Anabaptists, Rebaptizers再洗禮派,Rebaptizers

General Information 一般信息

Anabaptists, or rebaptizers, were members of a variety of 16th - century religious groups that rejected infant baptism. Since they believed that only after an adult had come to faith in Christ should he or she be baptized, they taught that converts who had been baptized in infancy must be rebaptized. Anabaptists的,或rebaptizers,是一個各種成員的16 -世紀宗教團體反對嬰兒洗禮。由於他們認為,只有成年後已經到了應該在基督信仰,他或她受洗,他們告訴我們,誰被洗禮轉換在嬰兒期必須 rebaptized。

Anabaptists held the church to be the congregation of true saints who should separate themselves from the sinful world. Their theology was highly eschatological, and they claimed direct inspiration by the Holy Spirit.再洗禮派教堂舉行的是教會真正的聖人誰應單獨自己從罪惡的世界。他們高度末世論神學,並表示直接靈感的聖靈。 The Anabaptists refused to take oaths, opposed capital punishment, and rejected military service.的Anabaptists拒絕宣誓,反對死刑,並拒絕服兵役。 Their beliefs made them appear subversive and provoked persecution.他們的信仰使他們似乎顛覆和挑起的迫害。 Many of the Reformers disclaimed them, regarding them as fundamentally opposed to the ideas of the reformation.許多改革者否認他們,認為它們從根本上反對意見的改革。

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In Zurich, Conrad Grebel performed the first adult baptism on Jan.在蘇黎世,康拉德格雷貝爾執行的第一個成人洗禮1月 21, 1525, when he rebaptized Georg Blaurock in the house of Felix Manz. 21日,1525年,當他rebaptized喬格布勞羅克房子裡曼茨菲利克斯。 Anabaptism spread to southwest Germany, Austria, Moravia, along the Danube, and down the Rhine to the Netherlands. Numbering less than 1 percent of the population, the Anabaptists were for the most part of humble social origin. Anabaptism蔓延到德國西南部,奧地利,摩拉維亞,沿多瑙河,萊茵河,下到荷蘭。編碼不到百分之一的人口,為的anabaptists是最卑微的一部分,社會出身。 Among their leaders were Balthasar Hubmaier, Hans Denck, Jacob Hutter, and Hans Hut.在他們的領導人巴爾塔薩Hubmaier,漢斯Denck,雅各布胡特爾和漢斯必勝客。

In 1534, militant Anabaptists, inspired by radical Melchior Hofmann , seized control of the city of Munster. 1534年,激進Anabaptists,靈感來自激進梅爾基奧爾霍夫曼 ,繳獲控制城市明斯特。 Led by Bernt Knipperdollinck, Jan Mathijs, and Jan Beuckelson, better known as John of Leiden (c. 1509 - 36), they drove out all Protestants and Roman Catholics.貝恩特Knipperdollinck的帶領下,1月的Mathijs,和揚Beuckelson,更好地稱為約翰的萊頓(公元前1509至1536年),他們驅逐了所有新教和羅馬天主教。 John set up a theocracy, became king, and established polygamy and communal property.約翰成立了一個政教合一,成為國王,並建立一夫多妻制和公有財產。 After a 16 month siege, the bishop of Munster recaptured the city and executed the rebels. Menno Simons, a Dutchman, restored the reputation of the Anabaptists through his moderate and inspired leadership.經過16個月的圍困,主教明斯特奪回城市和執行的反政府武裝。 門諾西門子,一個荷蘭人,恢復名譽的Anabaptists通過他溫和,鼓舞人心的領導。 His followers have survived and are known as Mennonites .他的追隨者有生存和被稱為門諾派 The Hutterian Brethren are descendants of the group led by Hutter.Hutterian弟兄後裔領導小組由胡特爾。

Lewis W Spitz劉易斯 W施皮茨

Bibliography 書目
CP Clasen, Anabaptism: A Social History, 1525 - 1618 (1972); W Estep, The Anabaptist Story (1975); GF Hershberger, ed., The Recovery of the Anabaptist Vision (1957); FH Littell, Origins of Sectarian Protestantism (1964); GH Williams, The Radical Reformation (1962); GH Williams and A Mergal, eds., Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers (1957).處長克拉森,Anabaptism:一個社會歷史,1525年至1618年(1972年); W埃斯特普,再洗禮派的故事(1975年);綠赫什伯格,編輯。,恢復了再洗禮派視覺(1957年);跳頻利特爾,新教教派的起源( 1964年);生長激素威廉姆斯,激進改革(1962年);生長激素威廉姆斯和A瑪格利塔梅爾加爾合編。,精神文明和再洗禮派作家(1957年)。


Anabaptists再洗禮派

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Greek ana, again, and baptizo, baptize; rebaptizers). (希臘全日空,再次,baptizo,洗禮; rebaptizers)。

A violent and extremely radical body of ecclesiastico-civil reformers which first made its appearance in 1521 at Zwickau, in the present kingdom of Saxony, and still exists in milder forms.一個激進組織的暴力和極端的ecclesiastico公務員改革者其中首次提出了在1521年出現在茨維考,在目前的薩克森王國,仍然存在著溫和的形式。

I. NAME AND DOCTRINAL PRINCIPLES一,名稱和理論原則

The name Anabaptists, etymologically applicable, and sometimes applied to Christian denominations that practise re-baptism is, in general historical usage, restricted to those who, denying the validity of infant baptism, became prominent during the great reform movement of the sixteenth century.再洗禮派的名稱,詞源適用,有時適用於基督教教派的做法重新洗禮是,在一般的歷史使用情況,僅限於那些誰,否認其有效性嬰兒的洗禮,成為著名的改革運動中的偉大的16世紀。 The designation was generally repudiated by those to whom it was applied, as the discussion did not centre around the question whether baptism can be repeated, but around the question whether the first baptism was valid.該指定普遍否定了那些人,它被應用,因為討論沒有圍繞洗禮是否可以重複,而且在第一次洗禮是否是有效的。 The distinctive principles upon which Anabaptists generally agreed were the following:鮮明的原則賴以Anabaptists的普遍同意有:

They aimed at restoring what they claimed to have been primitive Christianity. This restoration included the rejection of oaths and capital punishment and the abstention from the exercise of magistracy.他們的目標是恢復他們聲稱已經原始基督教。這種恢復包括拒絕宣誓和死刑和棄權的行使裁判法院提堂。

In a more consistent manner than the majority of Protestant reformers, they maintained the absolute supremacy and sole sufficiency of the canonical Scriptures as a norm of faith.在一個更一致的方式比大多數新教改革者,他們保持了絕對的優勢和唯一的充分性的典型聖經作為一個規範的信念。 However, private inspiration and religious sentiment played an important role among them.然而,私人的靈感和宗教感情發揮了重要作用其中。

Infant baptism and the Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith alone were rejected as without scriptural warrant.嬰兒洗禮和路德學說的信仰的理由被拒絕,因為即使不單單聖經令。

The new Kingdom of God, which they purposed to found, was to be the reconstruction, on an entirely different basis, of both ecclesiastical and civil society.新王國的上帝,他們目的就是在發現,是要重建,在一個完全不同的基礎上,無論是教會和民間社會。 Communism, including for some of them the community of women, was to be the underlying principle of the new state.共產主義,其中包括一些社區的婦女,就是該基本原則的新的國家。

II.二。 ORIGIN AND HISTORY由來與沿革

The question of the validity of baptism appears in two great phases in ecclesiastical history.這個問題的有效性的洗禮出現在兩個偉大的階段,在教會的歷史。 The first controversy raged at an early date (third and fourth centuries) and regarded the minister of the sacrament (baptism conferred by heretics).第一個爭論激烈早日(第三和第四世紀),認為部長聖禮(洗禮所賦予的異端)。 It was at a much later date that the second discussion originated, in which the subject of infant baptism was the point controverted.這是在更晚的日期,第二次討論起源,其中的主題是嬰兒洗禮點反駁。 In the eleventh and twelfth centuries the Petrobrusians rejected infant baptism and they and many subsequent medieval heretics (Henricians, Waldenses, Albigenses, and Bohemian Brethren) held views resembling in some respects the tenets of Anabaptists.在第十一屆和第十二屆世紀Petrobrusians拒絕嬰兒的洗禮,他們和許多後來的中世紀異教徒(Henricians,瓦勒度派,阿爾比派,和波希米亞弟兄)舉行類似的看法在某些方面的再洗禮派的信條。 There is, however, little if any historical connection between the Anabaptists and those earlier sects.有,但是,幾乎沒有歷史之間的聯繫和那些早期的anabaptists教派。 Luther's principles and examples exercised more influence over the new movement.路德的原則和例子行使更大的影響力在新的運動。 Private interpretation of the Scriptures, however, and inward teaching by the Holy Ghost could be claimed by any individual, and logically led to the extreme Anabaptist views.民營解釋聖經,然而,外來教學的聖靈可以索賠的任何個人,在邏輯上導致了極端的再洗禮派的看法。

(a) Anabaptism in Saxony and Thuringia (1521-25) (一)在薩克森州和圖林根州Anabaptism(1521年至1525年)

Nicholas Storch, a weaver (d. 1525) and Thomas Münzer, a Lutheran preacher (c. 1490-1525), together with the other self-styled "Prophets of Zwickau" made, at the Reformation, the first attack on infant baptism.尼古拉斯斯托奇,一個織布工(草1525)和托馬斯閔採爾,一個路德牧師(公元前1490年至1525年),連同其他自稱為“先知的茨維考”提出,在改革的第一攻擊嬰兒的洗禮。 The doctrines of the absolute equality of all men and complete community of goods and the resulting disturbances soon brought them into conflict with the civil authorities of Zwickau.該學說的絕對平等,所有的男人和完整的社會商品和由此產生的騷亂很快就使他們成為衝突的民事當局的茨維考。 Storch, before any repressive measures were taken against him, left with two associates for Wittenberg (1521), where he continued his preaching. Carlstadt was soon gained over to the cause.斯托奇之前,採取任何鎮壓措施,對他,只剩下兩個同夥的維滕貝格(1521),他在那裡繼續他的說教。卡爾斯塔特很快掌握了這一事業。 The combined agitation of Carlstadt and Storch at Wittenberg, and Carlstadt's iconoclastic proceedings forced Luther to leave the Wartburg and appear on the scene.合併後的Carlstadt的鼓動和斯托奇在維滕貝格,並Carlstadt的的反傳統的訴訟路德被迫離開瓦特堡和出現在現場。 He preached against the new apostles with such vehemence that they had to leave the city.他鼓吹反對新使徒這樣激烈,他們不得不離開這座城市。 Storch until his death at Munich travelled through Germany, spreading his doctrines, especially in Thuringia (1522-24) where he was one of the principal instigators of the Peasants' War.斯托奇直到他死在德國慕尼黑穿越,傳播他的學說,特別是在圖林根州(1522年至1524年)他在那裡的主要策劃者之一的農民戰爭。 Münzer rejected infant baptism in theory, but retained it in practice.閔採爾拒絕嬰兒洗禮的理論,但在實踐中予以保留。 He was expelled from Zwickau (1521) and went to Bohemia, where he had but little success as a propagandist.他被開除茨維考(1521),前往波西米亞,他在那裡,但收效甚微作為一個宣傳員。 In 1525 he came as preacher to Alstedt (Electoral Saxony) and married a former nun.在1525年他作為傳教士到Alstedt(選舉薩克森州)和結婚前尼姑。 He was soon surrounded by a large following, introduced a German religious service and attacked Luther as well as the then existing order of things.他很快就被包圍了一大以下,介紹了德國的宗教服務,攻擊路德以及當時的現有秩序的事情。 His sojourn at Mühlhausen (Thuringia), which was interrupted by a journey through the south of Germany, was equally successful.他逗留在米爾豪森(圖林根州),這是一個旅程中斷通過德國南部,也同樣成功。 Henry Pfeifer, an apostate monk, who became his co-labourer at Mühlhausen, had prepared the ground for the new gospel.亨利普法伊費爾,一個變節的和尚,誰成為他的聯合勞動者在米爾豪森,編寫了地面新的福音。 Münzer and Pfeifer became absolute masters of the city, and crowds of peasants and burghers who, discontented with prevailing conditions, flocked around them, pillaged and devastated the surrounding country.閔採爾和普法伊費爾成為絕對的主人的城市,與農民群眾和自由民誰,不滿當時的條件下,聚集在他們身邊,掠奪和破壞了周邊國家。 To quell the insurrectionary movement John, the Elector of Saxony, Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, and Henry, Duke of Brunswick, united their forces and attacked the peasants, led by Münzer at Frankenhausen (1525).為了平息叛亂運動的約翰,選民的薩克森,菲利普,蘭格雷夫黑森,和亨利,不倫瑞克公爵,團結他們的力量和攻擊農民,為首的閔採爾在弗蘭肯豪森戰役(1525年)。 The insurgents were utterly defeated.在反叛分子被徹底打敗。 After the battle Münzer was discovered at Frankenhausen in a bed in which he had hidden, and was delivered up to the executioner.戰鬥結束後閔採爾在弗蘭肯豪森戰役中被發現在他的床上了隱藏,並交付到劊子手。 He received the sacraments of the Catholic Church before his death, while his associate Pfeifer, still impenitent, underwent the death penalty (1525).他收到了聖禮天主教教會在他去世,而他的副普法伊費爾,仍不知悔改,經歷了死刑(1525年)。

(b) The Swiss Anabaptist Movement (1523-25) (二)瑞士再洗禮派運動(1523至1525年)

Like Luther, Zwingli, the originator of the Reformation in Switzerland, soon found more radical competitors.像路德,茨溫利,發端於瑞士的宗教改革,很快就找到了更激進的競爭者。 In 1525 some of his associates separated from him and preached rebaptism and communism.在1525年他的一些同夥分開,他和鼓吹rebaptism和共產主義。 The party found two capable leaders in John Denk and Balthasar Hubmaier.黨在發現了兩個能幹的領導人約翰登克和巴爾塔薩Hubmaier。 Its following, recruited especially from the working classes, became considerable, not only in Switzerland, but also in southern Germany and Austria.它的下面,招募特別是從工人階級,成為相當大,不僅在瑞士,而且在德國南部和奧地利。 Augsburg, Nuremberg, and, at a later date, Strasburg became the chief centres of the movement.奧格斯堡,紐倫堡,並在稍後的日期,斯特拉斯堡成為行政中心的運動。 Resistance to its spread came from two sources.抗其蔓延來自兩個來源。 The Anabaptists' teaching added substantially to the causes of the Peasants' War which broke out (1524) in the very territory where the Anabaptists had carried on their propaganda.再洗禮派的教學大大增加的原因是農民戰爭的爆發(1524)在自己的領土其中的anabaptists已進行他們的宣傳。 As a consequence the defeat of the peasants (1525) meant, to a great extent, the dispersion of the Anabaptists. On the other hand, some town councils as that of Zürich (1526) decreed the severest penalties against their adherents.因此,這次失敗的農民(1525年)的意思,在很大的程度上分散的anabaptists。另一方面,一些市鎮議會因為這蘇黎世(1526)頒布的最嚴厲的懲罰對他們的信徒。 Still in spite of defeat and constant repression, the sect continued to live.儘管仍然在不斷的失敗和鎮壓,該教派繼續生活。

(c) The Anabaptists in Münster (1533-35) (三)在明斯特的anabaptists(1533年至1535年)

The spread of the Anabaptists in lower Germany and the Netherlands must largely be ascribed to the activity of Melchior Hofmann, a widely travelled furrier.在傳播的anabaptists降低德國和荷蘭必須在很大程度上歸因於該活動的梅爾基奧爾霍夫曼,一個見多識廣皮貨商。 The arrival of some of his disciples (Melchiorites) at Münster in Westphalia (1533-34) marks the beginning of the most extraordinary period in the history of the Anabaptists and the city of Münster.然而隨後他的一些弟子(Melchiorites)在明斯特的威斯特伐利亞(1533年至1534年)標誌著開始了最不尋常的時期,歷史的anabaptists和城市明斯特。 In the latter, Bernard Rothmann a chaplain, and Knipperdollinck a cloth-merchant, had already succeeded in diffusing Lutheran ideas.在後者,伯納德Rothmann一個牧師,Knipperdollinck一個布商,已經成功地擴散路德的想法。 They joined the Anabaptist movement, of which John Matthys or Matthiessen, a former baker, and John Bockelsohn or Bockold, a Dutch tailor (more generally known as John of Leyden), became two great local representatives.他們加入了再洗禮派運動,其中約翰Matthys或馬蒂亞森,前貝克,約翰Bockelsohn或Bockold,荷蘭裁縫(通常稱為約翰的萊頓),成為兩個偉大的地方代表。 Knipperdollinck was elected burgomaster (February, 1534) and the city passed under the complete and unrestricted control of the partisans of rebaptism. Knipperdollinck當選鎮長(2月,1534年)和城市通過根據完整的和無限制地控制了游擊隊的rebaptism。 Münster, instead of Strasburg, was to become the centre of the projected conquest of the world, the "New Jerusalem", the founding of which was signalized by a reign of terror and indescribable orgies.明斯特,而不是斯特拉斯堡,是成為該中心的預測征服了世界,“新耶路撒冷”,這是建國燈號由恐怖統治和難以描述的狂歡。 Treasures of literature and art were destroyed; communism, polygamy, and community of women were introduced.文學和藝術珍品被毀;共產主義,一夫多妻制,並介紹了社區的婦女。 Rothmann took unto himself four wives and John of Leyden, sixteen. Rothmann了你們自己的妻子和四個約翰的萊頓,16。 The latter was proclaimed King of the "New Sion", when Francis of Waldeck, Bishop and temporal lord of the city, had already begun its siege (1534).後者是國王宣布“新錫安”,當弗朗西斯的瓦爾德克,主教和顳主的城市,已經開始進行圍攻(1534年)。 In June, 1535, the defence became more and more hopeless, and John, as a last means of escape, determined upon setting fire to the city.今年6月,1535年,國防變得越來越絕望,和約翰,作為最後的手段逃生,確定後放火焚燒的城市。 His plan was frustrated by the unexpected capture of the town by the besiegers (24 June, 1535).他的計劃是沮喪的意外捕獲的圍攻鎮(1535年6月24日)。 The King, his lieutenant Knipperdollinck, and his chancellor Krechting were seized, and after six months' imprisonment and torture, executed.國王,他的副手Knipperdollinck,和他的校長Krechting被查獲,並在6個月的監禁和酷刑,處決。 As a terrible warning, their bodies were suspended in iron cages from the tower of St.作為一個可怕的警告,他們的屍體被暫停在鐵籠從塔街 Lambert's church.蘭伯特教堂。

III.三。 RESULTS結果

The Anabaptists in England在英國的anabaptists

Along with the fanatic element, there was always in the Anabaptist party a more pacific current represented especially by its Swiss adherents.隨著狂熱的元素,但總是在黨的再洗禮派一個更加和平,特別是其目前的代表瑞士的信徒。 The effect of the fall of Münster and of the determined repression of Anabaptists by Catholics, Lutherans, and Zwinglians alike, was the very pronounced and ultimately complete elimination of the violent features of the movement.其效果秋季明斯特和決心鎮壓Anabaptists的天主教徒,路德會,並Zwinglians一樣,是非常顯著,並最終徹底消除暴力特徵的運動。 Menno Simonis, formerly a Catholic priest, who joined the party in 1536, exercised a beneficient influence in that direction.門諾西蒙尼斯,曾任天主教神父,誰加入了黨在1536年,實行了一項beneficient影響這一方向前進。 The very name Anabaptists was superseded by others, particularly that of Mennonites.這個名字再洗禮派被別人所取代,尤其是門諾派。 It is under the latter designation that the Anabaptists exist today, principally in Holland, Germany, and the United States. Another result of the capture of Münster seems to have been the appearance of the Anabaptists in England, where they come into frequent notice shortly after this time and continue to be mentioned during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.正是在後者的職銜的Anabaptists今天存在,主要是在荷蘭,德國和美國。另一個結果捕獲明斯特似乎一直是外觀的Anabaptists在英格蘭,在那裡他們開始頻繁的通知後不久,這個時候,繼續提到在16世紀和17世紀。 Their following there was in all probability largely composed of Dutch and German refugees.以下是他們在所有的概率有大部分組成,荷蘭和德國的難民。 The penalties of death and banishment enforced against them prevented the sect from acquiring importance.該處罰的死亡和流放強迫他們阻止該教派對獲取的重要性。 The Anabaptists' teaching respecting infant baptism was adopted by the English and American Baptists.再洗禮派的教學尊重嬰兒的洗禮通過了英語和美國浸禮會。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息寫不適用韋伯。 Transcribed by Robert H. Sarkissian. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄由羅伯特H薩爾基相。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography書目

Kerssenbroch, Anabaptistici furoris monasterium inclitam Westphaliae metropolim evertentis historica narratio, ed.克森布羅赫,Anabaptistici furoris monasterium inclitam Westphaliae metropolim evertentis史館narratio,編輯。 Detmer (Münster, 1899, 1900); Cornelius, Geschichte des m nsterischen Aufruhrs (Leipzig, 1855, 1860); Janssen, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes (Freiburg and St. Louis, Mo., 1897) II, 231-238, 394-416, 557-571, III, 109-121, 326-351, tr.德默(明斯特,1899年,1900年);科尼利厄斯,歷史館萬米nsterischen Aufruhrs(萊比錫,1855年,1860年),揚森,歷史館萬deutschen Volkes(弗賴堡和聖路易斯,密蘇里州,1897年)二,231-238,394 - 416,557-571,三,109-121,326-351,文。 Hist.歷史。 of the German People (St. Louis, Mo., and London, 1900, 1903), III, 256-263, IV, 87-117, 217-222, 291-310, V, 150-165, 449-485; Newman, A History of Anti-Pedobaptism from the Rise of Pedobaptism to AD 1609 (Philadelphia, 1897), with extensive bibliography, 395-406; Idem, A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States (New York, 1894), in Amer. Church Hist.德國人(聖路易斯,密蘇里州,和倫敦,1900年,1903年),三,256-263,四,87-117,217-222,291-310,五,150-165,449-485;紐曼,歷史反Pedobaptism從興起到公元1609年的Pedobaptism(費城,1897年),具有廣泛的書目,395-406;同上,歷史的浸信教會在美國(紐約,1894年),在阿米爾。教會組織胺。 Series, II, 1-56; Bax, Rise and Fall of the Anabaptists (London, 1903); Burrage, A History of the Anabaptists in Switzerland (Philadelphia, 1905); Tumbult, Die Wiedert ufer (Leipzig, 1899).系列,二,1-56; Bax蛋白與興衰的anabaptists(倫敦,1903年);伯雷奇,阿史的anabaptists在瑞士(費城,1905年); Tumbult,模具Wiedert博愛團結運動(萊比錫,1899年)。


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