Islam, Muslims伊斯兰教,穆斯林

General Information一般资料

هو إله طيبةGod is good.هوإلهطيبة上帝是好的。

لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمدا رسول الله.There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his Prophet. لاإلهإلاالله,وأنمحمدارسولالله。没有上帝,但上帝,穆罕默德是他的先知。

Islam is the religion of many Arabic and Persian nations.伊斯兰教是许多阿拉伯语和波斯语的国家宗教。 Followers are called Muslims (or Moslems).追随者被称为穆斯林(或穆斯林)。

Mahomet Mohammed (or Muhammad) (c. 570 - 632 AD) is the primary prophet穆罕默德穆罕默德(或穆罕默德)(约570 - 632年)是主要的先知

Editor's Note:编者按:

Muslims strongly dislike the word Mohammedanism and insist on Islam. They feel that Mohammedanism implies some Divine aspect to Muhammad (PBUH) himself. 穆斯林的强烈反感这个词伊斯兰教和伊斯兰教坚持。他们认为,伊斯兰教意味着某种神圣方面穆罕默德(永存)自己。They revere Muhammad as a glorious Prophet but insist on making clear that he is not a god and does not deserve to have their religion named for him.他们崇敬作为一个光荣的先知穆罕默德,而是清楚地表明,他不是神,不应该有自己的宗教,他的名字命名坚持。They feel that Islam is the only correct name.他们认为,伊斯兰教是唯一正确的名称。Early Western and Christian authors tended to use the term Mohammedanism.早期西方和基督教作家往往使用的术语伊斯兰教。Western authors also tended [and some still tend] to use the term Moslem rather than Muslim for the believers.西方作家也倾向于[和一些仍倾向于]来使用,而不是穆斯林信徒的任期为穆斯林。

There are many misunderstandings between Christians, Jews and Muslims about the beliefs, behaviors and understandings of the other belief systems.基督徒之间存在着许多误解,对犹太人和信仰,行为和其他信仰体系的理解穆斯林。One of BELIEVE's intentions is to try to help reduce some of those misunderstandings.对相信的目的之一是设法帮助减少这些误解一些。All three have aspects that are extremely impressive and other aspects that are very disappointing.这三个国家都方面是非常令人印象深刻和其他方面是非常令人失望。The actual core religions in each case appear to be excellently accurate and true, but later assumptions and attitudes have caused some incorrect distortions in all three religions. All three have scholars who are wonderfully careful regarding assuring accuracy, and therefore the existing records of all three seem extremely reliable. As an example in Islam, consider this portion of the accepted text of this Hadith (Volume 4, Book 52, Number 47 of Sahih al-Bukhari):在每个案件的实际核心的宗教似乎是很好的准确和真实的,但后来假设和态度造成的一切三教一些不正确的扭曲英寸这三个国家都学者关于谁是奇妙小心确保准确性,因此,所有三个现有记录看来非常可靠)。正如伊斯兰教为例,考虑这部分人布哈里,文本的接受这个圣训(第4卷,52个图书47圣训:

they were as kings on the thrones (or like kings on the thrones)." (Ishaq, a sub-narrator is not sure as to which expression the Prophet used.)他们作为国王的宝座(或类似的宝座国王队)。“(伊斯哈格,一分叙述者是不知道在哪个表达的先知使用。)

Scholars are wonderful in their extreme care such as this, in being concerned whether the correct word was like or as.学者们在这样的极端的照顾,美妙的关注是否是正确的单词是喜欢或作为。The fact that the sub-narrator was concerned about such a tiny detail gives an indication of the extreme effort at finding accuracy.小组认为叙述者是这样一种微小的细节在调查有关事实的准确性提供了一个极端的努力迹象。The fact that modern Islamic scholars see reason to consider and discuss such tiny details is an indication that they truly are excellent scholars.事实上,现代的伊斯兰学者理智考虑和讨论这些微小的细节是一个迹象表明,他们真正是优秀的学者。

In an attempt to ensure the most precise accuracy of the wording of all such statements by Muhammad, all Hadiths include the reference to the initial source of the text (in this case, Narrated Anas bin Malik), who was often an actual witness to Muhammad speaking the words.在试图以确保由穆罕默德所有此类声明的措辞最精确的准确性,所有圣训包括向文本的最初来源引用(在这种情况下,叙述阿纳斯斌马利克),谁是真正的证人往往是穆罕默德讲的话。 In addition, Muslim scholars generally have Isnads for every Hadith, which is essentially a paper-trail of the specific people who had repeated the words of that Narrator, until the words eventually got permanently written down several generations later.此外,穆斯林学者普遍对每一个圣训,这基本上是一个纸谁曾多次在该叙述者的话,直到最终得到了永久的话写下来以后几代人的具体线索Isnads。

The many thousands of Hadiths also often include near duplicates of specific statements by Muhammad, where the wording is very slightly different, such as Volume 4, Book 52, Number 50 and Number 52, which were apparently two different hearers of Muhammad, where their two Narrations are essentially identical except for interchanging the words forenoon and afternoon.有成千上万的圣训还常常包括穆罕默德附近,那里的措辞是非常略有不同,如第四册,图书52,50号和52号,具体的陈述显然两个穆罕默德,不同的听众在他们的两个副本叙事基本上除了转车的话午前和下午相同。

Christianity also has massive scholarly documentation behind every word and every concept, as is demonstrated in the thousands of Early Christian Manuscript texts that are included in the BELIEVE web-site.基督教也有巨额的每一句话,每一个背后的学术概念文件,这在早期基督教手稿,相信在网站文本包含成千上万证明。 For example, the single presentation on Tatian's Diatessaron includes over 3,800 footnotes!例如,介绍单 塔蒂安的Diatessaron包括超过3,800注脚! That particular text might be of special interest to Muslims, as it was actually only preserved for Christianity around 1200 years ago due to Muslim scholars of that era preserving that text in Arabic!这种特定的文本可能会特别感兴趣的穆斯林,因为它实际上只保留约1200年以前,由于基督教穆斯林,维护阿拉伯文字的时代,在学者们! ALL modern Christian texts of the Diatessaron are therefore entirely dependent on the talents and care of Muslim scholars of long ago!所有现代的Diatessaron基督教经文,因此完全的人才和很久以前的穆斯林学者照料!

However, in all three religions, many of the followers are not familiar with these careful researches, and their understanding of their own faith is based entirely on what they are told by their own local religious leader, whom they trust absolutely totally. In the vast majority of cases in all three religions, that is still fine, as most of the Teachers are very careful regarding trying to Teach accurate information. Unfortunately, in all three religions, there are some Teachers who either intentionally or unintentionally Teach wrong and sometimes false ideas and beliefs.然而,在所有三个宗教,信徒众多的不完全熟悉这些仔细研究,并拥有自己的理解他们的信仰是完全基于他们绝对是告诉他们自己的当地宗教领袖,就是他们的信任。 在广大多数情况下在所有三个宗教,这仍然是可以的,大部分教师都非常小心的就试图教准确的信息。不幸的是,在所有三个宗教,也有一些老师谁有意或无意地 ​​教,有时甚至虚假错误观念和信仰。Within Christianity, such groups are called Cults, and when recognized, are no longer considered to be Christians, except by their own Members.在基督教,这些群体被称为邪教,当认可,不再被视为是基督徒,除了他们自己的成员。Within Islam, the same situation exists, and it is sometimes even more destructive of Islam due to the listeners not having any way to confirm or deny the Truth of what they are told.在伊斯兰教,同样的情况存在,有时甚至更具破坏性的伊斯兰教由于听众没有任何方法来确认或否认他们被告知真相。 That situation can result in some Muslims having incorrect beliefs about their own Islam, even while the value and accuracy of Muhammad and Islam is usually not in question at all.这种情况可能会导致一些对自己有不正确的信仰伊斯兰教的穆斯林,甚至在价值和穆罕默德和伊斯兰教的准确性通常是在问题都没有。 In Christianity, Cults have sometimes gotten into the news due to the consequences of these distortions of Christianity, even though Christianity itself was not in question.在基督教里,邪教有时陷入到新闻由于基督教这些扭曲的后果,即使是在基督教本身不是问题。Cults are a tiny percentage of Christians, but those stories of deaths of Branch Davidians or the Jonestown suicides have the effect of causing all of Christianity to look bad.邪教是一种极少数的基督徒,但对大卫教或琼斯敦自杀死亡者的故事有导致所有的基督教看坏的影响。Similarly, in Islam, even though the vast majority of Muslims are peace-loving (as Muhammad Taught them) and wonderful people, the relatively small number of Islamic extremists that feel they are supposed to kill anyone who does not completely agree with them, makes the whole of Islam look very bad.同样,在伊斯兰教,尽管绝大多数的穆斯林是爱好和平的(如穆罕默德教他们)和了不起的人,这就是觉得他们应该杀死任何人谁不完全同意他们的伊斯兰极端分子的数量相对较少,使得伊斯兰教的整体看起来非常糟糕。

PBUH means Peace Be Upon Him and PBUT means Peace Be Upon Them.愿他平安无恙手段和平是他和PBUT意味着和平强加于他们。After every reference to the Prophet Muhammad or to Allah or to the other Prophets such as Moses, Abraham and Jesus Christ, a Devout Muslim should write or say these sentiments.在每一次向先知穆罕默德或安拉,或如摩西,亚伯拉罕和耶稣的其他先知参考,一个虔诚的穆斯林,必须以书面或者说这些观点。 Within the articles included in BELIEVE, this formality is often neglected, and so apologies are made to all Muslim readers regarding this fact.在文章中认为包括在内,这一程序往往被忽略,所以道歉是向所有穆斯林读者对于这一事实。

Muhammad taught that man must submit himself to the one God; that nations are punished for rejecting God's prophets; that heaven and hell await in the future life; and that the world will come to an end in a great judgment day. 穆罕默德告诉我们,人必须提交自己的一个上帝,这是先知国家拒绝上帝惩罚的,这天堂与地狱等待着在今后的生活,并认为世界将走到最后在一个伟大的判决。

Muhammad offered himself to the Jews and Christians as the successor of Jesus Christ but met with severe opposition.穆罕默德提供自己的犹太人和基督徒的耶稣基督的继任者,但严重的反对。He severely condemned the Jews in his teachings.他严厉谴责他的教诲的犹太人。In general, Muhammad and Muslims feel that Jews originally had the correct "book" (The Torah or the First Five Books of the Christian Bible), but that the Jews had improperly altered the texts of those important Manuscripts.在一般情况下,穆罕默德和穆斯林,犹太人觉得原本正确的“书”(或第一本圣经的基督教圣经五本),但犹太人有不当改变了那些重要的手稿的文本。 For that reason, Muhammad and Muslims feel that Jews (and Christians) are sinful in following texts that have been distorted.出于这个原因,穆罕默德和穆斯林认为犹太人(和基督徒)在下面的文本已被扭曲罪孽深重。Muslims rely on a book which presents the Messages that Muhammad received from the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) which they feel are precisely correct, which is called the Koran.穆斯林依靠书,介绍了穆罕默德从天使贾布里勒(加布里埃尔),他们觉得恰恰是正确的,这是所谓的可兰经收到的消息。The Koran regularly refers to "the book", where it is actually referring to those Original texts, but it is conceded that no copy of those original (correct) texts still exists today.经常是指可兰经“的书”,它实际上是指那些原始的文本,但它承认,没有这些原始(正确)的文件副本今天仍然存在。Many Muslims incorrectly interpret those many references to "the book" as somehow referring to the Koran itself, but a careful examination of the Koran text makes clear that that is clearly not true.许多穆斯林错误地解释这些多次提到“书”指的是作为某种可兰经本身,而是一个可兰经文本仔细研究清楚地表明,这显然是不正确的。 The Original texts of the First Five Books, which Muslims feel no longer exist, are referred to as the Taurah.第一个五年,去看书上的文字,其中穆斯林感觉不复存在,被称为Taurah。

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Every good (Sunni) Muslim centers his life about the performance of five duties, referred to as the Pillars of Faith:每一个好的(逊尼派)穆斯林生活中心约五职务的性能,被称为信仰的支柱:

Eternal punishment is the fate of those guilty of hypocrisy (false religion), murder, theft, adultery, luxury, dishonesty, and a few other sins. 永恒的惩罚是其他人的命运罪被判虚伪(假宗教),谋杀,盗窃,通奸,豪华,不诚实,等等。There are great similarities to the sins described in the Ten Commandments of Christian Judaist beliefs. Drinking, gambling and usury are rigorously prohibited. 有犹太教信仰基督教的戒律非常相似,在10的罪孽描述。喝酒,赌博和高利贷是严格禁止的。

Since Muslims feel that Jews and Christians use distorted copies of the Torah text as the basis of their beliefs, that is seen as the basis of the above mentioned hipocracy or false religion.由于穆斯林感受到作为自己的信念,即作为上述hipocracy或假宗教的圣经文本的基础上看到犹太人和基督徒使用歪曲副本。 The fact that Christians and Jews are attempting to Worship that same One True God, is not sufficient for many Muslims, and in some cases, great hatred has developed due to that.事实上,基督徒和犹太人试图崇拜同一个真神,是许多穆斯林不充分,在某些情况下,由于巨大的仇恨已经开发了这一点。Christian beliefs include an additional area which encourages confusion, where the One True God of the First Commandment is discussed as being Three distinct People, an interpretation that confuses even many Christians!基督教信仰包括一个额外的鼓励混乱地区,那里的一真神的第一诫是被三个不同的人,即使解释迷惑许多基督徒讨论!

The Koran includes many references that Muslims are to treat "all believers in the One True God" as brothers. Those references in the Koran indicate that Jews and Christians should be treated as brothers. It is only that aspect where Muslims insist that Jews and Christians use intentionally distorted versions of the Lord's texts where severe animosity arose.古兰经包括许多引用穆斯林对待“所有信徒在一个真正的上帝”亲如兄弟。 古兰经这些提法表明,在犹太人和基督徒应该视为兄弟。只有坚持这方面的穆斯林,犹太人和基督徒故意歪曲使用主的文字出现在严重的敌意版本。

Early on, Muslims divided into two groups.在早期,穆斯林分为两组。The Eastern (or generally Persian) Muslims are known as Shiites or Shi'a. The Western (or generally Arabic) Muslims are known as Sunnites or Sunnis. Sunnites (Arabs) generally consider Shiites as schismatics. Sunnites are Semites; Shiites are not.东部(或一般波斯)被称为什叶派穆斯林或什叶派的。西部(或一般阿拉伯语)的穆斯林。被称为逊尼派闪米特人还是逊尼派。逊尼派(阿拉伯人考虑)一般;什叶派逊尼派什叶派为schismatics 都没有。

Muhammad was born of poor parents in Mecca, around 570 AD.穆罕默德出生在麦加的可怜的父母,大约公元570。 He was orphaned early and had to tend sheep for a living, so he received little education.他是孤儿,不得不早为生活往往羊,所以他很少得到教育。At 25, around 595 AD, he became a commercial agent for a rich widow, whom he soon married.到了25岁,大约公元595,他成为了一个有钱的寡妇,他很快就结了婚的人的商业代理人。

Muhammad was respected but not particularly well-known until one specific incident occurred.穆罕默德尊重,但不是特别知名的,直到一个特定的事件发生。This appears to have occurred around 596 AD.这似乎是公元596左右发生。The celebrated Black Stone had been removed from the Kaaba building to be cleaned, and four Tribal leaders were arguing over which of them would get the honor of carrying it back to the Kaaba.著名的黑石头被从天房建设,清理,四个部落领导人争论的,他们都会得到执行回天房荣誉。The argument was becoming extremely serious, as each of the four Tribal leaders wanted that honor personally.这个论点变得非常严重,四个部落首领都想得到这一荣誉的个人。It seemed that there was no possible resolution for this situation, and that a Tribal war seemed unavoidably about to begin.看来,有没有可能解决这种情况,而且部落战争似乎不可避免地即将开始。At this point, the young Muhammad stepped forward to offer a suggestion.在这一点上,年轻穆罕默德上前给您一个建议。He suggested locating a blanket and placing the Black Stone on top of it.他建议寻找一条毯子,并把它上面的黑石头。Then each of the four would lift a corner, and all four would equally receive the honor of carrying it back to the Kaaba.然后将四个电梯每一个角落,和所有四个将同样得到了执行回天房荣誉。That suggestion showed such brilliant insight that forever after that, Muhammad was consulted for solutions whenever difficult situations arose, and his fame became enormous virtually overnight.这项建议表明取得如此辉煌的洞察力,永远在这之后,穆罕默德是解决方案咨询每当出现困难的情况下,他的名声几乎是在一夜之间成为巨大。 All Muslim children today, world wide, are taught about this impressive accomplishment of Muhammad.所有穆斯林儿童的今天,世界各地,被教导对这种令人印象深刻的成就穆罕默德。

Some years later, around 610 AD, at around age 40, while inside a cave, Muhammad had a vision in the desert north of Mecca in which he believed he was commanded to preach.几年以后,大约公元610年,在40岁左右,而一个山洞里,穆罕默德曾在沙漠北部的麦加,他相信他是指挥鼓吹愿景。 He came to believe that he was a medium for divine revelation and that he was a Prophet of God (Allah).他开始相信他是一个神圣的启示中,他是上帝(真主)的先知。In the next several years, during the 610s, he received many such revelations while in such caves.在未来几年内,在610s,他收到这样的洞穴,而在许多这样的启示。His later followers memorized his revelations and his successor, Abu Bakr, had them compiled as a book (the Koran), apparently in the early 640s AD.他后来的追随者记住他的启示和他的继任者,艾布伯克尔,让他们编为一书(古兰经)显然是在公元初640s。

Muslims believe that Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus received revelations from God, and are therefore Prophets, but they regard Muhammad as the greatest and the last Prophet of God. 穆斯林认为,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,摩西和耶稣所领受从神的启示,因此先知,但他们认为上帝是最伟大和穆罕默德先知的最后一次。

At first, few converts followed Muhammad.起初,几个转换后穆罕默德。In 622, the people of Mecca actually drove him and around seventy followers out of the city and he fled to Medina.在622的麦加,人们实际上他和周围七十开车出城的追随者,他逃到了麦地那。This flight (called the Hegira) was taken as the beginning of the Muslim calendar.这次飞行(称为回教纪元)采取了作为穆斯林日历的开始。After the Hegira, while based in Medina, he often turned to warfare, plunder and conquest.之后回教纪元,而在麦地那的基础上,他经常转向战争,掠夺和征服。In 630, he returned to Mecca in triumph and treated his former persecutors with kindness.在630,他返回麦加的胜利,善心对待他的前迫害。Everyone was impressed with the generous attitudes of Muhammad regarding his previous adversaries, which quickly caused great increases in the numbers of his followers.每个人都留下了深刻印象穆罕默德的关于他以前的对手,并很快引起了他的追随者的人数大量增加的慷慨态度。

He called all of his followers to a holy war in which he promised that all who died fighting (specifically in defending Islam) would ascend straight to Paradise. 他呼吁他的追随者到一个神圣的战争中,他承诺所有谁死的战斗(特别是在捍卫伊斯兰教)将直接升入天堂。This single comment from the generally peace-loving Muhammad has been used as the central cause of numerous religious (jihad) wars, and, more recently, terrorism. Virtually all of his other teachings emphasize peace, charity, tolerance and kindness to all. 这爱穆罕默德从单一的评论普遍和平已被用作)战争的根本原因众多宗教(圣战,以及最近,恐怖主义。几乎所有的其他教义强调的和平,慈善,宽容和爱心给所有。 It seems unimaginable that the kind and generally peace-loving Muhammad would have desired that innocent strangers should be murdered, but some of his (extremist) followers believe that.这似乎是不可思议的种类和一般爱好和平的穆罕默德将所喜爱的,无辜的陌生人应该被谋杀,但他(极端)的一些追随者相信。 After he died in 632, the war was carried on by his successors (Caliphs) and others. 632年后,他死了,战争已经进行了由他的继任者(哈里发)等。

Critics find many things to attack in Islam.批评者认为很多事情攻击伊斯兰教。Many suras of the Koran were composed before 622 AD, while Muhammad was still in Mecca.许多章节的可兰经前公元622人组成,而穆罕默德在麦加之中。In general, those suras tend to be extremely peaceful, compassionate, considerate.一般来说,这些章节往往是非常和平的,富有同情心,体贴。In fact, historian Sir W. Muir (in Life of Mahomet , 1864, four volumes, vol. 1, p. 503) said " In the Meccan period of his life there certainly can be traced no personal ends or unworthy motives ... Mahomet was then nothing more than he professed to be, 'a simple Preacher and a Warner'; he was the despised and rejected prophet of a gainsaying people, having no ulterior object but their reformation. He may have mistaken the right means for effecting this end, but there is no sufficient reason for doubting that he used those means in good faith and with an honest purpose."事实上,历史学家瓦特爵士缪尔(第一卷生活穆罕默德 ,1864年,四卷。1,503页)说:“ 在他的生活有一定的Meccan期间可以追溯到任何个人目的或不值得的动机...穆罕默德当时没有比他更自称是'一个简单的传教士,华纳',他是人民的蔑视和拒绝先知一顶嘴,没有不可告人的对象,但他们的改造他可能弄错了影响正确的手段结束,但没有任何怀疑,他用真诚的手段和真正目的的充分理由。“

After he arrived in Medina, the suras composed then seem to have a generally much harsher tone, often even mean-spirited and barbaric, as regarding non-believers.抵达后,他在麦地那,然后组成的章节似乎有一个普遍更严厉的语气,甚至常常卑鄙和野蛮的,因为关于非信徒。 Muir continued the above citation "But the scene changes at Medina. There temporal power, aggrandisement, and self-gratification mingled rapidly with the grand object of the Prophet's life, and they were sought and attained by just the same instrumentality. Messages from heaven were freely brought down to justify political conduct, in precisely the same manner as to inculcate religious precept. Battles were fought, executions ordered, and territories annexed, under cover of the Almighty's sanction. Nay, even personal indulgences were not only excused but encouraged by the divine approval or command. A special license was produced, allowing the Prophet many wives; the affair with Mary the Coptic [Christian] bond-maid was justified in a separate Sura; and the passion for the wife of his own adopted son and bosom friend was the subject of an inspired message in which the Prophet's scruples were rebuked by God, a divorce permitted, and marriage with the object of his unhallowed desires enjoined. ... As the natural result, we trace from the period of Mahomet's arrival in Medina a marked and rapid declension in the system he inculcated. Intolerance quickly took the place of freedom; force, of persuasion. "缪尔继续上述引文“但在麦地那的场景变化。有时间的权力,强化和自我满足混杂着先知的生命宏伟目标迅速,他们被要求和一样的工具性实现。从天上消息被自由被击落的理由的政治行为,在准确的相同方式,灌输宗教戒律。战斗是战斗,处决命令道,领土吞并根据全能的制裁覆盖。不仅如此,甚至是个人的宽容不仅原谅,而是以鼓励神圣的批准或命令制作了一个特别许可证,允许先知许多妻子。与玛丽事件的科普特[基督教]键女仆在一个单独的苏拉合理,以及为他的养子和自己的知心朋友妻子的激情是一个鼓舞的消息,其中先知的顾忌了上帝斥责,允许离婚,并与他的亵渎责成欲望。...作为自然的结果,我们追溯从穆罕默德在麦地那时期的到来对象婚姻问题。一个系统中,他灌输的不容忍现象迅速采取了自由的地方,明显和快速变格。力劝说,“

Muir later added "If Mohammed deviated from the path of his early years, that should cause no surprise; he was a man as much as, and in like manner as, his contemporaries, he was a member of a still half-savage society, deprived of any true culture, and guided solely by instincts and natural gifts which were decked out by badly understood and half-digested religious doctrines of Judaism and Christianity. Mohammed became thus the more easily corruptible when fortune in the end smiled upon him. ... [In Medina], he offered very little resistance to the corrupting action of the new social position, more particularly in view of the fact that the first steps were accompanied by bewildering triumphs and by fatal sweetness of practically unlimited political power. ... The deterioration of his moral character was a phenomenon supremely human, of which history provides not one but a thousand examples."缪尔后来说:“如果穆罕默德从早年的道路,这应该引起毫不奇怪背离,他是尽可能,并作为他同时代的人喜欢的方式,他仍然是一个半野蛮社会的一员,剥夺任何真正的文化,并遵循本能和天赋其中挂满了单靠严重的理解和半消化的犹太教和基督教的宗教教条。穆罕默德因而更容易成为腐败的财富时,在结束后,他笑了。.. 。[在麦地那],他的阻力很小提供了新的破坏行动的社会地位,更在事实上认为,第一个步骤是由胜利和扑朔迷离的几乎无限的政治权力,特别是伴随着致命的甜头。...他的道德品质恶化的现象超级人,其中之一,但不是历史提供了一千例子。“

Following generations of Muslims were often brutal and gruesome in their treatment of people who did not accept Islam or who questioned anything about it.继代穆斯林往往是残酷的,在他们的人谁不接受伊斯兰教或询问谁是可怕的事情处理。

Muslims consider the Koran to be EXACTLY the very Word of God (Allah).穆斯林认为古兰经是完全很神(真主)的话语。They do not doubt or question even the slightest aspect of it.他们不怀疑或问题,即使它的丝毫方面。However, by the year 325 AD, three hundred years before the Koran, Christians had established the concept of the Trinity, as being ONE God, Who seemed to exist as Three different Persons, the Father (YHWH or Jehovah), the Son (Jesus) and the Holy Ghost, and never varied from that.然而,到公元325年,三百年前的古兰经,基督教徒建立了三位一体的价值理念,作为一个上帝,他似乎存在三种不同的人,父亲(或耶和华耶和华),圣子(耶稣)和圣灵,从来没有从这个变化。 (Christians believe that the One True God had decided to "divide Himself in Two" such that He could experience an entirely human lifetime as Jesus, while still remaining in Heaven/Paradise to oversee the Universe. Christians feel that God has unlimited Ability so that He could do that, possibly in order to better understand why His people seemed to always fail Him. So Christians have NO doubt that there has ever only been One True God, but that He chose a course where it appeared for 33 years that He was simultaneously in two places. With these understandings, Christians feel that Muslims should realize that the One True God [Allah] that they worship was actually present in walking the Earth just 600 years before Muhammad.) (基督徒认为,一个真正的上帝已决定“分两种自己”这样他能遇到一个人的一生完全耶稣,同时仍然在天堂/天堂剩余监督的宇宙。基督徒认为神有无限的能力,使他可以这样做,可能为了更好地理解为什么他的人似乎总是他不及格。因此基督徒有没有曾经只有一真神怀疑,但他选择一门课程的地方出现了33年,他被同时在两个地方。基于上述理解,基督徒认为穆斯林应该认识到,一个真正的上帝[阿拉],他们崇拜实际上是在步行仅600年前地球穆罕默德本。)

If the Koran is actually the words of God (Allah), and not altered in any way since they were given to Muhammad, it seems odd that the Koran presents the Christian Trinity as being God, Jesus, and Mary !如果古兰经的话其实是上帝(真主),不以任何方式改变,因为他们给穆罕默德,似乎奇怪的是可兰经介绍,玛丽被基督教三位一体的上帝,耶稣! (Sura 5:116) (Christians have never considered Mary to be Divine, except for her function as Mother of Jesus.) This seems to imply that God (Allah) made a mistake, or Muhammad made a mistake, or later copyists/commentators made a mistake (several times, as at Sura 5.77 and Sura 4.169). (苏拉5:116)(基督徒从来没有认为玛丽是除了她的功能,作为神圣的耶稣的母亲。)这似乎意味着,上帝(真主)犯了一个错误,或穆罕默德犯了一个错误,或稍后copyists /评论员犯了一个错误(好几次,在苏拉5.77和苏拉4.169)。Scholars see such things as obvious problems, but virtually all Muslims overlook them, and consider anyone bringing up such things as blasphemous.学者看到这样的事情存在的突出问题,但几乎所有的穆斯林忽略了他们,并考虑任何人带来了这样的事情作为亵渎。

Observers have noted that, if the Koran was precisely and exclusively the Word of God, there are many Suras that seem instead to have been expressed by either Muhammad, the Archangel Gabriel or other Angels, without clarification.观察家们指出,如果古兰经是准确和完全是上帝的话,有一些似乎已被取代或穆罕默德,或其他天使大天使加布里埃尔表示不澄清,很多章节。 For example, the opening Sura, called the Fatiha, is clearly address TO Allah and not BY Him.例如,开放苏拉,称为Fatiha,显然是对真主的地址,而不是由他。If the exact wording had been provided by Allah, it seems that it should be worded slightly differently.如果精确的措辞已真主赏赐,似乎应该措辞略有不同。Sura 19.64 was clearly spoken by Angels.苏拉19.64显然是讲的天使。The observation is: the Koran either IS or IS NOT exclusively the Word of God that Muslims claim.这些观察是:可兰经或者是或不是完全的神的话语,穆斯林索赔。

It is certainly true that the Koran contains many hundreds of concepts, beliefs and stories from the Bible, particularly the Pentateuch, the first five Books of the Bible (also called the Torah or Taurah).这当然是不错,可兰经包含了观念,信仰和圣经,特别是五,第一个五年书籍的圣经(也称为律法或Taurah)的故事几百倍。 These similarities involve roughly half of the 80,000 words of the Koran (while representing but a very small portion of the Bible's 800,000 words).这些相似之处涉及大约有可兰经的80000字的一半(同时代表不过是圣经的80万字,非常小的部分)。As a result, the Koran and Islam contains many similarities and many parallels with Christianity and Judaism.因此,古兰经和伊斯兰教包含许多相似之处,与基督教和犹太教有许多相似之处。However, there are very great differences in some areas.然而,在某些领域有很大的差异。


Muhammad穆罕默德

General Information一般资料

The place of the Prophet Muhammad in world history is directly related to the formation of Islam as a religious community founded on the message of the Koran, which Muslims believe to be the words of God revealed to the Prophet.在历史上的先知穆罕默德在世界上是直接关系到伊斯兰教先知形成透露给上帝作为一个宗教团体建立在邮件中的古兰经穆斯林认为这是字。

Muhammad's Life and Work穆罕默德的生活和工作

Muhammad was born about 570 AD in the city of Mecca, an important trading center in western Arabia.穆罕默德生于公元570左右,在麦加,在沙特阿拉伯西部重要的贸易中心城市。He was a member of the Hashim clan of the powerful Quraysh tribe.他是一个强大的部落哈希姆家族成员Quraysh。Because Muhammad's father, Abd Allah, died before he was born and his mother, Amina, when he was 6 years old, he was placed in the care of his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, who also soon died, and, after 578, of his uncle Abu Talib, who succeeded as head of the Hashim clan.由于穆罕默德的父亲,阿卜杜拉,死在他出生之前,他的母亲,阿米娜,当他6岁,他被安排在他的阿卜杜勒Muttalib,谁也快死了,爷爷照顾,经过578期他的叔叔阿布Talib,谁作为哈希姆家族头成功。 At the age of about 25, around 595 AD, Muhammad entered the employ of a rich widow, Khadijah, in her commercial enterprise.在大约公元595 25岁左右,穆罕默德进入了雇用一个有钱的寡妇,Khadijah在她的商业企业。They were married soon after.他们结婚后不久。Two sons, both of whom died young, and four daughters were born.两个儿子,他们两人早逝,四个女儿出生。One of the daughters, Fatima, acquired special prominence in later Islamic history because of her marriage to Muhammad's cousin Ali.其中一个女儿, 法蒂玛,取得特别突出的表弟阿里在后来的伊斯兰历史,因为她的婚姻,穆罕默德的

About 610 AD, Muhammad, while in a cave on Mount Hira outside Mecca, had a vision in which he was called on to preach the message entrusted to him by God. Further revelations came to him intermittently over the remaining years of his life, and these revelations constitute the text of the Koran. The opening verses of chapters 96 and 74 are generally recognized as the oldest revelations; Muhammad's vision is mentioned in 53:1 - 18 and 81:19 - 25, and the night of the first revelation in 97:1 - 5 and 44:3. 大约公元610年,穆罕默德,而在一,洞穴外有山希拉麦加视力,他就被称为传信息委托给他的上帝。进一步揭露他的生命来断断续续年他对剩下的, 这些启示构成了可兰经的纯文字。开放的诗句章节96和74一般认为,年龄最大的启示穆罕默德的愿景是53:1提到- 18和81:19 - 25,并在晚上的第一个启示97:1 - 5和44:3。At first in private and then [613 AD] publicly, Muhammad began to proclaim his message: that there is but one God and that Muhammad is his messenger sent to warn people of the Judgment Day and to remind them of God's goodness.在私人第一,然后[613广告]公开,穆罕默德开始宣布他的信息: 即只有一个上帝和穆罕默德是他的使者发出警告一天,人们的判断,并提醒他们善良的上帝的。

The [pagan] Meccans responded with hostility to Muhammad's monotheism and iconoclasm.在[异教徒]麦加回应,敌视穆罕默德的一神教和反传统。As long as Abu Talib was alive Muhammad was protected by the Hashim, even though that clan was the object of a boycott by other Quraysh after 616.只要还活着阿布Talib长穆罕默德哈希姆被保护的,即使该家族在616后由其他Quraysh抵制对象。About 619, however, Abu Talib died, and the new clan leader was unwilling to continue the protective arrangement.关于619,不过,阿布Talib死亡,新的部族领导人不愿继续保护安排。At about the same time Muhammad lost another staunch supporter, his wife Khadijah.大约在同一时间穆罕默德失去了一个坚定支持者,他的妻子Khadijah。In the face of persecution and curtailed freedom to preach, Muhammad and about 70 followers reached the decision to sever their ties of blood kinship in Mecca and to move to Medina, a city about 400 km (250 mi) to the north.在面对迫害和剥夺自由传教,穆罕默德和70追随者达成的决定断绝血缘关系的联系,在麦加和地那移动一北城约400公里(250英里)。 This move, called the Hegira, or hijra (an Arabic word meaning "emigration"), took place in 622, the first year of the Muslim calendar. (Muslim dates are usually followed by AH, "Anno Hegirae," the year of the hegira.)这一举动,被称为回教纪元,或希吉拉(阿拉伯语意思是“移民”),放置在了622,穆斯林日历第一年。(穆斯林日期通常是啊其次,“安诺Hegirae”的这一年经典ZIPPO。)

In Medina an organized Muslim community gradually came into existence under Muhammad's leadership.在麦地那一个有组织的穆斯林社会逐渐诞生在穆罕默德的领导。Attacks on caravans from Mecca led to war with the Meccans.从麦加大篷车攻击导致与麦加的战争。Muhammad's followers obtained (624) victory at Badr but were defeated at Uhud a year later.穆罕默德的追随者索取巴德尔(624)的胜利,但在Uhud分别战胜了一年后。In 627, however, they successfully defended Medina against a siege by 10,000 Meccans.在627,但是,他们成功地抵御的围困由10,000麦加麦地那。Clashes with three Jewish clans in Medina occurred in this same period.在麦地那三个犹太部族冲突发生在同一个时期。One of these clans, the Banu Qurayza, was accused of plotting against Muhammad during the siege of Medina; in retaliation all of the clan's men were killed and the women and children sold into slavery.这些部族中,巴努Qurayza,一个被指控阴谋反对穆罕默德在麦地那包围,在报复李氏家族的男人都被打死,妇女和儿童沦为奴隶出售。 Two years later, in the oasis of Khaybar, a different fate befell another Jewish group.两年后,在亥巴尔绿洲,不同的命运遭遇另一个犹太团体。After defeat they were allowed to remain there for the price of half their annual harvest of dates.失败后,他们被允许留在一半的日期每年的收获价格有。

Since 624 AD (2 AH) the Muslims of Medina had been facing Mecca during worship (earlier, they had apparently turned toward Jerusalem).自公元624(2 AH)的麦地那的穆斯林一直面临在麦加朝拜 (前,他们已明显转向对耶路撒冷。Mecca was considered of primary importance to the Muslim community because of the presence there of the Kaaba. This sanctuary was then a pagan shrine, but according to the Koran (2:124 - 29), it had been built by Abraham and his son Ishmael and had therefore to be reintegrated in Muslim society. An attempt to go on pilgrimage to Mecca in 628 was unsuccessful, but at that time an arrangement was made allowing the Muslims to make the pilgrimage the next year, on condition that all parties cease armed hostilities.麦加被认为是最重要的穆斯林社区天房,因为那里的存在可兰经这个圣域当时是一个异教徒的靖国神社,但根据(2:124 - 29),已建成了亚伯拉罕和他的儿子以实玛利并因此必须重新融入穆斯林社会。尝试去麦加朝圣是不成功的628,但在当时的安排是让穆斯林朝圣,使明年的条件,对所有各方停止武装冲突。 Incidents in 629 ended the armistice, and in January 630, Muhammad and his men marched on Mecca.在629事件结束了停战协定,并于一月630,穆罕默德和他的部下在麦加游行。The Quraysh offer to surrender was accepted with a promise of general amnesty, and hardly any fighting occurred. Muhammad's generosity to a city that had forced him out 8 years earlier is often quoted as an example of remarkable magnanimity.该Quraysh接受要约投降了大赦的承诺一般,几乎任何战斗发生。 穆罕默德的慷慨大度到一个城市,迫使他的骄人了八年的例子前面是一个经常被引述。

In his final years Muhammad continued his political and military involvements, making arrangements with nomadic tribes ready to accept Islam and sending expeditions against hostile groups.穆罕默德在他的最后几年中继续他的政治和军事涉入,使之与准备接受对敌对团体伊斯兰教和游牧民族派遣探险队的安排。 A few months after a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca in March 632 he fell ill.几个月后告别朝圣三月632麦加,他病倒了。 Muhammad died on June 8, 632, in the presence of his favorite wife, Aisha, whose father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph.穆罕默德去世6月8日,632在他最喜爱的妻子,阿伊莎,他的父亲,艾布伯克尔,存在,成为第一个哈里发。

God's Messenger上帝的使者

According to Muslim belief, God sent Muhammad as a messenger (rasul, or "apostle") from among the Arabs, bringing a revelation in "clear Arabic" (Koran 26:192 - 95); thus, as other peoples had received their messengers, so the Arabs received theirs. As one who had lived "a lifetime" among them before his calling (10:16), however, Muhammad was rejected by many because he was simply a man among men and not an angelic being (6:50; 18:110). As Moses had brought the Law and Jesus had received the Gospel, the Prophet (al - nabi) Muhammad was the recipient of the Koran. He is "the Seal of the Prophets" (33:40), and the Koran is the perfection of all previous revelations.根据穆斯林的信仰,上帝派一个使者穆罕默德(拉苏尔,或“使徒”)从阿拉伯人之间, 使95)一个启示,在“明确阿拉伯语”(古兰经26:192 - ;因此,正如其他国家的人民已收到他们的使者,因此,阿拉伯人接受他们的6。正如一位谁了一生“中住”他们之前,他致电(10:16),但被拒绝穆罕默德由许多,因为他只是一个男人之间的男性,而不是一个天使正(: 50;)。18:110 正如摩西带来了法律,耶稣还收到了福音,先知(基地-彩蝶)穆罕默德是古兰经的收件人。他是“印章的先知”(33:40) 可兰经的启示是完善以往所有。

Exemplar and Guide榜样和指南

In his sermon during the farewell pilgrimage Muhammad testified that he had fulfilled his mission by leaving behind "God's Book and the sunna (custom) of the Prophet."在他背后的布道在告别朝圣穆罕默德作证说, 他离开了他所完成的使命“上帝的书和)的先知逊奈(习俗。”Imitation of the Prophet - following the example of his life in all circumstances - is a prerequisite for every Muslim.先知模仿的-例如以下的情况下他的所有生活-是每一个穆斯林的先决条件。Moreover, the "Blessing of the Prophet," based on a Koranic verse (33:56) and consisting of an invocation of God's blessing on the Prophet (and his family and companions) plays a major role in Muslim piety. In addition to the accomplishments of his lifetime and his significance for the present, most Muslims anticipate a future role for Muhammad - as intercessor, "with God's permission," on Judgment Day. 再者,“先知的祝福,”)的基础上古兰经经文(33:56)的伴侣和组成,并调用的神的祝福的使者(和他的家人虔诚的穆斯林起着重要角色。除他的一生和他对现实意义的成就,对于大多数穆斯林穆罕默德预期未来的作用 - 作为仲裁者,“与神的许可,”关于审判日。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
M Ali, The Living Thoughts of Muhammad (1950); T Andrae, Muhammad: The Man and His Faith (1936); A Azzam, The Eternal Message of Muhammad (1964); J Glubb, The Life and Times of Muhammad (1970); A Guillaume, ed., The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasaul Allah' (1955); A Jeffrey, ed., Islam: Muhammad and His Religion (1958); M Rodinson, Mohammed (1971); WM Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Stateman (1961).M阿里穆罕默德的(1950)生活的思考和t Andrae,穆罕默德:男人和他的信仰(1936年);阿阿扎姆穆罕默德永恒的消息(1964年); Ĵ Glubb,生活和穆罕默德时代(1970) ,一个纪尧姆,海关,穆罕默德生活:伊本伊斯哈格的Sirat Rasaul真主'(1955)翻译,一个杰弗里,教育署,伊斯兰教:。。穆罕默德和他的宗教(1958年)〔M罗丁森,穆罕默德(1971年);西医瓦特,穆罕默德:先知和Stateman(1961年)。


Muhammad穆罕默德

Editor's Note编者的话

The article above presents the "traditional" story of Muhammad's life, as generally understood by nearly all Muslims.上述文章提出了“传统”穆罕默德的生活故事,因为几乎所有的穆斯林普遍理解。There is extremely little "external" confirmation of the many facts presented, and so virtually all of the knowledge of Muhammad's life come from either the Koran (which was assembled from his statements) or from the Hadith (which was again assembled from his statements and those of people near him).有极少的“外部”确认了许多事实,并给出所以几乎是穆罕默德的生活无论是从可兰经来的知识全部(这是从他的陈述组装)或从圣训(这是再次从他的陈述组装那些接近他的人)。 There were also a few biographies of Muhammad (he died in 632 AD):也有少数的穆罕默德传记(他死于公元632):

There are some important details of that traditional Muslim biography that were not included in the article above.也有那种传统的穆斯林传记没有在上面的文章包括了一些重要的细节。These following points are all described in the writings of the respected Muslim writers listed above.这些都说明以下几点是在尊重穆斯林上述作家的著作。


Critics of Islam recognize the possibility that some, or even all, of those somewhat unpleasant facts might have been exaggerated or even fabricated by much later writers, in an effort to give credibility to the Islamic Faith.伊斯兰教的批评,有些认识的可能性,甚至所有这些有点不愉快的事实,可能被夸大甚至捏造了许多后来的作家,是为了给求信誉,以伊斯兰信仰。 This would remove Allah and Muhammad from having any flaws.这将消除任何缺陷不必真主和穆罕默德。This seems interesting, because essentially the exact same criticisms have been directed at Christianity and Christ by critics, who note that extremely little external corroborating evidence exists to confirm the facts of the life of Jesus.这似乎有趣,因为基本上完全一样的批评是在基督教和基督导演批评,谁注意到,极少的外部确凿证据证实耶稣的生活的事实。 In both cases, there are extreme critics who question whether Muhammad or Jesus even actually existed!在这两种情况下,还有谁怀疑穆罕默德或耶稣确实存在极端的甚至批评!

There appear to be other parallels.似乎有其他相似之处。Both the Bible and the Koran seem to contain confusing sections, where there even seem to be internal contradictions.无论是圣经和古兰经似乎包含混乱的部分,那里甚至似乎是内部矛盾。Both contain many examples of repetitive statements, where the same concept is repeated, either in exactly the same words or very similar ones.都包含重复的语句,其​​中重复相同的概念,在完全相同的词或非常类似的许多例子之一。Whichever of these two Faiths one might believe, it seems difficult to try to claim the high ground as to absolute credibility if one elects to criticize the other.这两种不同的信仰无论人们可能认为,似乎很难试着要求以绝对的信誉,如果一选举批评对方的高地上。

As with the many Christian subject presentations in BELIEVE, where both supportive and challenging positions are presented, there is no intention to promote or dismiss Islam or any claims it makes, but rather to just present as accurate a set of facts as is known.如同许多基督教相信,在双方的立场是支持,提出了具有挑战性的主题演讲,就没有打算促进或辞退伊斯兰或任何声称它制作,而是仅仅表现为准确的一组事实众所周知。 We intend no improper criticism of Islam, but rather simply honest discussion of both solid and weak aspects of it.我们打​​算对伊斯兰教没有不当的批评,而是它只是诚实的固体和薄弱方面的讨论。In this vein, we include here both the traditional Islamic understandings and some seemingly credible alternatives, hopefully without suggesting judgment.在这方面,我们在这里既包括传统的伊斯兰认识和判断,没有暗示希望一些看似可信的替代品。

Author Michael Cook has researched non-Muslim historical sources regarding these aspects of Muhammad's biography.作者迈克尔库克研究非穆斯林有关穆罕默德的传记这些方面的历史来源。He confirms that a person named Muhammad lived, that he was a merchant, and that something significant occurred in 622, and that Abraham was important in his teaching.他证实,名叫穆罕默德的人住了,他是一个商人,重要的东西在622发生,亚伯拉罕在他的教学的重要。However, there appears to be no indication that Muhammad was in central Arabia and there is no mention whatever of Mecca or Medina and there is no historical reference to the Koran until nearly 700 AD.然而,似乎没有迹象显示,穆罕默德在阿拉伯半岛中部,没有任何的麦加和麦地那提,也没有历史借鉴,直到公元近700对可兰经。 He also found compelling evidence that early Muslims prayed in a direction far north of Mecca, which seems to suggest that some different city was involved than Mecca.他还发现令人信服的证据表明,早期的穆斯林祷告的方向遥远的北方的麦加,这似乎表明,一些不同的城市比麦加参与。Also, he found that coins minted around 700 AD which had Koranic quotations, have different wordings than the current authorized canonical text of the Koran.此外,他还发现,大约公元700年铸造的硬币有古兰经的报价,比目前已授权的古兰经经文不同​​的字眼。This seems to suggest that the text of the Koran had not yet been permanently established, seventy years after the death of the Prophet.这似乎表明,文古兰经永久尚未建立,后先知死亡70年。

An early Greek source mentions Muhammad being alive in 634 AD, two years after the traditional Muslim death date.早期希腊源提到穆罕默德在公元634被活着,两年后的传统穆斯林死亡的日期。[Wansbrough] That same Greek source (c. 634-636 AD) presents the Prophet's message as essentially being Jewish messianism.[旺斯伯勒]这同希腊源(约634-636年)提出了先知作为基本上是犹太人弥赛亚消息。

There was a Christian writer of the fifth century (prior to Muhammad) named Sozomenus who describes an Ishmaelite monotheism identical to that of the Hebrews prior to the time of Moses (1275 BC).有一个五世纪(前穆罕默德)命名Sozomenus谁介绍一实玛利一神教相同的希伯来人,之前的摩西(1275年)时间的基督徒作家。 He also argued that Ishmael's laws must have been corrupted by the passage of time and by the influence of pagan neighbors.他还认为,伊斯梅尔的法律必须由时间的推移和影响力的异教徒邻居损坏。Essentially identical beliefs later became central aspects of Islam.基本上是相同的信念后来成为伊斯兰中心方面。

The Arabic term muhajirun corresponds to the English term Hagarism, the reference to their ancestry as being through Hagar, Abraham's maid who was the father of Ishmael.阿拉伯语长期muhajirun对应的英文术语Hagarism时,伊斯梅尔参考他们的父亲的祖先正在通过夏甲为亚伯拉罕的女仆的谁了。 This term seems to have arisen early in Islamic history.这个词似乎已经出现在伊斯兰早期历史。

In early Jewish history (c. 722 BC), a group known as Samaritans did not accept the later Books of the Old Testament of the Bible, and their Bible consisted exclusively of the Pentateuch, the first Five Books.在早期犹太历史(公元前722年),作为一个名为撒玛利亚组不接受圣经,和他们的圣经旧约后来的书籍,包括独占五,第一个五年书籍。 Islam and Muhammad show familiarity with the Samaritans, and indeed, recognized and revered the very same Books.伊斯兰教和穆罕默德和撒玛利亚显示熟悉,而事实上,承认和尊敬的非常相同的书籍。Critics feel that Muhammad adopted most of his early theology from the much earlier Jewish Samaritans.评论家认为,穆罕默德通过从更早撒玛利亚他早期的犹太神学最。Samaritan liturgies constantly included the concept "There is no God but the One", again, a central and essential component of Islam.撒玛利亚礼仪的概念不断列入“有没有上帝,只有一个”,再次,中央和伊斯兰教的重要组成部分。


Islam伊斯兰教

General Information一般资料

Islam, a major world religion, is customarily defined in non - Islamic sources as the religion of those who follow the Prophet Muhammed. The prophet, who lived in Arabia in the early 7th century, initiated a religious movement that was carried by the Arabs throughout the Middle East. 伊斯兰教,世界主要宗教,习惯上定义的非-穆罕默德。先知的宗教来源,这些谁遵循伊斯兰先知,谁住在沙特阿拉伯在7世纪初,发起了一个宗教运动,是由阿拉伯人在整个中东。 Today, Islam has adherents not only in the Middle East, where it is the dominant religion in all countries (Arab and non - Arab) except Israel, but also in other parts of Asia, Africa and, to a certain extent, in Europe and in the United States.今天,伊斯兰教不仅在中东,它是所有国家的主要宗教信徒(阿拉伯和非 - 阿拉伯)除以色列外,而且在亚洲,非洲以及其他地区在一定程度上,在欧洲和在美国。Adherents of Islam are called Muslims (sometimes spelled Moslems).伊斯兰教的信徒称为穆斯林(有时拼写穆斯林)。

The Name and Its Meaning命名及意义

The Arabic word al - islam means the act of committing oneself unreservedly to God, and a Muslim is a person who makes this commitment. Widely used translations such as "resignation," "surrender" and "submission" fail to do justice to the positive aspects of the total commitment for which al - islam stands - a commitment in faith, obedience, and trust to the one and only God (Allah). All of these elements are implied in the name of this religion, which is characteristically described in the Koran (Arabic, Qur'an; the sacred book of Islam) as "the religion of Abraham." In the Koran, Abraham is the patriarch who turned away from idolatry, who "came to his Lord with an undivided heart" (37:84), who responded to God in total obedience when challenged to sacrifice his son (37:102 - 105), and who served God uncompromisingly.阿拉伯语词人-伊斯兰教是指上帝自己的行为触犯毫无保留地和一个穆斯林是谁的人使这一承诺有正向和“提交的意见书广泛用于翻译,如”辞职“,”投降“,”不公平对待方面的总承诺其中Al -伊斯兰教代表-信托承诺,信仰,服从,并以唯一的神(真主)的这些所有的元素都隐含在描述这个宗教的名称,特点书伊斯兰教)作为神圣的 “亚伯拉罕的宗教。” 古兰经阿拉伯语;,古兰经(可兰经,族长亚伯拉罕是谁,从偶像崇拜37转过身去,谁“的一个不可分割的来到他的主心”(: 84),谁回答服从上帝在遇到挑战时总要牺牲自己的儿子(37:102 - 105),谁担任神毫不妥协。

For Muslims, therefore, the proper name of their religion expresses the Koranic insistence that no one but God is to be worshiped. 对于穆斯林,因此,他们的宗教适当的名称表达了古兰经的坚持,没有人,但上帝是被崇拜。Hence, many Muslims, while recognizing the significance of the Prophet Muhammad, have objected to the terms Muhammadanism (or Mohammedanism) and Muhammadans (or Mohammedans) - designations used widely in the West until recently - since they detect in them the suggestion of a worship of Muhammad parallel to the worship of Jesus Christ by Christians. 因此,许多穆斯林,同时也认识到意义的先知穆罕默德,有反对的条款Muhammadanism(或伊斯兰教)和Muhammadans(或伊斯兰教) -最近名称中广泛使用,直至在西方-因为他们发现在他们的建议,一个礼拜穆罕默德平行于基督耶稣的基督徒的崇拜。

Numbers号码

Estimates of the world population of Muslims range from a low of 750 million to a high of 1.2 billion; 950 million is a widely used medium.对穆斯林世界人口估计范围从750万低了12亿高; 9.5亿是一种广泛使用的媒介。 Notwithstanding the significant variations in these estimates, many observers agree that the world population of Muslims is increasing by approximately 25 million per year.尽管这些估计的显着变化,许多观察家一致认为,世界上穆斯林人口大约每年25亿美元增加。Thus, a 250 million increase is anticipated for the decade 1990 - 2000.因此,250万美元增加为十年,预计90年至00年。 This significant expansion, due primarily but not entirely to the general population growth in Asia and Africa, is gradually reducing the numerical difference between Christians (the largest religious community) and Muslims, whose combined totals make up almost 50 percent of the world's population.这显着扩大,主要原因是但不完全是亚洲和非洲总人口的增长,正逐步减少基督教徒之间的数值上的差距(最大的宗教社区)和穆斯林,他们的组合总数几乎占人口的百分之50的世界。

Origin起源

While many Muslims vehemently oppose the language that the Prophet Muhammad is the "founder" of Islam - an expression which they interpret as an implicit denial of God's initiative and involvement in the history of Islam's origins - none would challenge that Islam dates back to the lifetime (570 - 632) of the Prophet and the years in which he received the divine revelations recorded in the Koran. 尽管许多穆斯林强烈反对的语言,先知穆罕默德是“创始人”伊斯兰-一个表达,他们解释为一的起源隐含否定上帝的伊斯兰教积极性和参与的历史-没有人会质疑,伊斯兰教的历史可以追溯到一生(570 - 632)的先知和岁月中,他收到了神圣的古兰经启示录。At the same time, however, most of them would stress that it is only in a sense that Islam dates back to the 7th century, since they regard their religion not as a 7th century innovation, but as the restoration of the original religion of Abraham. They would also stress that Islam is a timeless religion, not just because of the "eternal truth" that it proclaims but also because it is "every person's religion," the natural religion in which every person is born.在同一时间,但是,他们大多数会强调, 创新是一种感觉,只有在伊斯兰教的历史可以追溯到公元7世纪, 公元7世纪,因为他们一宗教方面的不一样,但由于亚伯拉罕恢复了原来的宗教。他们还强调,伊斯兰教是一个永恒的宗教,但不只是因为“永恒真理”,它宣称还因为它是“每个人的宗教”的自然宗教,每个人出生。

Islam's Comprehensive Character伊斯兰教的综合素质

When applied to Islam, the word religion has a far more comprehensive meaning than it commonly has in the West.当应用到伊斯兰教,宗教这个词有一个更全面的意义远远超过它在西方普遍。Islam encompasses personal faith and piety, the creed and worship of the community of believers, a way of life, a code of ethics, a culture, a system of laws, an understanding of the function of the state - in short, guidelines and rules for life in all its aspects and dimensions. While many Muslims see the Sharia (the "way," denoting the sacred law governing the life of individuals as well as the structures of society) as fixed and immutable, others make a clear distinction between the unchangeable message of the Koran and the mutable laws and regulations for Muslim life and conduct. 包括个人信仰和伊斯兰教的虔诚,信仰和生命崇拜的社会信徒,从某种意义上说,道德准则的,一种文化,一种法律体系,一个国家的认识的作用研究-总之,准则和规则生活中的尺寸和各个方面。尽管许多穆斯林认为伊斯兰法(以下简称“办法”,意指神圣的法律管辖的个人生活以及社会结构的)作为固定的和一成不变的,其他人之间作出明确的区分不变的消息对古兰经和可变的法律和穆斯林的生活和行为规范。

Throughout history, practices and opinions have differed with regard to the exact way in which Islam determines life in all its aspects, but the basic notion of Islam's comprehensive character is so intrinsic to Muslim thought and feeling that neither the past history of the Muslim world nor its present situation can be understood without taking this characteristic into consideration.纵观历史,实践和意见分歧方面的确切方式,伊斯兰教决定方面生活的一切,但综合素质的基本概念伊斯兰教是如此内在的穆斯林思想和感情,无论是世界上也没有过去的历史的穆斯林目前的情况是可以理解的不考虑这一特点。

According to Muslim jurists, the sharia is derived from four sources根据穆斯林法学家, 伊斯兰教法是来自四个来源

History and Spread of Islam历史和伊斯兰教的传播

The Prophet先知

Muhammad was born in 570 in Mecca, a trading center in western Arabia.穆罕默德出生在麦加570,沙特阿拉伯西部的一个交易中心。 About 610 he received the first of a series of revelations that convinced him that he had been chosen as God's messenger. He began to preach the message entrusted to him - that there is but one God, to whom all humankind must commit themselves. The polytheistic Meccans resented Muhammad's attacks on their gods and finally he emigrated with a few followers to Medina. This migration, which is called the Hegira (Hijrah), took place in 622; Muslims adopted the beginning of that year as the first year of their lunar calendar (Anno Hegirae, or AH). At Medina Muhammad won acceptance as a religious and military leader. 610他获得了第一。的使者系列的启示是使他确信,他的神被选为关于他开始宣扬的信息托付给他-即只有一个上帝,谁所有人类都必须承诺多神教本麦加人痛恨他们的神穆罕默德的攻击,最后他梅迪纳移民数的追随者用;。这种迁移,这是所谓的回教纪元(Hijrah),在发生622穆斯林通过年历的月球开始第一次的一年(安诺Hegirae,或AH)。穆罕默德在麦地那赢得领导人接受的,作为宗教和军事。 Within a few years he had established control of the surrounding region, and in 630 he finally conquered Mecca.几年之内,他建立了周边地区的控制,并在630他终于征服了麦加。There, the Kaaba, a shrine that had for some time housed the idols of the pagan Meccans, was rededicated to the worship of Allah, and it became the object of pilgrimage for all Muslims.在那里, 天房,一个靖 ​​国神社的麦加有对偶像的异教徒一段时间里面圈着,被重新致力于向真主崇拜,成为所有穆斯林朝圣的对象。

By the time of his death in 632, Muhammad had won the allegiance of most of the Arab tribespeople to Islam.到他去世时632,穆罕默德已赢得了伊斯兰教的阿拉伯部落最忠诚。He had laid the foundation for a community (umma) ruled by the laws of God. The Koran records that Muhammad was the Seal of the Prophets, the last of a line of God's messengers that began with Adam and included Abraham, Noah, Moses, and Jesus. He left for the future guidance of the community the words of God revealed to him and recorded in the Koran, and the sunna, the collective name for his opinions and decisions as recorded in the tradition literature (hadith).他已经奠定了社会基础的(乌玛)裁定由上帝的法律。The,摩西古兰经记载穆罕默德是封印先知努哈,最后一行的上帝的使者开始与亚当,包括亚伯拉罕,和耶稣。他留给未来的指导可兰经社会的话透露,神在他和记录,以及桑拿,圣训)集体名义为他(文学的意见和决定记录于传统。

A Rapidly Growing Empire, 632 - 750一个快速成长的帝国,632 - 750

After the death of Muhammad, a successor (khalifa, or caliph; was chosen to rule in his place. The first caliph, the Prophet's father - in - law, Abu Bakr (r. 632 - 34), initiated an expansionist movement that was carried out most successfully by the next two caliphs, Umar I (r. 634 - 44) and Uthman (r. 644 - 56). By 656 the Caliphate included the whole Arabian peninsula, Palestine and Syria, Egypt and Libya, Mesopotamia, and substantial parts of Armenia and Persia. Following the assassination of Uthman, the disagreements between those upholding the rights of the fourth caliph, Ali (r. 656 - 61), the Prophet's son - in - law, and their opponents led to a division in the Muslim community between the Shiites and the Sunnites that still exists today. When the governor of Syria, Muawiya I, came to power after the murder of Ali, the Shiites refused to recognize him and his successors.穆罕默德后,继任者(哈里发,即哈里发死亡。被选为在他统治的地方第一个哈里发,先知的父亲 - 中 - 法,阿布贝克尔(河632 - 34),发起一个运动,是扩张主义最受进行接下来的两个哈里发成功,奥马尔本人(河634 - 44)和奥斯曼(河644 - 56)。按656哈里发包括整个阿拉伯半岛,巴勒斯坦和叙利亚,埃及和利比亚,美索不达米亚,并相当部分亚美尼亚和波斯)。以下的暗杀奥斯曼- 61,656人的(河之间的分歧,维护权利的第四代哈里发阿里,先知的儿子-中-法,他们的对手导致分工今天的穆斯林社区之间存在的什叶派和逊尼派仍然。时,省长叙利亚,Muawiya我来到阿里执政谋杀后,什叶派拒绝承认他和他的继任者。

Muawiya inaugurated an almost 90 year rule by the Umayyads (661 - 750), who made Damascus their capital.Muawiya宣誓就职,由倭马亚王朝的近90年的统治(661 - 750),谁做他们的资本大马士革。A second wave of expansion followed.第二次浪潮的扩张之后。After they conquered (670) Tunisia, Muslim troops reached the northwestern point of North Africa in 710.当他们征服(670)突尼斯,穆斯林军队达到了710北非西北部点。In 711 they crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, rapidly overran Spain, and penetrated well into France until they were turned back near Poitiers in 732. 711年他们越过直布罗陀海峡,迅速占领了西班牙,并渗透到法国,一直到他们被拒绝普瓦捷附近回732。On the northern frontier Constantinople was besieged more than once (though without success), and in the east the Indus River was reached; the Islamic empire now bordered China and India, with some settlements in the Punjab.在北部边境君士坦丁堡被围困不止一次(虽然没有成功),并在东方的印度河达成;伊斯兰帝国现在在旁遮普邦接壤的中国和印度的一些定居点。

Rival Dynasties and Competing Capitals, 750 - 1258对手时期与竞争资本,750 - 1258

In 750, Umayyad rule in Damascus was ended by the Abbasids, who moved the caliphate's capital to Baghdad.在750,在大马士革倭马亚统治结束了该abbasids,动了谁的哈里发的首都巴格达。The succeeding period was marked more by an expansion of horizons of thought than by geographical expansion.随后的时期的特点是更多地受到了思想的视野比地域扩张扩张。In the fields of literature, the sciences, and philosophy, contributions by such Muslim scholars as al - Kindi, al - Farabi, and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) far surpassed European accomplishments of that time.在文学,科学,哲学等领域,通过这样的穆斯林学者作为基地的贡献 - 金​​迪,艾尔 - 法拉比,伊本新浪(阿维森纳)远远超过了当时欧洲的成就。

Politically, the power of the Abbasids was challenged by a number of rival dynasties.在政治上,阿拔斯王朝权力的挑战对手朝代的数目。These included an Umayyad dynasty in Cordoba, Spain (756 - 1031); the Fatimids, a dynasty connected with the Ishmalis (a Shiite sect), who established (909) themselves in Tunisia and later (969 - 1171) ruled Egypt; the Almoravids and the Almohads, Muslim Berber dynasties that successively ruled North Africa and Spain from the mid 11th to the mid 13th century; the Seljuks, a Muslim Turkish group that seized Baghdad in 1055 and whose defeat of the Byzantines in 1071 led indirectly to the Christian Crusades (1096 - 1254) against the Islamic world; and the Ayyubids, who displaced the Fatimids in Egypt and played an important role in the later years of the Crusades.这些措施包括在科尔多瓦,西班牙倭马亚王朝(756 - 1031),法蒂玛王朝,与Ishmalis连接的王朝(什叶派教),谁建立了(909)自己在突尼斯和更高版本(969 - 1171)统治埃及的阿尔摩拉维德和阿尔摩哈德王朝,穆斯林柏柏尔王朝的统治,先后从11年代中期北非和西班牙13世纪中叶,the塞尔柱,土耳其的穆斯林在巴格达组,检获10时55分1071年,其击败拜占庭间接导致的基督教十字军东征(1096至1254年)对伊斯兰世界以及Ayyubids,谁流离失所埃及法蒂玛王朝,发挥在十字军东征的晚年了重要作用。

The Abbasids were finally overthrown (1258) in Baghdad by the Mongols, although a family member escaped to Egypt, where he was recognized as caliph.该abbasids终于推翻(1258)在巴格达的蒙古人,虽然家庭成员逃到埃及,在那里他被确认为哈里发。While the brotherhood of faith remained a reality, the political unity of the Muslim world was definitely broken.虽然兄弟的信念仍然是一个现实,在穆斯林世界的政治统一是绝对打破。

Two Great Islamic Powers: The Ottomans and the Moguls两个伟大的伊斯兰力量:奥斯曼帝国和莫卧儿

The Ottoman Turkish dynasty, founded by Osman I (c. 1300), became a major world power in the 15th century, and continued to play a very significant role throughout the 16th and 17th centuries.奥斯曼土耳其王朝,由奥斯曼本人(约1300)成立,成为在15世纪的主要世界强国,并继续发挥在整个16世纪和17世纪一个非常重要的作用。 The Byzantine Empire, with which Muslim armies had been at war since the early days of Islam, came to an end in 1453 when Ottoman sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople.拜占庭帝国,与这起穆斯林军队曾在伊斯兰教的战争,初期,来到在1453年结束时,奥斯曼帝国苏丹穆罕默德二世征服君士坦丁堡。 That city then became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.该城后来成为了奥斯曼帝国的首都。In the first half of the 16th century, Ottoman power, already firmly established over all Anatolia and in most of the Balkans, gained control over Syria, Egypt (the sultans assumed the title caliph after deposing the last Abbasid in Cairo), and the rest of North Africa.在16世纪,奥斯曼帝国权力上半年,已经牢牢确立了在所有安纳托利亚和巴尔干地区最,获得了叙利亚,埃及控制(苏丹罢免后,承担了最后阿巴斯在开罗哈里发称号),其余北非。 It also expanded significantly northwestward into Europe, besieging Vienna in 1529.它也显着扩大西北进入欧洲,在1529年围攻维也纳。

The defeat of the Ottoman navy in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 was not, as many in Europe hoped, the beginning of a rapid disintegration of the Ottoman Empire; more than one hundred years later, in 1683, Ottoman troops once again besieged Vienna.作者在1571年在勒班陀战役奥斯曼帝国海军的失败并不像许多人希望在欧洲,一个在奥斯曼帝国迅速瓦解的开始,百余年后的1683年,奥斯曼军队围攻维也纳再次。 The decline of the empire becomes more visible from the late 17th century onward, but it survived through World War I. Turkey became a republic under Kemal Ataturk in 1923, and the caliphate was abolished in 1924.帝国的衰落变得更加从17世纪后期起,可见,但它活过第一次世界大战在1923年土耳其成为下凯末尔共和国和哈里发是在1924年取消。 The Moguls were a Muslim dynasty of Turko - Mongol origin who conquered northern India in 1526.是的莫卧儿王朝的Turko穆斯林 - 蒙古于1526年起源谁征服印度北部。The Mogul Empire reached the climax of its power in the period from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.莫卧儿帝国,直至达到18世纪初,它在16世纪后期从权力的高潮时期。Under the emperors Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb, Mogul rule was extended over most of the subcontinent, and Islamic culture (with a strong Persian flavor) was firmly implanted in certain areas.根据皇帝阿克巴贾汉吉尔,沙贾汗和奥朗则布,莫卧儿统治延长了大部分的次大陆和伊斯兰文化(具有强大的波斯风味)坚定地在某些领域植入。 The splendor of the Moguls is reflected in a special way in their architecture.该莫卧儿荣华富贵反映在他们的架构特殊的方式。 In the 18th century Mogul power began to decline.在18世纪莫卧儿权力开始下降。It survived, at least in name, however, till 1858, when the last sultan was dethroned by the British.它活了下来,至少在名称,但是,直到1858年,当最后苏丹被英国废黜。

Two Examples of the Coming of Islam in Frontier Areas两名伊斯兰即将在边境地区的例子

Indonesia and West Africa. While there may have been sporadic contacts from the 10th century onward with Muslim merchants, it was only in the 13th century that Islam clearly established itself in Sumatra, where small Muslim states formed on the northeast coast. 印尼和西非。虽然有可能已被穆斯林商人世纪起零星的接触与10日,它是在13世纪才明确规定,伊斯兰教本身在苏门答腊海岸,那里的穆斯林东北部的小州上形成。 Islam spread to Java in the 16th century, and then expanded, generally in a peaceful manner, from the coastal areas inward to all parts of the Indonesian archipelago.伊斯兰教的传播到Java在16世纪,然后扩大,一般在一个和平的方式从沿海地区,向内,印度尼西亚群岛各地。 By the 19th century it had reached to the northeast and extended into the Philippines. Today there are 140 million Muslims in Indonesia, constituting 90 percent of the population.到了19世纪,它已达到东北和扩展到菲律宾。 今天,有1.4亿印尼穆斯林,占人口百分之九十的。

Islam penetrated West Africa in three main phases.伊斯兰教侵入三个主要阶段西非。The first was that of contacts with Arab and Berber caravan traders, from the 10th century onward.第一件是与阿拉伯人和柏柏尔人马帮商人接触从10世纪起。Then followed a period of gradual Islamization of some rulers' courts, among them that of the famous Mansa Musa (r. 1312 - 27) in Mali. Finally, in the 16th century the Sufi orders (brotherhoods of mystics), especially the Qadiriyya, Tijaniyya, and Muridiyya, as well as individual saints and scholars, began to play an important role. The 19th century witnessed more than one Jihad (holy war) for the purification of Islam from pagan influences, while later in the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, Muslims formed a significant element in the growing resistance to colonial powers.接踵而来的一个法庭时期统治者逐步伊斯兰一些他们之间是著名的曼萨穆萨(河1312年至1327年),马 ​​里。在最后,在16世纪的苏菲订单(神秘主义者的兄弟的),尤其是Qadiriyya, Tijaniyya,并Muridiyya,以及个别圣人和学者,开始发挥重要作用。19世纪见证了净化伊斯兰教的异教徒的影响大于)一圣战组织(杰哈德,而后来在19世纪和20世纪上半叶,穆斯林形成了以殖民国家在不断发展的阻力的重要因素。 In the post colonial period Islam plays an important role in Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea, Mali and Niger, while there are smaller Muslim communities in the other states in West Africa.在后殖民时期的伊斯兰教中起着尼日利亚,塞内加尔,几内亚,马里和尼日尔的重要作用,但也有较小的穆斯林在西非其他国家的社区。

Islam in Modern History伊斯兰教在近代历史

Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798, followed three years later by the expulsion of the French troops by the combined British - Ottoman forces, is often seen as the beginning of the modern period in the history of Islam.拿破仑入侵埃及在1798年,之后三年后由法国军队的联合英国驱逐 - 奥斯曼帝国的力量,往往是作为在伊斯兰历史的现代时期的开端。The coming to power of Muhammed Ali (r. 1805 - 49) and the modernization of Egypt under his leadership was the beginning of a long struggle throughout the Muslim world to reestablish independence from the colonial powers and to assume their place as autonomous countries in the modern world.穆罕默德阿里的上台(河1805年至1849年)和他的领导下,埃及的现代化是一个整个穆斯林世界的长期斗争开始重新建立从殖民列强的独立性,并承担其作为独立的国家发生现代世界。 Resistance to foreign domination and an awareness of the need to restore the Muslim community to its proper place in world history are integral parts of the pan - Islamic efforts of Jamal Al - Din Al - Afghani as well as the nationalist movements of the 20th century.反抗外国统治和对需要恢复的穆斯林社会在世界历史地位的认识是泛组成部分 - 伊斯兰努力铝的贾马尔 - 锭铝 - 阿富汗以及20世纪的民族主义运动。The political, social, and economic developments in the various countries with Muslim majorities show significant differences.在与穆斯林为主的各国的政治,社会和经济发展呈现出显着的差异。

For example, Turkey and many of the Arab countries have become secular republics, whereas Saudi Arabia is virtually an absolute monarchy, ruled under Muslim law.例如,土耳其和阿拉伯国家的许多人成为世俗的共和国,而沙特几乎是一个绝对君主制,在穆斯林法治。Iran was ruled from 1925 to 1979 by the Pahlavi dynasty, which stressed secularization and westernization.伊朗1925至1979年统治了巴列维王朝,其中强调世俗化和西方化。Growing resistance from the Muslim community, which is overwhelmingly Shiite, culminated in the forced departure of the shah and the establishment of an Islamic republic under the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini.成长来自穆斯林社区,这是绝大多数什叶派在伊朗国王被迫离开和一个伊斯兰共和国在霍梅尼领导的建立最终,阻力。 However, while opinions differ with regard as to how Islam can continue to function in modern societies as a force relevant to all aspects of life, the great majority of Muslims hold fast to the notion of the comprehensive character of Islam as well as to its basic theological doctrines.不过,虽然意见作为伊斯兰教如何能继续在现代社会作为一个生效的有关生活各个方面的不同方面,绝大多数的穆斯林坚守的伊斯兰教以及综合素质的基本概念,以神学教义。

Islamic Doctrines伊斯兰教教义

Islamic doctrines are commonly discussed and taught widely - often by means of a catechism, with questions and answers - under six headings: God, angels, Scriptures, messengers, the Last Day, and predestination. The Muslims' notion of God (Allah) is, in a sense, interrelated with all of the following points and will be referred to below. 伊斯兰教教义,教通常广泛讨论-讲授往往是通过这一手段的答案,提出问题和-在六个标题:,天使,经典,使者,最后一天,和宿命。上帝的穆斯林)的概念,上帝(真主是在某种意义上,具有下列各点相互关联的,将被称为如下。 Some of the angels (all of whom are servants of God and subject to him) play a particularly important role in the daily life of many Muslims: the guardian angels; the recording angels (those who write down a person's deeds, for which he or she will have to account on Judgment Day); the angel of death; and the angels who question a person in the tomb.天使的一些(所有的人都是上帝的仆人,受他)玩了许多穆斯林,特别是重要的日常生活中的作用: 守护天使,录音天使 (那些谁写下一个人的事迹,为此,他或她不得不在审判的日子,),而死亡天使和天使谁的问题,在墓人。One of those mentioned by name in the Koran is Jibril (Gabriel, angel), who functioned in a special way as a transmitter of God's revelation to the Prophet. The importance of the Muslim recognition of Scriptures other than the Koran and of messengers other than Muhammad will be referred to below. 古兰经的重要组织之一名义提到的是贾布里勒(加布里埃尔,天使),谁的方式运作在一个特殊的一个启示发射神的先知。古兰经的重要性比穆斯林其他承认经文和使者以外穆罕默德将下文所述。

The promise and threat of the Last Day, which occupy an important place in the Koran, continue to play a major role in Muslim thought and piety. On the Last Day, of which only God knows the hour, every soul will stand alone and will have to account for its deeds. 的承诺和威胁的最后一天,这占据了重要地位,可兰经中,继续发挥作用,在穆斯林一个主要的想法和虔诚。在最后一天,其中只有天晓得小时,每一个灵魂会站在单,并会必须考虑到其行动。 In the theological discussions of the Last Day and, in general, of the concept of God, a significant issue has been whether the descriptions in the Koran (of Heaven and Hell, the vision of God, God being seated on the throne, the hands of God, and so on) should be interpreted literally or allegorically.在最后一天的神学讨论,并在一般的上帝的概念,一个重要的问题是否已在天堂与地狱,上帝的眼光可兰经(描述中,被上帝坐在宝座上,双手神等)应字面解释或寓言。 The majority view accepts the principle of literal interpretation (God is seated on the throne, he has hands), but adds the warning and qualification that humans cannot state and should not ask how this is the case, since God is incomparable (bila kayf, "without how"; bila tashbih, "beyond comparison").多数人的观点接受的字面解释原则(神宝座上坐定后,他手),但增加的警告和资格,人类不能状态,不应该问怎么是这样的话,上帝既然是无与伦比的(比拉kayf, “不如何”;比拉tashbih,“超越比较”)。

The last of the six articles, Predestination, is also a theocentric issue. Because the divine initiative is all decisive in bringing humans to faith ("had God not guided us, we had surely never been guided," 7:43), many concluded that God is not only responsible for guiding some but also for not guiding others, allowing them to go astray or even leading them astray. In the debate of later theologians on these questions, the antipredestinarians were concerned less with upholding the notion of human freedom and, therefore, of human dignity, than with defending the honor of God. According to these thinkers - the Qadarites and the Mutazilites, of the 8th to 10th centuries - the Koranic message of the justice of God "who does not wrong people" (" ... they wrong themselves," 43:76) excluded the notion of a God who would punish human beings for evil deeds and unbelief for which they themselves were not really responsible. The,最后的六个条款,宿命也是一个theocentric问题。 由于神圣的信仰决定性的倡议是在把所 ​​有人类(“引导我们过神来,我们从来没有肯定的指导下,”7:43),许多结束上帝不是只负责指导一些,但也没有别人的指导,让他们误入歧途,甚至导致他们误入歧途。在对这些问题进行辩论后神学家, 和有关antipredestinarians少了与维护人类的自由概念因此,人的尊严,捍卫神比荣誉 - 根据这些思想家的Qadarites和Mutazilites,第8至第10世纪-人民“古兰经信息的错误的司法上帝”谁不(“ ...他们自己错了,“43:76)排除了上帝的概念将惩罚谁和不信的恶行而他们本身并非真正负责任的人。

The major concern of their opponents was to maintain, against any such reasoning, the doctrine of the sovereign freedom of God, upon whom no limits can be placed, not even the limit of "being bound to do what is best for his creatures." Two important theologians of the 10th century, al - Ashari (d. 935) and al - Maturidi (d. 944), formulated answers that would mark for the centuries to come the traditional (Sunni) position on these points. Although one's acts are willed and created by God, one has to appropriate them to make them one's own. 在他们的对手主要关注的是要维护,对任何这样的推理,上帝学说的自由,主权,对人没有任何限制,可放置,即使是限制而不是“被绑定到做什么是最适合他的动物。”两个重要的神学家的10世纪,铝- Ashari(四935)和Al - (四944),制定了答案,将标志着百年来的传统(逊尼派)的位置。在这些问题上Maturidi 虽然一个人的行为意志和上帝创造的,一有适当的他们,使他们自己的。A recognition of a degree of human responsibility is combined with the notion of God as the sole creator, the One and Only.一个责任人在一定程度上承认的是,唯一的概念相结合的上帝作为唯一的创造者,一个和。

Around this concept of the unity of God another debate arose on the essence and attributes of God; it focused on the question whether the Koran - God's speech - was created or uncreated. Those who held that the Koran was created believed that the notion of an uncreated Koran implied another eternal reality alongside God, who alone is eternal and does not share his eternity with anyone or anything else. 围绕这一神概念的统一神另一次辩论产生的本质和属性,它把重点放在可兰经质疑-上帝的讲话-创建或毁灭那些谁认为古兰经是创建认为,这一概念毁灭古兰经隐含的另一个神永恒的现实的同时,谁才是永恒的,不与任何人分享他的永恒或任何其他。 Their opponents felt that the notion of a created Koran detracted from its character as God's own speech. The Sunni position that emerged from these discussions was that the Koran as written down or recited is created, but that it is a manifestation of the eternal "inner speech" of God, which precedes any articulation in sounds and letters.他们的对手认为古兰经概念的创建讲话减损了自己的特性,如神。 逊尼派的立场,讨论中出现这些是可兰经的写下来或背诵创建,但它是一种内在的表现永恒“讲话“的上帝,这之前任何字母和发音的声音。

None of the theological issues referred to above can be understood fully unless the sociopolitical context of these doctrinal debates is taken into consideration.的神学问题都不上文提到的完全是可以理解的,除非这些理论上的争论的社会政治背景下考虑。The interrelation between theological positions and political events is particularly clear in the first issues that arose in the history of Islam.神学之间的相互关系的立场和政治事件,特别明确了,在伊斯兰的历史第一次出现的问题。Reference has already been made to the division between the Shiites and the Sunnites. The Shiites were those who maintained that only "members of the family" (Hashimites, or, in the more restricted sense, descendants of the Prophet via his daughter, Fatima and her husband Ali) had a right to the caliphate.已经提到师向逊尼派和什叶派之间。 什叶派是那些谁主张,只有“家庭成员”(Hashimites,或在较狭义,先知的后裔通过他的女儿法蒂玛和她的丈夫阿里)有哈里 ​​发权利的。

Another group, the Kharijites (literally "those who seceded"), broke away from Ali (who was murdered by one of their members) and from the Umayyads. They developed the doctrine that confession, or faith, alone did not make a person a believer and that anyone committing grave sins was an unbeliever destined to hell. They applied this argument to the leaders of the community, holding that caliphs who were grave sinners could not claim the allegiance of the faithful. While the mainstream of Muslims accepted the principle that faith and works must go together, they rejected the Kharijite ideal of establishing here on earth a pure community of believers, insisting that the ultimate decision on whether a person is a believer or an unbeliever must be left to God. Suspension of the answer till Judgment Day enabled them to recognize anyone accepting the "five pillars" (see below) as a member of the community of believers, and to recognize those Muslims who had political authority over them, even if they objected to some of their practices.另一组,Kharijites(字面“谁分裂出去”),打破了倭马亚王朝,距阿里(他们是谁谋杀了一名成员)和从。 他们开发的原则,即供认,或信仰,本身并不能使人一信徒和任何人犯下的严重罪行,是一个异教徒地狱注定。应用这种说法,他们对社会的领导人,认为谁是哈里发严重罪人不能要求忠实效忠的。 尽管穆斯林主流接受的原则,信仰和工程必须走在一起,他们拒绝了理想的信徒Kharijite这里建立地球上的纯社区,坚持认为人是最终决定是否信徒或不信的人必须离开了。 暂停审判的答案,直到日使他们认识到任何人接受“五大支柱”(见下文)作为信徒的社区成员,并承认了谁的穆斯林对他们的政治权力,即使他们反对他们的一些做法。

Islamic Worship, Practices, and Duties伊斯兰教的礼拜,实践和义务

To what extent faith and works go together is evident from the traditional listing of the basic duties of any Muslim, the "five pillars" of Islam:在何种程度上信仰和工程一起去,是显而易见的,从传统的伊斯兰教五大支柱“的基本职责列出任何穆斯林,”:

The witness to God stands here side by side with the concern for the poor, reflected in almsgiving.对神的见证并排站在这里与对穷人的关心,体现在施舍。The personal involvement of the individual believer, expressed most clearly in the formulation of the shahada, "I witness there is no God but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God," is combined with a deep awareness of the strength that lies in the fellowship of faith and the community of all believers, significant dimensions of both the ritual prayer and the pilgrimage.个别信徒个人参与的情况,最清楚地表达了shahada在制定,“我看到有没有上帝,但上帝,穆罕默德是上帝的使者”,是结合了深刻的认识力量的谎言奖学金的信仰和所有信徒,双方的祈祷和朝拜仪式重要维度社区。

Muslim worship and devotion is not limited to the precisely prescribed words and gestures of the salat, but finds expression also in a wealth of personal prayers, in the gathering of the congregation in the central mosque on Fridays, and in the celebration of the two main festivals: Id al - Fitr, the festival of the breaking of the fast at the end of Ramadan; and Id al - Adha, the festival of the sacrifice (in memory of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son).穆斯林礼拜和奉献精神并不限于规定的言论和准确的礼拜手势,却发现也表达了个人财富的祈祷,在上周五中央清真寺聚会众,并在两个主要庆祝活动节日: - 宰牲节,是对在斋月结束的节日开斋节快速突破和宰牲节 - 宰牲节,完成了(在亚伯拉罕愿意牺牲自己的儿子内存)牺牲的节日。The latter, observed on the 10th day of the month of pilgrimage, is celebrated not only by the participants in the pilgrimage, but also simultaneously by those who stay in their own locations.后者在本月10日的朝圣之日纪念,庆祝不仅在朝圣的与会人员,而且那些谁留在自己的地点同时进行。The interpretations of jihad (literally, "striving" in the way of God), sometimes added as an additional duty, vary from sacred war to striving to fulfill the ethical norms and principles expounded in the Koran.上帝)的诠释圣战 (字面上看,“努力”的方式,有时增加一条,作为一个额外的职责,神圣的战争有所不同要努力实现的伦理规范和古兰经的原则阐述了研究。

Islamic Views of Other Religions其他宗教的伊斯兰观

Islam is definitely an inclusivistic religion in the sense that it recognizes God's sending of messengers to all peoples and his granting of "Scripture and Prophethood" to Abraham and his descendants, the latter resulting in the awareness of a very special link between Muslims, Jews, and Christians as all Abraham's children. Throughout history there have been believers who discerned the Truth of God and responded to him in the right manner, committing themselves to him alone. Of these "Muslims before Muhammad," the Koran mentions, among others, Abraham and his sons, Solomon and the queen of Sheba, and the disciples of Jesus. This inclusiveness is also expressed in the Muslim recognition of earlier Scriptures, namely, the Taurat (Torah) given to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) of David, and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus. 伊斯兰教是绝对的意义上inclusivistic宗教,因为它认识到上帝的使者发送到所有人民和他授予“经文和先知”,以亚伯拉罕和他的后裔,后者犹太人造成的意识之间的联系穆斯林的一个非常特殊的,和基督徒的所有亚伯拉罕的儿女。纵观历史上有过信徒谁看出神真相,并回答了他在正确的方式,承诺向他孤独。 这些“穆罕默德穆斯林之前,”可兰经中提到,除其他外,亚伯拉罕和他的儿子,所罗门和示巴女王,和耶稣的门徒。这种包容性也体现在,即穆斯林承认早期圣经,Taurat(圣经)向摩西,Zabur(诗篇)的大卫,福音)耶稣Injil(。

This recognition of other prophets besides Muhammad and other Scriptures besides the Koran is coupled with the firm conviction that the perfection of religion and the completion of God's favor to humanity have been realized in the sending down of the Koran, the sending of Muhammad as "the Seal of the Prophets," and the establishing of Islam.这除了穆罕默德和除古兰经其它经文其他先知承认再加上坚定的信念,宗教和上帝的青睐对人类完成完美已经实现在发送可兰经,穆罕默德的发送为“下印章的先知“和建立伊斯兰教。 People's reactions and response to this final criterion of truth became, therefore, the evidence of their faith or unbelief.人们的反应和应对这个真理的最终标准成了,因此,对他们的信仰或不信的证据。Those who, on the basis of what they had previously received from God, recognize the message of the Koran as the ultimate Truth show themselves thereby as true believers, while those who reject it prove themselves to be unbelievers, no matter by what name they call themselves.那些谁,在什么他们曾收到来自上帝的基础上,承认终极真理可兰经的消息显示,从而为自己的忠实信徒,而那些谁拒绝它证明自己是由什么名字他们叫不信,无论自己。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
General:一般:
M Abdul - Rauf, Islam: Creed and Worship (1975); K Cragg, The House of Islam (1975); HAR Gibb, Mohammedanism (1949); PK Hitti, Islam, A Way of Life (1970); B Lewis, ed., Islam and the Arab World (1976); KW Morgan, ed., Islam: The Straight Path (1958); SH Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam (1966); F Rahman, Islam (1979); J Schacht and CE Bosworth, eds., The Legacy of Islam (1974); WM Watt, What Is Islam?M阿卜杜勒 - 拉乌夫,伊斯兰教:宗教和信仰(1975年); K表克拉格,伊斯兰之家(1975年);的HAR吉布,伊斯兰教(1949年); PK的希提,伊斯兰教,生活之路(1970年),B期刘易斯,教育署。,伊斯兰和阿拉伯世界(1976年);千瓦摩根,教育署,伊斯兰教:。正道(1958年);上海纳斯尔,理想和现实的伊斯兰教(1966年),女拉赫曼,伊斯兰教(1979年); Ĵ沙赫特和CE博斯沃思合编,伊斯兰教的传统(1974年);。西医瓦,什么是伊斯兰教?(1968).(1968年)。

Islam in Modern History:伊斯兰教在近代历史:
K Cragg, Counsels in Contemporary Islam (1965) and The Call of the Minaret (1985); JL Esposito, Islam and Politics (1984); D MacEnoin and A Al - Shahi, eds., Islam in the Modern World (1983); EIJ Rosenthal, Islam in the Modern National State (1965); WC Smith, Islam in Modern History (1959); R Wright, Sacred Rage (1985). K表克拉格,律师在当代伊斯兰教(1965年)和尖塔调用(1985年);巨浪埃斯波西托,伊斯兰教与政治(1984); ð MacEnoin和A铝 - 夏希合编,在现代世界(1983)伊斯兰教。 eij的罗森塔尔,在现代民族国家(1965年)伊斯兰教;厕所史密斯,在现代历史伊斯兰教(1959)与r赖特,神圣之怒(1985年)。

Sociology of Islam and Ethnographical Data:社会学对伊斯兰教和民族志资料:
IR Al Faruqi and L Lamya, The Cultural Atlas of Islam (1986); R Levy, The Social Structure of Islam (1957); RC Martin, Islam: A Cultural Perspective (1982); RV Weeks, ed., Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey (1978).红外铝Faruqi和L Lamya,伊斯兰文化图集(1986)与r利维,伊斯兰社会结构(1957年);钢筋混凝土马丁,伊斯兰教:一个文化视角(1982年);房车周,海关,穆斯林人民:一个。世界民族志调查(1978年)。


Salat, The Five Daily Prayers, Ṣalat萨拉特,每日五次礼拜,萨拉特

Advanced Information先进的信息

Fajr (Morning) 黎明 (上午) Between the very beginning of dawn and sunrise.之间的黎明和日出开始。
Dhuhr (Noon) Dhuhr(中午)

Between the declining of the sun and Asr (when the shadow of something is twice its own length).下降之间的太阳和晡(当影子的东西本身长度的两倍)。
Asr (Late Afternoon) (午后) Immediately after the last time limit of Dhuhr until just before the sunset.后立即Dhuhr最后时间,直到日落前的限制。
Maghrib (Evening) 马格里布 (夜间) Soon after the sunset until the disappearance of the twilight.不久后,直到日落黄昏消失。
Isha (Night) (夜) After the disappearance of the twilight until midnight.黄昏后,直到午夜消失。
Note: There is also a very much emphasized prayer ( Witr ) after Ishaa. 注:还有一个非常强调祈祷)后,宵礼以后,( 威特尔拜

Mohammed and Mohammedanism穆罕默德和伊斯兰教

Catholic Information天主教新闻

I. THE FOUNDER一,创办人

Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) AD 570.穆罕默德“的好评一”,伊斯兰教的先知和伊斯兰教的创始人,出生于麦加(8月20日?)公元570。

Arabia was then torn by warring factions.阿拉伯当时撕开交战派别。The tribe of Fihr, or Quarish, to which Mohammed belonged, had established itself in the south of Hijas (Hedjaz), near Mecca, which was, even then, the principal religious and commercial centre of Arabia.对Fihr,或Quarish部落,对此穆罕默德所属,已经成立于Hijas(Hedjaz),麦加附近,这是,即使在当时,主要宗教和商业中心以南的沙特阿拉伯本身。 The power of the tribe was continually increasing; they had become the masters and the acknowledged guardians of the sacred Kaaba, within the town of Mecca - then visited in annual pilgrimage by the heathen Arabs with their offerings and tributes - and had thereby gained such preeminence that it was comparatively easy for Mohammed to inaugurate his religious reform and his political campaign, which ended with the conquest of all Arabia and the fusion of the numerous Arab tribes into one nation, with one religion, one code, and one sanctuary.部落的权力不断增加,他们已成为公认的主人,在麦加天房镇的神圣守护者, - 那么,每年的朝圣访问了自己的产品和异教徒的阿拉伯人的贡品 - 并因此获得上扬这是比较容易穆罕默德开创的宗教改革和他的政治运动,这与所有阿拉伯征服和许多阿拉伯国家融合成一个部落告终一种宗教,一个代码,一个避难所。 (See ARABIA, Christianity in Arabia.)(见阿拉伯,阿拉伯的基督教。)

Mohammed's father was Abdallah, of the family of Hashim, who died soon after his son's birth.穆罕默德的父亲是阿卜杜拉的哈希姆,谁死在他儿子的出生不久的家庭。At the age of six the boy lost his mother and was thereafter taken care of by his uncle Abu-Talib.在六岁的男孩失去了母亲,然后又由他的叔叔阿布Talib照顾。He spent his early life as a shepherd and an attendant of caravans, and at the age of twenty-five married a rich widow, Khadeejah, fifteen years his senior.他花了一个牧羊人和一个大篷车服务员他早期的生活,并在二十五岁娶了一个有钱的寡妇,Khadeejah,十五年他的前辈。 She bore him six children, all of whom died very young except Fatima, his beloved daughter.她生了六个孩子,他们都死了,除了法蒂玛,他心爱的女儿很年轻。

On his commercial journeys to Syria and Palestine he became acquainted with Jews and Christians, and acquired an imperfect knowledge of their religion and traditions.在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦他的商业旅程,他结识了犹太人和基督徒,并获得了他们的宗教和传统知识的不完善。He was a man of retiring disposition, addicted to prayer and fasting, and was subject to epileptic fits.他是一位退休的安排的人,沉迷于祈祷和禁食,并受到癫痫发作。In his fortieth year (AD 612), he claimed to have received a call from the Angel Gabriel, and thus began his active career as the prophet of Allah and the apostle of Arabia.在他四十一年(公元612),他声称已经收到了天使加布里埃尔一个电话,从而开始了真主的先知和使徒的沙特阿拉伯他的积极的职业生涯。 His converts were about forty in all, including his wife, his daughter, his father-in-law Abu Bakr, his adopted son Ali Omar, and his slave Zayd.他在所有转换约有四十,包括他的妻子,女儿,他的岳父岳母艾布伯克尔,他收养的儿子阿里奥马尔和他的奴隶栽德。By his preaching and his attack on heathenism, Mohammed provoked persecution which drove him from Mecca to Medina in 622, the year of the Hejira (Flight) and the beginning of the Mohammedan Era.通过他的说教和他对异教的攻击,挑起迫害,穆罕默德从麦加他开车在622到麦地那,对Hejira(飞行)和穆罕默德时代的开始的一年。 At Medina he was recognized as the prophet of God, and his followers increased.在麦地那,他被认为是神的先知,和他的追随者增加。He took the field against his enemies, conquered several Arabian, Jewish, and Christian tribes, entered Mecca in triumph in 630, demolished the idols of the Kaaba, became master of Arabia, and finally united all the tribes under one emblem and one religion.他把反对他的敌人征服几个阿拉伯,犹太场,和基督教的部落,进入630麦加胜利,摧毁了天房的偶像,成为掌握沙特阿拉伯,终于在一个统一的标志和一个宗教所有的部落。 In 632 he made his last pilgrimage to Mecca at the head of forty thousand followers, and soon after his return died of a violent fever in the sixty-third year of his age, the eleventh of the Hejira, and the year 633 of the Christian era.在632他在四万信徒的头上,最后的麦加朝圣,不久后,他返回死于在他的年龄,对Hejira十一第六十三年暴力发烧,一年633基督教时代。

The sources of Mohammed's biography are numerous, but on the whole untrustworthy, being crowded with fictitious details, legends, and stories.穆罕默德的传记的来源很多,但总体上不可靠,正与虚构的细节,传说和故事,热闹非凡。None of his biographies were compiled during his lifetime, and the earliest was written a century and a half after his death.他的传记没有被编译在他的一生,和最早的写一世纪,在他死后的一半。The Koran is perhaps the only reliable source for the leading events in his career.可兰经,恐怕也只有在他的职业生涯中领导活动的可靠来源。His earliest and chief biographers are Ibn Ishaq (AH 151=AD 768), Wakidi (207=822), Ibn Hisham (213=828), Ibn Sa'd (230=845), Tirmidhi (279=892), Tabari (310-929), the "Lives of the Companions of Mohammed", the numerous Koranic commentators [especially Tabari, quoted above, Zamakhshari 538=1144), and Baidawi (691=1292)], the "Musnad", or collection of traditions of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (241=855), the collections of Bokhari (256=870), the "Isabah", or "Dictionary of Persons who knew Mohammed", by Ibn Hajar, etc. All these collections and biographies are based on the so-called Hadiths, or "traditions", the historical value of which is more than doubtful.他最早的传记作家兼首席伊本伊斯哈格(阿公元151 = 768),Wakidi(207 = 822),伊本希沙姆(213 = 828),伊本赛尔德(230 = 845),替勒密吉(279 = 892),塔巴里( 310-929)中,“穆罕默德的同伴的生命”,众多的可兰经评论[尤其是塔巴里,上面引述的,Zamakhshari 538 = 1144)和巴大维(691 = 1292)],在“Musnad”,或传统的集合艾哈迈德本罕百里(241 = 855),对博哈里藏品(256 = 870)的“Isabah”或“人事词典谁知道穆罕默德”的伊本哈吉尔,等所有这些收藏和传记是基于所谓的圣训,或“传统”,历史价值,比怀疑多。

These traditions, in fact, represent a gradual, and more or less artificial, legendary development, rather than supplementary historical information.这些传统,其实代表了渐进的,而且或多或少人为的,历史资料的补充,而不是传说中的发展。According to them, Mohammed was simple in his habits, but most careful of his personal appearance.据他们说,穆罕默德是他的习惯简单,但最使他的个人形象谨慎。He loved perfumes and hated strong drink.他喜欢香水和恨浓酒。Of a highly nervous temperament, he shrank from bodily pain.一个高度紧张的气质,他从身体疼痛萎缩。Though gifted with great powers of imagination, he was taciturn.虽然与想象的大国天才,他沉默寡言。He was affectionate and magnanimous, pious and austere in the practice of his religion, brave, zealous, and above reproach in his personal and family conduct.他深情和坦荡,虔诚,在他简朴的宗教活动,勇敢,热情,尤其在他的个人和家庭进行羞辱。Palgrave, however, wisely remarks that "the ideals of Arab virtue were first conceived and then attributed to him".帕尔格雷夫,但是,明智的言论“阿拉伯美德的理想,最初设想,然后归咎于他。”Nevertheless, with every allowance for exaggeration, Mohammed is shown by his life and deeds to have been a man of dauntless courage, great generalship, strong patriotism, merciful by nature, and quick to forgive.尽管如此,每夸张的津贴,穆罕默德是他的生活和事迹证明一直是大无畏的勇气,大将军的,强烈的爱国主义的人,天生仁慈,并迅速原谅。 And yet he was ruthless in his dealings with the Jews, when once he had ceased to hope for their submission.但他在他打交道的犹太人,当一旦他不再希望其提交无情。He approved of assassination, when it furthered his cause; however barbarous or treacherous the means, the end justified it in his eyes; and in more than one case he not only approved, but also instigated the crime.他批准暗杀,他的事业时,更进一步,但野蛮或阴险的手段,最终证明他的眼睛里,以及在多个情况下,他不仅是许可的,还煽动犯罪。 Concerning his moral character and sincerity, contradictory opinions have been expressed by scholars in the last three centuries.至于他的品德和诚意,表达了相互矛盾的意见的学者,在过去三个世纪。Many of these opinions are biased either by an extreme hatred of Islam and its founder or by an exaggerated admiration, coupled with a hatred of Christianity.其中许多意见是偏颇或由一个伊斯兰极端仇恨和它的创始人或夸大钦佩,对基督教的仇恨与耦合。

Luther looked upon him as "a devil and first-born child of Satan".路德觉得他是“撒旦魔鬼和第一个出生的孩子。”Maracci held that Mohammed and Mohammedanism were not very dissimilar to Luther and Protestantism. Maracci认为,穆罕默德和伊斯兰教并不十分不同路德和新教。Spanheim and D'Herbelot characterize him as a "wicked impostor", and a "dastardly liar", while Prideaux stamps him as a wilful deceiver. Spanheim与德Herbelot定性为“邪恶的骗子”,和“卑鄙的骗子”他,而普里多邮票是故意迷惑他。Such indiscriminate abuse is unsupported by facts.这种肆意滥用是事实的支持。

Modern scholars, such as Sprenger, Noldeke, Weil, Muir, Koelle, Grimme, Margoliouth, give us a more correct and unbiased estimate of Mohammed's life and character, and substantially agree as to his motives, prophetic call, personal qualifications, and sincerity.现代学者,如斯普伦杰,Noldeke,韦尔,缪尔,Koelle,格力莫,Margoliouth,给我们一个穆罕默德的生活和性格更正确和公正的评估,并大大同意,以他的动机,先知呼吁,个人资格和诚意。 The various estimates of several recent critics have been ably collected and summarized by Zwemer, in his "Islam, a Challenge to Faith" (New York, 1907).最近几个批评家们的各种估计已经巧妙地收集和总结了Zwemer,在他的“伊斯兰教,信仰的挑战”(纽约,1907年)。 According to Sir William Muir, Marcus Dods, and some others, Mohammed was at first sincere, but later, carried away by success, he practised deception wherever it would gain his end.据威廉爵士缪尔,马库斯Dods,有些人,穆罕默德是在第一次真诚的,但后来进行的成功了,他从哪儿来的实践欺骗将获得他的结局。 Koelle "finds the key to the first period of Mohammed's life in Khadija, his first wife", after whose death he became a prey to his evil passions. Koelle“认定向穆罕默德在Khadija生命的初始阶段的关键,他的第一任妻子”,其死亡后,他成了他的邪恶的激情猎物。Sprenger attributes the alleged revelations to epileptic fits, or to "a paroxysm of cataleptic insanity".斯普伦杰属性指称启示癫痫发作,或“一个发呆的精神错乱发作。”

Zwemer himself goes on to criticize the life of Mohammed by the standards, first, of the Old and New Testaments, both of which Mohammed acknowledged as Divine revelation; second, by the pagan morality of his Arabian compatriots; lastly, by the new law of which he pretended to be the "divinely appointed medium and custodian". Zwemer他接着批评的标准由穆罕默德的生活,首先老和新约,两者都承认穆罕默德是神的启示;第二,由他的同胞阿拉伯异教道德;最后,由新法律他假装是“神圣的任命中,托管人”。 According to this author, the prophet was false even to the ethical traditions of the idolatrous brigands among whom he lived, and grossly violated the easy sexual morality of his own system.据笔者,先知甚至是虚假的偶像崇拜的强盗人之间的伦理传统,他活了下来,严重违反了他自己的系统很容易的性道德。After this, it is hardly necessary to say that, in Zwemer's opinion, Mohammed fell very far short of the most elementary requirements of Scriptural morality.在此之后,它几乎没有必要说,在Zwemer认为,穆罕默德下跌很远的圣经道德的最基本要求短。Quoting Johnstone, Zwemer concludes by remarking that the judgment of these modern scholars, however harsh, rests on evidence which "comes all from the lips and the pens of his own devoted adherents ... And the followers of the prophet can scarcely complain if, even on such evidence, the verdict of history goes against him".引述约翰斯通,Zwemer结论中的议论,这些现代学者,但恶劣的判断,对证据“来自他自己的嘴唇和专门信徒的笔...和先知的追随者几乎可以抱怨,如果所有的休息,即使在这样的证据,历史的判决云:“对他不利。

II.二。THE SYSTEM本系统

A. Geographical Extent, Divisions, and Distribution of Mohammedans After Mohammed's death Mohammedanism aspired to become a world power and a universal religion.答:地理范围,分支机构,分布在伊斯兰教和穆罕默德去世伊斯兰教渴望成为一个世界强国,一个普遍的宗教。The weakness of the Byzantine Empire, the unfortunate rivalry between the Greek and Latin Churches, the schisms of Nestorius and Eutyches, the failing power of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia, the lax moral code of the new religion, the power of the sword and of fanaticism, the hope of plunder and the love of conquest - all these factors combined with the genius of the caliphs, the successors of Mohammed, to effect the conquest, in considerably less than a century, of Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, and the South of Spain.的拜占庭帝国,希腊和拉丁语之间的竞争教会不幸,涅斯和欧迪奇,波斯的萨珊王朝的失败权力,宽松的新宗教的道德准则,剑的分裂和权力的弱点狂热的掠夺的希望,征服的爱情 - 所有这些天才的因素结合的哈里发,穆罕默德的继承人,为了实施征服的过程,大大超过了在巴勒斯坦,叙利亚,美索不达米亚,埃及,北世纪,少非洲和西班牙南部。 The Moslems even crossed the Pyrenees, threatening to stable their horses in St. Peter's at Rome, but were at last defeated by Charles Martel at Tours, in 732, just one hundred years from the death of Mohammed.穆斯林甚至越过比利牛斯山脉,威胁其稳定在圣彼得的马匹在罗马,但在查尔斯•马特尔分别击败了去年旅游,在732只百年从穆罕默德死亡。 This defeat arrested their western conquests and saved Europe.这次失败被捕并保存他们的西方征服欧洲。

In the eighth and ninth centuries they conquered Persia, Afghanistan, and a large part of India, and in the twelfth century they had already become the absolute masters of all Western Asia, Spain and North Africa, Sicily, etc. They were finally conquered by the Mongols and Turks, in the thirteenth century, but the new conquerors adopted Mohammed's religion and, in the fifteenth century, overthrew the tottering Byzantine Empire (1453).在第八和第九世纪他们征服了波斯,阿富汗和印度的很大一部分,并在十二世纪,他们已经成为所有西亚,西班牙和北非,西西里岛等,他们终于征服了绝对的主人蒙古人和突厥人,在13世纪,但采用新的征服者穆罕默德的宗教,在15世纪,推翻了摇摇欲坠的拜占庭帝国(1453)。 From that stronghold (Constantinople) they even threatened the German Empire, but were successfully defeated at the gates of Vienna, and driven back across the Danube, in 1683.从这个据点(君士坦丁堡),他们甚至威胁德意志帝国,但在成功地击败了维也纳的大门,并带动整个多瑙河早在1683年。 Mohammedanism now comprises various theological schools and political factions.现在有伊斯兰教神学学校和各种政治派别。 The Orthodox (Sunni) uphold the legitimacy of the succession of the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, Omar, and Uthman, while the Schismatics (Shiah) champion the Divine right of Ali as against the successions of these caliphs whom they call "usurpers", and whose names, tombs, and memorials they insult and detest.东正教(逊尼派)秉承了前三个哈里发,阿布贝克尔,奥马尔和奥斯曼继承的合法性,而Schismatics(什叶派)冠军作为对这些哈里发的继承谁,他们称之为“篡夺”的阿里神权和他们的名字,墓碑和纪念他们的侮辱和憎恶。

The Shiah number at present about twelve million adherents, or about one-twentieth of the whole Mohammedan world, and are scattered over Persia and India.现时约有一千二点○万信徒,约三分之一的整个伊斯兰教世界二十,和什叶派一些散落在波斯和印度。The Sunni are subdivided into four principal theological schools, or sects, viz., the Hanifites, found mostly in Turkey, Central Asia, and Northern India; the Shafites in Southern India and Egypt; the Malikites, in Morocco, Barbary, and parts of Arabia; and the Hanbalites in Central and Eastern Arabia and in some parts of Africa.逊尼派被分为四个主要的神学学校,或教派,即,在Hanifites,主要是在土耳其,中亚和印度北部发现。在印度南部和埃及Shafites,在摩洛哥,北非Malikites,以及部分沙特阿拉伯,以及在中欧和东欧阿拉伯和非洲一些地区Hanbalites。 The Shiah are also subdivided into various, but less important, sects.在什叶派也分为多方面的,但同样重要的教派。Of the proverbial seventy-three sects of Islam, thirty-two are assigned to the Shiah.在众所周知的七十三伊斯兰教教派,32个分配给什叶派。The principal differences between the two are:二者的主要区别是:

as to the legitimate successors of Mohammed;以穆罕默德的合法继承者;

the Shiah observe the ceremonies of the month of fasting, Muharram, in commemoration of Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Bibi Fatimah, whilst the Sunnites only regard the tenth day of that month as sacred, and as being the day on which God created Adam and Eve;在什叶派观察的斋戒,回历的阿里,哈桑,侯赛因,和比比法蒂玛,而纪念,一个月只有仪式逊尼派方面的十月份,作为神圣的日子,一天,因为这是上帝创造亚当和夏娃;

the Shiah permit temporary marriages, contracted for a certain sum of money, whilst the Sunnites maintain that Mohammed forbade them;什叶派许可证的临时婚姻,一定数额的钱承包,而逊尼派认为穆罕默德禁止他们;

the Shi'ites include the Fire-Worshippers among the "People of the Book", whilst the Sunnites acknowledge only Jews, Christians, and Moslems as such;什叶派包括对图书善信在人民内部,而逊尼派承认只有犹太人,基督教徒和穆斯林等的;

several minor differences in the ceremonies of prayer and ablution;在祈祷和沐浴的仪式几个细微的差别;

the Shiah admit a principle of religious compromise in order to escape persecution and death, whilst the Sunni regard this as apostasy.承认的什叶派宗教妥协的原则,以逃避迫害和死亡,而逊尼派认为这叛教。

There are also minor sects, the principal of which are the Aliites, or Fatimites, the Asharians, Azaragites, Babakites, Babbis, Idrisites, Ismailians and Assassins, Jabrians, Kaissanites, Karmathians, Kharjites, followers of the Mahdi, Mu'tazilites, Qadrains, Safrians, Sifatians, Sufis, Wahabis, and Zaidites.也有轻微的教派,其中主要是Aliites,或Fatimites的Asharians,Azaragites,Babakites,Babbis,Idrisites,Ismailians围城,Jabrians,Kaissanites,Karmathians,Kharjites,追随者的马赫迪,Mu'tazilites,Qadrains ,Safrians,Sifatians,苏菲派,瓦哈比派,和Zaidites。The distinctive features of these various sects are political as well as religious; only three or four of them now possess any influence.这些不同教派的特色是政治和宗教的;只有三,四人现在拥有的任何影响。In spite of these divisions, however, the principal articles of faith and morality, and the ritual, are substantially uniform.尽管在这些部门,但是,信仰和道德,和祭祀的,主要条款大致均匀。

According to the latest and most reliable accounts (1907), the number of Mohammedans in the world is about 233 millions, although some estimate the number as high as 300 millions, others, again, as low as 175 millions.根据最新和最可靠的帐户(1907年),对伊斯兰教在世界上人数约233万,尽管有些估计高达300万,其他人,高数了一遍,低至175万元。 Nearly 60 millions are in Africa, 170 millions in Asia, and about 5 millions in Europe.近60万在非洲,170万在亚洲,欧洲大约5百万美元。Their total number amounts to about one-fourth of the population of Asia, and one-seventh that of the whole world.他们的总人数达约四分之一,亚洲人口,一个体现了整个世界第七位。Their geographical distribution is as follows:它们的地理分布如下:

Asia亚洲

India, 62 millions; other British possessions (such as Aden, Bahrein, Ceylon, and Cyprus), about one million and a half; Russia (Asiatic and European), the Caucasus, Russian Turkestan, and the Amur region, about 13 millions; Philippine Islands, 350,000; Dutch East Indies (including Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, etc.) about 30 millions; French possessions in Asia (Pondicherry, Annam, Cambodia, Cochin-China, Tonking, Laos), about one million and a half; Bokhara, 1,200,000; Khiva, 800,000; Persia, 8,800,000; Afghanistan, 4,000,000; China and Chinese Turkestan, 30,000,000; Japan and Formosa, 30,000; Korea, 10,000; Siam, 1,000,000; Asia Minor; Armenia and Kurdistan, 1,795,000; Mesopotamia, 1,200,000; Syria, 1,100,000; Arabia, 4,500,000.印度,62万,其他英国属地(如亚丁,巴林,锡兰和塞浦路斯),约一万元,一半;俄罗斯(亚洲和欧洲),高加索,俄罗斯土耳其斯坦,和阿穆尔地区,约13万;菲律宾群岛,35万,荷兰东印度群岛(包括爪哇,苏门答腊,婆罗洲,西里伯斯等)约30万,法国人在亚洲的财产(本地治里,安南,柬埔寨,科钦,中国,同恒,老挝),约一万元,一半;布哈拉,1,200,000;希瓦,800,000;波斯,8,800,000,阿富汗,4000000;中国和中国土耳其斯坦,3000万,日本和台湾,30000,韩国,10000;暹罗,1,000,000,小亚细亚,亚美尼亚和库尔德斯坦,1,795,000,美索不达米亚, 1,200,000;叙利亚,1,100,000,沙特阿拉伯,4,500,000。Total, 170,000,000.共计170,000,000。

Africa非洲

Egypt, 9,000,000; Tripoli, 1,250,000; Tunis, 1,700,000; Algeria, 4,000,000; Morocco, 5,600,000; Eritrea, 150,000; Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1,000,000; Senegambia-Niger, 18,000,000; Abyssinia, 350,000; Kamerun, 2,000,000; Nigeria, 6,000,000; Dahomey, 350,000; Ivory Coast, 800,000; Liberia, 600,000; Sierra Leone, 333,000; French Guinea, 1,500,000; French, British, and Italian Somaliland, British East African Protectorate, Uganda, Togoland, Gambia and Senegal, about 2,000,000; Zanzibar, German East Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Rhodesia, Congo Free State, and French Congo, about 4,000,000; South Africa and adjacent island, about 235,000.-Approximate total, 60,000,000.埃及,9,000,000;的黎波里,1,250,000,突尼斯,1,700,000,阿尔及利亚,4,000,000,摩洛哥,5,600,000,厄立特里亚,150,000;英埃及苏丹,1000000;塞内冈比亚尼,18,000,000;阿比西尼亚,350,000;喀麦隆,2,000,000,尼日利亚,6,000,000;达荷美,350,000;象牙海岸,80,利比里亚,60,塞拉利昂,333,000;法属几内亚,150万,法国,英国和意大利的索马里兰,英国东非保护地,乌干达,多哥兰,冈比亚和塞内加尔,约200;桑给巴尔,德国东非洲,东非葡萄牙,罗得西亚,刚果自由邦,刚果和法国,约400.0万,南非和邻近岛屿,共约235,000 .-近似,60,000,000。

Europe欧洲

Turkey in Europe, 2,100,000; Greece, Servia, Rumania, and Bulgaria, about 1,369,000.土耳其在欧洲,2,100,000,希腊,塞尔维亚,罗马尼亚,保加利亚,约136.9万。Total, about 3,500,000.共计约3,500,000。

America and Australia美国和澳大利亚

About 70,000.约70,000。

About 7,000,000 (ie, four-fifths) of the Persian Mohammedans and about 5,000,000 of the Indian Mohammedans are Shiahs; the rest of the Mohammedan world - about 221,000,000 - are almost all Sunnites.约7,000,000(即五分之四)的波斯伊斯兰教和伊斯兰教对印度五百点零零零万顷Shiahs,在世界其他地区的穆罕默德 - 约2.210亿 - 几乎全部是逊尼派。

B. Tenets二信条

The principal tents of Mohammedanism are laid down in the Koran.对伊斯兰教的主要帐篷中规定了可兰经。As aids in interpreting the religious system of the Koran we have: first, the so-called "Traditions", which are supposed to contain supplementary teachings and doctrine of Mohammed, a very considerable part of which, however, is decidedly spurious; second, the consensus of the doctors of Islam represented by the most celebrated imâms, the founders of the various Islamic sects, the Koranic commentators and the masters of Mohammedans jurisprudence; third, the analogy, or deduction from recognized principles admitted in the Koran and in the Traditions.由于理解上的可兰经,我们的宗教体系艾滋病:第一,所谓的“传统”,这是为了补充含有穆罕默德的教义和学说,一个很可观的一部分,但是这绝对是虚假的;第二,在伊斯兰教的医生所代表的共识,最有名的阿訇,伊斯兰的各种教派的创始人,可兰经评论家和伊斯兰教法学的主人;第三,这个比喻,或从公认的原则,在扣除古兰经和承认传统。 Mohammed's religion, known among its adherents as Islam, contains practically nothing original; it is a confused combination of native Arabian heathenism, Judaism, Christianity, Sabiism (Mandoeanism), Hanifism, and Zoroastrianism.穆罕默德的宗教,伊斯兰教在其信徒为已知,包含几乎没有原作,它是一个土生土长的阿拉伯异教迷惑的结合,犹太教,基督教,Sabiism(Mandoeanism),Hanifism,和拜火教。

The system may be divided into two parts: dogma, or theory; and morals, or practice.该系统可分为两个部分:教条,或理论和道德,或实践。The whole fabric is built on five fundamental points, one belonging to faith, or theory, and the other four to morals, or practice.整个结构是建立在五个基本点,一个属于信仰,或理论,与其他四,道德,或实践。All Mohammedan dogma is supposed to be expressed in the one formula: "there is no God but the true God; and Mohammed is His prophet."所有伊斯兰教教义应该是在一个公式表示:“有没有上帝,但真正的神,穆罕默德是他的先知。”But this one confession implies for Mohammedans six distinct articles:但是,这意味着对伊斯兰教的自白六个不同的文章:

belief in the unity of God;相信在上帝的统一;

in His angels;在他的天使;

in His Scripture;在他的经文;

in His prophets;在他的先知;

in the Resurrection and Day of Judgment; and在复活和审判日;及

in God's absolute and irrevocable decree and predetermination both of good and of evil.在上帝的绝对的和不可改变的法令,都预先确定好的和邪恶。

The four points relating to morals, or practice, are:四点与以德治国,或做法是:

prayer, ablutions, and purifications;祈祷,沐浴和净化;

alms:施舍:

fasting; and禁食;及

pilgrimage to Mecca.到麦加朝圣。

(1) Dogma (1)教条

The doctrines of Islam concerning God - His unity and Divine attributes - are essentially those of the Bible; but to the doctrines of the Trinity and of the Divine Sonship of Christ Mohammed had the strongest antipathy.伊斯兰教的教义关于上帝 - 他的团结和神圣的属性 - 本质上是圣经的,但对三位一体和基督的神圣sonship穆罕默德的教义有强烈的反感。As Noldeke remarks, Mohammed's acquaintance with those two dogmas was superficial; even the clauses of the Creed that referred to them were not properly known to him, and thus he felt that it was quite impossible to bring them into harmony with the simple Semitic Monotheism; probably, too, it was this consideration alone that hindered him from embracing Christianity (Sketches from Eastern History, 62).由于Noldeke言论,穆罕默德与这两个教条的交情是肤浅的,甚至连的信条条款,称这些人没有正确认识他,因此他觉得这是完全不可能使这些简单的犹太人的一神教和谐他们;或许,也正是这种​​考虑单独的阻碍,从拥抱基督教(草图来自东欧的历史,62)他。 The number of prophets sent by God is said to have been about 124,000, and of apostles, 315.上帝派来的先知人数据说已经有大约124,000和使徒,315。Of the former, 22 are mentioned by name in the Koran - such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus.前者,有22名都提到在古兰经 - 如亚当,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,摩西,耶稣。

According to the Sunni, the Prophets and Apostles were sinless and superior to the angels, and they had the power of performing miracles.据逊尼派,先知和使徒的清白和优越的天使,和他们表演的奇迹的力量。Mohammedan angelology and demonology are almost wholly based on later Jewish and early Christian traditions.穆罕默德天使和魔鬼是几乎完全基于犹太教和早期基督教后的传统。The angels are believed to be free from all sin; they neither eat nor drink; there is no distinction of sex among them.天使们被认为是无一切的罪,他们既不吃也不喝,没有性别它们之间的区别。They are, as a rule, invisible, save to animals, although, at times, they appear in human form.他们是,作为一项规则,看不见的,保存到动物,虽然有时,他们在人类的形式出现。The principal angels are: Gabriel, the guardian and communicator of God's revelation to man; Michael, the guardian of men; Azrail, the angel of death, whose duty is to receive men's souls when they die; and Israfil, the angel of the Resurrection.主要天使是:加布里埃尔,监护人和神的启示的人沟通能力;,男性监护人迈克尔; Azrail,死亡天使,其职责是接收男人的灵魂在他们死后,以及Israfil,在复活的天使。

In addition to these there are the Seraphim, who surround the throne of God, constantly chanting His praises; the Secretaries, who record the actions of men; the Observers, who spy on every word and deed of mankind; the Travellers, whose duty it is to traverse the whole earth in order to know whether, and when, men utter the name of God; the Angels of the Seven Planets; the Angels who have charge of hell; and a countless multitude of heavenly beings who fill all space.除了这些还有一些天​​使,谁是上帝的宝座周围,不断高呼他的赞美,局长,谁记录的男人行动;观察员,谁的每一句话间谍和人类证书;的旅客,其职责是穿越整个地球,以了解是否及何时,男人说出姓名的神的七个行星天使天使谁拥有地狱费;和天上的人谁填补所有的空间无数群众。 The chief devil is Iblis, who, like his numerous companions, was once the nearest to God, but was cast out for refusing to pay homage to Adam at the command of God.行政魔鬼Iblis,谁像他的许多同伴,曾经是上帝最近的,但拒绝支付投在上帝的命令参拜亚当了。These devils are harmful both to the souls and to the bodies of men, although their evil influence is constantly checked by Divine interference.这些魔鬼是有害的灵魂,既与男子的尸体,虽然他们的邪恶影响力正在不断的神圣干涉检查。

Besides angels and devils, there are also jinns, or genii, creatures of fire, able to eat, drink, propagate, and die; some good, others bad, but all capable of future salvation and damnation.除了天使和魔鬼,也有jinns,或第二代,火的动物,可以吃,喝,宣传,死,有些好,有些坏,但所有的未来拯救和诅咒的能力。

God rewards good and punishes evil deeds.神的奖励和惩罚好坏事。He is merciful and is easily propitiated by repentance.他是仁慈的,很容易被悔改propitiated。The punishment of the impenitent wicked will be fearful, and the reward of the faithful great.不知悔改的恶人的惩罚将是可怕的,而忠实地赏赐。All men will have to rise from the dead and submit to the universal judgment.所有的人将不得不从死人中复活,并提交的普遍判断。 The Day of Resurrection and of Judgment will be preceded and accompanied by seventeen fearful, or greater, signs in heaven and on earth, and eight lesser ones, some of which are identical with those mentioned in the New Testament.在复活和审判日之前将和十七恐惧,或更高,标志在天上,地上,八小的,其中有些是在新约中提到的相同陪同。The Resurrection will be general and will extend to all creatures - angels, jinns, men, and brutes.复活将是一般性的,并会扩大到所有的生物 - 天使,jinns,男人和野兽。The torments of hell and the pleasures of Paradise, but especially the latter, are proverbially crass and sensual.在痛苦的地狱和天堂的乐趣,尤其是后者,是众所周知的粗鲁和感性。

Hell is divided into seven regions: Jahannam, reserved for faithless Mohammedans; Laza, for the Jews; Al-Hutama, for the Christians; Al-Sair, for the Sabians; Al-Saqar, for the Magians; Al-Jahim, for idolaters; Al-Hawiyat, for hypocrites.地狱分为七个区域:Jahannam,对背信弃义的伊斯兰教徒保留的;为犹太人拉扎;铝Hutama,为基督徒的Sabians铝Sair;铝Saqar,为袄教徒;铝Jahim,为拜偶像;铝Hawiyat,为伪君子。 As to the torments of hell, it is believed that the damned will dwell amid pestilential winds and in scalding water, and in the shadow of a black smoke.至于地狱的折磨,但相信该死的瘟疫中要住在滚烫的风和水,在一个黑色的烟雾阴影。Draughts of boiling water will be forced down their throats.开水西洋将被迫减少他们的喉咙。They will be dragged by the scalp, flung into the fire, wrapped in garments of flame, and beaten with iron maces.他们将被拖入了头皮,扔在火中燃烧服装包裹,并用铁狼牙棒毒打。When their skins are well burned, other skins will be given them for their greater torture.当他们的皮肤都是很好烧毁,其他的皮肤将给予他们更大的折磨他们。While the damnation of all infidels will be hopeless and eternal, the Moslems, who, though holding the true religion, have been guilty of heinous sins, will be delivered from hell after expiating their crimes.而所有异教徒诅咒将无望和永恒,穆斯林,谁,但持有真正的宗教,一直是十恶不赦的罪,将交付后从地狱来赎他们的罪行。

The joys and glories of Paradise are as fantastic and sensual as the lascivious Arabian mind could possibly imagine. "As plenty of water is one of the greatest additions to the delights of the Bedouin Arab, the Koran often speaks of the rivers of Paradise as a principal ornament thereof; some of these streams flow with water, some with wine and others with honey, besides many other lesser springs and fountains, whose pebbles are rubies and emeralds, while their earth consists of camphor, their beds of musk, and their sides of saffron. But all these glories will be eclipsed by the resplendent and ravishing girls, or houris, of Paradise, the enjoyment of whose company will be the principal felicity of the faithful. These maidens are created not of clay, as in the case of mortal women, but of pure musk, and free from all natural impurities, defects, and inconveniences. They will be beautiful and modest and secluded from public view in pavilions of hollow pearls. The pleasures of Paradise will be so overwhelming that God will give to everyone the potentialities of a hundred individuals. 天堂的欢乐和荣耀的是感性的那样神奇和作为阿拉伯思想淫荡的想象充足“由于是一种最大的乐趣增加了阿拉伯的贝都因人,可兰经常说河流是天堂的其中主要ornament;其中一些河流水流量,蜂蜜酒和其他一些,除了许多其他较小的温泉和喷泉,他们是红宝石,绿宝石卵石,而他们的地球樟脑组成,他们的床的麝香,和他们双方藏红花。但所有这些辉煌将黯然失色的宏伟和令人陶醉的女孩,或houris的天堂,享受他的公司将是主要的忠实幸福。这些姑娘是不是粘土创建,在案件致命的女人,但纯麝香,以及从所有天然杂质,缺陷和不便自由。它们将是美丽的,温和,从空心珍珠展馆公众的视野隐蔽。天堂的乐趣会如此热烈,上帝会给予大家都一百个人的潜力。

To each individuals a large mansion will be assigned, and the very meanest will have at his disposal at least 80,000 servants and seventy-two wives of the girls of Paradise. 对每一个大的豪宅和个人将被分配,非常卑鄙将他掌握至少80000公务员和七十二乐园妻子的女孩。While eating they will be waited on by 300 attendants, the food being served in dishes of gold, whereof 300 shall be set before him at once, containing each a different kind of food, and an inexhaustible supply of wine and liquors. The magnificence of the garments and gems is conformable to the delicacy of their diet. 虽然吃他们将等待的300服务员,食品在金盘被服务的,应当信守他300之前设置一次,每一个包含不同类型的食品,酒类和取之不尽的葡萄酒。作者的辉煌成衣和宝石是相符合的,他们的饮食美味。 For they will be clothed in the richest silks and brocades, and adorned with bracelets of gold and silver, and crowns set with pearls, and will make use of silken carpets, couches, pillows, etc., and in order that they may enjoy all these pleasures, God will grant them perpetual youth, beauty, and vigour.因为他们必这样穿最富有的丝绸和锦缎,并与金,银手镯点缀,并设置珍珠冠,并会使用的丝绸地毯,沙发,枕头等,以使他们可以享受所有这些乐趣,上帝会给予他们永恒的青春,美丽和活力。 Music and singing will also be ravishing and everlasting" (Wollaston, "Muhammed, His Life and Doctrines").音乐和唱歌也将令人陶醉的和永恒的“(沃拉斯顿,”穆罕默德,他的生活与主义“)。

The Mohammedan doctrine of predestination is equivalent to fatalism.伊斯兰教教义的宿命等于宿命论。They believe in God's absolute decree and predetermination both of good and of evil; viz., whatever has been or shall be in the world, whether good or bad, proceeds entirely from the Divine will, and is irrevocably fixed and recorded from all eternity.他们相信在上帝的绝对的法令和预定都良好,恶,。即,任何已经或将要在世界上,是否完全由神的意志的好坏,收益,是不可撤销地固定和从所有永恒记录。 The possession and the exercise of our own free will is, accordingly, futile and useless.占有与我们自己的自由意志行使,因此,徒劳的和无用的。The absurdity of this doctrine was felt by later Mohammedan theologians, who sought in vain by various subtile distinctions to minimize it.这种学说被后来感到荒谬伊斯兰教神学家,谁试图通过各种微妙的区别,妄图最小化。

(2) Practice(2)练习

The five pillars of the practical and of the ritualistic side of Islam are the recital of the Creed and prayers, fasting, almsgiving, and the pilgrimage to Mecca.实际的和对伊斯兰教的五大支柱仪式一边是演奏的信念和祈祷,斋戒,施舍,而到麦加朝圣。

The formula of the Creed has been given above, and its recital is necessary for salvation.的信条已被上述公式,它的演奏是必要的救赎。

The daily prayers are five in number: before sunrise, at midday, at four in the afternoon, at sunset, and shortly before midnight.每天的祈祷中排名第五:在四日出前,中午,下午,日落和午夜前。 The forms of prayer and the postures are prescribed in a very limited Koranic liturgy.祷告的形式和姿势都规定在一个非常有限的可兰经礼仪。All prayers must be made looking towards Mecca, and must be preceded by washing, neglect of which renders the prayers of no effect.所有的祷告必须朝着麦加看,必须经洗涤,忽视其中的任何效果呈现前祈祷。Public prayer is made on Friday in the mosque, and is led by an imâm.公开祈祷是上周五在清真寺,是由阿訇率领。Only men attend the public prayers, as women seldom pray even at home.只有男人参加公开祈祷,因为妇女很少甚至在家里祈祷。Prayers for the dead are meritorious and commended.为死者祈祷有功和赞扬。

Fasting is commended at all seasons, but prescribed only in the month of Ramadan.禁食是表彰在各个季节,但只有在斋月规定。It begins at sunrise and ends at sunset, and is very rigorous, especially when the fasting season falls in summer.它开始在日出和日落时结束,并且是非常严格的,尤其是当空腹季节夏季下降。At the end of Ramadan comes the great feast-day, generally called Bairam, or Fitr, ie, "Breaking of the Fast".在斋月结束伟大的节日来了天,一般称为Bairam,或开斋节,即:“在开斋”。The other great festival is that of Azha, borrowed with modifications from the Jewish Day of Atonement.另一个重大的节日就是Azha,与犹太人的赎罪日修改借来的。

Almsgiving is highly commended: on the feast-day after Ramadan it is obligatory, and is to be directed to the "faithful" (Mohammedans) only.施舍是高度赞扬:在节日,这一天,斋月是强制性的,并正在被引导到“忠实”(伊斯兰教)只。

Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime is a duty incumbent on every free Moslem of sufficient means and bodily strength; the merit of it cannot be obtained by deputy, and the ceremonies are strictly similar to those performed by the Prophet himself (see MECCA).麦加朝圣是一生难得的是一种责任对每一个足够的手段和身体力量自由穆斯林有责任,它的优点无法得到的副手,而仪式是严格类似于自己的先知(见麦加)进行的。 Pilgrimages to the tombs of saints are very common nowadays, especially in Persia and India, although they were absolutely forbidden by Mohammed.对圣人的坟墓朝圣是非常普遍的今天,特别是在波斯和印度,虽然他们是绝对禁止的穆罕默德。

(2) Morals (2)道德

It is hardly necessary here to emphasize the fact that the ethics of Islam are far inferior to those of Judaism and even more inferior to those of the New Testament.这是根本没有必要在这里强调一个事实,即伊斯兰教的伦理问题远不如那些犹太教,更不如新约的。Furthermore, we cannot agree with Noldeke when he maintains that, although in many respects the ethics of Islam are not to be compared even with such Christianity as prevailed, and still prevails, in the East, nevertheless, in other points, the new faith - simple, robust, in the vigour of its youth - far surpassed the religion of the Syrian and Egyptian Christians, which was in a stagnating condition, and steadily sinking lower and lower into the depths of barbarism (op. cit., Wollaston, 71, 72).此外,我们不能同意No​​ldeke时,他坚持认为,虽然在伊斯兰的道德不是很多方面进行比较,甚至与这些基督教盛行,现在仍然盛行,在东部地区,然而,在其他各点,新的信仰 - 简单,其强劲的青春活力, - 。远远超过低,进入野蛮深度(同前,叙利亚和埃及基督教徒的宗教,这在停滞的状况,不断下沉,沃拉斯顿,71, 72)。The history and the development, as well as the past and present religious, social, and ethical condition of all the Christian nations and countries, no matter of what sect or school they may be, as compared with these of the various Mohammedan countries, in all ages, is a sufficient refutation of Noldeke's assertion.历史和发展,以及所有的基督教民族和国家过去和现在的宗教,社会和道德状况,没有什么教派或学校,他们可能是问题,因为相对于这些国家的各种伊斯兰教,在老少皆宜,是一种Noldeke的说法,足以驳斥。 That in the ethics of Islam there is a great deal to admire and to approve, is beyond dispute; but of originality or superiority, there is none.在伊斯兰教的伦理,有一个很大的欣赏和认可,这是无容置疑的,但原创性或优越性,没有人反对。What is really good in Mohammedan ethics is either commonplace or borrowed from some other religions, whereas what is characteristic is nearly always imperfect or wicked.什么是真正的伊斯兰教道德良好要么是司空见惯的或从其他宗教借来的,而什么是不完美的特点是几乎总是或邪恶的。

The principal sins forbidden by Mohammed are idolatry and apostasy, adultery, false witness against a brother Moslem, games of chance, the drinking of wine or other intoxicants, usury, and divination by arrows.由穆罕默德禁止的主要是偶像崇拜和叛教罪,通奸,对虚假证人穆斯林兄弟,偶然的,在饮用葡萄酒或其他麻醉品,高利贷,并用箭头占卜游戏。 Brotherly love is confined in Islam to Mohammedans.手足之爱是局限在伊斯兰教伊斯兰教。Any form of idolatry or apostasy is severely punished in Islam, but the violation of any of the other ordinances is generally allowed to go unpunished, unless it seriously conflicts with the social welfare or the political order of the State.任何形式的偶像崇拜或叛教严惩伊斯兰教,但其他任何违反条例的一般允许逍遥法外,除非它严重地与社会福利或国家的政治秩序的冲突。 Among other prohibitions mention must be made of the eating of blood, of swine's flesh, of whatever dies of itself, or is slain in honour of any idol, or is strangled, or killed by a blow, or a fall, or by another beast.在其他禁令必须提到的吃带血的肉,猪的肉,不论死亡本身,或在任何偶像荣誉被杀,或勒死,或打击杀害,或下降,或由另一兽。 In case of dire necessity, however, these restrictions may be dispensed with.在必要时可怕的,但是,这些限制可能取消。 Infanticide, extensively practiced by the pre-Islamic Arabs, is strictly forbidden by Mohammed, as is also the sacrificing of children to idols in fulfilment of vows, etc. The crime of infanticide commonly took the form of burying newborn females, lest the parents should be reduced to poverty by providing for them, or else that they might avoid the sorrow and disgrace which would follow, if their daughters should be made captives or become scandalous by their behaviour.溺婴,广泛由前伊斯兰阿拉伯人的实践,是严格禁止由穆罕默德,因为也是儿童牺牲在履行誓言偶像,等杀婴罪通常采取了新生雌性埋葬的形式,以免家长应通过减少贫困为他们提供,否则,他们可能避免的悲伤和耻辱将遵循,如果他们的女儿应俘虏或成为他们的行为可耻。

Religion and the State are not separated in Islam.宗教和国家分离不伊斯兰教。Hence Mohammedan jurisprudence, civil and criminal, is mainly based on the Koran and on the "Traditions".因此,伊斯兰教法理学,民法和刑法,主要是基于可兰经和关于“传统”。Thousands of judicial decisions are attributed to Mohammed and incorporated in the various collections of Hadith.成千上万的司法决定是由于穆罕默德的圣训中的各种收藏中。Mohammed commanded reverence and obedience to parents, and kindness to wives and slaves.穆罕默德吩咐崇敬和服从父母,善待妻子和奴隶。Slander and backbiting are strongly denounced, although false evidence is allowed to hide a Moslem's crime and to save his reputation or life.诬蔑和诽谤的强烈谴责,但虚假的证据可以隐藏一个穆斯林的罪行,并保存自己的名声或生活。

As regards marriage, polygamy, and divorce, the Koran explicitly (sura iv, v. 3) allows four lawful wives at a time, whom the husband may divorce whenever he pleases.至于婚姻,一夫多妻制和离婚,可兰经明确(苏拉四,五3)允许一次四合法妻子,丈夫可以离婚的人只要他高兴。Slave-mistresses and concubines are permitted in any number.奴隶情人,妃嫔被允许在任何数字。At present, however, owing to economic reasons, concubinage is not as commonly practiced as Western popular opinion seems to hold.但目前,由于经济原因,纳妾是普遍实行的不是西方流行的观点认为举行。Seclusion of wives is commanded, and in case of unfaithfulness, the wife's evidence, either in her own defense or against her husband, is not admitted, while that of the husband invariably is.妻子隐居指挥,并在不忠,妻子的证据,无论是在她自己的国防或反对她的丈夫的情况下,不承认,而往往是丈夫。

In this, as in there judicial cases, the evidence of two women, if admitted, is sometimes allowed to be worth that of one man.在这里,就像在那里的司法案件,两名妇女的证据,如果承认,有时可以说是值得一个人。The man is allowed to repudiate his wife on the slightest pretext, but the woman is not permitted even to separate herself from her husband unless it be for ill-usage, want of proper maintenance, or neglect of conjugal duty; and even then she generally loses her dowry, when she does not if divorced by her husband, unless she has been guilty of immodesty or notorious disobedience.该名男子被允许否定,动辄他的妻子,但女人是不允许甚至同丈夫离婚,自己除非是不良的使用,要妥善保养,或夫妻失职,而且当时她一般失去她的嫁妆,当她不被她的丈夫,如果离婚,除非她一直不慎或臭名昭著抗命罪。 Both husband and wife are explicitly forbidden by Mohammed to seek divorce on any slight occasion or the prompting of a whim, but this warning was not heeded either by Mohammed himself or by his followers.丈夫和妻子都是明确禁止的穆罕默德征求任何轻微的场合离婚或心血来潮提示,但这一警告没有被听取穆罕默德本人或由他的追随者之一。 A divorced wife, in order to ascertain the paternity of a possible or probable offspring, must wait three months before she marries again.一个离婚的妻子,为了确定一个可能或很可能后代亲子鉴定,必须等三个月前,她结婚了。A widow, on the other hand, must wait four months and ten days.一个寡妇,另一方面,必须等待四个月十天。Immorality in general is severely condemned and punished by the Koran, but the moral laxity and depraved sensualism of the Mohammedans at large have practically nullified its effects.一般不道德的严厉谴责和可兰经的惩罚,但道德松弛与广大的伊斯兰教堕落感觉论的影响实际上已经废止。

Slavery is not only tolerated in the Koran, but is looked upon as a practical necessity, while the manumission of slaves is regarded as a meritorious deed.奴隶制不仅是不能容忍的,在可兰经,而是看作一种实际需要后,而作为奴隶manumission功德认为。It must be observed, however, that among Mohammedans, the children of slaves and of concubines are generally considered equally legitimate with those of legal wives, none being accounted bastards except such as are born of public prostitutes, and whose fathers are unknown.它必须得到遵守,然而,在伊斯兰教,奴隶和妾的孩子们普遍认为与法律同等的合法妻子,但没有一个占混蛋除了如被公众妓女出生,其父亲是未知的。 The accusation often brought against the Koran that it teaches that women have no souls is without foundation.常常提起的指控可兰经,它教导,妇女没有灵魂没有根据的。The Koranic law concerning inheritance insists that women and orphans be treated with justice and kindness.古兰经有关继承权的法律,妇女和孤儿坚持与正义和善良的对待。Generally speaking, however, males are entitled to twice as much as females.但总的来说,男性享有女性的两倍。Contracts are to be conscientiously drawn up in the presence of witnesses.合同时,认真绘制在有见证人在场的注册。Murder, manslaughter, and suicide are explicitly forbidden, although blood revenge is allowed.谋杀,误杀和自杀被明确禁止,但血复仇是允许的。In case of personal injury, the law of retaliation is approved.人身伤害的情况下,报复法律得到批准。

In conclusion, reference must be made here to the sacred months, and to the weekly holy day.总之,必须提到这里的神圣个月,每周的圣日。The Arabs had a year of twelve lunar months, and this, as often as seemed necessary, they brought roughly into accordance with the solar year by the intercalation of a thirteenth month.阿拉伯人有十二个农历月的一年,这一点,因为经常似乎有必要,他们带来了大约一年到与太阳按照第十三个月的一个插。The Mohammedan year, however, has a mean duration of 354 days, and is ten or eleven days shorter than the solar year, and Mohammedan festivals, accordingly, move in succession through all the seasons.穆罕默德的一年,然而,有一个354天的平均时间,是十比太阳年短十一天,和伊斯兰教的节日,因此,在继承中移动所有的季节。

The Mohammedan Era begins with the Hegira, which is assumed to have taken place on the 16th day of July, AD 622.穆罕默德时代开始于回教纪元,这是假设已在七月,公元622 16天举行。To find what year of the Christian Era (AD) is represented by a given year of the Mohammedan Era (AH), the rule is: Subtract from the Mohammedan date the product of three times the last completed number of centuries, and add 621 to the remainder.要了解什么样的基督教时代(公元)年都代表了一个时代的穆罕默德(啊),规则是给定年份:减去从穆罕默德日期的最后完成三次数百年产品,并添加621到其余。 (This rule, however, gives an exact result only for the first day of a Mohammedan century. Thus, eg, the first day of the fourteenth century came in the course of the year of Our Lord 1883.) The first, seven, eleventh and twelfth months of the Mohammedan year are sacred; during these months it is not lawful to wage war. (这条规则,然而,仅给出了一个伊斯兰教世纪的第一天一个确切的结果。因此,如,14世纪的第一天来到了我们的主一八八三年课程。)第一,七,十一和今年的第十二个月是伊斯兰教圣物它在这几个月的工资是不合法的战争。 The twelfth month is consecrated to the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, and, in order to protect pilgrims, the preceding (eleventh) month and the following (first of the new year) are also inviolable.第十二月份是神圣的年度麦加朝圣,并为了保护朝圣者,前面的(第十一届)月以下(在新的一年第一次),也不受侵犯。

The seventh month is reserved for the fast which Mohammed substituted for a month (the ninth) devoted by the Arabs in pre-Islamic times to excessive eating and drinking.第七个是保留给该由阿拉伯人穆罕默德专门讨论前伊斯兰时代过度饮食和饮水一个月(第九届)取代快。Mohammed selected Friday as the sacred day of the week, and several fanciful reasons are adduced by the Prophet himself and by his followers for the selection; the most probable motive was the desire to have a holy day different from that of the Jews and that of the Christians.穆罕默德选为神圣的日子一周的星期五,一些幻想的原因是由先知本人和他的追随者的选择引用,最可能的动机是希望有一个神圣的日子,从不同的犹太人,而基督徒。 It is certain, however, that Friday was a day of solemn gatherings and public festivities among the pre-Islamic Arabs.这是肯定的,但是,周五位居前伊斯兰阿拉伯人庄严集会和公共庆祝活动的日子。Abstinence from work is not enjoined on Friday, but it is commanded that public prayers and worship must be performed on that day.从工作禁欲并非受命于周五,但它是指挥,公共祈祷和崇拜必须在这一天进行。Another custom dating from antiquity and still universally observed by all Mohammedans, although not explicitly enjoined in the Koran, is circumcision.另一个自定义的古代遗物仍然普遍遵守的约会所有伊斯兰教徒,虽然没有明确的可兰经禁止,是割礼。It is looked upon as a semi-religious practice, and its performance is preceded and accompanied by great festivities.它看作是个半宗教习俗,其性能是之前并以伟大的节日陪同。

In matters political Islam is a system of despotism at home and aggression abroad.政治伊斯兰的事项是一个专制主义在国内和国外的侵略制度。The Prophet commanded absolute submission to the imâm.绝对服从指挥先知的伊玛目。In no case was the sword to be raised against him.在任何情况下,是要对他提出的剑。The rights of non-Moslem subjects are of the vaguest and most limited kind, and a religious war is a sacred duty whenever there is a chance of success against the "Infidel".非穆斯林科目的权利是模糊的和最有限的实物,宗教战争是神圣的职责每当有一个成功的对“异教徒”的机会。Medieval and modern Mohammedan, especially Turkish, persecutions of both Jews and Christians are perhaps the best illustration of this fanatical religious and political spirit.中世纪和现代伊斯兰教,尤其是土耳其,犹太人和基督徒的迫害,这也许是狂热的宗教和政治精神的最好例证。

Publication information Written by Gabriel Oussani.出版信息写加布里埃尔Oussani。Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔巴雷特。Dedicated to the Poor Souls in Purgatory The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.专线炼狱天主教百科全书,体积向穷人灵魂十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

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Islam伊斯兰教

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Arabic word denoting "submission to God"; the name given to the religion of Mohammed and to the practises connected therewith.阿拉伯话表示“提交给上帝”;给穆罕默德的宗教和与此相关的做法的名称。This religion was preached first to Mohammed's follow citizens in Mecca, then to all Arabia; and soon after his death it was spread to distant lands by the might of the sword.这种宗教是鼓吹首先穆罕默德在麦加遵循公民,然后对所有阿拉伯和他去世后不久,有人散布的剑的威力遥远的国度。Its followers are called "Moslems" (Arabic,"Muslimin").它的追随者被称为“穆斯林”(阿拉伯语,“Muslimin”)。The word "Islam" represents the infinitive, the noun of action, of the factitive stem of the Arabic root "salam," and is rightly compared (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 641; comp. Steinschneider, "Polemische und Apologetische Literatur," p. 266, note 56) with the use of the "hif'il" of "shalam" in later Hebrew; eg, Pesiḳ.在“伊斯兰”一词代表不定式,名词行动的阿拉伯根factitive干,“萨拉姆”,是正确的比较(聪茨,第641“Literaturgesch。”;。可比Steinschneider,“Polemische有限公司Apologetische Literatur “,第266页,注56)与使用”hif'il“的”shalam“在以后的希伯来语,例如,Pesiḳ。125a ("mushlam"); Tan., ed. 125A条(“mushlam”);谈,编辑。。Buber, Gen. p.布伯将军页46 ib.46兴业。(where "hishlim" is used of proselytes).(其中“hishlim”是用的proselytes)。

Motive Principles.动机原则。

The preaching of Mohammed as the messenger of God ("rasul Allah"; See Mohammed) owed its origin to the prophet's firm conviction of the approach of the Day of Judgment ("Yaum al-Din") and to his thorough belief in monotheism.穆罕默德的作为上帝的使者(“拉苏尔真主”,见穆罕默德)说教拖欠其原产地为先知的对审判日(“Yaum al - Din的”)方法的坚定信念和他的一神论的彻底的信念。The former was primarily a reaction against the conduct of the Meccan aristocracy of his time, which in his eyes was sensual, avaricious, proud, oppressive, and wholly indifferent to things spiritual; the latter was a protest against the polytheistic traditions of the Arabs.前者主要是反对他的时间,这在他的眼睛是感性的,贪婪,骄傲,压迫和精神的事情完全漠不关心麦加贵族的行为反应,后者是对阿拉伯人的多神教传统抗议。 Mohammed was led to both through Jewish and Christian influences, to which he was subjected in his immediate surroundings as well as during the commercial journeys undertaken by him in his youth.穆罕默德是导致双方通过犹太教和基督教的影响,而他在他的周围环境以及在受到他在他的青年进行商业旅行。Only in the second period of his activity, after the Hegira-the departure of himself and his most faithful followers to Medina (formerly Yathrib) in 622-did he undertake a practical organization of his prophetic work, and, by making concrete laws, give a definite form to the general religious feelingwhich had been aroused by his preaching.只有在他的活动第二阶段后,回教纪元,其本人和他最忠实的追随者离开在622到麦地那(原Yathrib),他承担了他的预言工作的实际组织,并通过制定具体的法律,给一个明确的形式向广大宗教feelingwhich已经引起了他的说教。 These laws dealt both with social relations and with religious worship.这些法律处理都与社会的关系,与宗教崇拜。It was only then that the religious tendency which had arisen out of a reaction against the heathenism of Arabia took on the form of a real, positive institution.这是只有在那时,宗教的倾向,出现了一个反对阿拉伯异教反应出对一个真正的,积极的制度的形式参加。

Mohammed's conception of his own calling and the fate which his efforts had to endure at the hands of the infidels ("kafir"= "kofer") appeared to his mind as a reflection of the prophets of the Bible, whose number he increased by a few characters (eg, Hud and Ṣaliḥ) borrowed from an old tradition (see Jubilees, Book of).穆罕默德的构想,他自己的使命和命运,而他的努力不得不忍受在异教徒的手中(“卡菲尔”=“kofer”)出现在他的脑海作为的圣经,他们的人数,他由一个增加了先知反思(例如,HUD和萨利赫)借用一个古老的传统(见大赦年,图书的)几个大字。 The persecutions which were suffered at the hands of their fellow citizens by those whose work he had now taken up were repeated in his own career.哪些人在他们的同胞所遭受的手中那些工作,他现在已经采取了自己的职业生涯,在他多次迫害。There was the same obstinate refusal, the same appeal to ancestral traditions, the resigning of which for the sake of a Godsent message heathen nations had ever opposed.有相同的顽固拒绝,同样呼吁祖先的传统,其辞职的消息一Godsent异教徒的国家曾​​经为了反对。In the conduct of the Meccans toward Mohammed were repeated the actions of earlier peoples toward the messengers and prophets sent from time to time by Allah to mankind.在对穆罕默德的麦加进行了反复的使者,向不时发出真主对人类先知早先人民的行动。Mohammed himself was the last link in the prophetic chain; the conclusion, the "seal of the prophets" ("khatam al-anbiya'"; comp. parallels in "JQR" xiv. 725, note 5).穆罕默德自己是在先知链的最后一个环节;的结论中,“印章的先知”(“khatam铝anbiya'”;比赛在“JQR”十四平行725,注5。。)。

Relation to Predecessors.关系的前辈。

In reality this confession or practise which he sought to establish was nothing new: it was only a restoration of the ancient religion of Ibrahim, to which God had called him (Mohammed) through the medium of Gabriel, the angel of revelation, whom he identified with the Holy Ghost.其实这个做法,他供述,或者寻求建立新的是什么:这只是一个古老的易卜拉欣的宗教的重建,上帝曾呼吁通过加布里埃尔,天使的启示,就是他认定中他(穆罕默德)与圣灵。 He claimed that he was to continue the mission of the earlier prophets from Adam to Jesus, and demanded for all of them faith and recognition; he would have their revealed books recognized as Holy Scriptures, viz., the Torah ("Taurat"), the Psalms ("Zabur"), and the Gospel ("Injil").他声称,他将继续先前的先知的使命从亚当到基督,并为他们坚定的信念和认可要求;。透露,他将有自己的圣经,即确认书,诵读经文(“Taurat”),诗篇(“Zabur”),和福音(“Injil”)。 In addition, certain other prophets had written the will of God on rolls.此外,还有其他一些先知曾写上滚动上帝的意志。As to his personal valuation, he made the most modest demands: he did not wish to be regarded as being above the sphere of humanity; he was only a man, of the same flesh and blood as those to whom his speech was directed; and he even declined with consistent firmness the suggestion to perform miracles, the one and only miracle being God's inimitable, unsurpassable word ("ḳur'an"), as the instrument of which he was called by God.至于他个人的估价,他做出了最温和的要求:他不希望被视为以上的球被视为人类,他只是一个人在同一肉和血的那些人是针对他的讲话,以及他甚至拒绝与一贯坚定的建议,创造奇迹,一个和唯一的奇迹是神的独特的,无人能字(“ḳur'an”),作为他被神称为工具。 Hence he emphatically denied the claims which Christianity made in regard to the character of its founder-a character which he held to be in contradiction not only to that of a prophet sent by God, but also to that of the transcendental monotheism which he (Mohammed) preached: "He is Allah, one alone; he begets not, and is not born; and no one equals him in power" (sura cxii.).因此,他断然否认了索赔,基督教在关于其创始人一个字符,他认为是在以矛盾,不仅对一个上帝派来的先知的进展,但也向一神教的超越他(穆罕默德的)讲道:“他是真主,是一个人,他招致不是,不是天生的,没有人掌权等于他”(苏拉cxii)。。

Since he claimed to be a restorer of the ancient, pure religion revealed to Abraham, he connected his teaching with that of the Holy Scriptures of the Jews and Christians, of whose contents, however, he had in many particulars only a very imperfect knowledge-his teachers having been monks or half-educated Jews-and this knowledge he often repeated in a confused and perverted fashion.既然他自称是一种古老的,纯透露,亚伯拉罕宗教恢复,他连他与犹太人和基督徒,对圣经的内容的教学,不过,他在许多细节只有一个非常完美的知识他的老师已被和尚或半教育的犹太人和这方面的知识,他经常在一个混乱和扭曲的方式重演。 What he received from the Jews was mixed with haggadic elements current orally among Arabian Jews or existing in written form [-probably preserved in Ethiopic translations of Hebrew pseudepigraphic writings.-K.]; and his conception of Christian teachings was sometimes that of the heretical sects (Collyridians, Docetæ) scattered throughout the Orient, and not recognized in the canonical doctrines of Christianity.对于他从收到的犹太人与阿拉伯之间目前的口头或书面形式犹太人现有阿haggadic分子混[-可能保存在希伯来文pseudepigraphic writings. - K表埃塞俄比亚翻译。]和他的基督教教义的概念有时,该邪教教派(Collyridians,Docetæ)分散在世界的东方,而不是基督教的教义规范认可。 As has recently been shown, Mohammed himself not only borrowed from Jews and Christians, but was influenced also by Parseeism, with the professors of which ("majus," "magian") he came into direct contact (I. Goldziher, "Islamisme et Parsisme," in "Actes du ler Congrès Internat. d'Histoire des Religions," i. 119-147, Paris, 1901).由于最近已表明,穆罕默德本人不仅从犹太人和基督徒借来的,但也影响Parseeism,其中有教授(“草”,“magian”),他直接接触来(一Goldziher,“Islamisme等Parsisme“,在”Actes杜边缘路由器Congrès酒店Internat。德辅宗教历史学,“岛119-147,巴黎,1901年)。

The Koran.可兰经。

The first and most ancient document of Islam is naturally the Koran ("Proclamation"), which, containing God's revelations to Mohammed, forms the foundation of his religion.伊斯兰教的首要的和最古老的文件,自然是可兰经(“公告”),其中,包含神的启示穆罕默德,形成了他的宗教基础。 The doctrine of faith and practise preached by Mohammed is unfolded gradually with the succession of stages in the growth of the Koran.信仰的实践和穆罕默德宣扬教义是开展同阶段,在可兰经的生长演替趋势。In the first period of his activity (at Mecca) he was occupied chiefly with his inspirations in regard to the truths of the faith, the monotheistic idea, the divine judgment, and his prophetic calling.在他活动的第一阶段(在麦加),他被占领,他的灵感主要是在考虑到的信念,一神论思想,神圣的判决,并呼吁他的预言的真理。 The monotheistic conception of God, which he opposes to Arabian heathendom, agrees in substance with that of the Old Testament; he emphasizes, however, as Nöldeke has pointed out, "more the universal power and the unhindered free will of God than His holiness."一神教的上帝的观念,这是他反对阿拉伯异端,同意在与该物质的旧约,他强调,但是,由于Nöldeke指出,“更普遍的力量和不受阻碍地比他的圣洁的神的自由意志。 “Mohammed connects the idea of omnipotence with the attribute of mercy, which forms an essential element in the exercise of God's omnipotence and which is expressed in the name for God taken from the mother religion, "al-Raḥman" ("Raḥmana"), usually joined with "al-Raḥim" (="the Compassionate").穆罕默德连接着仁慈的属性,形成一个在上帝的全能运动基本要素,这是在为上帝的母亲宗教所采取的名字表达了万能的想法,“拉赫曼”(“Raḥmana”),通常加入了“基地拉​​希姆”(=“大悲”)。 The formulation of the social and ritualistic laws was revealed to him principally after the Hegira, during his sojourn in Medina; while the most essential elements of the ritual ordinances had been evolved during the Meccan period.的社会和法律的制定仪式透露,他主要是在回教纪元后,在他逗留在麦地那,而这个仪式的条例的最重要因素已在麦加时期进化而来的。 In Medina he had counted much on the support of the influential Jews, by whom he expected to be regarded as the final messenger of God promised in the Scriptures.在麦地那,他算对许多有影响力的犹太人的支持下,由他预期将被视为神的使者在圣经的最后承诺。He accordingly at first made them various concessions.因此,他起初他们提出的各种优惠。He pointed to Jerusalem as the direction ("ḳiblah") toward which they should turn when praying, and he established the tenth day of the first lunar month ('Ashura) as the great annual fast-day.他指出,耶路撒冷为方向(“ḳiblah”),对他们应该把祈祷时,他确立了伟大的年度快一天,正月('阿修罗)第十天。 The prohibition against eating swine's flesh was also taken from Judaism, and, like that against drinking wine, was accepted, since it was difficult in those days for Arabs to procure that beverage; whereas the adoption of the Biblical prohibition against camel's flesh would have encountered great opposition, because such meat formed an integral part of the national food (Fränkel, "Aramäische Fremdwörter im Arabischen," iii.).反对吃猪的肉禁令还采取了从犹太教,并像,对饮酒,被接受,因为它是在对阿拉伯人的日子很难促使饮料;鉴于圣经禁止骆驼的肉通过将遇到伟大的反对,因为这样的肉形成了国家食品不可分割的一部分(弗兰克尔,“Aramäische Fremdwörter即时Arabischen,”三。)。Circumcision, a custom preserved from old Arabian heathendom, does not possess in Islam the fundamental character peculiar to it among the Jews.割礼,从旧的阿拉伯异教保留了习惯,不具备伊斯兰教的犹太人的基本特征它特有的。

Opposition to Judaism.反对犹太教。

In view, however, of the obstinate opposition maintained by the Jews, Mohammed soon annulled some of these concessions.鉴于然而,由犹太人保持了顽固的反对,很快就废止这些穆罕默德一些让步。The ḳiblah was directedtoward Mecca (sura ii. 136); the month Ramaḍan became the great period of fasting, in place of the tenth day of the first month; and in other cases also he opposed some of the principal details of Jewish practise. Theḳiblah是directedtoward麦加(苏拉二136。)本月斋月禁食成为伟大的时期在第一个月的第十天的地方,以及在其他情况下,他也反对犹太人的做法主要的一些细节。 He set aside the restrictions of the dietary laws (retaining only those in regard to swine's flesh and animals which die a natural death or are offered as heathen sacrifices); and he protested against the Jewish conception and observation of the Sabbath.他留出的饮食法的限制(只保留那些对于猪的肉和动物自然死亡或提供作为异教徒的牺牲),以及他对犹太人的安息日概念和观察抗议。 Instead of the day of rest in commemoration of God's resting, he appointed Friday ("Jum'ah") as a day of assembly for divine worship ("Die Sabbath-Institution in Islam," in "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," pp. 86-101).取而代之的是在上帝的休息的休息纪念日,他任命星期五(“Jum'ah”)作为大会的日子,为神圣的崇拜(“死安息日研究所的伊斯兰”,在“考夫曼Gedenkbuch,”页86 - 101)。In the abolition of such Biblical ordinances he laid down the principle of Abrogation which forms the basis of Islamic theology.在这种圣经条例取消他放下了废止原则构成了伊斯兰神学的基础。

Institutions of Islam.机构伊斯兰教。

The fundamental obligations of Islam, called "pillars of religion," in their most complete systematic form are five in number:伊斯兰教的基本义务,所谓“支柱宗教,”在他们的最完整系统的形式是五:

(1) The "shahadah," the confession of faith: "There is no God but Allah; and Mohammed is his apostle."(1)“shahadah”的信条:“有没有上帝,只有真主,穆罕默德是他的使徒。”This twofold confession ("kalimata al-shahadah") is amplified into the following creed: "I believe in Allah, in his angels, in his [revealed] Scriptures, in his Prophets, in the future life, in the divine decree [in respect to] the good as well as [to] the bad, and in the resurrection of the dead."这两个方面的自白(“kalimata铝shahadah”)被放大成以下信条:“我相信真主在他的使者,在他的[显示]在他的先知圣经,在今后的生活在神圣的法令[,在关于]好以及[以]坏了,在死里复活。“

(2) "Ṣalat" (divine worship), to be performed five times a day; viz., at noon ("ẓuhr"), in the afternoon ("'aṣr"), in the evening ("maghrib"), at the approach of night ("'isha'"), and in the morning between dawn and sunrise ("ṣubḥ"). (2)“礼拜”(神崇拜),以进行一天五次。即,在中午(“晌礼”),下午(“晡礼”),晚上(“昏礼”),在夜间的方法(“宵礼”),并在黎明和日出之间的早晨(“当做晨礼”)。 The institution of these five times of prayer developed gradually; to the three daily prayers which Mohammed himself appointed after the Jewish pattern were soon added the other two, in imitation of the five "gah" of the Parsees.这对逐步发展的祈祷五次机构;穆罕默德的三个犹太人自己任命的模式后,很快就每天祈祷添加其他两个,在五个“嘎”的帕西人模仿。

(3) "Zakat," the levying of an annual property-tax on all property, the sum coming into the state treasury from this source to be used for the public and humanitarian objects enumerated in the Koran (sura ix. 60). (3)“天课”,每年一度的物业税征收的所有财产的总和进入国库,从今源被用于在可兰经所列举的公共和人道主义对象(苏拉九。60)。

(4) "Al-ṣiyam" (= Hebr. "ẓom"), fasting from morning till evening every day during the month Ramaḍan (the severity of this law was lightened by certain indulgences). (4)“基地ṣiyam”(=黑布尔。“ẓom”),在斋戒月从早晨到晚上,每一天(这部法律的严重程度减轻某些indulgences)。

(5) "Al-ḥajj" (the pilgrimage) to Mecca, imposed on every one for whom the performance of this duty is possible.(五)“基地朝圣”(朝圣)麦加,对每一个对他们来说,这可能是一个执行任务罚款。The ceremonies incident to this pilgrimage Mohammed preserved from the traditional practises followed during the period of heathendom, although he reformed and reinterpreted them in a monotheistic sense (C. Snouck Hurgronje, "Het Mekkaansche Feest," Leyden, 1880).这一事件的朝圣仪式穆罕默德保存的过程中的异教时期沿袭传统做法,尽管他在一神论改革和意义(三Snouck Hurgronje,“埃黑特Mekkaansche Feest,”莱顿,1880年)重新解释它们。Dozy's theory, based on I Chron.想睡的理论基础上,我专栏。iv.四。39-43 (see his "De Israelieten te Mekka," Haarlem, 1864; German transl., Leipsic, 1864), that the pilgrimage ceremonies of olden times in Mecca were instituted by Israelites, more particularly by Simeonites who had been scattered thither, and that even the nomenclature of the rites may be etymologically explained from the Hebrew, has found little favor (comp. Geiger, "Jüd. Zeit." iv. 281; "ZDMG" xix. 330). 39-43(见他的“德Israelieten特麦加,”哈莱姆,1864年;。德国译,普西克,1864年),即在麦加朝圣仪式古代以色列人被提起,更受西缅谁已分散到那里尤其而即使这些仪式命名可能会从希伯来语词源解释,发现小忙(可比盖格,“士时代。。”四281。“ZDMG”十九330。)。

In addition to the religious duties imposed upon each individual professing Islam, the collective duty of the "jihad" (= "fighting against infidels") is imposed on the community, as represented by the commander of the faithful.除了信奉伊斯兰教对每一个人,对“圣战”的集体责任规定的宗教义务(=“反对异教徒的战斗”)是由施加的忠实代表的社区指挥官。 Mohammed claimed for his religion that it was to be the common property of all mankind, just as he himself, who at first appeared as a prophet of the Arabs, ended by proclaiming himself the prophet of a universal religion, the messenger of God to all humanity, or, as tradition has it, "ila al-aḥmar wal-aswad" (to the red and the black).穆罕默德声称对他的宗教,这是为全人类的共同财产,就像他自己,谁在第一次作为一个由宣布自己是一个普遍的宗教先知,上帝的使者,结束了所有阿拉伯人,先知出现人类,或者象人们传统上,“国际法协会铝阿赫马尔沃尔玛阿斯瓦德”(以红色和黑色)。 For this reason unbelief must be fought with the force of weapons, in order that "God's word may be raised to the highest place."出于这个原因不信必须争取的力量,是为了武器,即“上帝的话,可能会提高到最高的地方。”Through the refusal to accept Islam, idolaters have forfeited their lives.通过拒绝接受伊斯兰教,拜偶像已丧失了生命。Those "who possess Scriptures" ("ahl al-kitab"), in which category are included Jews, Christians, Magians, and Sabians, may be tolerated on their paying tribute ("jizyah") and recognizing the political supremacy of Islam (sura ix. 29).这些“谁拥有圣经”(“教派铝基塔”),其中包含类犹太人,基督教徒,袄教徒,和Sabians,可能对他们的敬意容忍(“jizyah”),并认识了伊斯兰教(苏拉的政治优势九。29)。

The state law of Islam has accordingly divided the world into two categories: the territory of Islam ("dar al-Islam") and the territory of war. 伊斯兰教的国家的法律也相应分为两类世界进入:境内的伊斯兰教(“达尔伊斯兰组织”),战争领土。("dar al-ḥarb"), ie, territory against which it is the duty of the commander of the faithful ("amir al-mu'minin") to lead the community in the jihad. For the exercise of the ritual duties certain ceremonies are appointed (eg, the preliminary ablutions and the definite number of bows and prostrations in the case of the ṣalat), the forms of which were, however, still variable during the first century of Islam. (“达累斯萨拉姆基地,哈布”),即领土,它是对忠实义务的指挥员的(“阿米尔基地mu'minin”)领导圣战的群落。对于某些行使职责的仪式任命仪式(例如,初步浴室和弓箭和礼拜在萨拉特的情况确定的数目),其中的形式,但是,仍然变数在第一世纪伊斯兰教。 The early dispersion of the Moslems into distant lands, in which they conducted wars of conquest, made it difficult to establish a fixed practise.对进入遥远的国度,在他们进行的征服战争,穆斯林的早期分散,因此难以建立一个固定的做法。The most varying opinions arose concerning the regulations which the prophet had ordained in regard to these forms and the manner in which he had himself performed the ceremonies-in a word, concerning what was the "sunna" (traditional custom) in these matters.最不同的意见出现关于该先知对于这些形式和以何种方式,他本人实施的仪式在一个字,关于什么是“圣行”在这些事情上(传统习俗)受戒的规定。 The claim as to the validity of each opinion was based on some alleged report ("ḥadith") either of a decree or of a practise of the prophet or of his companions ("aṣḥab").作为到每个意见的有效性声称是根据一些所谓的报告(“圣训”)任一项法令或惯例的先知或他的同伴(“aṣḥab”)。

In regard to these questions of detail, as indeed in regard to questions of law in general-which latter embraces both jurisprudence and matters of ritual-it was only in the second century after the establishment of Islam that fixed rules were adopted.对于这些细节问题,因为事实上,在考虑法律问题的普通其中后者包含两个判例的仪式和事项,它是在成立后,伊斯兰教,固定的规则,只有通过第二个世纪。 These were founded partly on what was recognized as tradition, partly on speculative conclusions, and partly on the generally acknowledged and authenticated consensus of opinion in the community ("ijma'").这些都是建立在一定程度上有什么作为传统在一定程度上投机性的结论确认,并在一定程度上的舆论普遍承认和认证,在社会的共识(“ijma'”)。 These legal regulations were worked up systematically, and furnished material for the activity of those theological schools in which was developed the Mohammedan law that to-day is still recognized as authoritative.这些法律法规进行了系统的工作,并为这些活动提供的材料神学学校中被开发的伊斯兰教法,以天仍是权威的认可。

The study of law is one of the most important of Mohammedan sciences, "fiḳh" (lit. "reasonableness" ="juris prudentia"; Hebr. "ḥokmah").学习法律,是伊斯兰教最重要的科学,“fiḳh”(大戏“合理”=“法学prudentia”。黑布尔“ḥokmah”)。 Its students are the "fuḳaha" (sing. "faḳih"; ie, "prudentes" ="ḥakamim").它的学生是“fuḳaha”(sing.“faḳih”,即“prudentes”=“ḥakamim”)。 On the development of this science Roman and Talmudic law, especially the former, has exercised a great influence.根据这一科学罗马和塔木德法,尤其是前者的发展,已行使了很大的影响。The studies of the oldest law schools have led to different results in the regulation of many details of the law according to the varying application of the data and of the fundamental principles.最古老的法律学校的研究已经导致不同的结果在对根据数据的不同应用程序和法律的基本原则,很多细节规定。Hence arose the differencesin the ritualistic practises and in the verdicts of the various legal sects ("madhahib") of Islam.因此就产生了differencesin的老一套做法,并在各教派的法律判决(“madhahib”)的伊斯兰教。Many of these sects have since disappeared; but the Hanafites, the Shafiites, the Malikites, and the Hanfalites have survived to the present day, and are distributed over large tracts of the extensive Islamic world.这些教派中许多人都是消失,但Hanafites的Shafiites的Malikites和Hanfalites幸存至今,并在伊斯兰世界的广泛分布的大片。

Sects.教派。

By far the largest sect is that of the Hanafites, founded in the school of the Imam Abu Ḥanifah (d. 150 AH=767 CE); it predominates in Turkey, in middle Asia, and in India.迄今为止最大的教派是,Hanafites,在伊玛目阿布Ḥanifah学校成立(四150啊= 767 CE认证),它主宰了土耳其中亚,并在印度。The Shafiites, named after the Imam Al-Shafi'i (d. 204=819), prevail in Egypt, southern Arabia, the Dutch colonies, and in German East-African territory.该Shafiites后,伊玛目Shafi'i命名(四204 = 819),盛行于埃及,阿拉伯半岛南部,并在德国东部非洲地区的荷兰殖民地。The Malikites, named after Malik ibn Anas, the great Imam of Medina (d. 179=795), include those who profess Islam in northern Africa and some in Upper Egypt.该Malikites,马立克伊本阿纳斯后,麦地那伟大的伊玛目(草179 = 795)命名,包括那些信奉谁在北部非洲和上埃及的一些伊斯兰教。The Hanbalites, distinguished for their rigor and intolerance, and for a strict adherence to tradition, are named after the Imam Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (d. 241=855).该Hanbalites,为他们尊敬的严谨性和不容忍现象,并严格遵守传统,被命名后,伊玛目艾哈迈德本罕百里(草241 = 855)。This sect suffered a serious decline after the fifteenth century; but it revived in the eighteenth century in the Wahabite movement of central Arabia, where the general adoption of its point of view led to the foundation of the Wahabitic dynasty.这节遭受了十五世纪以后严重衰退,但它在十八世纪复活在中央沙特阿拉伯,在那里,自己的观点导致了普遍采用的Wahabitic王朝的基础Wahabite运动。 These four sects stand on the common basis of the sunna.这四个教派站在逊奈的共同基础。

The Mohammedan schismatic movement was in origin not religious, but political.穆罕默德裂运动起源不是宗教,而是政治。Its central point is the question as to the rightful successor to the prophet in the government of the Islamic community.其核心问题是一样的合法继承者,在政府的伊斯兰先知社会问题。While the Sunnites recognize the right of election to the califate, the Shiites refuse to accept the historical facts, and recognize as legitimate rulers and successors ("khalifah") to the prophet only his direct blood relations and descendants in the line of his daughter Fatima, the wife of Ali.虽然逊尼派承认有权向califate选举,什叶派拒绝接受历史事实,承认为合法的统治者和接班人(“哈利法”)的先知直系血亲关系,只有他和他的女儿法蒂玛的后裔线,阿里的妻子。 But they are again divided among themselves according to which branch of the prophet's descendants they recognize.但是,他们又根据瓜分其中的先知的后裔分支,他们承认。The Shiitic High Church, represented by the sect of the Ithna-ashariyyah (="Twelvers"), also called "Imamites," derive the legitimate succession in the califate (they prefer the term "Imam" to "Khalifah") from Ali, and transmit it from father to son until the twelfth Imam, Mohammed b.The Shiitic高耸的教堂,由Ithna - ashariyyah(=“Twelvers”),也称为节为代表的“Imamites,”推导在califate合法继承(他们喜欢这个词“伊玛目”到“哈利法”)从阿里,从父亲和发送到儿子,直到第十二伊玛目,穆罕默德湾 Ḥasan al-'Askari.哈桑'Askari。

This Mohammed is said to have disappeared mysteriously in the year 266 AH (=879 CE), when he was but eight years old; and the "Twelvers" hold that since then he has lived in concealment, and will appear again at the last day as Imam Mahdi.穆罕默德说,这是已经消失在新的一年266啊(= 879 CE认证),但是当他八岁神秘,以及“Twelvers”认为,从那时起,他一直住在隐瞒,并会出现在最后一天再次作为伊玛目马赫迪。Another branch of the Shiites, the so-called "Isma'iliyyah," known in history as "the Fatimites," founded a dynasty which was powerful for some time in North Africa and in Egypt (909-1171 CE).另一个什叶派分支,所谓的“Isma'iliyyah,”作为历史上有名的“Fatimites,”一个王朝的建立是为一些在北非和埃及的时间(909-1171 CE)的强大。As a result of the veneration paid by the Shiites to the family of Ali and Fatima (belief in the infallibility of the Imams is obligatory on all Shiites), doctrines of incarnation have sprung up within these sects, which join to the theory of the legitimate imamate the belief that the possessor of this dignity becomes super human; and this belief is even carried to the point of recognizing the existence of "God-men."作为一个由什叶派支付给阿里和法蒂玛家庭崇拜的结果(在犯错误的伊玛目什叶派​​信仰是对所有强制性的),教义的化身,涌现出在这些教派,它加入到理论的合法伊斯兰教长的信念,这一尊严的拥有成为超级人;和这种信仰甚至运到承认存在的问题“神人”。

Liberal Movement in Islam.自由运动的伊斯兰教。

The Gnostic teachings that have developed in Islam have exercised an influence on its cosmogonic and emanational theories, plainly evidencing the effect of Babylonian and Parsee ideas.诺斯底已在伊斯兰教教义发展已经行使其宇宙起源理论的影响力和emanational,显然证明了巴比伦和波斯思想的影响。 To this day the stunted remains of these old tendencies survive in the Druses, Noṣairians, and the other sects scattered through Persia and Syria; and the history of Islam as well as a not inconsiderable literature bears testimony to the extent of their influence (comp. Dussaud, "Histoire et Religion des Noṣairis," Paris, 1900; Seybold, "Die Drusenschrift 'Das Buch der Punkte und Kreise,'" Tübingen, 1902).为了这一天的发育不良倾向remains这些旧生存在Druses,Noṣairians,并通过分散的波斯和叙利亚其他教派以及伊斯兰历史,以及一个不可小视的文学见证了他们的影响(程度comp. Dussaud,“历史学等宗教德Noṣairis,”巴黎,1900年;塞博尔德,“模具Drusenschrift'达斯布赫明镜Punkte有限公司Kreise'”,蒂宾根大学,1902年)。 An acquaintance with the dogmatic movement in Islam and with the sects that have proceeded from it is of great importance for the study of the history of religious philosophy in Judaism, and of its expression in the Jewish literature of the Middle Ages.与伊斯兰教的教派,并与那些教条的运动acquaintance出发点是极为重要的理念,在犹太教的宗教史研究,以及其在中世纪犹太文学的表达。 As early as the second century of Islam, through the influence of Greek philosophy a rationalistic reaction took place in Syria and Mesopotamia against a literal acceptance of several conceptions of orthodox belief.早在公元二世纪伊斯兰教通过了希腊哲学的影响,一个理性的反应发生在叙利亚和美索不达米亚反对正统信仰的几个概念的字面接受的地方。 This reaction touched especially upon the definition of the attributes of God, the doctrine of revelation, and the conceptions of free will and fatalism.谈及对神的启示教义的属性的定义,尤其是这种反应,和自由意志和宿命论的概念。While the strictly orthodox party, represented for the greater part by the followers of Ibn Ḥanbal (see above), clung in all questions to a literal interpretation of the Koran and tradition, the Motazilites introduced a more reasonable religious view, one more in keeping with the essence of monotheism (see Arabic Philosophy).虽然严格正统党,对因伊本罕百里(见上文)的信徒大部份代表,在所有问题固守可兰经和传统的字面解释,Motazilites推出了更合理的宗教观,在保持一个更一神的本质(见阿拉伯哲学)。

Its Spread.它的传播。

Wholly without parallel in the history of the world was the rapid and victorious spread of Islam, within scarcely a century after the death of its founder, beyond the boundaries of Arabia, over Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, middle Asia to the borders of China, the whole coast of North Africa (ancient Mauritania and Numidia), and Europe as far as Spain.全没有在世界上是史无前例的伊斯兰教迅速蔓延,胜利,在几乎一后,其创办人死亡世纪超出了沙特阿拉伯的边界在小亚细亚,叙利亚,波斯,中亚,对中国的边界,北非洲(古毛里塔尼亚和努米底亚),以及整个欧洲海岸,据西班牙。 It subdued the Sudan as well as India; it flooded the Malayan islands; and it has not yet finished its propaganda among the negroes of Africa, where it is steadily gaining ground.它征服了苏丹以及印度,它淹没了马来亚群岛,它尚未完成在非洲,在那里的黑人不断抬头的宣传。Starting from Zanzibar, it has spread to Mozambique, to the Portuguese colonies on the coast, to the negro tribes of South Africa, and it has even penetrated Madagascar.起价桑给巴尔,它已蔓延到莫桑比克,海岸上的葡萄牙殖民地,到南非的黑人部落,它甚至侵入马达加斯加。Islam is represented in America also, in some of the negroes who have immigrated to the western hemisphere.伊斯兰教是在美国也表示,在已移居黑人谁西半球一些。The slight Islamic propaganda of modern times among the Christians of North America is a peculiar one.轻微近代伊斯兰宣传中北美的基督徒是很特殊的一个。It finds its expression in an English-Mohammedan service, in an Islamic literature, as well as in a newspaper ("The Moslem World").它发现在英语伊斯兰教服务的表达,在一个伊斯兰文献,以及在报纸上(“穆斯林世界”)。 In England, also, a Mohammedan community has recently been founded (Quilliam; comp. "Islam in America," New York, 1893).在英国,也是如此,伊斯兰教社区最近已成立(Quilliam;比赛“美国伊斯兰教”,纽约,1893年。)。

The total number of professors of the Mohammedan faith in the world has been variously estimated.在对世界上信仰伊斯兰教的教授总数已不同的估计。Two computations of modern times should especially be mentioned: that of the Mohammedan scholar Rouhi al-Khalidi, who gives the total number as 282, 225, 420 ("Revue de l'Islam, "1897, No. 21), and that of Hubert Jansen ("Verbreitung des Islams," etc., Friedrichshagen, 1897), whose estimate, in round numbers, is 260,000,000.近代两种计算应特别提及:即伊斯兰教学者Rouhi基地哈利迪,谁给的282,225的总人数,420(“杂志德欧莱雅伊斯兰教”,1897年,第21号),而中休伯特詹森(“Verbreitung德​​Islams”等,Friedrichshagen,1897年),其估计,在第二轮号码,是260,000,000。

Relation to Judaism:犹太教的关系:

In connection with the general sketch given above it is of especial importance from the Jewish standpoint to note the relations between Jews and Mohammedans.In the Koran many a harsh word is spoken against the Jews, probably as the immediate effect of the difficulties which people in Arabia offered to the fulfilment of Mohammed's hopes and of the obstinate refusal with which they met his appeal to them.在与上述这是特别重要的犹太立场注意犹太人和Mohammedans.In the古兰经许多难听的话是对犹太人说的关系可能为立即生效的困难,人们在一般sketch连接沙特阿拉伯提供给穆罕默德的希望的实现和顽固拒绝与他们会面,他呼吁他们。 They are characterized as those upon whom "God's anger rests" (suras v. 65, lviii. 15, and, according to the traditional exegesis of Mohammedans, i. 7).他们的特点是那些被人“上帝的怒火”(章节诉65,lviii。15,并根据伊斯兰教传统的注释,一7)。They are taxed with having a special hatred for the faithful (v. 85); hence friendships with them should not be formed (v. 56).他们与具有征税的忠实(诉85)特别仇恨;与他们的友谊,因此不应该形成(五56)。This sentiment is presupposed to a still greater degree in the old ḥadith.这种情绪是先决条件中的一个老圣训更大的程度。 It was a general conviction that the Jew who seems to salute a Moslem with the usual salaam greeting, instead of saying the word "salam" (health) says "sam" (death), which has a similar sound.这是一个普遍的信念,即犹太人谁似乎与通常的问候致意达累斯萨拉姆一个穆斯林,不要说这个词“萨拉姆”(健康)说:“山姆”(死亡),其中有一个类似的声音。 One instance of this is related as having taken place even as early as the time of the prophet (Bukhari, "Isti'dhan," No. 22; idem, "Da'awat," No. 56).这方面的一个实例是为有相关的发生甚至高达先知的时间早(布哈里,“Isti'dhan,”第22号,同上,“Da'awat,”56号)。 "Never is a Jew alone with a Moslem without planning how he may kill him" (Jaḥiẓ, "Bayan," i. 165). “绝不是一个单独的穆斯林犹太人没有规划如何他可能杀了他”(Jaḥiẓ,“巴彦,”岛165)。In this way a fanatical rage against the Jews was infused into the minds of the Mohammedans.在这样一个狂热的反对犹太人的愤怒被注入了伊斯兰教的思想。On the last day the faithful will battle with the Jews, whereupon the stones will say to the believers: "Behind me lurks a Jew, oh Moslem! Strike him dead!"在最后一天忠实地将战斗的犹太人,于是石头会的信徒说:“我背后潜伏着一个犹太人,穆斯林攻击他已经死了哦!”(Musnad Aḥmad, ii. 122, 131, 149; Bukhari, "Jihad," No. 93). (Musnad艾哈迈德,二122,131,149;。布哈里,“圣战”,第93号)。

Treatment of Jews.治疗犹太人。

But, in spite of the continuance of this malevolent disposition in single cases, one gathers from the old literature of Islam the general impression that after the foundation of the Mohammedan community a milder sentiment in respect to the Jews was introduced.但是,在这个单例恶毒的性格,一名来自伊斯兰旧文学的一般印象是,后一个温和伊斯兰教情绪在社会基础方面介绍了犹太人聚集尽管继续。 Even Mohammed had already proclaimed toleration of the "Ahl al-Kitab" in consideration of their paying a certain tax ("jizyah") into the state treasury; although, to be sure, a certain humiliation for the unbelievers attached to the collection of this tax (sura ix. 29).穆罕默德已经宣布,即使在他们付出了一定的税收进入国库(“jizyah”)审议的“阿尔基地基塔”容忍,虽然,可以肯定,一个贴在这个集合中的某些不信羞辱税(苏拉九。29)。 In the following generation, under the calif Omar, the details were fixed for the execution of this general law.在下面的一代,在加利福尼亚州奥马尔的细节固定的这个一般规律的执行。One might say that side by side with the harshness shown by Mohammed and Omar toward the Jews settled in Arabia itself (they were, in fact, all driven out), there existed a more tolerant disposition toward those who were brought under the Mohammedan yoke through the extensive conquests of Islam.有人可能会说,并肩与穆罕默德奥马尔显示和对犹太人定居在沙特阿拉伯本身的苛刻方(他们成功了,其实,所有被驱出),对那些存在谁是伊斯兰教的枷锁下,通过带来一个更加宽容的性格伊斯兰教的广泛征服。

This disposition is expressed in many old ḥadiths, of which the following may serve as an illustration: "Whoever wrongs a Christian or a Jew, against him shall I myself appear as accuser on the Judgment Day."这种气质表现在许多老圣训,其中以下可以作为一个例证:“谁错一个基督徒或犹太人,对他要我自己上显示为原告的审判日。” A number of current decrees emphasize the duties toward the "mu'ahad" (those with whom a compact has been made to protect them), or the "dhimmi" (those recommended to protection)-such are the names given to the professors of other faiths who are granted protection-and whenever mention is made of protection of the "persecuted," the commentators never omit to add that this is obligatory in regard to Moslems and also in regard to the "ahl al-dimmah."阿目前的法令号码强调对“mu'ahad”(那些人已经取得了一个小巧保护他们)的职责,或“dhimmi”(那些建议保护),这些都送给老师的名字谁被授予保护的其他信仰,每当提到了保护的“迫害”的评论员从未省略补充说,这是考虑到穆斯林的义务,并在关于“教派铝dimmah。” It is probable that the influence of the old Arabic conception of the duty of caring for whomsoever the tribe had taken under its protection is to be seen here; according to that conception, difference in religion was not sufficient ground for making an exception (an example of this may be found in "Kitab al-'Aghani," xi. 91).这是有可能的是,古老的阿拉伯文照顾责任的构想何人部落的影响有其保护下采取的是在这里看到,根据该构想,宗教差异不足够的理由作出一个例外(例如这可能会发现在“基塔铝'Aghani,”十一。91)。

Pact of Omar.条约的奥马尔。

In the instructions which Omar gave to the generals as they set forth to spread the supremacy of Islam by the power of the sword, and to the officials to whom he entrusted the administration of the conquered lands, the injunction to respect and guard the religious institutions of the inhabitants of such lands who profess other faiths often occurs; eg, in the directions given to Mu'adh ibn Jabal for Yemen, that no Jew be disturbed in the exercise of his faith ("Baladhuri," ed. De Goeje, p. 71).奥马尔的指令,给了将军,因为他们提出来散布的剑的权力至高无上的伊斯兰教,和主管官员的人,他委托的被征服的土地管理,该禁令尊重和保卫宗教机构对谁信奉其他宗教经常发生这类土地的居民,例如,在给予Mu'adh伊Jabal的也门,没有犹太人在行使不安,他的信仰的方向(“Baladhuri,”版德Goeje,磷。 。71)。Omar likewise directed that some of the money and food due to the poor from public revenues be given to non-Moslems (ib. p. 129).奥马尔也指示的钱和食物由于一些公共收入贫困给予非穆斯林(同上第129页)。Characteristic of this attitude toward the Jew is a story-somewhat fabulous, it is true-told of a house in Busrah.这对犹太人的态度特点是故事有点精彩,这是事实,讲的是一个在Busrah房子。When Omar's governor in this conquered city desired to build a mosque, the site of a Jew's house appeared to him to be suitable for the purpose.当奥马尔在这个征服的城市州长愿意建造了一座清真寺,一个犹太人的宅基地在他看来,是适合作此用途。In spite of the objections of the owner, he had the dwelling torn down, and built the mosque in its place.在业主的反对,尽管他已拆除的住宅,并建有清真寺,在它的位置。

The outraged Jew went to Medina to tell his grievance to Omar, whom he found wandering among the graves, poorly clad and lost in pious meditation.愤怒的犹太人的麦地那去告诉他的申诉,以奥马尔,就是他的坟墓中发现,穿着很差,在虔诚的冥想中徘徊。When the calif had heard his complaint, anxious to avoid delay and having no parchment with him, he picked up the jaw-bone of an ass and wrote on it an urgent command to the governor to tear down his mosque and rebuild the house of the Jew.当加利福尼亚州,听见他的抱怨,急于想避免延误,但没有与他羊皮纸,他拿起了一屁股颚骨,并写上紧急命令向总督拆除自己的清真寺,重建的房子犹太人。 This spot was still called "the house of the Jew" up to modern times (Porter, "Five Years in Damascus," 2d ed., p. 235, London, 1870).这个地方仍称为“房子的犹太人”上升到了近代(波特,“五年大马士革,”2版。,第235页,伦敦,1870年)。To Omar, however, is likewise ascribed the origin of a pact ("'ahd 'Omar"; See Omar) whose provisions were very severe.奥马尔,但是,也同样赋予了一项协定原产地(“'新纪元'奥马尔”,见奥马尔),其规定是非常严重。

Whatever may be true as to the genuineness of these "pacts" (see in this connection De Goeje, "Mémoire sur la Conquête de la Syrie," p. 142, Leyden, 1900; TW Arnold, "The Preaching of Islam," p. 52), it is certain that not until the science of Mohammedan law had reached its full development in the Fiḳh school and the canonical law had been definitely codified after the second century of the Hegira, was the interconfessional law definitely established.无论可能是真实的,以这些“协定”的真实性(见德Goeje在这方面,“备忘录河畔拉Conquête德拉Syrie”,第142,莱顿,1900年;荃湾阿诺德说:“伊斯兰传道,的”P 。52),可以肯定的是不是直到伊斯兰教法学已经达到了Fiḳh学校的全面发展和规范的法律已经明确的回教纪元后的第二个世纪编纂,是interconfessional法律绝对成立。 A chapter dealing with the social and legal position of those "possessing Scriptures" may be found in every Mohammedan legal code.阿章与那些“拥有圣经”的社会和法律地位dealing可能会发现在每一个伊斯兰教法典。There is a regular gradation in respect to the degree of tolerance granted by the various legal sects ("madhahib").有一个关于各种法律所授予的容忍程度教派(“madhahib”)定期层次。On the whole, the attempt was made in these codes to adhere in theory to the original fundamental laws.在整体而言,有人企图在这些代码在理论上坚持原来的基本法律。The adherence was modified, however, by a certain amount of increased rigor, corresponding to the public feeling of the age in which the codes came into existence-that of the Abbassids.在坚持进行了修改,但是,通过严格的增加一定数额,相应的年龄中,人心的代码诞生,这对Abbassids。 The most intolerant were the followers of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal.最不能容忍的艾哈迈德本罕百里的追随者。The codification of the laws in question has been given in detail by Goldziher in "Monatsschrift," 1880, pp. 302-308.在编纂有关法律已经给予了详细的Goldziher在“月刊,”1880年,页302-308。

Anti-Jewish Traditions.反犹太人的传统。

The different tendencies in the codifications are shown in divergences in the decrees attributed to the prophet.在编纂的不同倾向在法令分歧显示归因于先知。While one reads, "Whoever does violence to a dhimmi who has paid his jizyah and evidenced his submission-his enemy I am" ("Usd al-Ghaba," iii. 133), people with fanatical views haveput into the mouth of the prophet such words as these: "Whoever shows a friendly face to a dhimmi is like one who deals me a blow in the side" (Ibn Ḥajar al-Haitami, "Fatawi Ḥadithiyyah," p. 118, Cairo, 1307).虽然一读,“谁给谁的暴力已支付了jizyah和证明其意见书,他的敌人,我dhimmi”(“美元铝Ghaba,”三。133),进口的先知与haveput狂热的意见的人因为这样的话:“谁显示了一个友好的面孔到dhimmi像一个谁交易我是在一边吹”(伊本哈吉尔铝Haitami,“FatawiḤadithiyyah”,第118,开罗,1307)。 Or: "The angel Gabriel met the prophet on one occasion, whereupon the latter wished to take his hand. Gabriel, however, drew back, saying: 'Thou hast but just now touched the hand of a Jew.'或者是:“天使加布里埃尔一次会晤,届时希望把他的手,后者的先知加布里埃尔,然而,把手缩了回去,说:。'。你不过刚才碰到一个犹太人的手' The prophet was required to make his ablutions before he was allowed to take the angel's hand" (Dhahabi, "Mizan al-I'tidal," ii. 232, 275).先知是需要,使他的浴室之前,他被允许参加天使的手“(Dhahabi,”米赞铝I'tidal,“二。232,275)。 These and similar sayings, however, were repudiated by the Mohammedan ḥadithcritics themselves as false and spurious.这些以及类似的格言,但是,由穆罕默德ḥadithcritics否定自己是假的,虚假的。They betray the fanatical spirit of the circle in which they originated.他们背叛了他们的圈子中,起源于狂热的精神。

Official Islam has even tried to turn away from Jews and Christians the point of whatever malicious maxims have been handed down from ancient times.官方伊斯兰甚至企图把犹太人和基督徒从远离一切恶意的格言一直流传下来的古代点。An old saying in regard to infidels reads: "If ye meet them in the way, speak not to them and crowd them to the wall."在关于异教徒古语曰:“如果你们在路上迎接他们,说没有他们,他们在群众在墙上。”When Suhail, who relates this saying of the prophet, was asked whether Jews and Christians were intended, he answered that this command referred to the heathen ("mushrikin"; "Musnad Aḥmad," ii. 262).当Suhail,谁涉及这个先知说,有人问犹太人和基督徒的打算,他回答说,这个命令称为异教徒(“mushrikin”,“Musnad艾哈迈德,”二262。)。 Under the dominion of the Ommiads the followers of other religious faiths were little disturbed, since it was not in keeping with the worldly policy of those rulers to favor the tendencies of fanatical zealots.下的Ommiads统治其他宗教信徒的信仰的小困扰,因为它是在与世俗统治者的那些有利于保持政策的狂热痴迷者的趋势没有。 Omar II.奥马尔二。(717-720) was the only one of this worldly-wise dynasty who trenched upon the equal privileges of unbelievers; and he was under the pietistic influence. (717-720)是这个世故王朝谁不信之时,朱忠华只有一个平等的特权和他的影响下虔诚。

Intolerance of infidels and a limitation of their freedom were first made a part of the law during the rule of the Abbassids (see Abbassid Califs), who, to bring about the ruin of their predecessors, had supported theocratic views and granted great influence to the representatives of intolerant creeds (comp. "ZDMG" xxxviii. 679; "REJ" xxx. 6).异教徒和他们的自由的限制的不容忍现象的过程中首次提出了Abbassids规则对法律的一部分(见Abbassid Califs),谁带来的毁灭他们的前辈,曾支持政教合一的意见,并给予了很大的影响代表(可比“ZDMG”三十八679。“相互执行判决的”XXX 6。)不耐信条。Under them also the law was introduced compelling Jews to be distinguished by their clothing ("ghiyar"; Abu Yusuf, "Kitab alKharaj," pp. 72-73, Bulak, 1302).根据这些法律还介绍了令人信服的犹太人被他们的服装区别开来(“ghiyar”;阿布优素福“基塔alKharaj,”页72-73,布拉克,1302)。 At a later period such distinguishing marks became frequent in the Mohammedan kingdoms, especially in North Africa, where the badge was known as "shaklah" (Fagnan, "Chroniques des Almohades et des Hafçidcs Attribué à Zerkechi," p., 19, Constantine, 1895).在后一时期这种识别标志的伊斯兰教王国成为频繁,特别是在北非,那里的徽章为“shaklah”(Fagnan,“Chroniques德Almohades等德Hafçidcs Attribué à Zerkechi”,第19,康斯坦丁知道, 1895年)。

Influence of Judaism on Islam.伊斯兰教犹太教的影响。

The debt of Islam to Judaism is not limited to the laws, institutions, doctrines, and traditions which Mohammed himself borrowed from the Jews and incorporated in his revelations (see Koran).伊斯兰教的债务犹太教不限于法律,制度,原则和传统穆罕默德本人借犹太人,在他的启示(见古兰经)中。For its later development, also, Islam made use of much material presented to its teachers through direct association with Jews, through the influence of converted Jews, and through contact with the surrounding Jewish life.对于其以后的发展,同时,提出了由伊斯兰教与犹太教徒直接的联系,通过其教师多材料的使用,通过转换犹太人的影响,并通过与周围的犹太人的生活接触。 Many a Jewish tradition has thus crept into Islam and taken an important place there.很多犹太人的传统也因此悄悄进入伊斯兰教的重要场所,并采取有。It is related that 'Ayisha, the wife of the prophet, owned to having received the idea of the torments of the grave ("'adhab al-ḳabr" = Hebr. "ḥibbuṭ ha-ḳeber") from Jewish women, and that Mohammed incorporated it in his teaching.这是相关,'Ayisha,先知的妻子,拥有的已收到的坟墓(折磨的想法从犹太妇女“'adhab基地ḳabr”=黑布尔。“ḥibbuṭ公顷ḳeber”)和穆罕默德它纳入了他的教学。 Other eschatological details of Judaism served to embellish the original material, much of which goes back to Parsee sources (eg, the leviathan and "shor ha-bar" as food = preserved wine as a drink in paradise; the "luz"="'ujb" out of which men's bodies will be reconstructed at the resurrection, etc.; see Eschatology).其他的犹太教末世论的细节有助于美化的原始材料,其中大部分可以追溯到帕西来源(例如,利维坦和“旭日公顷吧”作为=食品保藏葡萄酒作为一种在天堂喝的“卢斯”=“' ujb“,其中男性的身体将在复活,重建等,见末世)。From the very beginning Jews versed in the Scriptures ("ḥabr" [plural, "aḥbar"] =Hebr. "ḥaber") became of great importance in providing such details; and it was from the information thus supplied that the meager skeleton of the teachings of the Koran was built up and clothed.从一开始犹太人的圣经(“。哈卜尔”[复数,“aḥbar”] =黑布尔“哈勃”)精通成为极为重要的提供等细节,因此,它是从提供的资料说,微薄的骨架可兰经教义是建立和衣服。

These aḥbar hold an important position also as sources for information concerning Islam.这些aḥbar举行重要的位置也作为关于伊斯兰教的信息来源。It will be sufficient here to refer to the many teachings in the first two centuries of Islam which are recorded under the names Ka'b al-Aḥbar (d. 654) and Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. circa 731).这将足以在这里提到的前两个是伊斯兰教的名字记下个世纪的许多教义凯尔布铝Aḥbar(四654)和伊本Munabbih Wahb(草约731)。In the first place, Islam owes to this source its elaborations of Biblical legends; many of these elaborations are incorporated in the canonical ḥadith works, and still more in the historical books (eg, Ṭabari, vol. i.); and they early developed into an important special literature, a compilation of which is found in a work by Tha'labi (d. 1036) dealing exhaustively with these subjects and entitled "'Ara'is al-Majalis" (frequently printed in Cairo).首先,伊斯兰教应归功于这个来源它阐述的圣经的传说,其中有许多是阐述纳入规范圣训作品,还有更多的历史书籍(如塔巴里,第一。)以及他们早期发展成为一个重要的特殊文学,发现其中的汇编工作在一个Tha'labi(草1036)处理这些问题,题为“'Ara'is基地Majalis”(经常在开罗打印)详尽。 Here belong the many tales current in Islamic legendary literature under the name "Isra-'iliyyat" (= "Jewish narratives"; comp. "REJ" xliv. 63 et seq.).这里属于伊斯兰的许多故事传说文学潮流的名义下“古兰经- 'iliyyat”(=“犹太人的叙述”;比赛“相互执行判决”四十四63起。。。)。According to the researches of F. Perles and Victor Chauvin, a large number of the tales in the "Thousand and One Nights" go back to such Jewish sources (see Arabian Nights).根据过去的研究F的珍珠和维克多肖万,有大量的故事在“一千零一夜”回到这些犹太人的来源(见天方夜谭)。

The system of genealogy, so important among the Arabs, connecting early Arabian history with that of the Biblical patriarchs, also goes back to Jewish sources.该系统的家谱,所以阿拉伯人之间的重要连接年初的圣经始祖是阿拉伯历史上,还可以追溯到犹太来源。In particular a Jewish scholar of Palmyra is mentioned who adapted the genealogical tables of the Bible to the demands of Arabic genealogy (comp. references in Goldziher, "Muhammedanische Studien," i. 178, note 2).特别是巴尔米拉的犹太学者提到谁改编圣经的家谱族谱表,阿拉伯语的要求(在Goldziher,comp.引用“Muhammedanische Studien与,”岛178,注2)。It was likewise such Jewish converts who offered the material for certain theories hostile to Judaism; for example, the view, not generally accepted by Mohammedans (ib. i. 145), but which is nevertheless very widely spread, that it was Ishmael, not Isaac, who was consecrated as a sacrifice ("dhabiḥ") to God, originates from the teaching of a crafty convert who wished to ingratiate himself with his new associates (Ṭabari, i. 299).同样,有人这样谁提供了一定的理论敌视犹太教犹太教皈依材料,例如,视图,一般不接受伊斯兰教(ib.一145),但它不过是非常广泛的传播,这是伊斯梅尔,不艾萨克,谁是牺牲(“dhabiḥ”)向神奉献,源于一个狡猾的教学转换谁愿意讨好他(塔巴里岛299)新员工自己。

Influence of Jewish on Mohammedan Law.对伊斯兰教法的影响犹太人。

Islam in the course of its development borrowed also a large number of legal precepts from the Jewish Halakah.在其发展过程中也借用伊斯兰教犹太Halakah从大量的法律规则。The importance attached to the "niyyah" (= "intentio") in the practise of law is at first glance reminiscent of the rabbinical teaching concerning "kawwanah," even though all the details do not coincide.附在“niyyah”的重要性在法律实践(=“intentio”)是在犹太教教乍一看让人想起关于“kawwanah,”即使所有的细节并不一致。 The Mohammedan regulations appertaining to slaughtering, those relating to the personal qualifications of the "shoḥeṭ" (Arabic, "dhabiḥ") as well as those in regard to the details of slaughtering, show plainly the influence of the Jewish Halakah, as a glance into the codes themselves will prove.伊斯兰教规定的附属于屠宰,那些有关的“shoḥeṭ”的个人资格(阿拉伯语,“dhabiḥ”),以及在考虑到这些细节屠宰,显示明显的犹太Halakah的影响力,一看进去,将证明自己的代码。 These are easily accessible, in the original as well as in European translations (Nawawi, "Minhag al-Ṭalibin," ed. Van den Berg, iii. 297, Batavia,1882-84; "Fatḥ al-Ḳarib," edited by the same, pp. 631 et seq., Leyden, 1894; Tornaw, "Das Muslimische Recht," p. 228, Leipsic, 1855).这些都是在原有的方便,以及在欧洲的翻译,(脑威,“Minhag铝Ṭalibin,”海关范登贝尔赫,三297,巴达维亚,1882 - 84。。“法特赫铝Ḳarib,”编辑的同样,第631页起,莱顿,1894年;。Tornaw,“达斯Muslimische Recht”,第228,普西克,1855年)。For example, the Mohammedan law in regard to slaughtering ordains expressly that the "ḥulḳum" (Hebr. "ḳaneh") and the "mari'" (Hebr. "wesheṭ") must be severed, and forbids killing in any other manner.例如,在关于伊斯兰教法屠宰注定明确规定,“ḥulḳum”(Hebr.“肉桂”)和“马里'”(Hebr.“wesheṭ”),必须切断,严禁以任何其他方式杀害。

On the other hand, the law, peculiar to Islam, that the slaughterer in the performance of his duty must turn the animal toward the "ḳiblah," has given material for halakic reflections on the part of Jews (Solomon ben Adret, Responsa, No. 345; "Bet Yosef," on Ṭur Yoreh De'ah iv., end).另一方面,法律,伊斯兰教特有的,即在他履行职责刽子手必须转向的动物“ḳiblah,”给了对犹太人(所罗门群岛本Adret,Responsa,无反射材料的一部分halakic 。345;“打赌优素福的”图尔Yoreh De'ah四,结束)。。The rule that God's name be mentioned before slaughtering is probably a reflection of the Jewish benediction, as are also in general the eulogies ordained by Islamic tradition at the appearance of certain natural phenomena (Nawawi, "Adhkar," p. 79, Cairo, 1312), which may be traced back to the influence of Jewish customs.说:神的名字被提到的规则屠宰前可能是一个犹太人的祝福的反映,也是作为一般由伊斯兰传统受戒在某些自然现象的出现(脑威,“Adhkar”,第79,开罗,1312的颂词),这可以追溯到的犹太习俗的影响。 Mohammedan law has adopted literally the provision "ka-makḥol ba-she-poperet" in the case of the precept concerning adultery, and it betrays its source through this characteristic form of speech ("REJ" xxviii. 79), which is not the only one that teachers of Islam have taken over from rabbinical linguistic usage (ib. xliii. 5).伊斯兰教法已通过了关于通奸的戒律字面上的情况下提供“家makḥol巴社poperet”,并通过这种背叛语音特征形成其源(“相互执行判决”二十八。79),这是不唯一一个伊斯兰教师有从犹太教语言使用过(同上四十三。5)。

The attempt has been made by Alfred von Kremer ("Culturgesch. des Orients Unter den Chalifen," i. 525, 535) to show by many examples that the codifiers, of Mohammedan civil law were influenced by Talmudic-rabbinical law.的尝试已取得了由阿尔弗雷德冯克雷默(“Culturgesch。之方向树下大街Chalifen,”岛525,535),显示由该穆罕默德民法编码员,由塔木德,犹太教法影响的例子很多。 There is, however, legitimate doubt in the case of many of such coincidences whether Roman law, the influence of which on the development of Mohammedan law is beyond question, should not be considered as the direct source from which Islamic teachers borrowed.有,然而,在许多情况下此类coincidences合法怀疑罗马法,其对伊斯兰教法的发展的影响是毫无疑问的,不应被视为伊斯兰教的直接来源,从教师借来的。 Such a question must arise from a consideration of the legal principle of the "istiṣḥab" (= "præsumptio"), the meaning and application of which coincide fully with that of the rabbinical principle of the ("Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes," i. 239).出现这样的问题,必须从对“istiṣḥab”的法律原则的考虑(=“præsumptio”)的含义和应用契合的了(“维纳Zeitschrift毛皮犹太教死孔德德Morgenlandes原则,充分, “岛239)。Likewise the rules and , and the fundamental principle of the ("istiṣlaḥ") are found literally among the cardinal juridical principles of Islamic law (ib. p. 229; "Muhammedanische Studien," ii. 82, No. 6).同样的规则,以及(“istiṣlaḥ”)被发现在伊斯兰法的司法原则,从字面上根本的大是大非的原则(同上第229页;“Muhammedanische Studien,”二82,第6期。)。

In spite of the fact that it is a principle of Islamic tradition to avoid all imitation of the usages and customs of the ahl al-Kitab and that the disapproval of many usages of religious as well as of secular life is specifically ascribed to such a cause ("REJ" xxviii. 77), still many religious practises of Judaism have been incorporated into Islam; for example, many details in the ceremony of burying the dead, as "ṭaḥarah" (washing the dead), holy texts being recited during the washing of the various parts of the body (Al-'Abdari, "Madkhal," iii. 12, Alexandria, 1293).鉴于这是一个传统的伊斯兰原则,避免所有的惯例和教派铝基塔尽管海关模仿,而且许多用途的宗教以及世俗生活的反对是不明确归因于这样一个事业(。“相互执行判决”二十八77),还存在着许多犹太教宗教习俗已被纳入伊斯兰教,例如,在埋葬为“ṭaḥarah”死了,很多细节仪式(洗涤死者),即在背诵经文清洗身体的各部分(铝'Abdari,“Madkhal,”三。12日,亚历山大,1293)。 Such intrusive customs are not seldom censured by the purists of Islam as being "bid'a" (unorthodox innovations), in opposition to the "Sunnah" (old orthodox usage).这种习俗是不是很少侵入谴责以伊斯兰的纯粹主义者为“bid'a”(非正统的创新),在反对“圣行”(旧正统的用法)。 Those elements of Mohammedan religious literature which correspond to the Jewish Haggadah offer a large field for derivation; in this connection See Ḥadith.对伊斯兰教的宗教文献,其中对应于犹太哈加达提供一个大场推导这些要素,在这方面见圣训。

Islam is regarded by Mohammedans, as may be easily conceived, not only as the final stage of the divine revelation, but also as being quantitatively richer than either Judaism or Christianity.伊斯兰教被视为是伊斯兰教,因为可以很容易地设想不仅作为神的启示的最后阶段,但也比被定量犹太教或基督教丰富。 More ethical demands are made by it than by the older religions.更多的道德要求,是由它比旧的宗教。This idea found expression in an old ḥadith which even at a very early period was misinterpreted to read: "Judaism has 71, Christianity 72, and Islam 73 sects."这个想法在一个古老的圣训发现表达,即使在一个非常早期阶段被曲解为:“犹太教,拥有71,72基督教和伊斯兰教的73个教派。” The word which was taken to mean "sects" denotes literally "branches," and should be interpreted "religious demands," "the highest of which is the acknowledgment of God and Mohammed, and the lowest the removal of offense from the way" (on the original meaning of this saying see Goldziher, "Le Dénombrement des Sectes Mohametanes," in "Revue de l'Histoire des Religions," xxvi. 129-137).该是指“教派”一词是指字面上的“分支”,并应解释为“宗教的要求”,“其中最高的是上帝和穆罕默德承认,最低的,从犯罪的方式拆除”(在说这话的原意看到Goldziher,“乐Dénombrement德Sectes Mohametanes,”在“杂志德欧莱雅宗教历史学德,”二十六。129-137)。

Polemics.论战。

The theological relation of Islam to Judaism is presented in an extensive polemical literature on the part of Mohammedan scholars.伊斯兰教的神学的关系,提出了犹太教在广泛的伊斯兰教学者对文学论战的一部分。The subject-matter of this literature is closely related to the attacks and accusations already directed against Judaism by the Koran and the ḥadith.的主题是这一文学问题密切相关的攻击,并已经对犹太教导演古兰经和圣训的指责。In the Koran (ix. 30) the Jews are charged with worshiping Ezra ("'Uzair") as the son of God-a malevolent metaphor for the great respect which was paid by the Jews to the memory of Ezra as the restorer of the Law, and from which the Ezra legends of apocryphal literature (II Esd. xxxiv. 37-49) originated (as to how they developed in Mohammedan legends see Damiri, "Ḥayat al-Ḥayawan," i. 304-305).在可兰经(ix. 30)的犹太人被控犯有崇拜为神,一个恶毒的比喻是非常尊重的支付犹太人作为恢复到以斯拉内存儿子以斯拉(“'Uzair”)法,并从其中庞德的猜测文学传说(二公共服务电子化。三十四。37-49)起源(关于如何在发达国家看到Damiri伊斯兰教传说,“生活报Ḥayawan,”岛304-305)。 It is hard to bring into harmony with this the fact, related by Jacob Saphir ("Eben Sappir," i. 99), that the Jews of South Arabia have a pronounced aversion for the memory of Ezra, and even exclude his name from their category of proper names.这是很难进入的和谐带来了与此相关的事实雅各布Saphir(“埃本Sappir,”岛99),南阿拉伯犹太人有一个明显的以斯拉内存厌恶,甚至排斥他的名字从他们的类别的专有名词。 More clearly still does this literature bring forward an accusation, founded on suras ii.更清楚这一文学仍然提出的指控,在章节二成立。70, v. 15, that the Jews had falsified certain portions of the Holy Scriptures and concealed others (iii. 64, vi. 91).70,15节,即犹太人伪造的圣经的某些部分和隐蔽其他(iii. 64,六。91)。

Even in Mohammed's time the rabbis were said to have misrepresented to the prophet the law in regard to adulterers ("REJ" xxviii. 79).即使在穆罕默德的时间拉比据说有歪曲的先知方面法律奸淫(“相互执行判决”二十八。79)。In later times the details as to these falsifications were continually augmented.在稍后的时间的细节,这些弄虚作假行为的不断增加。 It was said, for example, that in order to rob the Arabs of an honor done to their ancestors the Jews wrongly inserted in the Pentateuch the choice of Isaac as the child whose sacrifice God demanded of Abraham and which the paṭriarch was willing to make, whereas in reality it was Ishmael (comp. "Muhammedanische Studien," i. 145, note 5).有人说,例如,为了抢做他们的祖先在五错误插入以撒作为神的孩子,他牺牲的要求亚伯拉罕和族长愿意做出选择的犹太人,阿拉伯人的荣誉,而事实上这是伊斯梅尔(可比“Muhammedanische Studien与,”岛145,注5)。But the accusation of misrepresentation and concealment is most emphatic in connection with those passages of the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Psalms in which the adherents of Islam claim that Mohammed's name and attributes, his future appearance as "seal of the prophets," and his mission to all mankind were predicted.但是,歪曲和隐瞒的指控是最符合五,先知这些通道连接有力,和诗篇,其中伊斯兰教要求信徒穆罕默德的名字和属性,他作为未来性的外观“的先知印章”,并他的使命对全人类进行了预测。

Mohammedan, theologians divide these charges into two classes: they hold (1) that in some cases the original text itself has been falsified, while (2) in others it is the interpretation of a genuine text that has been wilfully perverted.穆罕默德,神学家分成两个类别,分别收费:持有(1),在某些情况下,原文本身是伪造的,而(2)在其他它是一个真正的文本已故意歪曲的解释。 Whereas in the earlier period of the controversy these accusations were made against the "aḥbar" as a class, who were represented as leading the Jewish people astray, lateron the personal nature of the charge was accentuated, and the fault ascribed to Ezra "the writer" ("al-warraḳ"), who in his restoration of the forgotten writings was said to have falsified them ("ZDMG" xxxii. 370).而在同期的争议这些指控是对“aḥbar”作为一个阶级,谁被领导的犹太人民引入歧途代表提出,等一会的个人性质的收费加剧,并归因于以斯拉“作家的故障“(”基地warraḳ“),谁在他的著作被遗忘的恢复,据说他们有伪造(”ZDMG“三十二。370)。 Abraham ibn Daud ("Emunah Ramah," p. 79) combats this accusation.亚伯拉罕本达乌德(“Emunah拉玛”,第79页)战斗这一指控。According to tradition, Ibn Ḳutaiba (d. 276 AH = 889 CE) was the first to bring together the Biblical passages supposed to refer to the sending of Mohammed.按照传统,伊本Ḳutaiba(草276啊= 889 CE认证)是第一个汇集应该指的是穆罕默德发送圣经段落。His enumeration of them has been preserved in a work by Ibn al-Jauzi (12th cent.), from which it has been published in the Arabic text by Brockelmann ("Beiträge für Semitische Wortforschung," iii. 46-55; comp. Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1894, pp. 138-142).他列举了他们一直保存在工作中,由伊本Jauzi(第12次以上。),从它一直在通过Brockelmann阿拉伯文文本(“Beiträge献给Semitische Wortforschung,”三公布46-55。比赛体育场的。 “杂志”,1894年,第138-142)。

These passages recur with more or less completeness in the works of all Moslem apologists and controversialists (comp. the enumeration of the Biblical names of the prophet and the Biblical verses relating to him in "ZDMG" xxxii. 374-379), and are usually combined with similar New Testament prophecies supposed to refer to him (Παράκλητος, confused with Περικλυτός, is taken to mean Mohammed).这些通道或多或少在所有穆斯林辩护士的作品完整性和controversialists复发(可比对圣经的先知的名字和有关的圣经经文在“ZDMG”三十二对他的枚举。374-379),通常应该是指与他类似的新约圣经的预言相结合(Παράκλητος,与Περικλυτός混乱,被视为意味着穆罕默德)。 Of the Biblical names supposed to allude to Mohammed, Jewish apologists have been compelled most often to refute the identification of with the name of the prophet of Islam.假定的暗示穆罕默德的圣经名字,犹太辩护士被迫最常驳斥了伊斯兰教的先知名字的鉴定。

With this portion of the polemic directed against the Bible is often connected an exposition of the contradictions and incongruities in the Biblical narrative.有了这对圣经指示论战部分往往与一中的矛盾和不协调的圣经叙事的阐述。The first to enter this field was the Spaniard Abu Mohammed ibn Ḥazm, a contemporary of Samuel ha-Nagid, with whom he was personally acquainted (see Bibliography below).最早进入这个领域是西班牙人阿布穆罕默德伊本哈兹目,一塞缪尔公顷Nagid当代,亲自同他相识(见参考书目下文)。 He was the first important systematizer of this literature; and his attacks upon Judaism and its Scriptures are discussed by Solomon ben Adret in his "Ma'amar 'al Yishmael" (Schreiner, in "ZDMG" xlviii. 39).他是第一个这种文学的重要systematizer,并呼吁它的圣经犹太教和他的攻击,讨论了本Adret所罗门在他的“Ma'amar'基地Yishmael”(施赖纳,在“ZDMG”四十八39。)。

Restriction of Recognition of Islam.限制伊斯兰教认识。

One of the earliest points of controversy was the contention of the Jews that, although Mohammed was to be regarded as a national prophet, his mission was to the Arabs only or in general to peoples who had had as yet no revealed Scriptures ("ummiyin"; Kobak's "Jeschurun," ix. 24).最早的争议点之一是犹太人的论点,虽然穆罕默德被视为一个国家的预言家认为,他的使命是阿拉伯人唯一的或一般的民族还没有谁曾透露过圣经(“ummiyin” ; Kobak的“Jeschurun​​,”九24)。。In opposition to this, Mohammedan theologians and controversialists declared that Mohammed's divine mission was universal, hence intended for the Jews also.在反对这一点,伊斯兰教神学家和controversialists宣布穆罕默德的神圣使命是普遍的,因此还打算为犹太人。 Abu 'Isa Obadiah al-Iṣfahani, founder of the 'Isawites (middle of the 8th cent.), admitted that Mohammedanism as well as Christianity was entitled to recognize its founder as a prophet, whose mission was intended for "its people"; he thus recognized the relative truth of Islam in so far as its followers were concerned (Ḳirḳisani, ed. Harkavy, § 11).阿布'赛俄巴底亚铝Iṣfahani,创始人'Isawites(。第八届百分之中间)也承认,伊斯兰教以及基督教有权承认其作为一个先知,他的使命是为“人民”预期的创始人,他从而认识到伊斯兰教相对真理,只要它的追随者而言(Ḳirḳisani,编辑。Harkavy,§ 11)。The turning-point in this controversy was the question of abrogation of the divine laws, inasmuch as a general acceptance of Islam presupposed the abolition of the earlier divine revelations.在转折点在这场争论点是将废除了神圣的法律问题,因为作为一个普遍接受的先决条件伊斯兰早期的神的启示取消。

Otherwise the abolition of the Sabbath law (see "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," p. 100), of the dietary laws, and of other Biblical precepts and regulations given by God would lose all claim to validity.否则,取消的安息日法律(见“考夫曼Gedenkbuch”,第100页),在饮食规律,和其他圣经戒律和神所赋予的规定将失去一切的权利的有效性。 Consequently the Mohammedans, while maintaining the authority of the ancient prophets, had to demonstrate the provisional and temporary nature of such of the earlier divine laws abrogated by Mohammed as they did not claim to be out-and-out inventions.因此的伊斯兰教,同时保持了古代先知的权威,必须证明了由穆罕默德废除了早些时候神圣的​​法律等临时和暂时性质,因为它们不声称自己是不折不扣的发明。 So much the more vigorously, therefore, did the Jewish dogmatists (Saadia, "Emunot we-De'ot," book iii.; Abraham ibn Daud, "Emunah Ramah," pp. 75 et seq.) oppose from a philosophical standpoint this view, which attacked the essential principles of the Jewish religion.那就更有力,因此,没有犹太人教条主义者(Saadia,“Emunot我们- De'ot,”书三;。亚伯拉罕本达乌德,“Emunah拉玛,”页75起。)从哲学的角度看这个反对查看,其中攻击的犹太宗教的基本原则。

The anti-Jewish controversialists of Islam assumed as an established fact that the Jews were required to hold an anthropomorphic, corporeal conception of God ("tajsim," "tashbih").伊斯兰教的反犹太人controversialists假定为一个既定的事实,即犹太人都必须持有拟人化,有形的上帝观念(“tajsim”,“tashbih”)。 Judaism is even held responsible for the anthropomorphic conceptions found in other confessions (see "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," p. 100, note 1).犹太教甚至举行(见“考夫曼Gedenkbuch,”第100页,注1)其他发现的拟人化的观念招供负责。The Biblical passages brought forward as proof (among the earliest of them is Gen. i. 26-27) are counted with those which it is claimed were falsified by the Jews.圣经中的段落提出作为证据(在其中最早的是将军岛26-27)计算在内,它是与那些声称是由犹太人伪造的。Besides the Biblical passages, references from the Talmud in which extremely anthropomorphic statements are made concerning God ("God prays, mourns," etc.) are also brought forward to support these charges.除了圣经的段落,从塔木德中引用声明是极为拟人关于神(“上帝祈祷,哀悼”等)也提出了支持这些指控。The material for the last-named class of attacks was probably furnished by the Karaites, who are treated respectfully by the Mohammedan controversialists, are characterized as standing closer to Islam, and in general are exalted at the expense of the Rabbinites.对于最后命名类物质的攻击可能是由卡拉提供,谁是治疗的穆罕默德controversialists恭敬地站在接近为伊斯兰教的特点,并在一般都是在Rabbinites崇高的牺牲。

Ibn Ḥazm extends the attack against the Jews to the rabbinical amplifications of the laws, to the "bonds and chains" with which the Jews have, with unjustifiable arbitrariness on the part of the Rabbis, been bound.伊本哈兹目扩展了对犹太人的攻击犹太教的法律扩增,以“债券和链”与该犹太人,与对拉比的一部分,被约束不合理的随意性。 Since the time of the Jewish, apostate Samuel.自从犹太人,叛教塞缪尔时间。b.Yaḥya, the polemic has taken the form of satire, directed most often against the minutiæ of the precepts on slaughtering and on the order of procedure in connection with the "bedikat ha-re'ah."叶海亚的争论已经采取了讽刺的形式,直接和最经常对屠宰过程与连接顺序“bedikat公顷re'ah。”违反了戒律细节 The same controversialist also began to criticize the text of certain prayers (which he cites in Hebrew) and to hold up the conduct of the Rabbis to ridicule.同样controversialist也开始批评某些祈祷文(这是他在希伯来文引用),并担任了拉比的嘲笑行为。 Later Islamic controversialists have copied extensively from this convert from Judaism.后来的伊斯兰controversialists有广泛复制从这个转换犹太教。

Kaufmann Kohler, Ignatz Goldziher考夫曼科勒,纳兹Goldziher
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
M. Lidzbarski, De Propheticis, Quæ Dicuntur, Legendis Arabicis, Leipsic, 1893; G. Weil, Biblische, Legenden der Muselmänner, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1845; V. Chauvin, La Recension Egyptienne des Mille et Une Nuits, in Bibliothèque de la Facultéde Philos.米Lidzbarski,德Propheticis,Quæ Dicuntur,Legendis Arabicis,普西克,1893年,克韦伊,Biblische,Legenden明镜Muselmänner,法兰克福发表了主,1845年;五,肖万,香格里拉修改本Egyptienne德密尔等新英格兰Nuits,在Bibliothèque德拉Facultéde Philos。et Lettres de Liège, Brussels, 1899.等Lettres列日,布鲁塞尔,1899年。Dozy, Het Islamisme, Haarlem.想睡而言,Het Islamisme,哈莱姆。1863 (French transl. by Chauvin, entitled Essai sur l'Histoire de l'Islamisme, Paris, 1879); A. von Kremer, Gesch. 1863年(法国由绍译,题为Essai河畔欧莱雅欧莱雅Islamisme历史学德,巴黎,1879年。)答:冯克雷默,Gesch。der Herrschenden Ideen des Islams, Leipsic, 1868; idem, Culturgeschichtliche Streifzüge auf dem Gebiete des Islams, ib.明镜Herrschenden Ideen德Islams,普西克,1868;同上,Culturgeschichtliche Streifzüge奥夫DEM的Gebiete德Islams,兴业。1873; idem, Culturgesch. 1873年,同上,Culturgesch。des Orients Unter den Chalifen, Vienna, 1875-77; Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885; Sell, The Faith of Islam, Madras, 1886; I. Goldziher, Die âhiriten, Ihr Lehrsystem und Ihre Gesch.: Beitrag zur Gesch.之方向树下大街Chalifen,维也纳,1875年至1877年,休斯,一个伊斯兰教,伦敦,1885年大典卖,伊斯兰教,马德拉斯,1886年的信仰;一Goldziher,模具âhiriten,国际卫生条例Lehrsystem有限公司Ihre Gesch:Beitrag楚。 Gesch。der Muhammedanischen Theologie, Leipsic, 1884; idem, Muhammedanische Studien, Halle, 1889-90; C. Snouck Hurgronje, De Islam, in De Gids, 1886;明镜Muhammedanischen神学,普西克,1884;同上,Muhammedanische Studien与,哈雷,1889年至1890;三Snouck Hurgronje,德伊斯兰教,在德导报,1886年;

Nöldeke, Der Islam, in Orientalische Skizzen, pp. 63-110, Berlin, 1892; Grimme, Mohammed, part ii., Münster, 1894; E. Moutet, La Propagande Chrétienne et Ses Adversaires Musulmanes, Paris, 1890; TW Arnold, The Preaching of Islam, London, 1896; Rüling, Beiträge zur Eschatologie des Islams, Leipsic, 1895; H. Preserved Smith, The Bible and Islam, or the Influence of the Old and New Testament on, the Religion of Mohammed (Ely Lectures), London, 1898; Pautz, Muhammeds Lehre von der Offenbarung, Leipsic, 1898; M. Steinschneider, Polemische und Apologetische Literatur in Arabischer Sprache Zwischen Muslimen, Christen, und Juden, in Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vi., No. 3, ib. Nöldeke,明镜伊斯兰教,在Orientalische Skizzen,第63-110,柏林,1892年,格力莫,穆罕默德,第二部分,明斯特,1894年;。大肠杆菌Moutet,香格里拉Propagande Chrétienne等经济局局长Adversaires Musulmanes,巴黎,1890年;荃湾阿诺德伊斯兰教的,伦敦,1896年宣教;裁决,Beiträge楚Eschatologie德Islams,普西克,1895年;阁下保存史密斯,圣经和伊斯兰教,或者是上,穆罕默德的宗教(伊利讲座)旧约和新约的影响,伦敦,1898年,Pautz,Muhammeds Lehre冯明镜Offenbarung,普西克,1898年,米Steinschneider,Polemische在Arabischer Sprache Zwischen Muslimen,克里森,犹太人有限公司Apologetische Literatur有限公司,在Abhandlungen献给死孔德德Morgenlandes,六,第3期。 ,兴业。1877; I. Goldziher, Ueber Muhammedanische Polemik Gegen Ahl al-Kitab, in ZDMG xxxii. 1877年,一Goldziher,Ueber Muhammedanische Polemik葛根阿尔泰人,基塔,在ZDMG三十二。341-387; M. Schreiner, Zur Gesch.341-387;米施赖纳,祖尔Gesch。der Polemik Zwischen Juden, und Muhammedanern, ib.明镜Polemik Zwischen犹太人,Muhammedanern有限公司,兴业。 xlii.四十二。591-675.591-675。Abdallah b.阿卜杜拉湾Isma'il al-Hashimi, a polemic against Christianityand its refutation by 'Abd al-Masiḥ b.伊斯梅尔人哈希米,其对Christianityand论战由'阿卜杜勒马希赫驳斥湾Isḥaḳ al-Kindi (commencement of 9th cent.), London.伊沙克铝金迪(第九届百分之生效。),伦敦。1880;1880年;

comp.比赛。Al-Kindi: The Apology Written at the Court of Al-Mamun in Defense of Christianity Against Islam, with an, Essay on its Age and Authorship, London Soc.铝金迪:在伊斯兰教的基督教对国防法院铝马蒙书面道歉,与一,征文其年龄和作者,伦敦芯片。for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1887 (comp. Steinschneider in ZDMG xlix. 248, note 2); Ibn Ḳutaiba (d. 276 AH = 889 CE), ed.促进基督教知识,1887年(可比Steinschneider在第四十九届ZDMG 248,注2。);伊本Ḳutaiba(草276啊= 889 CE认证),编辑。Brockelmann; Al-Mawardi (d. 450 = 1058).Brockelmann;铝Mawardi(草450 = 1058)。ed.教育署。Schreiner, in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 502-513; Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 = 1064), Kitab al-Milal wal-Niḥal, Cairo, 1319 = 1901; Samau'al b.Yaḥya al-Maghribi (Jewish apostate, wrote 1169), Ifḥam al-Jahud (extracts therefrom revised and published by M. Schreiner in Monatsschrift, xlii. 123-133, 170-180, 214-223, 253-261, 407-418, 457-465); Mohammed ibn Ẓufr (a Sicilian; d. 565=1169), Khair al-Bishar bi-Khair al-Bashar, Cairo, 1280=1863; Aḥmad b.施赖纳,在科胡特纪念卷,第502-513;伊本哈兹目(草456 = 1064),基塔铝Milal沃尔玛尼哈尔,开罗,1319 = 1901年; Samau'alb.Yaḥya基地马格里布(犹太叛教者,说1169年),Ifḥam铝Jahud(摘录其中的修订和米施赖纳在月刊,四十二123-133,170-180,214-223,253-261,407-418,457-465出版);。穆罕默德伊本Ẓufr(西西里人; 4,565 = 1169),海尔哈纳铝Bishar双海尔哈纳铝巴沙尔,开罗,1280 = 1863;艾哈迈德湾Idris al-ḥimhaji al-Ḳarafl (d. 684= 1285), Al-Ajwibat al-Fakhirah 'an al-As'ilat al-Fajirah, ib.伊德里斯铝ḥimhaji铝Ḳarafl(草684 = 1285),铝Ajwibat铝Fakhirah'一基地As'ilat铝Fajirah,兴业。1320=1902; Sa'id b.1320 = 1902年;赛义德湾Ḥasan of Alexandria (Jewish apostate; wrote 720=1320), Masalik al-Naẓar (excerpts published by I. Goldziher in REJ xxx. 1-23);亚历山大哈桑(犹太叛教者;说720 = 1320),Masalik铝纳扎尔(由一Goldziher发表在相互执行判决xxx摘录1-23。);

Mohammed ibn Ḳayyim al-Jauziya (d. 751=1351), Irshad al-Ḥajara min al-Yahud wal-Naṣara, Cairo, 1320=1902 (for different title see Steinschneider, lcp 108, No. 87); Abdallah al-Tarjumani (Christian apostate, wrote 823=1420), Tuḥfat al-Arib fi al-Radd 'Ala Ahl-al-Ṣalib, Cairo, 1895 (transl. by Jean Spiro in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, xii. 68-89, 179-201, 278-301, under the title Le Présent de l'Homme Lettré pour Refuter les Partisans de la Croix; Turkish transl. by Mohammed Dhini, Constantinople, 1291=1874); Abu al-Faḍl al-Maliki al-Su'udi (wrote 942=1535), Disputatio pro Religione Mohammedanorum Adversus Christianos, ed.穆罕默德伊本Ḳayyim铝Jauziya(草751 = 1351),Irshad基地Ḥajara分钟铝Yahud沃尔玛Naṣara,开罗,1320 = 1902(适用于不同的标题见Steinschneider,LCP的108,第87号);阿卜杜拉Tarjumani (基督教的叛教者,写823 = 1420),Tuḥfat基地的ARIB Fi的基地Radd'阿拉阿尔铝-Ṣalib,开罗,1895年(译作由Jean德欧莱雅在杂志宗教历史学德,十二斯皮罗。68-89, 179-201,278-301,当前的标题下,乐德欧莱雅男士Lettré倒Refuter莱斯游击队拉克鲁瓦;土耳其译由穆罕默德Dhini,君士坦丁堡,1291 = 1874);。阿布法德勒马利基人苏'乌迪(说942 = 1535),Disputatio亲Religione Mohammedanorum Adversus Christianos,编辑。FT van den Ham, Leyden, 1890; Sayyid 'Ali Mohammed (a Shiite), Zad Ḳalil (Indian lithograph, 1290=1873; the Biblical references are inserted in the Arabic text with Hebraic letters and Arabic transcription); Proof of the Prophet Mohamet from the Bible, No. 23 of the publications of the Mohammedan Tract and Book Depot, Lahore, is wholly modern;金融时报范登火腿,莱顿,1890年;赛义德阿里穆罕默德(什叶派),Zad卡利(印度石版画,1290 = 1873;的圣经引用在与希伯来字母和阿拉伯转录阿拉伯文文本中插入);证明先知Mohamet从圣经的伊斯兰教号道和图书站,拉合尔的出版物23,完全是现代的;

Al-Kanz al-Maurud fi-ma Baḳiya 'Alaina min Naḳs Shari'at al-Yahud (a Druse polemic against the Pentateuch; extracts from it have been published by I. Goldziher in Geiger's Jüd. Zeit. xi. 68-79); I. Goldziher, Proben Muhammedanischer Polemik Gegen den Talmud: i.铝Kanz铝Maurud Fi的马Baḳiya'阿拉纳分钟NaḳsShari'at铝Yahud(一对五晶簇论战;提取它已被刊登在一Goldziher Geiger的士宰特喜68-79。。。) ;一Goldziher,Proben Muhammedanischer Polemik葛根巢穴塔木德:一,(Ibn Haẓm) in Kobak's Jeschurun, viii.(伊本哈兹目)在Kobak的Jeschurun​​,八。76-104; ii.76-104;二。 (Ibn. Ḳayyim al-Jawziya), ib. (Ibn.Ḳayyim铝Jawziya),兴业。ix.九。18-47 (Arabic text with German transl.)-an especial anti-Talmudic polemic. 18-47(阿拉伯语与德国译文字。),一种特殊的反塔木德论战。


Muhammad (or as Jews spell it, Mohammed)穆罕默德(或作为犹太人拼,穆罕默德)

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Early Years.初期。

Early Years.初期。

Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina.伊斯兰教创始人穆罕默德和帝国;在麦加之间出生569和571的共同时代,死于六月,632,在麦地那。Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old.穆罕默德是一个遗腹子,失去了母亲,他六岁。 He then came under the guardianship of his grandfather 'Abd al-Muṭṭalib, who at his death, two years later, left the boy to the care of his son Abu Ṭalib, Mohammed's uncle.然后,他受到了他的祖父阿卜杜勒Muṭṭalib,谁在他死后,两年后,离开了男孩,他的儿子阿布Ṭalib,穆罕默德的叔父照顾监护。 The early years of Mohammed's life were spent among the Banu Sa'd, Bedouins of the desert, it being the custom at Mecca to send a child away from home to be nursed.穆罕默德的生命的最初几年中巴努赛尔德花,沙漠的贝都因人,它被定义在麦加从家里送孩子出去进行调养。From the stories told of these early years it would appear that even then he showed symptoms of epilepsy which greatly alarmed his nurse.从早年的故事告诉这些看来,即使在那时,他表现出极大地震惊了癫痫症状的护士。 It has been stated that the boy was once taken on a caravan journey to Syria, and that he there came in contact with Jews and Christians.有人说,那个男孩在一次采取大篷车之旅叙利亚,他在那里接触到的犹太人和基督徒。But he could very easily have become acquainted with both at Mecca; hence this theory is not necessary to explain his knowledge of Jewish and Christian beliefs.但他可以很容易地成为在麦加都熟悉,因此这一理论是没有必要解释他的犹太教和基督教信仰的知识。When Mohammed was twenty-five years old Abu Ṭalib obtained for him an opportunity to travel with a caravan in the service of Ḥadijah, a wealthy widow of the Ḳuraish, who offered Mohammed her hand on his return from the expedition.当穆罕默德是二十五岁的阿布Ṭalib为他获得了机会,在旅行的Ḥadijah,一对Ḳuraish有钱的寡妇,谁提供穆罕默德对他的探险队返回她的手服务大篷车。 Six children were the fruit of this union, the four daughters surviving their father.六个孩子是这个联盟的果实,四个女儿幸存他们的父亲。Ḥadijah, although fifteen years his senior, was, as long as she lived, Mohammed's faithful friend and sympathizer.GMWM Ḥadijah,尽管他的高级十五年,是,只要她活着,穆罕默德的忠实朋友和sympathizer.GMWM

South-Arabian Visionaries.南阿拉伯有远见。

Mohammed's religious activity began with the fortieth year of his life.穆罕默德的宗教活动开始了他人生四十周年纪念。The Islamic tradition assigns as the beginning of this new career a sudden marvelous illumination through God.伊斯兰传统的指派作为这个新的职业生涯突然通过神奇妙的照明开始。The Koran, however, the most authentic document of Islam, whose beginnings are probably contemporaneous with Mohammed's first sermons, speaks of this revelation on the "fateful night" rather vaguely in a passage of the later Meccan period, while the earlier passages give the impression that Mohammed himself had somewhat hazy ideas on the first stages of the revelation which culminated in his occasional intercourse with God, through the mediation of various spiritual beings.可兰经,然而,伊斯兰教,其起源可能与穆罕默德的第一个布道同时代的,最真实的文件谈到这个启示,在一个后来Meccan期间通过,在“命运之夜”,而不是含糊地,而早期的段落给人的印象穆罕默德本人也对,在他的交往与上帝偶尔的高潮第一阶段有所启示的朦胧思路,通过各种鬼神调解。 Small wonder that his pagan countrymen took him to be a "kahin," ie, one of those Arab soothsayers who, claiming higher inspiration, uttered rimed oracles similar to those found in the earliest suras.难怪,他的异教徒同胞带他到一个“卡欣”,即对那些谁,申领较高灵感阿拉伯占卜者之一,阿rimed神谕说出类似在发现的最早的章节。 Historical investigations, however, show that Mohammed must not be classed with those pagan seers, but with a sect of monotheistic visionaries of whose probable existence in southern Arabia, on the borderland between Judaism and Christianity, some notice has come down in the fragment of an inscription recently published in "WZKM" (1896, pp. 285 et seq.).历史调查,但是,显示穆罕默德不能被归类与那些异教徒的预言家,但有可能存在的,其在阿拉伯半岛南部的一神论教派空想家犹太教和基督教边疆,有些通知下来在一个片段碑文最近发表在“WZKM”(1896年,第285页起。)。 This fragment ascribes to God the attribute of vouchsafing "revelation" (?) and "glad tidings" ("bashr," ie, "gospel" or "gift of preaching"), meaning probably the occasional visionary illumination of the believer.这片段上帝赋予的vouchsafing“启示”(?)和“报喜”(“bashr”,即“福音”或“说教礼物”),这意味着可能偶尔信徒有远见照明属性。 As the same inscription contains other religious concepts and expressions which parallel those in the Koran, Mohammed may well be associated with this religious tendency.由于同样的题词包含其他宗教观念和表达,这在可兰经的同时,穆罕默德很可能与此相关的宗教倾向。The name of this South-Arabian sect is not known; but the "Ḥanifs" of the Islamic tradition belonged probably to them, being a body of monotheistic ascetics who lived according to the "religion of Abraham" and who bitterly inveighed against the immoral practises of paganism.这一南阿拉伯教派的名字是不知道,但“Ḥanifs”伊斯兰传统属于可能对他们来说,是一个一神教苦行者谁住身体按照“亚伯拉罕宗教”,谁激烈反对不道德行为猛烈抨击异教。

The First Moslems.第一穆斯林。

Islam in its earliest form certainly did not go far beyond the tenets of these men.伊斯兰教在其最早的形式肯定没有远远超出了这些人的信条。Mohammed condemns idolatry by emphasizing the existence of a single powerful God, who has created and who maintains heaven and earth: but he condemns still more emphatically the vices born of idolatry, namely, covetousness, greed, and injustice to one's neighbor; and he recommends prayer and the giving of alms as a means of purifying the spirit and of being justified at the divine judgment.穆罕默德谴责,强调单一功能强大的上帝,谁创造,谁维护天地存在偶像崇拜:但他谴责更强调的偶像崇拜出生的恶习,即贪婪,贪婪和不公正的人的邻居,他建议祈祷和作为一种净化的精神和手段施舍被证明在神圣的判断。 This gospel includes nothing that was not contained in Judaism or in Christianity, nor anything of what constituted the fundamental difference between the two.这福音包括什么,这不是在犹太教或基督教中,是什么构成了两者之间的根本区别,也没有任何东西。Islam, however, did not undertake to bridge the gulf between them.伊斯兰教,但没有进行弥合他们之间的鸿沟。

Mohammed's teaching, on the contrary, was at first expressly directed against the Arab pagans only; and even in the later Meccan period it refers to its consonance with the doctrines of the "men of the revelation," ie, Jews and Christians.穆罕默德的教诲,与此相反,是在第一次明确地对阿拉伯异教徒的唯一指示,甚至在后来的Meccan期间是指它的和谐与该学说“的启示男人”,即犹太人和基督徒。 Nothing is more erroneous than to assume that the watchword of the later Islam, "There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is His prophet," was characteristic of the very beginning of the religious movement inaugurated by Mohammed: not the belief in dogmas, but the recognition of ethical obligations, was the object of his mission to his countrymen.没有比这更错误的假设,而不是后来的伊斯兰教的口号,“有没有上帝,只有真主,穆罕默德是他的先知”,是极受穆罕默德开创了宗教运动的开端特点:不是在教条的信仰,但是,道德义务承认是他的使命,他的同胞的对象。 That meant that the Arab prophet strove to gain in every believer an ally to help him to wage war upon the corruptions of the day.这意味着,阿拉伯先知努力争取在每一个信徒的盟友,帮助他进行了一天后,腐败的战争。Mohammed's political astuteness, which was a signal characteristic of his Medina period, is apparent even in the organization of the first community.穆罕默德的政治敏锐,这是他的麦地那时期信号的特征,很明显,即使在首个社区组织。Its members were mostly poor but intellectually eminent Ḳuraish like Ali, Abu Bakr, Zubair, 'Abd al-Raḥman ibn 'Auf, Sa'd ibn Abi Waḳḳaṣ, Othman, and others.其成员大多是穷人,但智力杰出像阿里,艾布伯克尔,祖贝尔Ḳuraish,'阿卜杜勒拉赫曼伊本奥夫,赛尔德伊本阿比Waḳḳaṣ,奥斯曼等。 They, being in the execution of their religious duties under Mohammed's personal supervision, soon grew to be so dependent upon him that their tribal consciousness-the strongest instinct in the social life of the ancient Arabs-was gradually superseded by the consciousness of being Moslems, the community thus developing into a small state with Mohammed as its chief.他们,在他们​​的宗教义务根据穆罕默德的亲自监督执行的福利,后来逐渐扩大到如此后,他依靠自己的部落意识,在古代阿拉伯人的社会生活中最强烈的本能,逐渐由被穆斯林意识取代,因此,社会发展成为一个以穆罕默德为主要的小国。 Hence in time sharp conflicts arose between the powerful Meccans, the sheiks of the leading families, and Mohammed.因此,在时间之间出现尖锐矛盾的强大麦加,在领先的家庭酋长,穆罕默德。For years they had suffered him as a harmless dreamer, a soothsayer, a magician, and even as one possessed of demons; then, when his prediction in regard to the imminent judgment of God remained unfulfilled, they had mocked him; but when the community grew-eveneminent personages like Ḥamzah swearing by Islam-they grew hostile and began to persecute him and his adherents, their action culminating in the ostracism of Mohammed's family, the Banu Hashim.多年来,他们已经遭受了无害的梦想家,一个预言家,魔术师他,甚至拥有一个恶魔,然后,当他在关于上帝即将判决的预测仍然没有实现,他们嘲笑他,但在社会像伊斯兰教哈姆扎宣誓增长,eveneminent人士,他们变得​​敌视,开始迫害他和他的追随者,他们的行动在穆罕默德的家庭,巴努哈希姆排斥高潮。

Restricted in his missionary activity, and separated from a large part of the faithful who had sought refuge in Christian Abyssinia, the prophet lost heart.在他的传教活动的限制,并从该谁曾试图在基督教的阿比西尼亚避难很大一部分忠实的分离,先知失去信心。His preaching, in so far as its nature can be gathered from the Koran, was filled with references to the persecutions to which the earlier messengers of God had been subjected, and to their final rescue by Him; and it emphasized "raḥmah"-ie, mercy shown to the good, and long-suffering to the wicked-as being God's chief attribute.他的说教,这样就其性质可以搜集到的可兰经,是与引用的迫害而充满神的使者遭到较早,并最终由他的抢救,并强调“raḥmah”── ,慈悲显示向好,和长期的痛苦,邪恶的,因为是神的行政属性。Various dogmatic-theosophic discussions were added, among them being the first protests against the Christian doctrine of the son of God.各种教条主义,theosophic讨论加入其中,正在对神的儿子基督教教义的第一个抗议。 The teachings of Islam, which at first had been merely a body of precepts, developed more and more into a regular system which reflected in its chief tenets the later Judaism.伊斯兰教,起初一直只是一个身体戒律,教义发展越来越成为一个经常性制度,其主要原理在后来的犹太教反映。

The Hegira (622).在回教纪元(622)。

When the leading families of Mecca revoked the ban pronounced against the Banu Hashim, which had been maintained for nearly three years, they might well have believed that Mohammed's political importance at Mecca was destroyed.当领先的家庭麦加撤销对巴努哈希姆,已被近三年保持明显的禁令,他们也可能认为,穆罕默德在麦加政治上的重要性被摧毁。 The prophet himself perceived, especially after the death of his protector Abu Ṭalib and of his (Mohammed's) wife Ḥadijah, that his native city was not the proper place in which to carry out his communal ideas; and he cast about for a locality better adapted to his purposes.先知本人认为,特别是在他的保护者阿布Ṭalib死亡和他(穆罕默德)的妻子Ḥadijah,他的家乡是不是适当的地方要在其中进行了社区的想法,他就投更好地适应一个地方约他的目的。 After various unsuccessful attempts to find a following among neighboring tribes, he happened to meet, during the annual festival of the temple at Mecca, six people from Yathrib (Medina); the Arab inhabitants of this city had come into close contact with monotheistic ideas through their long sojourn among the Jewish tribes which had been the original masters of the city, as well as with several Christian families.经过多次失败的尝试中找到邻近部落一以下,他巧遇,在麦加的庙宇在每年节日,六名来自Yathrib(麦地那)的人;这城的阿拉伯居民与一神教的想法来到了紧密联系,通过他们长期逗留间已被这个城市的原主人,以及与几个基督教家庭的犹太部落。 These men, being related to Mohammed on his mother's side, took up the cause of the prophet, and were so active in its behalf among their people that after two years seventy-five believers of Medina went to Mecca during the festival and proclaimed in the so-called "'aḳabah," or war assembly, the official reception of Mohammed and his adherents at Mecca into the community of Yathrib.这些人,被相关穆罕默德对他母亲的身边,拿起先知的原因,并在他们的人,两年后七五麦地那的信徒去了节日期间的麦加,所以在代其活性和在宣布所谓“'aḳabah”或战争组装,穆罕默德和他的信徒在麦加正式接待进入Yathrib社区。 The consequence was that within a short time all the Moslems removed to Medina; and the prophet himself, as the last one, closed the first period of Islam by his hasty departure, as in flight ("Hegira"; Sept., 622).其后果是很短的时间内全部转移到麦地那的穆斯林以及先知本人,作为最后一个,关闭了他那匆忙的离开了伊斯兰教的第一阶段,因为在飞行(“回教纪元”,9月,622)。

Mohammed's entry into Medina marks the beginning of an almost continuous external development of Islam, which as a religion, it is true, lost in depth and moral content, and crystallized into dogmatic formulas, but as a political entity achieved increasing success through the eminent political ability of the prophet himself.穆罕默德到麦地那项标志着一个几乎连续外部伊斯兰,它作为一种宗教,这是真的,在深度和道德的内容lost发展的开始,并教条公式结晶,但作为一个政治实体,取得了日益成功通过杰出的政治自己的先知能力。 The Arab inhabitants of Medina, the tribes of Aus and Khazraj, all joined the religion of the prophet within two years from the Hegira.麦地那的阿拉伯居民,澳元和Khazraj部落,都加入两年内从回教纪元年先知的宗教。 Political differences, however, arose between them, especially after Mohammed had reserved for himself exclusively the office of judge; and these differences led to the formation of a moderate party of opposition, the Munafij, or weak believers, who often, and without detriment to his cause, restrained the prophet's impetuosity.政治分歧,但是,他们之间产生后,特别是穆罕默德曾专门为自己的法官职务保留,而这些差异导致了温和的反对党,Munafij,或弱的信徒,谁往往形成,并在不损害他的事业,抑制了先知的浮躁。 But the propaganda came to a halt among the numerous Jews living in the city and the surrounding country, who were partly under the protection of the ruling Arab tribes, the Banu 'Auf, Al-Ḥarith, Al-Najjar, Sa'idah, Jusham, Al-Aus, Tha'labah, and partly belonged to such large and powerful Jewish tribes as the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, Al-Naḍir, Ḳainuḳa'.但是,宣传停下来在众多的犹太人居住在城市及周边国家,谁是统治下的阿拉伯部落的保护部分,该巴努'奥夫,基地哈里斯,基地纳贾尔,Sa'idah,Jusham ,铝,澳大利亚,Tha'labah,部分属于这种大国和强国的巴努Ḳuraiẓa,基地最低点,Ḳainuḳa犹太部落。In the first year of the Hegira Mohammed was apparently on friendly terms with them, not yet recognizing their religion to be different from his; indeed, they were included in a treaty which he made with the inhabitants of Medina shortly after his arrival among them.在穆罕默德的回教纪元的第一年是在对他们很友好的条款显然,还没有认识到他们的宗教是不同的,从他的,实际上,他们是在一条约,他与麦地那的居民提出后不久,他的到来,其中包括。 The prophet and his adherents borrowed from these Jews many ritual customs, as, for instance, the regularity and formality of public prayers, fasting-which later on, following the Christian example, was extended to a whole month-the more important of the dietary laws, and the "ḳiblah" (direction in which one turns during prayer) toward Jerusalem, which was subsequently changed to the ḳiblah toward Mecca.先知和他的追随者有许多犹太人借用这些礼仪习俗,例如,公共祈祷,斋戒,而后来,随着基督教的例子规律和手续,延长到整整一个月,更重要的饮食法律,以及“ḳiblah”走向耶路撒冷,后来改​​为朝麦加ḳiblah(方向,其中一个在祈祷圈)。 But the longer Mohammed studied the Jews the more clearly he perceived that there were irreconcilable differences between their religion and his, especially when the belief in his prophetic mission became the criterion of a true Moslem.但是,研究的时间越长穆罕默德犹太人的更清楚,他觉察到他们的宗教之间存在着不可调和的分歧和他的,尤其是当任务的信念在他的预言变成了一个真正的穆斯林的标准。

Relation to Jews.犹太人的关系。

The Jews, on their side, could not let pass unchallenged the way in which the Koran appropriated Biblical accounts and personages; for instance, its making Abraham an Arab and the founder of the Ka'bah at Mecca.犹太人,他们一边,不能让传递受到挑战的方式,可兰经,圣经的帐户划拨和人士,例如,它使亚伯拉罕一个阿拉伯和Ka'bah在麦加的创始人。 The prophet, who looked upon every evident correction of his gospel as an attack upon his own reputation, brooked no contradiction, and unhesitatingly threw down the gauntlet to the Jews.先知,谁在他的每一个作为自己的名誉的攻击后,他明显改正的福音看,不容矛盾,并毫不犹豫地扔下来的犹太人挑战。Numerous passages in the Koran show how he gradually went from slight thrusts to malicious vituperations and brutal attacks on the customs and beliefs of the Jews.在众多的通道古兰经显示他是如何逐步从轻微到恶意vituperations推力和对犹太人的风俗和信仰的野蛮袭击。When they justified themselves by referring to the Bible, Mohammed, who had taken nothing therefrom at first hand, accused them of intentionally concealing its true meaning or of entirely misunderstanding it, and taunted them with being "asses who carry books" (sura lxii. 5).当他们有理由参照自己的圣经,穆罕默德,谁采取了第一手没有由此,被告故意隐瞒其真正的含义,或者他们完全误解它,并用嘲讽是“驴谁带的课本”(苏拉第六十二号他们。 5)。The increasing bitterness of this vituperation, which was similarly directed against the less numerous Christians of Medina, indicated that in time Mohammed would not hesitate to proceed to actual hostilities.这种谩骂,这是对麦迪同样数量更少的基督徒指示,增加痛苦穆罕默德表示,假以时日将毫不犹豫地进行实际的敌对行动。 The outbreak of the latter was deferred by the fact that the hatred of the prophet was turned more forcibly in another direction, namely, against the people of Mecca, whose earlier refusal of Islam and whose attitude toward the community appeared to him at Medina as a personal insult which constituted a sufficient cause for war.后者的爆发推迟了,该先知仇恨转趋强行在另一个方向,即对麦加,他曾经拒绝对伊斯兰教和社会的态度出现在麦地那他作为一个人,其实个人侮辱构成了战争充分理由。 The Koran, in order to lead its adherents to the belief that side by side with the humane precepts of religion were others commanding religious war ("jihad"), even to the extent of destroying human life, had to incorporate a number of passages enjoining with increasing emphasis the faithful to take up the sword for their faith.可兰经,以引导其信徒的信念,通过与人道的宗教戒律一边指挥一边是别人的宗教战争(“圣战”),甚至消灭人的生命的程度,必须纳入一些段落责令并日益强调信徒负起他们的信仰剑。 The earlier of these passages enunciated only the right of defensive action, but later ones emphasized the duty of taking the offensiveagainst unbelievers-ie, in the first place, the people of Mecca-until they should accept the new faith or be annihilated.这些通道早阐明只有自卫行动的权利,但后来的强调了参加放在首位offensiveagainst不信,即责任,麦加的人,直到他们应该接受新的信仰或者被消灭。 The prophet's policy, steadily pursuing one object, and hesitating at no means to achieve it, soon actualized this new doctrine.GHG先知的政策,不断追求一个对象,并在没有实现它的手段犹豫,很快现实化这一新的doctrine.GHG

First Raids.首先袭击。

Mohammed's first attacks upon the Meccans were of a predatory nature, made upon the caravans, which, as all classes had a financial interest in them, were the very life of the city.麦加后,穆罕默德的第一次攻击都是掠夺性的性质,经大篷车,其中,因为所有的类有一个在他们的经济利益,是城市非常痛苦的生活。 The early expeditions were of comparatively little importance; and the battle of Badr in the second year of the Hegira was the first encounter of really great moment.早期的探险都是比较小的重要性;以及巴德尔在回教纪元第二年的战役是真正伟大的时刻第一次遇到。In this battle the Moslems were successful and killed nearly fifty of the Ḳuraish, besides taking prisoners.在这场战斗的穆斯林是成功的,造成近五十的Ḳuraish除了参加囚犯。This battle was of supreme importance in the history of Islam.这场战斗是在伊斯兰历史上最高的重要性。The prophet had preached the doctrine that war against the unbelievers was a religious duty; and now he could claim that God was on his side.先知曾鼓吹的理论,反对战争,是不信宗教义务,而现在他可以宣称,上帝在他的身边。 His power was consolidated; the faith of the wavering was strengthened; and his opponents were terrified.他的权力得到了巩固,在摇摆不定的信心得到加强,他的对手们吓坏了。The die was cast; Islam was to be a religion of conquest with the sword.铸造模具是,伊斯兰教是一个剑与征服的宗教。After the battle of Badr, Mohammed dared to manifest his hostility to the Jews openly.巴德尔战役后,穆罕默德敢于表现他敌视犹太人公开。A Jewess, named Asma, who had written satirical verses on the battle of Badr, was assassinated, by command of Mohammed, as she lay in bed with her child at the breast.一个犹太女人,叫阿斯玛,谁写在巴德尔战役讽刺诗,被暗杀,由穆罕默德命令,她与她的乳房孩子躺在床上。The murderer was publicly commended the next day by the prophet.杀人犯被公开赞扬了第二天的先知。A few weeks later Abu 'Afak, a Jewish poet whose verses had similarly offended, was likewise murdered.几个星期后,阿布'阿法克,一个犹太诗人,其得罪了同样的诗句,也同样被杀害。It is said that Mohammed had expressed a desire to be rid of him.有人说,穆罕默德曾表示要摆脱他的愿望。These were single instances.这些都是单实例。The prophet soon found a pretext for attacking in a body the Banu Ḳainuḳa', one of the three influential Jewish tribes at Medina.先知很快发现于一体的攻击借口巴努Ḳainuḳa',有影响力的三个犹太部落在麦迪之一。They were besieged in their stronghold for fifteen days, and finally surrendered.他们被围困在他们的据点十五天,终于缴械投降。 Mohammed was prevented from putting them all to death only by the insistent pleading in their behalf of Abdallah b.穆罕默德是无法把他们都死在他们所代表阿卜杜拉承认B.只有坚持Ubai, the influential leader of the opposition whom Mohammed did not dare offend.乌拜,反对派的人也不敢得罪穆罕默德有影响力的领导人。Instead, the whole tribe was banished, and its goods were confiscated.相反,整个部落被放逐,其货物被没收。The prophet was thus enabled to give material benefits to his followers.先知是这样使我能够向他的追随者的物质利益。

Death to Jewish Poets.死亡犹太诗人。

Medina now enjoyed a few months of comparative quiet, disturbed only by a few unimportant marauding expeditions.梅迪纳现在享有比较安静了几个月,不安的几个不重要的劫掠探险而已。The third year of the Hegira was marked by the assassination of a third Jewish poet, Ka'b b.该回教纪元第三年的特点是第三个犹太诗人,凯尔布暗杀湾al-Ashraf, who by his verses had stirred up the Ḳuraish at Mecca against Mohammed.铝阿什拉夫,谁对他的诗句激起了对穆罕默德在麦加的Ḳuraish。The prophet prayed to be delivered from him; and there was no lack of men eager to execute his wishes.先知祷告是从他交付;也没有人急于执行他的意愿不足。The circumstances attending the murder were particularly revolting.参加谋杀的情况尤其令人作呕。At about the same time a Jewish merchant, Abu Sanina by name, was murdered, and the Jews complained to Mohammed of such treacherous dealing.大约在同一时间一个犹太商人,阿布萨宁娜按名称,被杀害,和犹太人抱怨这种背信弃义的穆罕默德处理。A new treaty was concluded with them, which, however, did not greatly allay their fears.新条约的缔结和他们在一起,其中,但是,并没有大大减轻他们的恐惧。Some months after these events (Jan., 625) occurred the battle of Uḥud, in which the Meccans took revenge for their defeat at Badr.这些事件发生后(一月,625)个月内发生的一些战斗的Uḥud,其中麦加了他们在击败巴德尔报复。 Seventy-four Moslems were killed in the fight; Mohammed himself was badly wounded; and the prophet's prestige was seriously affected.七十个穆斯林的斗争中被杀害;穆罕默德本人也身受重伤,和先知的威信受到严重影响。The Jews were especially jubilant, declaring that if he had claimed Badr to be a mark of divine favor, Uḥud, by the same process of reasoning, must be a proof of disfavor.犹太人尤其是兴高采烈,声称如果他声称巴德尔是一个神圣的赞成票,Uḥud由同样的理由的过程中,标志,必须是不赞成的证明。 Various answers to these doubts and arguments may be found in the Koran, sura iii.这些疑虑和争论不同的答案可能会发现在可兰经,苏拉三。

Attacks the Banu al-Nadir.攻击巴努基地的最低点。

Mohammed now needed some opportunity to recover his prestige and to make up for the disappointment of Uḥud.穆罕默德现在需要一些机会,恢复他的威望,并提出了Uḥud失望了。He found it the next year in an attack upon the Banu al-Naḍir, another of the influential Jewish tribes in the vicinity of Medina.他发现在明年后巴努铝最低点,对在麦地那附近的犹太部落有影响的另一次攻击。A pretext was easily invented.借口是很容易的发明。Mohammed had visited the settlement of the tribe to discuss the amount of blood-money to be paid for the murder of two men by an ally of the Jews, when he suddenly left the gathering and went home.穆罕默德曾访问过的部落,讨论解决血液金额将用于支付两名男子谋杀的犹太人,当他突然离开聚会,回家去了盟友。He is said by some to have declared that the angel Gabriel had revealed to him a plot of the Banu al-Naḍir to kill him as he sat among them.据说,他是由一些具有宣布加布里埃尔曾透露,他的巴努铝低谷天使阴谋杀害他,因为他在他们坐了下来。The latter were immediately informed that they must leave the vicinity.后者立即告知,他们必须离开附近。They refused to obey; and Mohammed attacked their stronghold.他们拒绝服从;和穆罕默德攻击他们的据点。After a siege lasting more than a fortnight, and after their date-trees had been cut down-contrary to Arabian ethics of war-the Jewish tribe surrendered and was allowed to emigrate with all its possessions, on condition of leaving its arms behind (Sprenger, "Das Leben des Moḥammad," iii. 162; "Allg. Zeit. des Jud." pp. 58, 92).经过持续超过两周多的围困,并在他们的日期已被砍伐的树木,违反战争伦理的犹太阿拉伯部落投降,被允许移民及其所有财产,离开条件落后的武器(斯普伦杰,“达斯酸奶德穆罕默德,”三162;。“。Allg宰特辅士。。”第58,92)。 The rich lands thus left vacant were distributed among the refugees who had fled with Mohammed from Mecca and who had hitherto been more or less of a burden on the hospitality of the people of Medina.因此,丰富的土地被悬空中谁曾穆罕默德从麦加逃离了迄今为止,谁更或对人民的热情好客的麦迪负担少难民分发。The prophet was thus able both to satisfy his hatred against the Jews and materially to strengthen his position.先知因此能够既要满足他对犹太人的仇恨和物质,以加强自己的地位。

Destroys the Banu Ḳuraiẓa.销毁巴努Ḳuraiẓa。

In the fifth year of the Hegira the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, the last Jewish tribe remaining in the neighborhood of Medina, were disposed of.在回教纪元的巴努Ḳuraiẓa第五个年头,在过去的犹太部落附近的麦地那剩下的,被弃置。Again the direct cause for attack was a matter of policy.再次攻击的直接原因是政策问题。The Ḳuraish of Mecca, whose caravans were constantly being harassed by the Moslems and by other disaffected tribes including the Jews, had formed the project of uniting their forces against Mohammed.麦加的,他们的商队在不断被穆斯林和其他心怀不满的部落,包括犹太人骚扰,Ḳuraish已经形成了自己的力量团结起来消灭穆罕默德项目。 The leader of this enterprise was the able and vigorous Abu Sufyan of Mecca.本企业的领导人是能够有力阿布苏富扬麦加。The allies encamped before Medina and engaged in what is known as "the battle of the trenches," so called from the manner in which Medina was protected from attack. The扎营在麦地那和在什么是被称为从事盟友“的战壕战斗中,”所谓从麦地那是不受攻击的保护方式。The Moslems succeeded in keeping the Banu Ḳuraiẓa out of the fight by making them and the allies mutually suspicious, and the allies finally withdrew without having accomplished their purpose.通过使他们保持和盟国相互怀疑的扑灭巴努Ḳuraiẓa了成功的穆斯林,盟军终于撤回了他们的目的,而不必完成。 The Moslems also were disappointed in having no plunder, so that Mohammed felt called upon to provide a diversion.穆斯林也被失望无掠夺,使穆罕默德认为要求提供消遣。The allies had scarcely departed, the Moslems had not yet laid down their arms, when the prophet claimed to have received a communication from Gabriel bidding him march instantly against the Banu Ḳuraiẓa.盟国几乎没有离开,穆斯林尚未放下武器,当先知声称已经收到了加布里埃尔投标沟通游行反对他立即巴努Ḳuraiẓa。 The last-named, who had no time to prepare for a long siege, retired to their castles, and surrendered after two weeks, trusting to escape as their kinsmen of the Banu Ḳainuẓa' and the Banu al-Naḍir had done.过去命名的,谁没有时间来准备退休的长期围困的城堡,两个星期后投降,相信逃脱作为巴努Ḳainuẓa'和巴努人,他们的亲属做了最低点。 Their fate was left to the decision of Sa'ad b.他们的命运是留下来的Sa'ad决定湾Mu'adh, who, although of the tribe of Aus, the allies of the Ḳuraiẓa, felt bitter toward them on account of their supposed treachery toward the Moslems. Mu'adh,谁,虽然澳元部落,该Ḳuraiẓa的盟友,觉得对他们应该向穆斯林对他们背信弃义的帐户苦。He decided that all the men should be killed, the women and children sold as slaves, and the property divided among the army.他决定,所有的男人应该被杀死,妇女和儿童作为奴隶卖,和军队之间的财产分割。The carnage began the next morning, and between 600 and 700 victims were beheaded beside the trenches in which they were to be buried.大屠杀开始了第二天早上,与600和700受害者旁边的战壕中,他们被埋葬斩首。Mohammed refers to the siege of Medina and the massacre of the Jews in sura xxxiii.穆罕默德是指包围和麦地那的犹太人大屠杀中苏拉三十三。

Attacks Jews of Khaibar.攻击海白尔犹太人。

There were now no more Jews in the vicinity of Medina, but those at Khaibar continued to annoy the prophet.现在有没有更多的犹太人在麦地那附近,但在海白尔者继续骚扰先知。Abu al-Ḥuḳaiḳ of the Banu al-Naḍir, who had settled at Khaibar, was suspected of inciting the Bedouins to plunder the Moslems.阿布的巴努基地最低点,谁曾在海白尔定居Ḥuḳaiḳ,涉嫌煽动贝都因人掠夺穆斯林的影响。Accordingly five men of the Banu Khazraj were sent secretly and murdered him.因此五名男子被送往巴努Khazraj秘密地杀害了他。Usair, who succeeded him as chief of Khaibar, was likewise assassinated at Mohammed's command.美国航空,谁接替他长海白尔,在穆罕默德遇刺身亡,同样的命令。In the sixth year of the Hegira Mohammed made a treaty with the Ḳuraish, at Ḥudaibiyah, whither he had proceeded with some of his followers with the intention of making the pilgrimage to Mecca.在回教纪元穆罕默德六一年取得的Ḳuraish条约,在Ḥudaibiyah,何处,他曾与同麦加朝圣使他的一些追随者的意图进行。 The Ḳuraish objected to his entering the city, and this treaty was made instead. TheḲuraish反对他进入城市,这一条约作出代替。It provided for a cessation of hostilities for ten years.它提供了一个十年停止敌对行动。In the same year Mohammed sent embassies to the rulers of the six surrounding states inviting them to embrace Islam, but the King of Abyssinia was the only one who sent a favorable reply.同年穆罕默德送到使馆周围的六个国家的统治者,邀请他们皈依伊斯兰教,但阿比西尼亚国王是唯一一个谁发出了一个有利的答复。 In the next year the prophet attacked the Jews of Khaibar in order to reward with the rich plunder of that place the followers who had accompanied him to Ḥudaibiyah.在明年的先知袭击了犹太人在海白尔为了奖励与该地方的谁曾陪同他的追随者Ḥudaibiyah丰富的掠夺。 The Jews were conquered after a brave resistance, and their leader, Kinanah, was killed.犹太人被征服后,顽强抵抗,他们的领导人,Kinanah被杀害。Mohammed married the chief's young wife on the battle-field; and a very rich booty fell into the hands of the Moslems.穆罕默德娶了酋长的上战场的年轻的妻子和一个非常丰富的战利品到穆斯林手中。Some Jews were still left at Khaibar, but merely as tillers of the soil, and on condition of giving up one-half the produce.一些犹太人仍然留在海白尔,而只是作为分蘖的土壤,并放弃一半的生产条件。They remained until Omar banished all Jews from the country.奥马尔驱逐他们,直到该国所有的犹太人。The Jews of the Wadi alḲura, of Fadak, and of Taima were still left; but they surrendered before the end of the year.作者:谷alḲura的Fadak,犹太人,和泰马仍然留下,但他们在今年年底投降。An attempt on the life of Mohammed was made at Khaibar by a Jewish woman named Zainab, who, in revenge for the death of her male relatives in battle, put poison in a dish prepared by her for the prophet.对穆罕默德的生命试图在一个叫海白尔Zainab一个犹太女人,谁在为她的男性亲属在战斗中死亡的报复,把她的先知准备一盘的毒药。 One of Mohammed's followers who par-took of the food died almost immediately afterward; but the prophet, who had eaten more sparingly, escaped.穆罕默德的追随者谁杆的食物几乎立即采取一人死亡之后,但先知,谁吃了更多的谨慎,逃走了。He, however, complained of the effects of the poison to the end of his life.不过,他抱怨的到他生命的最后毒害作用。

His Domestic Life.他的家居生活。

During the twenty-five years of his union with Ḥadijah Mohammed had no other wife; but scarcely two months had elapsed after her death (619) when he married Sauda, the widow of Sakran, who, with her husband, had become an early convert to Islam and who was one of the emigrants to Abyssinia.在他与Ḥadijah穆罕默德工会二十五年没有别的妻子,但还不到两几个月后,她的死亡(619)当他结婚Sauda,对Sakran寡妇,谁,与她的丈夫,已成为早过去了转换伊斯兰教和谁是一对阿比西尼亚移民。 At about the same time Mohammed contracted an engagement with 'A'ishah, the six-year-old daughter of Abu Bakr, and married her shortly after his arrival at Medina.大约在同一时间穆罕默德承包与'订婚A'ishah,对阿布巴克尔六岁的女儿,和她结婚后不久,他在麦地那的到来。 'A'ishah was the only one of his wives who had not been previously married; and she remained his favorite to the end.'A'ishah谁是他以前没有结婚的妻子只有一个,而她仍然是他最喜欢到最后。After his death she exercised great influence over the Moslems.他去世后,她行使了穆斯林的巨大影响。In his married life, as well as in his religious life, a change seems to have come over Mohammed after his removal to Medina.在他的婚姻生活,以及在他的宗教生活,似乎已经改变了穆罕默德来后,他迁往麦地那。In the space of ten years he took twelve or thirteen wives and had several concubines: even the faithful were scandalized, and the prophet had to resort to alleged special revelations from God to justify his conduct.在十年的时间里,他把妻子和十二,十三有几个小老婆:即使是忠实的反感,和先知不得不求助于据称来自上帝特殊的启示来证明自己的行为。 Such was the case when he wished to marry Zainab, the wife of his adopted son Zaid.就是这样的情况时,他想娶Zainab,他的妻子收养的儿子扎伊德。Two of his wives were Jewesses: one was the beautiful Riḥanah of the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, whom he married immediately after the massacre of her husband and other relatives; the other was Safya, the wife of Kinanah, whom, as stated above, Mohammed married on the battle-field of Khaibar.他的妻子两人Jewesses:一个是该巴努Ḳuraiẓa,就是他结婚后,她的丈夫和其他亲属立即屠杀美丽Riḥanah;另一个是Safya,对Kinanah妻子,其中,如上所述,穆罕默德结婚在战场的海白尔。 None of these wives bore him any children.这些妻子为他生了没有任何子女。Mohammed built little huts for his wives adjoining the mosque at Medina, each wife having her own apartment.专为他的妻子穆罕默德在麦地那清真寺毗邻,每个妻子有她自己的公寓的小茅屋。At his death there were nine of these apartments, corresponding to the number of his wives living at that time.在他去世的时候,是这些公寓九,相应的数目,他的妻子当时的生活。Mohammed's daughter Faṭimah, by Ḥadijah, married Ali and became the mother of Ḥasan and Ḥusain.穆罕默德的女儿法蒂玛,成了Ḥadijah,已婚阿里和哈桑和侯赛因的母亲。

The last three years of Mohammed's life were marked by a steady increase of power.最后三个穆罕默德的生命年的特点是稳定增长的权力。In the eighth year of the Hegira (630) he entered the city of Mecca as a conqueror, showing great forbearance toward his old enemies.在回教纪元(630)进入第八个年头,他作为一个征服者的麦加城,显示对他的宿敌大忍。This event decided his eventual supremacy over the whole of Arabia.此事件在阿拉伯决定他最终的整体优势。Other conquests extended his authority to the Syrian frontier and as far south as Ṭa'if; and in the following years embassies poured in from the different parts of the peninsula bringing the submission of the various tribes.其他征服他的权力延伸到叙利亚边境和南至塔伊夫;在接下来的几年大使馆倒从使各部族的不同部分提交半岛研究。Mohammed's death occurred in the eleventh year of the Hegira, after he had been ill with a fever for over a week.穆罕默德的死亡发生在回教纪元十一年后,他已与一个多星期发烧生病。He was buried where he died, in the apartment of 'A'ishah; and the spot is now a place of pilgrimage.他被安葬在那里,他死在'A'ishah公寓,以及现场现在是一个朝圣的地方。

Richard Gottheil, Mary W. Montgomery, Hubert Grimme理查德高泽尔,玛丽瓦特蒙哥马利,休伯特格力莫
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Grimme, Mohammed; M. Hartmann, in Allg.格力莫,穆罕默德的M.哈特曼,在Allg。Zeit.时代。des Jud.德士。lviii.lviii。66-68, 79-80, 89-92, 102-104; Ibn Hisham, Das Leben Mohammeds, ed. 66-68,79-80,89-92,102-104;伊本希沙姆,达斯酸奶Mohammeds,编辑。Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1858; W. Muir, The Life of Mahomet, London, 1877; A. Sprenger, Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad, Berlin, 1869. Wüstenfeld,哥廷根,1858年,瓦特缪尔,在穆罕默德,伦敦,1877年生活的A.斯普伦杰,达斯酸奶und模具Lehre德穆罕默德,柏林,1869年。 See also Islam; Koran.另见伊斯兰教可兰经。


Islam, Muslims伊斯兰教,穆斯林

Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息未必是对的其他文章学术质量的相信。由于很少东正教学术文章被翻译成英文,我们不得不在东正教维基依靠一个来源。由于维基百科集合不注明作者的姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人都可以自由地编辑或改变他们的任何条款(同样没有任何改变或谁是什么改变了它指示),我们有所顾虑。然而,为了包括在我们的视野受到一些东正教介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。至少到目前为止实际的学术正统文本原件从希腊翻译!)

Islam is one of the major world religions with an estimated 1.3 billion followers worldwide [1].伊斯兰教是世界主要宗教之一与世界各地的大约13亿信徒[1]。The name Islam comes from an Arabic term meaning submission, a reference to the central belief that the goal of religion, or of a true believer, is submission to God's will.这个名字来自阿拉伯伊斯兰一词的含义提出来了,一到中央相信,宗教的目的,还是一个真正的信徒,是提交给上帝的旨意参考。 Adherents of Islam are referred to as Muslims.伊斯兰教的信徒被称为穆斯林。

Islam teaches that God (in Arabic, Allah) revealed his direct word and commands for mankind to Muhammad (c. 570–632) in the form of the Qur'an (also Koran), and to other prophets (including Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus), many of whom are Biblical figures shared with Christianity and Judaism.伊斯兰教教导我们,神(阿拉伯语,阿拉)透露了他对人类的直接命令字和穆罕默德(约570-632)在古兰经(也可兰经)的形式,和其他先知(包括亚当,亚伯拉罕,摩西,耶稣),其中许多人是与基督教和犹太教的圣经分享数字。 Despite admitting the ministry of prophets earlier than Muhammad, Islam asserts that the primary written record of God's revelation to humankind is the Qur'an, which Muslims believe to be flawless, immutable, and the final revelation of God.尽管承认存在早于先知穆罕默德部,伊斯兰教的主声称,上帝的启示,人类的书面记录是古兰经,穆斯林认为这是完美的,一成不变的,和神的最后启示。

Islam has been termed one of the three Abrahamic religions, along with Christianity and Judaism.伊斯兰教被称为亚伯拉罕三大宗教之一,随着基督教和犹太教。At times, the Bahá'í Faith is also included.有时,巴哈伊信仰也包括在内。Islam teaches that parts of the Bible have been forgotten, misinterpreted, or distorted by Christians and Jews.伊斯兰教的圣经教导我们,部分已被人遗忘,误解或歪曲的基督徒和犹太人。Given this perspective, Islam views the Qur'an as corrective of Jewish and Christian scriptures.鉴于这个角度来看,伊斯兰教的看法,作为犹太教和基督教圣经纠正古兰经。

Muslims do not hold the divinity of Jesus Christ and his unique salvific role, and the teachings of Islam in this respect have been likened to a compound heresy composed of elements of Arianism, Nestorianism, and Docetism ("...They did not kill him [Jesus] and they did not crucify him, but it was made to seem so to them..." Qur'an, 4:157), with some Pelagian and also Monarchianistic (ie, anti-Trinitarian)] elements.穆斯林不持有耶稣基督的救赎和他独特的神性的作用,并在这方面的伊斯兰教教义也被比喻为一个复合的阿里乌斯异端,景教和Docetism元素组成的("...他们没有杀他[耶稣],他们没有他钉在十字架上,但它是使他们显得那么...“古兰经,4:157),加入一些伯拉纠,也Monarchianistic(即反三位一体)]元素。

Muslims hold that Islam is essentially the same belief as that of all the messengers sent by God to mankind since Adam, with the Qur'an (the one definitive text of the Muslim faith) codifying the final revelation of God.穆斯林认为伊斯兰是本质上的所有上帝派来的使者,因为亚当是人类相同的信念,与古兰经(一对穆斯林信仰的最终文本)编纂的上帝最后的启示。 Islam views Judaism and Christianity as incomplete derivatives of the teachings of certain prophets—notably Abraham—and therefore acknowledges their Abrahamic roots, whilst the Qur'an calls them People of the Book.作为伊斯兰教的看法不完全衍生物的教导犹太教和基督教先知的某些,特别是亚伯拉罕和承认,因此他们的,而亚伯拉罕根古兰经称他们为人民的图书。

According to the Qur'an Jesus is the Christ, the son of Mary, the Messenger of God.根据古兰经耶稣是基督,玛利亚的儿子,上帝的使者。Further, that Jesus was given the Gospel as a Book from God, and Jesus came to confirm the Torah, and also to permit some of what was prohibited upon the sons of Israel for some reasons. 此外,耶稣,耶稣给福音书是上帝的恩赐,来确认律法,也允许部分原因是一些什么样的儿子后,以色列禁止。It also teaches the Jesus the Christ is a Word from God, and a Messenger sent by Him. 它也教导耶稣基督是神的话语从,和Messenger他发出的。

Islam has three primary branches of belief, based largely on a historical disagreement over the succession of authority after Muhammad's death.信仰伊斯兰教的有三个主要分支的基础上,对权力后,穆罕默德的死亡继承历史分歧较大。These are known as Sunni, Shi'ite, and Kharijite.这些被称为逊尼派,什叶派和Kharijite。

Orthodoxy and Islam东正教和伊斯兰教

The rise of Islam presented a major challenge to Orthodoxy.伊斯兰教的兴起对正统提出了重大挑战。Beginning in the seventh century, major portions of the Orthodox heartlands (in Syria and Egypt) fell under Muslim rule.在第七世纪初,东正教中心地带的主要部分(在叙利亚和埃及)的股票下跌穆斯林统治之下。By the fifteenth century, most traditionally Orthodox lands were controlled either by Muslim or Roman Catholic rulers, with the exception of northeastern Russia (the Grand Principality of Moscow) and the Ethiopian highlands.到15世纪,最传统的东正教的土地被控制,无论是穆斯林还是罗马天主教的统治者,在东北俄罗斯(莫斯科公国大)和埃塞俄比亚高原上的异常。 The Orthodox generally accepted rule by non-Orthodox governments, provided that freedom of worship was guaranteed.东正教普遍接受的规定,宗教信仰自由得到保障的非政府东正教,规则。In Ottoman lands, governed under the millet system (by which people were grouped by religion rather than nationality), Orthodox bishops also served as Ethnarchs (political rulers of their communities).[1] Ottoman implementation of the devsirme tax system witnessed Orthodox children of the rural populations of the Balkans, the flower of Orthodox Christendom, conscripted before adolescence and brought up as Muslims.在奥斯曼帝国的土地上,系统管辖下的小米(其中人被宗教,而不是国籍分组),东正教主教还担任Ethnarchs(他们的社区的政治统治者)。[1]奥斯曼实施devsirme税目睹东正教儿童系统巴尔干地区,花的正统基督教,征召前青春期和作为穆斯林带来了农村人口。 As their empire declined, the Ottoman Muslims became decreasingly tolerant of Orthodox Chrstians.由于他们的帝国下降,成为奥斯曼帝国的穆斯林正统Chrstians少地宽容。

See also参见

A History of Orthodox Missions Among the Muslims一个在历史的正统的穆斯林代表团
Saints of the Orthodox Church who converted from Islam: St. Serapion of Kozheozero, St. Constantine Hagarit, St. Ahmed the Deftedar, St. Abu of Tbilisi, St. Peter and Stephan of Kazan.圣人的东正教教会谁从伊斯兰教改:圣谢拉皮翁的Kozheozero,圣君士坦丁Hagarit,圣艾哈迈德的Deftedar,第比利斯圣,圣彼得和喀山斯蒂芬阿布。
Orthodox Women Saints and Islam东正教和伊斯兰教的妇女圣徒
Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens on "Islam: The Extent of the Problematics” Christodoulos(Paraskevaides)对雅典“伊斯兰教:该问题式度”
Zakaria Botros扎卡里亚Botros
Roman Silantyev罗马S​​ilantyev
Daniel (Bambang Dwi) Byantoro丹尼尔(班邦弥散)Byantoro
Ottoman rule and Eastern Christianity奥斯曼帝国统治,东方基督教

External Links外部链接

Orthodoxy and Islam at Orthodox Christian Information Center.在正统基督教东正教和伊斯兰教的信息中心。
St. John of Damascus' Critique of Islam.圣约翰大马士革对伊斯兰教的批判。Orthodox Christian Information Center.正统的基督教信息中心。
"Islam is a Different Culture". “伊斯兰教是一个不同的文化”。SPIEGEL ONLINE: Interview with Cardinal Walter Kasper, September 18, 2006.明镜在线:专访席卡斯帕枢机主教,2006年9月18日。
Islam and the West: Towards an Anti-Civilization.伊斯兰教和西方:迈向一个反文明。Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia: Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland website.俄罗斯东正教会在俄罗斯以外:大不列颠及爱尔兰网站教区。(Argues that the so-called 'clash of civilizations' between the “west” and “islam” is not the real issue, rather, due to pervasive secularism, it is the clash between between “civilization” and “anti-civilization” that is the real threat). (认为​​,所谓的'文明冲突论'之间的“西方”和“伊斯兰”是不是真正的问题,而是由于普遍的世俗主义,它是与“文明”和“反文明”的冲突之间是真正的威胁)。 World Council of Churches.世界基督教协进会。Living in Community: The Goal of Christian-Muslim Dialogue.生活在社区:基督教和穆斯林的对话目标。October 20, 2008. 2008年10月20号。
Hilary Kilpatrick.希拉里基尔帕特里克。Orthodox-Muslim Relations: The Search for Truth.东正教和穆斯林关系:寻求真理。In Communion: Website of Orthodox Peace Fellowship.在共融:东正教和平奖学金网站。

Human Rights and Persecution of Christians人权和对基督徒的迫害

Rev. Fr.牧师神父。Raphael Moore.拉斐尔摩尔。In Memory Of The 50 Million Victims Of The Orthodox Christian Holocaust.在正统的基督教大屠杀5000万受害者的记忆。Compiled by Rev. Archimandrite Nektarios Serfes.编制牧师修士Nektarios Serfes。Boise, Idaho, USA.博伊西,爱达荷州,美国。October 1999.1999年10月。
Dr. Otmar Oehring.博士奥特马尔Oehring。TURKEY: Turkish Nationalism, Ergenekon, and Denial of Religious Freedom.土耳其:土耳其的民族主义,Ergenekon和宗教自由拒绝。 Forum 18 News, 21 October 2008.论坛18日消息,2008年10月21号。

(Dr. Otmar Oehring is Head of the Human Rights Office of the German Catholic charity Missio. A trial has begun in Turkey of influential people alleged to be part of an ultra-nationalist group, Ergenekon. The court case reveals 86 members, ranging from the Turkish police, army, business, politics, and the mass media, are alleged in a plan to assassinate the Ecumenical Patriarch, along with the murder of two Turkish Christians. Ergenekon members are alleged to have maintained deathlists of people, including Christians with a missionary background. The Malatya murder trial is revealing plausible links between Ergenekon, the "deep state" and the murders.) (博士奥特马尔Oehring是人权办公室的德国天主教慈善Missio主管。土耳其的试验就开始有影响力的人据称是一个极端民族主义集团的一部分,Ergenekon。法庭个案显示86个成员,从土耳其警察,军队,商业,政治,和大众媒体,据说在计划暗杀随着两架土耳其基督徒谋杀普世牧首。Ergenekon成员被指控的人都保持deathlists,包括一个基督徒传教士背景。马拉蒂亚谋杀案之间的联系是揭示合理Ergenekon的“深州”和谋杀。)

Luca Galassi (peacereporter.net).卢卡Galassi(peacereporter.net)。Iraq, The Pogrom of the Christians.伊拉克,基督徒大屠杀。Oct 27, 2008. 2008年10月27日。
Michael Coren.迈克尔科伦。 Michael Coren: The Jihad on Egypt's Christians.迈克尔科伦:对埃及的基督徒的圣战。The National Post, Canada, October 23, 2008.国家邮报,加拿大10月23日,2008年。
Directions to Orthodoxy.对正统路线。Eritrea Imposes New Controls on Orthodox Church.厄立特里亚施加东正教教会的控制。26 Dec, 2006.06年12月26日。

Further Reading进一步阅读

Abdullah Al-Araby.阿卜杜拉阿拉比。The Islamization of America: The Islamic Strategies and the Christian Response.美利坚伊斯兰:伊斯兰和基督教的策略应对。 Published by Booklocker.com, 2003.出版Booklocker.com,2003。ISBN 978-0965668378书号978-0965668378
Alvin J. Schmidt. j的阿尔文施密特。The Great Divide: The Failure of Islam and the Triumph of the West.大鸿沟:伊斯兰教的失败与西方的胜利。Regina Orthodox Press, 2004.里贾纳东正教出版社,2004。ISBN 9781928653196书号9781928653196
Dr. NL Geiser and Abdul Saleeb.国联格泽博士和阿卜杜勒Saleeb。Answering Islam: The Crescent in Light of the Cross.伊斯兰回答:在新月的十字架。2nd edition.第二版。Baker Publishing, 2002.贝克出版社,2002。ISBN 9780801064302书号9780801064302
Bat Ye'or.蝙蝠Ye'or。The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude: Seventh-Twentieth Century.根据伊斯兰教的东方基督教的衰落:从圣战Dhimmitude:第七,二十世纪。Translated by Miriam Kochan.仪科昌译。Published by Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996.出版费尔利迪金森大学出版社,1996。522pp.522pp。ISBN 9780838636886书号9780838636886
Fr.神父。Nomikos Michael Vaporis. Nomikos迈克尔Vaporis。Witnesses for Christ: Orthodox Christian Neomartyrs of the Ottoman Period 1437-1860.基督的见证人:1837至60年的奥斯曼帝国时期东正教Neomartyrs。St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2000.圣弗拉基米尔的神学院出版社,2000。377 pp. ISBN 9780881411966 377页的ISBN 9780881411966
Fr.神父。Samir Khalil Samir (SJ), Giorgio Paolucci, and Camille Eid.哈利勒萨米尔萨米尔(律政司司长),乔治保卢奇,和Camille开斋节。 111111

Questions on Islam: Samir Khalil Samir on Islam and the West.关于伊斯兰教的问题:萨米尔萨米尔哈利勒对伊斯兰教和西方。Transl.译。by Wafik Nasry and Claudia Castellani.由Wafik Nasry和Claudia卡斯特拉尼。Ignatius Press, 2008.伊格出版社,2008。200 pp. ISBN 9781586171551 (Fr. Samir Khalil Samir, is an Islamic scholar, Semitologist, Orientalist and a Jesuit Catholic Theologian, based in Lebanon).200页的ISBN 9781586171551(法属哈利勒萨米尔萨米尔,是一个伊斯兰学者,Semitologist,东方和耶稣会的天主教神学家,在黎巴嫩的)。
Fr.神父。(Dr.) Theodore Pulcini. (博士)西奥多Pulcini。Face to Face: A Guide for Orthodox Christians Encountering Muslims.面对面:穆斯林的一个东正教徒遇到指南。Light and Life Pub Co.光与生命酒吧有限公司
George Weigel.乔治韦盖尔。 Faith, Reason, and the War Against Jihadism: A Call to Action.信仰,理性,对圣战的战争:一个行动呼吁。Doubleday, 2007.道布尔迪,2007。ISBN 9780385523783书号9780385523783
Giorgio Paolucci, Fr.乔治保卢奇,神父。Samir Khalil Samir (SJ), Camille Eid.哈利勒萨米尔萨米尔(律政司司长),卡米尔开斋节。111 Questions on Islam: Samir Khalil Samir on Islam and the West.111关于伊斯兰教的问题:萨米尔萨米尔哈利勒对伊斯兰教和西方。Transl.译。by Wafik Nasry and Claudia Castellani.由Wafik Nasry和Claudia卡斯特拉尼。Ignatius Press, 2008.伊格出版社,2008。200 pp. ISBN 9781586171551 200页的ISBN 9781586171551
Nahed Mahmoud Metwalli. Nahed马哈茂德Metwalli。Islam Encounters Christ: A Fanatical Muslim's Encounter with Christ in the Coptic Orthodox Church.伊斯兰基督相遇:一个狂热的穆斯林与基督相遇的科普特东正教会。Transl.译。by Gamal Scharoubim.由贾迈勒Scharoubim。Light & Life Pub Co., 2002.光与生命出版社有限公司,2002。ISBN 9781880971758书号9781880971758
Philip H. Lochhaas.菲利普H Lochhaas。How to Respond to Muslims.如何应对穆斯林。Concordia Publishing House, 1995.康科迪亚出版社,1995。ISBN 9780570046776书号9780570046776
Prof. Efraim Karsh.卡什教授埃夫拉伊姆。Islamic Imperialism: A History.伊斯兰帝国主义:一段历史。Yale University Press, 2006.耶鲁大学出版社,2006。288 pp. ISBN 9780300106039 Serge Trifkovic.288页的ISBN 9780300106039塞尔Trifkovic。Defeating Jihad.击败圣战。 Regina Orthodox Press, 2006.里贾纳东正教出版社,2006。480pp.480pp。ISBN 192865326X书号192865326X
Serge Trifkovic.哔叽Trifkovic。The Sword of the Prophet: The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam: History, Theology, Impact on the World.在政治上不正确的伊斯兰教指南::历史,神学,对世界产生影响的先知剑。Regina Orthodox Press, 2002.里贾纳东正教出版社,2002。300pp.300pp。ISBN 9781928653110书号9781928653110
The Orthodox Christian-Muslim Symposium.东正教基督徒和穆斯林研讨会。Orthodox Christians and Muslims.东正教基督徒和穆斯林。Edited by Fr.编辑神父。NM Vaporis.网管Vaporis。 Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Brookline, Massachusetts, 1986.圣十字东正教出版社,布鲁克林,马萨诸塞州,1986年。ISBN 0917651340书号0917651340

References参考文献

1 Dr. Catharine Cookson, (JD, Ph.D., 1952-2004).一博士凯瑟琳确信,(法学博士,哲学博士,1952年至04年)。 Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom.百科全书宗教自由。Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003.泰勒&弗朗西斯出版,2003。pp.313.pp.313。

Sources来源

Dr. Catharine Cookson, (JD, Ph.D., 1952-2004).库克森凯瑟琳博士(博士,哲学博士,1952至2004年)。 Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom.百科全书宗教自由。Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003.泰勒&弗朗西斯出版,2003。555 pp.555页


Additional Information附加信息

Comments from a Muslim visitor to BELIEVE:评论从一个穆斯林游客相信:

About "Muhammadanism". 关于“Muhammadanism”。This term is not just "offensive", it is regarded as inacceptable in Islam. Muhammadanism suggests a religion based on what Muhammad (Peace be upon him) supposedly "said in the Qur'an", but it is not Muhammad (PBUH) who spoke, it was Allah (God), and only He was the One Who sent down the Qur'an (Or Koran). There is one Surah (Chapter) in the Qur'an which emphasises the importance of this. 这个词不仅是“进攻性”,它是〔视为伊斯兰教。Muhammadanism建议古兰经“的宗教基础是穆罕默德(愿他说)所谓的”了,但它不是穆罕默德(永存)谁说着, 这是真主(上帝),只有他是一个谁下达的古兰经(或古兰经)。有一个经文的重要性,这(第)在古兰经强调。

'And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son (nor an offspring), and Who has no partner in (His) Dominion, nor He is low to have a Walî (helper, protector or supporter). And magnify Him with all the magnificence, [Allahu-Akbar (Allah is the Most Great)].' '并说:“所有的赞美和感谢,全归真主,谁没有亲生儿子(也不是后代),谁没有在(他)自治领的合作伙伴,他又是低到有瓦利(助手,保护者或支持者)。和放大他所有的辉煌,[真主,阿克巴尔(真主是最伟大的)]。' (Holy Qur'an, Surah 17, Verse 111)(古兰经,经文17,诗歌111)

Replacing "Muhammadanism" with "Islam" is really the best thing to do, because never has there been an Islamic scholar which used this term to describe Islam, it has no valid ground.更换“Muhammadanism”与“伊斯兰”真的是最好的事情,因为从未有过的伊斯兰学者用这个词来描述伊斯兰教,它没有任何正当理由。 Moreover, Islam means "Submission to God", and this term is MUCH more appropriate than a term based on a human's name.此外,伊斯兰教的意思是“提交的意见书上帝”,这个词更比一人的名字为基础的长期适当的。( Note; It IS required in Islam to strive to be as Muhammad (PBUH), for he was the personification of the Qur'an! Next to the Qur'an, there is a book called the Sunnah, which contains sayings, acts, and words and acts of approval of the Prophet (PBUH).注:伊斯兰教中需要努力加以穆罕默德(永存),因为他是化身!的古兰经古兰经的旁边,有一本书叫做圣行,其中包含的说法,行为,与文字及先知(永存)批准的行为。

AR Mulder铁马尔德

PS you might ask yourself what value the (Peace be upon Him) means after the name Muhammad (PBUH). It is what Muslims say whenever the Prophet's (PBUH) name is mentioned.此外, 你可能会问自己什么价值(愿他安息))指穆罕默德名字后(永存。穆斯林说这是什么时候,先知的(永存)的名字被提到。The actual Arabic words, from which this was translated mean; May the mercy and peace of God be upon him.实际的阿拉伯语词汇,从这个被翻译的意思;愿上帝的怜悯和平安在他身上。


Additional Information附加信息

BELIEVE Editor's Comment相信编辑的评论

There are some times when it is just apparently not possible to please anyone!有些时候,它显然不可能仅仅是为了讨好任何人! As a Protestant Christian Church, we think we have made a valid effort at presenting the Islamic Faith as thoroughly and accurately as possible, in around 30 separate subject presentations.作为一个基督教新教,我们认为我们是在介绍伊斯兰信仰作为全面和准确地在大约30个不同的主题演讲,有效的努力。 As a result, we get large amounts of vicious e-mail from many Christians, who feel we have "sold out" to Muslims in an unreasonably "nice" presentation.因此,我们可以从许多基督徒,谁觉得我们已经“售罄”在一个不合理的“好”提交给穆斯林大的恶性电子邮件数量。 After 9/11, we even received several dozen death threats from Christians, for being "terrorist sympathizers!"经过9 / 11,我们甚至还收到来自几十个基督徒对被死亡威胁,“恐怖分子同情者!”(There is NOTHING in BELIEVE that remotely condones ANY terrorism, particularly since Jesus Taught PEACE and COMPASSION.) Even when we would respond to such incredibly vicious attacks by mentioning that we are a Christian Protestant Church, and that I am a Pastor, the threats and the swearing continued. (这不是什么要相信远端宽恕任何恐怖主义特别是因为耶稣教导和平与慈悲。)即使我们会作出反应,提的是,我们是一个信奉基督教新教教会,我是一个牧师,威胁等令人难以置信的恶毒攻击并继续宣誓就职。 (I sort of wonder what Jesus thinks about an alleged Christian attacking a Pastor and a Church like that!) (我在想什么耶稣想着那种被指控攻击一个牧师和基督教这样的教会!)

At the same time, we get some violently vicious e-mails from alleged Muslims as well:与此同时,我们得到了一些暴力的恶性E从指称的穆斯林以及电子邮件:
No I know why I should hate you...不,我知道我为什么要恨你...you people are good only for putting words in order that only will take you all to hell... 你人好只把换句话说,因为只有将你们下地狱...

I really wish you see God soon and he will tell you how wrong you are and how much wrong you have spread...我真的希望你看到神很快他会告诉你如何错误,你是多少错误,你已经蔓延...

And after I (calmly) tried to clarify that we have tried to fairly present Islam, and that I am a Man of God, and that his note appeared to be a mild threat, the response was:之后我(冷静)试图澄清,我们曾试图公正表达伊斯兰教,我是神人,他的注意似乎是一个温和的威胁,反应是:
Well I'm not making threats...嗯,我不是在威胁...If you feel it's a threat fine with me cause you always find Muslims making threats and calling them terrorist while you have right to say anything against our religion and prophet and if we say we didn't like your idea about it you think it's a threat... 如果你觉得这是一个与我威胁罚款,因为你总能找到穆斯林的威胁,使称他们为恐怖分子,你有权利说,任何事情对我们的宗教和先知,如果我们说我们没有想法不喜欢你一下,你认为它是一个威胁...

I wish that God punishes you right now...我想,上帝惩罚你现在...Instead of just burning you in hell...而不是仅仅在地狱燃烧你...So you feel it...所以你觉得它...

If you think this is a threat threaten me with one too...如果您认为这是一种威胁,恐吓一太我...

Well, in matters like this, we have concluded over the years that if we get attacks from both sides on an issue, then we may have presented the issue somewhere near the middle, which is always our goal.那么,在这样的问题,我们已得出结论,多年来,如果我们双方对一个问题的攻击,那么我们可能会提出靠近中间,这是我们永远的目标问题的地方。 It's really disappointing, though, to present a purely informational site, almost an academic site, and be attacked violently from both sides.这实在令人失望,不过,提出一个纯粹的信息网站,几乎是学术网站,并受到攻击,双方激烈。(As a point of order, several dozen e-mails from alleged Christians were FAR more vicious and threatening than this one. We have noticed that Muslims virtually never use swear words while Christians seem not to be able to write a sentence without them! We even contacted the FBI regarding a couple of the death threats [but not this one].) (由于程序问题,几十个电子邮件从邮件被指控基督徒更比这邪恶和威胁之一。我们已经注意到,穆斯林几乎从来不使用脏话,而基督徒似乎不能够没有他们写一个句子!我们甚至就联系了美国联邦调查局的死亡威胁的情侣[但不是这一个])。

Is it any wonder that peace between Muslims and Christians seems so impossible?这是任何疑问,穆斯林和基督徒之间的和平似乎很不可能?Even though there are many rational, calm and peace-loving people on both sides, there seem to still be plenty of irrational fanatics on both sides who seem to just be looking for an excuse to kill something.尽管双方有许多理性,冷静和爱好和平的人来说,似乎仍然是双方谁似乎只是一个借口,找什么东西杀死很多不合理的狂热分子。 And, as humans, we consider ourselves "intelligent!??"而且,作为人类,我们认为自己是“聪明!?”

And, for the record, the 2,000+ articles in the BELIEVE site were each selected for giving balanced presentations of their specific subjects, presenting both the strengths and weaknesses of each position.而且,备案,2000 +的相信每个人都是网站的文章给予他们的具体各科均衡艺术,呈现的优势和劣势的​​每个位置选定。If a person of ANY Faith is averse to ever hearing a single negative word about one's own Faith, then BELIEVE is not the place to be.如任何人的信仰永远是不愿意听到自己的信仰一个否定词,则认为这不是要去的地方。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html