.禮儀第八本書的使徒憲法,那麼,代表使用安提在第四世紀。 Its order is this: First comes the "Mass of the Catechumens".它的順序是這樣的:首先是“群眾的慕道者”。 After the readings (of the Law, the Prophets, the Epistles, Acts, and Gospels) the bishop greets the people with II Cor., xiii, 13 (The grace of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all).在讀數(法律,先知,書信,行為,和福音)主教迎接人民與二肺心病。,13,13(的恩典和我們的主耶穌基督的上帝和慈善機構的溝通聖靈與你同在所有)。 They answer: "And with thy spirit"; and he "speaks to the people words of comfort."他們回答:“有了你”的精神,以及他“向人民講的話安慰。” There then follows a litany for the catechumens, to each invocation of which the people answer "Kyrie eleison"; the bishop says a collect and the deacon dismisses the catechumens.然後接下來的一一長串的慕道,每個調用其中的人回答“凱里eleison”主教說,一個收集和執事解僱的慕道者。 Similar litanies and collects follow for the Energumens, the Illuminandi (photizómenoi, people about to be baptized) and the public penitents, and each time they are dismissed after the collect for them.類似的禱文並收集遵循的Energumens的Illuminandi(photizómenoi,人們將要受洗)和公眾懺悔者,每一次他們都被解僱後,收集它們。 The "Mass of the Faithful" begins with a longer litany for various causes, for peace, the Church, bishops (James, Clement, Evodius, and Annianus are named), priests, deacons, servers, readers, singers, virgins, widows, orphans, married people, the newly baptized, prisoners, enemies, persecutors, etc., and finally "for every Christian soul". “齊的忠實”始於一個較長的一長串各種原因,和平,教會,主教(詹姆斯,克萊門特,Evodius和Annianus命名),神父,執事,服務器,讀者,歌手,處女,寡婦,孤兒,已婚的人,新的洗禮,囚犯,敵人,迫害等,最後“為每一個基督徒的靈魂”。 After the litany follows its collect, then another greeting from the bishop and the kiss of peace.之後,一連串遵循其收集,然後從另一問候和親吻主教的和平。 Before the Offertory the deacons stand at the men's doors and the subdeacons at those of the women "that no one may go out, nor the door be opened", and the deacon again warns all catechumens, infidels, and heretics to retire, the mothers to look after their children, no one to stay in hypocrisy, and all to stand in fear and trembling.前奉獻的執事站在男子的門和修士在那些婦女“,任何人不得外出,也沒有門被打開”,和執事再次警告所有的慕道者,異教徒和異端退休,母親照顧自己的孩子,沒有人留在虛偽,和所有站在恐懼和顫抖。 The deacons bring the offerings to the bishop at the altar.執事使祭祀主教在祭壇。 The priests stand around, two deacons wave fans ('ripídia) over the bread and wine and the Anaphora (canon) begins.祭司站在一旁,兩個執事波迷('ripídia)對麵包和酒,和照應(佳能)開始。 The bishop again greets the people with the words of II Cor., xiii, 13, and they answer as before: "And with thy spirit".主教再次迎接人民的詞語二肺心病。,13,13,和以前一樣,他們回答:“有了你的精神”。 He says: "Lift up your mind."他說:“抬起你的心。” R. "We have it to the Lord."河說:“我們已經到了主。” V. "Let us thank the Lord."五,“讓我們感謝上帝。” R. "Right and just."河“的權利和公正的。” He takes up their word: "It is truly right and above all just to sing to Thee, Who art truly God, existing before all creatures, from Whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named.…" and so the Eucharistic prayer begins.他佔據了他們的話:“這是真正的權利以及一切只是為了唱歌你,誰的藝術真正的上帝,在所有現有的生物,從他們所有的父親在天堂和地球上的名字命名的。...”等聖體祈禱開始。 He speaks of the "only begotten Son, the Word and God, Saving Wisdom, first born of all creatures, Angel of thy great counsel", refers at some length to the Garden of Eden, Abel, Henoch, Abraham, Melchisedech, Job, and other saints of the Old Law.他講的“唯一的兒子,上帝的話語,節能智慧,第一個出生的所有生物,你的天使大律師”,是指在某個長度的伊甸園,阿貝爾,過敏性,亞伯拉罕,Melchisedech,工作,和其他聖人的舊法。 When he has said the words: "the numberless army of Angels … the Cherubim and six-winged Seraphim … together with thousands of thousand Archangels and myriad myriads of Angels unceasingly and without silence cry out", "all the people together say: 'Holy, holy, holy the Lord of Hosts, the heaven and earth are full of His glory, blessed forever, Amen.'" The bishop then again takes up the word and continues: "Thou art truly holy and all-holy, highest and most exalted for ever. And thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God Jesus Christ, is holy …"; and so he comes to the words of Institution: "in the night in which He was betrayed, taking bread in His holy and blameless hands and looking up to Thee, His God and Father, and breaking He gave to His disciples saying: This is the Mystery of the New Testament; take of it, eat. This is My body, broken for many for the remission of sins. So also having mixed the cup of wine and water, and having blessed it, He gave to them saying: Drink you all of this. This is My blood shed for many for the remission of sins. Do this in memory of Me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you announce My death until I come."當他說的話:“軍隊的無數的天使 ...基路伯和六翼天使...連同數千萬元天使和無數無數的天使,沒有不斷地哭了沉默”,“所有的人一起說:'聖,神聖的,神聖的上帝的主機,天地充滿了他的榮耀,祝福永遠,阿門。“主教然後再次佔據了字,並繼續說:”你是真正的聖潔,全聖,最高和最崇高的永遠。與你的唯一,獨生兒子,我們主耶穌基督的神,是神聖的...“等字樣,他來到的機構:”在夜晚中,他被出賣,以麵包在他的神聖和清白手和仰視你,他的神,父,並打破他給他的弟子說:這是神秘的新約,利用它,吃。這是我的身體,打破了許多為緩解的罪孽。因此,也有混合酒的杯子和水,並具有得天獨厚的,他給他們說:你們喝這個。這是我流了很多血為緩解的罪孽。做到這一點在我的記憶。對於作為常常因為你吃這餅,喝這杯,你宣布我死亡,直到我來。“

Then follow the Anamimnesis ("Remembering therefore His suffering and death and resurrection and return to heaven and His future second coming …"), the Epiklesis or invocation ("sending Thy Holy Spirit, the witness of the sufferings of the Lord Jesus to this sacrifice, that He may change this bread to the body of thy Christ and this cup to the blood of thy Christ …"), and a sort of litany (the great Intercession) for the Church, clergy, the Emperor, and for all sorts and conditions of men, which ends with a doxology, "and all the people say: Amen."然後按照Anamimnesis(“記住,因此他的苦難和死亡和復活,回到天上,他今後的第二次來...”),本Epiklesis或調用(“送你的聖靈,見證的苦難主耶穌這個犧牲,那他可能會改變這種麵包對身體的基督,這杯你向你的血液基督...“),以及一連串的排序(大調解)為教會,神職人員,天皇,和種種條件的男子,這結束了三一頌“,和所有的人說:阿門。” In this litany is a curious petition (after that for the Emperor and the army) which joins the saints to living people for whom the bishop prays: "We also offer to thee for ('upér) all thy holy and eternally well-pleasing patriarchs, prophets, just apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, priests, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, virgins, widows, laymen, and all those whose names thou knowest."在這一長串是一個奇怪的請願書(之後為天皇和軍隊),其中加入聖徒生活主教為他們祈禱:“我們也願意為你('upér)所有你的神聖和永恆滿意的元老,先知,只是使徒,烈士,師,主教,神父,執事,修士,讀者,歌手,處女,寡婦,行內人,以及所有那些名字你知道。“ After the Kiss of Peace (The peace of God be with you all) the deacon calls upon the people to pray for various causes which are nearly the same as those of the bishop's litany and the bishop gathers up their prayers in a collect.吻後和平(和平的神與你同所有)執事呼籲人們祈求各種原因,其中包括幾乎相同的那些主教的主教一長串和收集了他們的祈禱中收集。 He then shows them the Holy Eucharist, saying: "Holy things for the holy" and they answer: "One is holy, one is Lord, Jesus Christ in the glory of God the Father, etc."然後,他顯示了他們的聖體聖事,他說:“神聖的神聖的東西”,他們回答:“一個是聖潔的,一個是主,耶穌基督在榮耀上帝的父親,等等” The bishop gives the people Holy Communion in the form of bread, saying to each: "The body of Christ", and the communicant "answers Amen".主教給人民聖餐麵包的形式,說給每個:“基督的身體”,而聖餐“答案阿門”。 The deacon follows with the chalice, saying: "The blood of Christ, chalice of life."執事如下的聖杯,他說:“基督的血,聖杯的生活。” R. "Amen."河“阿門。” While they receive, the xxxiii Psalm (I will bless the Lord at all times) is said.當他們接收的三十三詩篇(我會保佑上帝在任何時候)說。 After Communion the deacons take what is left of the Blessed Sacrament to the tabernacles (pastophória).經過聖餐執事採取什麼是左邊的聖體的帳棚(pastophória)。 There follows a short thanksgiving, the bishop dismisses the people and the deacon ends by saying: "Go in peace."有如下一個短感恩,主教駁回人民和執事完說:“平平安安的去吧。”

Throughout this liturgy the compiler supposes that it was drawn up by the Apostles and he inserts sentences telling us which Apostle composed each separate part, for instance: "And I, James, brother of John the son of Zebedee, say that the deacon shall say at once: 'No one of the catechumens,'" etc. The second book of the Apostolic Constitutions contains the outline of a liturgy (hardly more than the rubrics) which practically coincides with this one.在整個禮儀的編譯器假設,這是制定了由使徒,他告訴我們哪些句子插入使徒每個單獨的組成部分,例如:“我,詹姆斯,約翰的兄弟西庇太的兒子,說,執事會說在一次:'沒有一人慕道,'“等第二本書包含的使徒憲法大綱的禮儀(幾乎比表),其中幾乎與此相一致的。 All the liturgies of the Antiochene class follow the same general arrangement as that of the Apostolic Constitutions.所有的禮儀類的安提阿學派遵循相同的一般安排,即在使徒憲法。 Gradually the preparation of the oblation (Prothesis, the word also used for the credence table), before the actual liturgy begins, develops into an elaborate service.漸漸地,準備了祭品(假體,這個詞也用於憑證表),在實際的禮儀開始,發展成為一個精心的服務。 The preparation for the lessons (the little Entrance) and the carrying of the oblation from the Prothesis to the altar (the great Entrance) become solemn processions, but the outline of the liturgy: the Mass of the Catechumens and their dismissal; the litany; the Anaphora beginning with the words "Right and just" and interrupted by the Sanctus; the words of Institution; Anamimnesis, Epiklesis and Supplication for all kinds of people at that place; the Elevation with the words "Holy things to the holy"; the Communion distributed by the bishop and deacon (the deacon having the chalice); and then the final prayer and dismissal–this order is characteristic of all the Syrian and Palestinian uses, and is followed in the derived Byzantine liturgies.該準備的經驗教訓(小高考)和攜帶的祭品從假體的祭壇(大門口)成為莊嚴的遊行,但大綱的禮儀:地下的慕道者及他們的解聘;的一長串;照應開頭的單詞“正確和公正的”,並中斷了眾神;字事業單位; Anamimnesis,Epiklesis與祈求所有類型的人在該地點;高程改為“聖物的聖地”;的共融的主教和分發的執事(執事具有聖杯),然後在最後的祈禱和解僱,這種秩序的特點是所有的敘利亞和巴勒斯坦的用途,其次是在派生拜占庭禮儀。 Two points in that of the Apostolic Constitutions should be noticed.在這兩點的使徒憲法應注意。 No saints are mentioned by name and there is no Our Father.沒有提到聖人的名字,也沒有我們的父親。 The mention of saints' names, especially of the "All-holy Mother of God", spread considerably among Catholics after the Council of Ephesus (431), and prayers invoking her under that title were then added to all the Catholic liturgies.在提到聖人的名字,特別是“全神聖的上帝之母”,天主教徒之間傳播後,大大理事會以弗所(431),並祈禱她援引該標題下分別加入到所有的天主教禮儀。 The Apostolic Constitutions have preserved an older form unchanged by the development that modifies forms in actual use.使徒憲法仍保留舊的形式不變的發展形式,在實際使用修改。 The omission of the Lord's Prayer is curious and unique.該遺漏的主禱文是好奇和獨特的。 It has at any rate nothing to do with relative antiquity.它在任何速度無關,相對古代。 In the "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" (VIII, ii, 3) people are told to pray three times a day "as the Lord commanded in his Gospel: Our Father", etc.在“教學的十二使徒”(第八,二,三)人被告知每天三次祈禱“作為主吩咐在他的福音:我們的父親”等

II.二。 THE GREEK LITURGY OF ST.希臘禮儀中1-20。 JAMES塗謹申

Of the Antiochene liturgies drawn up for actual use, the oldest one and the original from which the others have been derived is the Greek Liturgy of St. James.在安提阿學派禮儀制定了實際使用中,最古老的和原始從中衍生出來的人已被希臘禮儀聖雅各福群。 The earliest reference to it is Canon xxxii of the Quinisextum Council (II Trullan AD 692), which quotes it as being really composed by St. James, the brother of Our Lord.最早提到它是佳能三十二的Quinisextum會(二Trullan公元692),其中被引用它作為真正的聖雅各福群組成,我們的主的弟弟。 The Council appeals to this liturgy in defending the mixed chalice against the Armenians.安理會呼籲在捍衛這個禮儀混合聖杯對亞美尼亞人。 St. Jerome (died 420) seems to have known it.圣杰羅姆(死於420)似乎已經知道它。 At any rate at Bethlehem he quotes as a liturgical form the words "who alone is sinless", which occur in this Liturgy (Adv. Pel., II, xxiii).無論如何,他在伯利恆報價作為禮儀形式的話:“誰才是無罪的”,它發生在這個禮儀(Adv.貝利。,二,二十三)。 The fact that the Jacobites use the same liturgy in Syriac shows that it existed and was well established before the Monophysite schism.事實上,使用相同的詹姆斯黨在敘利亞禮儀表明,它的存在而被確立之前,基督一分裂。 The oldest manuscript is one of the tenth century formerly belonging to the Greek monastery at Messina and now kept in the University library of that city.最古老的手稿是在10世紀以前屬於希臘修道院在墨西拿,現在存放在大學圖書館的那個城市。 The Greek Liturgy of St. James follows in all its essential parts that of the Apostolic Constitutions.希臘禮儀聖雅各福群跟隨其所有重要部件的使徒憲法。 It has preparatory prayers to be said by the priest and deacon and a blessing of the incense.據籌備祈禱說,由神父和執事和祝福的香火。 Then begins the Mass of the Catechumens with the little Entrance.然後開始了大規模的慕道與小入口。 The deacon says a litany ('ekténeia), to each clause of which the people answer "Kyrie eleison".一連串的執事說,1('ekténeia),每個條款,其中的人回答“凱里eleison”。 Meanwhile the priest is saying a prayer to himself, of which only the last words are said aloud, after the litany is finished.與此同時,牧師的祈禱是對自己說,其中只有最後一句話是大聲說,經過一長串完成。 The singers say the Trisagion, "Holy God, holy Strong One, holy Immortal One, have mercy on us."歌手說Trisagion,“神聖的神,聖潔的強,一個神聖的不朽,憐憫我們。” The practice of the priest saying one prayer silently while the people are occupied with something different is a later development.這種做法的一個牧師說默默祈禱,而人民是被佔領的東西不同的是以後的發展。 The Lessons follow, still in the older form, that is, long portions of both Testaments, then the prayers for the catechumens and their dismissal.遵循的教訓,仍然在舊的形式,即長兩部分聖經,然後祈禱為慕道及解僱。 Among the prayers for the catechumens occurs a reference to the cross (lift up the horn of the Christians by the power of the venerable and life-giving cross) which must have been written after St. Helen found it (c. 326) and which is one of the many reasons for connecting this liturgy with Jerusalem.其中為慕道者祈禱發生的交叉引用(解除了非洲之角的基督徒由古老的權力和賦予生命的交叉),必須已被寫入後發現,聖海倫(公元前326),哪個是其中一個原因是多方面的,用於連接這個禮儀與耶路撒冷。 When the catechumens are dismissed the deacon tells the faithful to "know each other", that is to observe whether any stranger is still present.當慕道被駁回執事告訴忠實於“互相了解”,即是觀察是否有陌生人仍然存在。 The great Entrance which begins the Mass of the Faithful is already an imposing ceremony.偉大的入口開始,群眾的忠實已是徵收儀式。 The incense is blessed, the oblation is brought from the Prothesis to the altar while the people sing the Cherubikon, ending with three Alleluias.幸運的是香,帶來的祭品是從假體的祭壇,而人民唱Cherubikon,截至3 Alleluias。 (The text is different from the Byzantine Cherubikon.) Meanwhile the priest says another prayer silently. (文本不同於拜占庭Cherubikon。)同時,牧師說,另一個默默祈禱。 The creed is then said; apparently at first it was a shorter form like the Apostles' Creed. The Offertory prayers and the litany are much longer than those in the Apostolic Constitutions.的信條,然後說,顯然這是第一次在一個較短的形式,如使徒信經。奉獻祈禱的禱文和遠遠超過那些在使徒憲法。 There is as yet no reference to an Iconostasis (screen dividing the choir or place of the clergy).但目前還沒有提到一個聖像(屏幕劃分的合唱團或地方的神職人員)。 The beginning of the "Anaphora" (Preface) is shorter.開始時的“照應”(序)較短。 The words of Institution and Anamimnesis are followed immediately by the Epiklesis; then comes the Supplication for various people.這些話是對機構和Anamimnesis緊隨其後的Epiklesis;然後是祈求為不同的人。 The deacon reads the "Diptychs" of the names of the people for whom they pray; then follows a list of Saints beginning with "our all-holy, immaculate and highly praised Lady Mary, Mother of God and ever-virgin."執事讀取“Diptychs”的名字對他們來說,他們的人祈禱,然後如下列表聖人開始,“我們全是聖潔的,完美無暇的高度讚揚和夫人瑪利亞,天主之母和不斷處女。” Here are inserted two hymns to Our Lady obviously directed against the Nestorian heresy.這裡有兩個讚美詩插入到聖母明顯針對景教異端。 The Lord's Prayer follows with an introduction and Embolismos.主禱文如下的介紹和Embolismos。 The Host is shown to the people with the same words as in the Apostolic Constitutions, and then broken, and part of it is put into the chalice while the priest says: "The mixing of the all-holy Body and the precious Blood of Our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ."主機是向人民展示了同樣的話在使徒憲法,然後被打破,一部分是投入的聖杯而牧師說:“混合的全聖體和寶血我國主,上帝和救主耶穌基督。“ Before Communion Psalm xxxiii is said.聖餐前詩篇三十三說。 The priest says a prayer before his Communion.祭司說,一個禮拜之前,他聖餐。 The deacon communicates the people.執事溝通的人。 There is no such form as: "The Body of Christ"; he says only: "Approach in the fear of the Lord", and they answer "Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord."有沒有這樣的形式為:“基督的身體”,他只說:“法在恐懼上帝”,他們回答“誰是有福的,他進來的名稱主。” What is left of the Blessed Sacrament is taken by the deacon to the Prothesis; the prayers of thanksgiving are longer than those of the Apostolic Constitutions.什麼是左側的聖體是由執事的假體;祈禱感恩長於那些使徒憲法。 The Liturgy of St. James as it now exists is a more developed form of the same use as that of the Apostolic Constitutions. The prayers are longer, the ceremonies have become more elaborate, incense is used continually, and the preparation is already on the way to become the complicated service of the Byzantine Prothesis.聖雅各福群的禮儀,因為它現在存在的一個較發達的形式相同的使用,該使徒憲法。較長的禱告,儀式變得更複雜,香火不斷使用,並已在準備要想變得複雜服務的拜占庭假體。 There are continual invocations of saints; but the essential outline of the Rite is the same.有不斷調用的聖人,但基本輪廓的成年禮是相同的。 Besides the references to the Holy Cross, one allusion makes it clear that it was originally drawn lup for the Church of Jerusalem.除了提到的聖十字,一個典故清楚地表明,它最初制定土地利用規劃為教會的耶路撒冷。 The first supplication after the Epiklesis is: "We offer to thee, O Lord, for Thy holy places which Thou hast glorified by the divine appearance of Thy Christ and by the coming of Thy holy Spirit, especially for the holy and illustrious Sion, mother of all churches and for Thy holy Catholic and apostolic Church throughout the world."第一祈求後Epiklesis是:“我們提供給你,主啊,為你神聖的地方,祢榮耀的基督神聖的外觀和你的到來,你的聖靈,特別是對神聖和傑出的錫永,母親所有教堂和你的神聖天主教和使徒教會在世界各地。“ This liturgy was used throughout Syria and Palestine, that is throughout the Antiochene Patriarchate (Jerusalem was not made a patriarchal see till the Council of Ephesus, 431) before the Nestorian and Monophysite schisms.這個禮儀是用於整個敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,這是整個安提阿學派主教(耶路撒冷是沒有一個家長看到,直到安理會的以弗所,431)之前,景教和monophysite分裂。 It is possible to reconstruct a great part of the use of the city of Antioch while St. John Chrysostom was preaching there (370-397) from the allusions and quotations in his homilies (Probst, Liturgie des IV. Jahrh., II, i, v, 156, 198).很可能要重建一個偉大的一部分,使用城市安提阿而聖約翰金口傳道有(370-397)從他的典故和報價頌歌(普羅布斯特,Liturgie德四。Jahrh。,二,我,五,156,198)。 It is then seen to be practically that of St. James: indeed whole passages are quoted word for word as they stand in St. James or in the Apostolic Constitutions.這是被看成是幾乎在聖雅各福群:事實上整個段落被引用逐字逐句,因為他們站在聖詹姆斯或在使徒憲法。

The Catechisms of St. Cyril of Jerusalem were held in 348; the first eighteen are addressed to the Competentes (photizómenoi) during Lent, the last six to the neophytes in Easter week.在要理問答聖西里爾耶路撒冷舉行了348,第一18頃給Competentes(photizómenoi)在封齋期,在過去的6到新手在復活節週。 In these he explains, besides Baptism and Confirmation, the holy liturgy.在這些他解釋說,除了洗禮和確認,神聖的禮儀。 The allusions to the liturgy are carefully veiled in the earlier ones because of the disciplina arcani; they became much plainer when he speaks to people just baptized, although even then he avoids quoting the baptism form or the words of consecration.該典故的禮儀精心隱晦的,因為在早期的disciplina arcani,他們變得更為淺顯的人說話時,他剛剛領洗,雖然即使在那時,他就避免引用的洗禮的形式或文字的奉獻。 From these Catechisms we learn the order of the liturgy at Jerusalem in the middle of the fourth century. Except for one or two unimportant variations, it is that of St. James (Probst, op. cit., II, i, ii, 77-106).從這些我們學習要理問答的順序在耶路撒冷的禮儀在中間的第四個世紀。除一兩個無關緊要的變化,那就是聖雅各福群(普羅布斯特,同前。前。,二,一,二,77 -106)。 This liturgy appears to have been used in either language, Greek at Antioch, Jerusalem, and the chief cities where Greek was commonly spoken, Syriac in the country.這個禮儀似乎已經被用在兩種語言,希臘在安提阿,耶路撒冷和希臘的主要城市,是常見的發言後,敘利亞在該國。 The oldest form of it now extant is the Greek version.最古老的形式,現在是希臘現存的版本。 Is it possible to find a relationship between it and other parent-uses?是否可以找到一個關係,它和其他家長用途? There are a number of very remarkable parallel passages between the Anaphora of this liturgy and the Canon of the Roman Mass. The order of the prayers is different, but when the Greek or Syriac is translated into Latin there appear a large number of phrases and clauses that are identical with ours. It has been suggested that Rome and Syria originally used the same liturgy and that the much-disputed question of the order of our Canon may be solved by reconstructing it according to the Syrian use (Drews, Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Kanons).有一個數字非常顯著的平行通道之間的照應本禮儀和佳能的羅馬彌撒禮拜的順序是不同的,但是當希臘和敘利亞被翻譯成拉丁文有出現大量的短語和條款這與我們是一致的。有人建議,羅馬和敘利亞最初使用相同的禮儀,而備受爭議的問題,我們佳能的順序可能是解決重建它根據敘利亞使用(德魯茲,祖爾Entstehungsgeschichte德Kanons )。 Mgr.經理。 Duchesne and most authors, on the other hand, are disposed to connect the Gallican Liturgy with that of Syria and the Roman Mass with the Alexandrine use (Duchesne, Origines du culte chrétien, 54).德雷珀和大多數作家,另一方面,處置連接高盧禮儀與該敘利亞和羅馬的亞歷山大用質譜(德雷珀,Origines杜culte克雷蒂安54)。

III.三。 THE SYRIAC LITURGIES敘利亞文禮儀

After the Monophysite schism and the Council of Chalcedon (451) both Melchites and Jacobites continued using the same rite.基督一後分裂和理事會的卡爾西(451)都Melchites和詹姆斯黨繼續使用相同的儀式。 But gradually the two languages became characteristic of the two sides.但逐漸成為兩種語言特徵的兩個方面。 The Jacobites used only Syriac (their whole movement being a national revolt against the Emperor), and the Melchites, who were nearly all Greeks in the chief towns, generally used Greek.在詹姆斯黨只用敘利亞文(他們的整個運動是一個國家反抗皇帝)和Melchites,誰是希臘人在幾乎所有主要城鎮,普遍使用希臘文。 The Syriac Liturgy of St. James now extant is not the original one used before the schism, but a modified form derived from it by the Jacobites for their own use.敘利亞文禮儀聖雅各福群目前現存的並不是原來的1使用前的分裂,而是來自它修改的形式由詹姆斯黨供自己使用。 The preparation of the oblation has become a still more elaborate rite.該準備的祭品已成為更加詳細的儀式。 The kiss of peace comes at the beginning of the Anaphora and after it this Syriac liturgy follows the Greek one almost word for word, including the reference to Sion, the mother of all churches.談到和平的吻在開始的照應和敘利亞之後,這個禮儀如下希臘一幾乎逐字逐句,包括參考錫永,母親的所有教堂。 But the list of saints is modified; the deacon commemorates the saints "who have kept undefiled the faith of Nicæa, Constantinople and Ephesus"; he names "James the brother of Our Lord" alone of the Apostles and "most chiefly Cyril who was a tower of the truth, who expounded the incarnation of the Word of God, and Mar James and Mar Ephraim, eloquent mouths and pillars of our holy Church."但該名單的聖人是修改;執事紀念聖人“誰一直沒有玷污的信仰尼西亞,君士坦丁堡和以弗所”,他的名字“雅各的兄弟我們的主”單獨的使徒和“最誰是主要西里爾塔的真理,闡述了誰的化身上帝的話,03月和03月詹姆斯和以法蓮,雄辯的嘴和支柱我們神聖的教會。“ Mar James is Baradaï, through whom they have their orders, and from whom their name (543).詹姆斯巴拉達伊3月,他們通過他們的訂單,並從他們自己的名字(543)。 Is Ephraim the Patriarch of Antioch who reigned there from 539-545, but who was certainly not a Monophysite? The list of saints, however, varies considerably; sometimes they introduce a long list of their patrons (Renaudot, Lit. Orient. Col., II, 101-103).以法蓮是主教安提誰籠罩著從539-545,但肯定不是一個誰是基督一?清單聖人,但是,有很大的差別,有時他們提出一個長長的清單及其顧客(勒諾多,點亮。東方。上校,二,101-103)。 This liturgy still contains a famous clause.這禮儀中仍包含一個著名的條款。 Just before the lessons the Trisagion is sung.就在教訓Trisagion是做不到的。 That of the Greek rite is: "Holy God, holy Strong one, holy Immortal one, have mercy on us."這是希禮是:“神聖的上帝,聖強,聖仙一,憐憫我們。” The Syriac rite adds after "holy Immortal one" the words: "who wast crucified for us."儀式的敘利亞後加“神聖的神仙”之一的話:“誰廢為我們釘在十字架上。” This is the addition made by Peter the Dyer (gnaphe&ús, fullos) Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch (458-471), which seemed to the Orthodox to conceal Monophysite heresy and which was adopted by the Jacobites as a kind of proclamation of their faith.這是除了由彼得大帝代爾(gnaphe與我們富略斯)基督一牧安提(458-471),這似乎掩蓋了東正教基督一異端並通過了詹姆斯黨作為一個種宣布他們的信仰。 In the Syriac use a number of Greek words have remained.在敘利亞使用數字希臘詞人留下來。 The deacon says stômen kalôs in Greek and the people continually cry out "Kurillison", just as they say "Amen" and "Alleluia" in Hebrew.執事說stômen卡洛斯在希臘和人民不斷大叫“Kurillison”,正如他們說“阿門”和“哈里路亞”的希伯來文。 Short liturgical forms constantly become fossilized in one language and count almost as inarticulate exclamations.短禮儀形式不斷成為化石的一種語言和計數幾乎口齒不清的感嘆詞。 The Greek ones in the Syriac liturgy show that the Greek language is the original.在希臘的敘利亞禮儀表明,希臘語是原來的。 Besides the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, the Jacobites have a large number of other Anaphoras, which they join to the common Preparation and Catechumen's Mass. The names of sixtly-four of these Anaphoras are known.除了敘利亞禮儀聖詹姆斯,詹姆斯黨有一大批其他Anaphoras,他們加入到共同的製備及慕道彌撒的名稱sixtly - 4這些Anaphoras是已知的。 They are attributed to various saints and Monophysite bishops; thus, there are the Anaphoras of St. Basil, St. Cyril of Alexandria, St. Peter, St. Clement, Dioscurus of Alexandria, John Maro, James of Edessa (died 708), Severus of Antioch (died 518), and so on.他們是由於各種聖人和monophysite主教,因此,還有一些Anaphoras的聖巴索,聖西里爾的亞歷山德里亞,聖彼得,聖克萊門特,Dioscurus的亞歷山德里亞,約翰馬羅,詹姆斯的edessa(死於708),塞維魯安提(死於 518),等等。 There is also a shortened Anaphora of St. James of Jerusalem.也有縮短照應聖詹姆斯耶路撒冷。 Renaudot prints the texts of forty-two of these liturgies in a Latin translation.勒諾打印文本的42這些禮儀在拉丁語翻譯。 They consist of different prayers, but the order is practically always that of the Syriac St. James Liturgy, and they are really local modifications of it.它們由不同的祈禱,但該命令實際上總是認為敘利亞文聖雅各福群禮儀,他們是真正的本地修改它。 A letter written by James of Edessa (c. 624) to a certain priest named Timothy describes and explains the Monophysite Liturgy of his time (Assemani, Bibl. Orient., I, 479-486).阿信寫的詹姆斯的edessa(公元前624),以一個祭司名為蒂莫西介紹並解釋了他的基督一禮儀時間(Assemani,Bibl。東方。,我,479-486)。 It is the Syrian St. James.這是敘利亞聖雅各福群。 The Liturgy of the Presanctified of St. James (used on the week days of Lent except Saturdays) follows the other one very closely.該presanctified的禮儀聖雅各福群(用於本週天的大齋星期六除外)如下另一種非常密切的合作。 There is the Mass of the Catechumens with the little Entrance, the Lessons, Mass of the Faithful and great Entrance, litanies, Our Father, breaking of the Host, Communion, thanksgiving, and dismissal.有群眾的慕道與小入口,總結,群眾的忠實的偉大入口,連篇累牘地談,我們的父親,打破了主機,共融,感恩,和解僱。 Of course the whole Eucharistic prayer is left out–the oblations are already consecrated as they lie on the Prothesis before the great Entrance (Brightman, op. cit., 494-501).當然整個彌撒祈禱是左外敬奉已經獻身的,他們趴在修復術前大入口(布萊曼,同前。前。,494-501)。

IV.四。 THE PRESENT TIME對當前

The Jacobites in Syria and Palestine still use the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, as do also the Syrian Uniates.在詹姆斯黨在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦仍然使用敘利亞禮儀聖詹姆斯一樣,也是敘利亞Uniates。 The Orthodox of the two Patriarchates, Antioch and Jerusalem, have forsaken their own use for many centuries.東正教牧首的兩個,安提阿和耶路撒冷,捨棄了其自用的許多世紀。 Like all the Christians in communion with Constantinople, they have adopted the Byzantine Rite.像所有的基督徒的共融與君士坦丁堡,他們採用了拜占庭儀式。 This is one result of the extreme centralization towards Constantinople that followed the Arab conquests of Egypt, Palestine, and Syria.這是一個極端的結果集中向君士坦丁堡之後阿拉伯征服埃及,巴勒斯坦和敘利亞。 The Melchite Patriarchs of those countries, who had already lost nearly all their flocks through the Monophysite heresy, became the merest shadows and eventually even left their sees to be ornaments of the courts at Constantinople.該Melchite始祖這些國家,誰已經失去了幾乎所有他們的羊群通過基督一異端,成為微薄的陰影,最終甚至離開了他們認為是飾品法院在君士坦丁堡。 It was during that time, before the rise of the new national churches, that the Byzantine Patriarch developed into something very like a pope over the whole Orthodox world.正是在那個時候,之前的興起,新的國家教會,即拜占庭牧首非常喜歡的東西發展成一個東正教教皇在整個世界。 And he succeeded in foisting the liturgy, calendar, and practices of his own patriarchate on the much older and more venerable sees of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.他成功地強加於禮儀,日曆和實踐自己的東正教的老得多,更可敬看到亞歷山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷。 It is not possible to say exactly when the older uses were forsaken for that of Byzantium.這是不可能準確說出何時使用被遺棄的舊為該拜占廷。 Theodore Balsamon says that by the end of the twelfth century the Church of Jerusalem followed the Byzantine Rite.西奧多Balsamon說,由最終的12世紀的耶路撒冷教堂的拜占庭儀式之後。 By that time Antioch had also doubtless followed suit.到那時安提阿也無疑效仿。 There are, however, two small exceptions.有,但是,兩個小例外。 In the island of Zakynthos and in Jerusalem itself the Greek Liturgy of St. James was used on one day each year, 23 October, the feast of St. James the "brother of God".在島嶼扎金索斯和耶路撒冷本身希臘禮儀聖雅各福群是用於每年有一天,10月23日,節日聖雅各福群的“兄弟”上帝的。 It is still so used at Zakynthos, and in 1886 Dionysios Latas, Metropolitan of Zakynthos, published an edition of it for practical purposes.它仍然習慣在扎金索斯,並於1886年狄奧尼拉塔斯,大都會扎金索斯,出版一個版本的它實際用途。 At Jerusalem even this remnant of the old use had disappeared.在耶路撒冷連這殘存的舊的使用已經消失。 But in 1900 Lord Damianos, the Orthodox Patriarch, revived it for one day in the year, not 23 October but 31 December.但在1900年主Damianos,東正教主教,這一天復活在今年10月23日,但不是12月31日。 It was first celebrated again in 1900 (on 30 December as an exception) in the church of the Theological College of the Holy Cross.這是首次在1900年再次慶祝(12月30日作為一個例外)在基督教神學院的聖十字。 Lord Epiphanios, Archbishop of the River Jordan, celebrated, assisted by a number of concelebrating priests.主Epiphanios,大主教約旦河,慶祝的協助下,一個數字的共祭神父。 The edition of Latas was used, but the Archimandrite Chrysostomos Papadopoulos has been commissioned to prepare another and more correct edition (Echos d'Orient, IV, 247, 248).該版本採用的拉塔斯,但修士赫里索斯托莫斯普洛斯已委託編寫另一個更正確的版本(迴聲報德東方,四,247,248)。 It should be noted finally that the Maronites use the Syrian St. James with a few very slight modifications, and that the Nestorian, Byzantine, and Armenian Liturgies are derived from that of Antioch.最後應當指出的馬龍派教徒使用敘利亞聖雅各福群與幾個非常輕微的修改,而景教,拜占庭,亞美尼亞和禮儀是根據從安提。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息的書面由Adrian福特斯丘。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄由WGKofron。 With thanks to Fr.隨著神父感謝。 John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.約翰Hilkert,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography書目

TEXTS.文本。 –Leitourgíai tôn 'agíon patéron 'Iakóbou toû 'apostólou kaí 'adelphothéou, Basileíou megálou, ';Ioánnou toû Chrusostómou (Paris, 1560–the textus receptus), reprinted by FRONTON LE DUC, Bibliotheca veterum patrum (Paris, 1624), II, and in a Venetian edition ('en tê Salakáte, 1645); BRIGHTMAN, Liturgies Eastern and Western (Oxford, 1896), I (Apost. Const., 3-27; Greek St. James, 31-68; Syriac St. James, in English, 69-110; St. Cyril of Jer., 464-470; St. John Chrys., 470-481); James of Edessa, 490-494; Presanct. - Leitourgíai噸'agíon帕泰龍'Iakóbou頭'apostólou偕'adelphothéou,Basileíou megálou,';約安努頭Chrusostómou(巴黎,1560年,該Web網站receptus),重印由弗龍萊杜克,藏書veterum patrum(巴黎,1624),二,並在威尼斯版(恩德Salakáte,1645);布萊曼,禮儀東部和西部(牛津,1896年),我(Apost.常量。,3月27日,希臘聖雅各福群,31-68;敘利亞文聖雅各福群在英語中,69-110;聖西里爾哲。,464-470;聖約翰克里斯。,470-481);詹姆斯的edessa,490-494; Presanct。 Lit.里拉。 of St. James, 494-501); DIONYSIOS LATAS, 'E theía leitourgía toû 'agíou 'endóksou 'apostólou 'Iakóbou toû 'adelphoû théou kaì prótou ierárchou tôn 'Ierosolúmen 'ekdotheîsa metà diatákseos kaì semeióseon (Zakynthos, 1886); NEALE, The Liturgies of S. Mark, St. James, S. Clement, S. Chrysostom, S. Basil (London, 1875), St. Clement, ie Ap.聖雅各福群,494-501);狄奧尼拉塔斯,『E忒伊亞leitourgía頭'agíou'endóksou'apostólou'Iakóbou頭'adelphoû théou偕prótou ierárchou噸'Ierosolúmen'ekdotheîsa元diatákseos偕semeióseon(扎金索斯,1886年);尼爾, S的標誌的禮儀,聖雅各福群,第克萊門特,第金口,第羅勒(倫敦,1875年),聖克萊門特,即鴨。 Const., 85-108, Greek St. James, 39-78; Missale Syriacum iuxta ritum antiochenæ Syrorum (Rome, 1843–for the Uniats).常量。,85-108,希臘聖雅各福群,39-78; Missale Syriacum iuxta ritum antiochenæ Syrorum(羅馬,1843年,為Uniats)。 The various liturgical books used by the Syrian Uniats are published at Beirût.使用的各種禮儀的書籍是由敘利亞Uniats在貝魯特發表。 Missale Chaldaicum iuxta ritum ecclesiæ nationis Maronitarum (Rome, 1716); BODERIANUS, De ritibus baptismi et sacra synaxis apud Syros christianos receptis (Antwerp, 1572, Syriac and Latin). Missale Chaldaicum iuxta ritum琤nationis Maronitarum(羅馬,1716年); BODERIANUS,德ritibus baptismi等薩克拉synaxis apud錫羅斯christianos receptis(安特衛普,1572年,敘利亞和拉丁美洲)。 This contains the Ordo Communis only of the Jacobites, that is their Mass of the Catechumens, the rubrics and parts of the Mass of the Faithful, not the Anaphora.這包含歐爾群落只是詹姆斯黨,這是他們的地下的慕道者,在類目表和部分群眾的忠實,而不是照應。 The complete Jacobite texts are not published (cf. Brightman, lv-lvi).詹姆士的完整文本尚未公佈(見布萊曼,履LVI)號。

TRANSLATIONS.翻譯。 –THUSAIS: liturgiæ sive missæ SS. - THUSAIS:liturgiæ sive彌撒程序的SS。 patrum Iacobi apostoli & fratris Domini, Basilii magni, Joannis Chrysostomi (Paris, 1560), reprinted in the Bibliotheca SS. patrum雅各比阿波斯托利&fratris多米尼,Basilii馬尼,若阿尼斯Chrysostomi(巴黎,1560年),重印在藏書的SS。 Patrum (Paris, 1577), etc.; RENAUDOT, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio (2nd ed., Frankfort, 1847), II (Syriac St. James, 1-44, Shorter St. James, 126-132, other Anaphoras, 134-500); BRETT, A Collection of the Principal Liturgies (London, 1720); NEALE, History of the Holy Eastern Church (London, 1850) I, 531-701; NEALE AND LITTLEDALE, The Liturgies of SS. Mark, James, Clement, Chrysostom and Basil and the Church of Malabar translated (London, 1868); Antenicene Christian Library (Edinburgh, 1872), XXIV; PROBST, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderten (Tübingen, 1870), 295-318; STORFF, Die griechischen Liturgien der hl. Patrum(巴黎,1577)等;勒諾多,Liturgiarum Orientalium系列(第二版。,法蘭克福,1847年),二(敘利亞文聖雅各福群,1-44,更短的聖雅各福群,126-132,其他Anaphoras,134 - 500);布雷特,一個集合的首席禮儀(倫敦,1720);尼爾,歷史的聖東方教會(倫敦,1850)我,531-701;尼爾和利特,在禮儀的SS。馬克,詹姆斯,克萊門特,金口和羅勒和教會的馬拉巴翻譯(倫敦,1868); Antenicene基督教圖書館(愛丁堡,1872年),第24條;普羅布斯特,Liturgie明鏡德賴埃斯ersten christlichen Jahrhunderten(蒂賓根,1870年),295-318;斯托夫,模具griechischen Liturgien德升。 Jakobus, Markus, Basilius, und Chrysostomus (Kempten, 1877), 30-78. Jakobus,馬庫斯,巴齊里烏斯,北達科克里索斯托(肯普滕,1877),30-78。

DISSERTATIONS.論文。 –Besides, the introductions and notes in RENAUDOT, PROBST, BRIGHTMAN, NEALE, STORFF (op. cit.), FUNK, Die apostolischen Konstitutionen (Rottenburg, 1891); ALLATIUS, Epistoli ad Bartholdum Nihusium de liturgiâ Iacobi in Summiktá (Cologne, 1653), 175-208, an attempt to prove that the liturgy really was written by St. James; BONA, Rerum liturgiarum libri duo (Turin, 1747), I, 129 sqq.; LIGHTFOOT, Disquisitio de St. Iacobi Liturgiâ f(op. posthuma, 1699); PALMER, Origines liturgica (4th ed., London, 1845), 15-44; TROLLOPE, The Greek Liturgy of St. James (Edinburgh, 1848); PROBST, Liturgie des IV. ,此外,在勒諾多的介紹和註釋,普羅布斯特,布萊曼,尼爾,斯托夫(同上。),放克,模具apostolischen Konstitutionen(羅滕堡,1891年); ALLATIUS,Epistoli廣告Bartholdum Nihusium德liturgiâ雅各比在Summiktá(科隆,1653 ),175-208,試圖證明確實是書面的禮儀聖雅各福群;博納,Rerum liturgiarum利博利二人(都靈,1747),我,129時12 sqq。;娜萊,聖雅各比Liturgiâ Disquisitio德樓(運。Posthuma著,1699年);帕爾默,Origines liturgica(第四版。,倫敦,1845),15-44;特羅洛普,希臘禮儀聖雅各福群(愛丁堡,1848);普羅布斯特,Liturgie德四。 Jahrhunderts und derem Reform (Münster, 1893); DUCHESNE, Origines du culte chrétien (2nd ed., Paris, 1898), 55-67; DREWS, Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Kanons in der römischen Messe (Tübingen, 1902). Jahrhunderts北達科derem改革(明斯特,1893年);杜欣,Origines杜culte克雷蒂安(第二版。,巴黎,1898),55-67;德魯茲,祖爾Entstehungsgeschichte德Kanons在德römischen展覽(蒂賓根,1902年)。


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